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Brazil

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Politics and government of
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The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of twenty-six estados ("states"; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal ("Federal District") which contains the capital city, Brasília.

States are generally based on historical, conventional borders and have developed throughout the centuries; though some boundaries are arbitrary. The federal district is not a state on its right, but shares some characteristics of a state and some of a municipality.

The Federal District is encompassed by the state of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The codes given below are defined in ISO 3166-2:BR.

Contents

History

The first administrative divisions of Brazil were the hereditary captaincies (capitanias hereditárias), stretches of land leased to Portuguese noblemen or merchants with a charter to build improvements and colonize the land. They were so-called hereditary because the grant was to be passed from father to son, but the crown retained the power of revoking it, which the king indeed did on later 16th century. Then the vast Portuguese dominion on South America was divided between the State of Brazil, in the southern half, and the State of Maranhão, in the northern half (note that Maranhão by then referred not only to current Maranhão, but rather to the whole of the Amazon region; the name marã-nã in Old Tupi language means "wide river", i.e., the Amazon river).

After the Iberian Union (1580-1640), the territory of Portuguese colonial domains in South America were more than doubled, and the land was divided in captaincies, royal captaincies and provinces. Unlike Spanish America, the whole land was united under a single viceroy, with a seat in Salvador (and, after 1763, Rio de Janeiro). This fact would later contribute to avoid the fragmentation of Brazil and keep it as a unified nation-state.

With independence, in 1822, the colony became an empire and all captaincies were turned into provinces. Most internal borders were kept unchanged from the colonial period, most of them with a strong following of natural division lines (such as rivers, mountain ridges etc.). Minor changes were made to suit domestic politics (such as the Triângulo Mineiro from Goiás to Minas Gerais, the splitting of Paraná and the left bank of the São Francisco river from Pernambuco to Bahia), as well as additions resulting from diplomatic settlement of territorial disputes by the end of the 19th century (Amapá, Roraima, Palmas). When the regime changed to republic, in 1889, all provinces were immediately turned into states.

In 1943, with the entrance of Brazil into the Second World War, the Vargas regime detached seven strategic territories from the border of the country in order to administer them directly: Amapá, Rio Branco, Acre, Guaporé, Ponta Porã, Iguaçu and the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha. After the war, the first three territories were retained as states, with Rio Branco and Guaporé being renamed Roraima and Rondônia, respectively. Ponta Porã and Iguaçu resorted to territorial status. In 1988, Fernando de Noronha became part of Pernambuco.

In 1960, the square-shaped Distrito Federal was carved out of Goiás in preparation for the new capital, Brasília. The previous federal district became the state of Guanabara until in 1975 it was merged with the state of Rio de Janeiro, retaining its name and with the municipality of Rio de Janeiro as its capital.

In 1977, Mato Grosso was split into two states. The northern area retained the name Mato Grosso while the southern area became the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, with Campo Grande as its capital. The new Mato Grosso do Sul incorporated the territory of Ponta Porã and the northern part of Iguaçu. Central Iguaçu went to Paraná, and southern Iguaçu went to Santa Catarina.

In 1988, the northern portion of Goiás became the state of Tocantins, with Palmas as its capital.

List of Brazilian states

Flag State Abbreviation Capital Area (km²) Population (2005) Density (2005) GDP (% total) (2007) GDP per capita PPP (US$) (2007) HDI (2005) Literacy (2003) Infant Mortality (2002) Life Expectancy (2004)
Bandeira do Acre.svg Acre AC Rio Branco &0000000000152581.400000152,581.4 &0000000000656043.000000656,043 &0000000000000004.3000004.30 &0000000005761000.0000005,761,000 (&0000000000000000.2000000.2%) &0000000000008789.0000008,789 &0000000000000000.7510000.751 84% &0000000000000033.20000033.2‰ &0000000000000070.80000070.8
Bandeira de Alagoas.svg Alagoas AL Maceió &0000000000027767.70000027,767.7 &0000000003015912.0000003,015,912 &0000000000000108.610000108.61 &0000000017793000.00000017,793,000 (&0000000000000000.7000000.7%) &0000000000005858.0000005,858 &0000000000000000.6770000.677 70% &0000000000000057.70000057.7‰ &0000000000000066.00000066.0
Bandeira do Amapá.svg Amapá AP Macapá &0000000000142814.600000142,814.6 &0000000000594587.000000594,587 &0000000000000004.1600004.16 &0000000006022000.0000006,022,000 (&0000000000000000.2000000.2%) &0000000000010254.00000010,254 &0000000000000000.7800000.780 91% &0000000000000024.90000024.9‰ &0000000000000069.80000069.8
Bandeira do Amazonas.svg Amazonas AM Manaus &0000000001570745.7000001,570,745.7 &0000000003232330.0000003,232,330 &0000000000000002.0500002.05 &0000000042023000.00000042,023,000 (&0000000000000001.6000001.6%) &0000000000013043.00000013,043 &0000000000000000.7800000.780 94% &0000000000000020.80000020.8‰ &0000000000000073.40000073.4
Bandeira da Bahia.svg Bahia BA Salvador &0000000000564692.700000564,692.7 &0000000013815334.00000013,815,334 &0000000000000024.46000024.46 &0000000109652000.000000109,652,000 (&0000000000000004.1000004.1%) &0000000000007787.0000007,787 &0000000000000000.7420000.742 79% &0000000000000038.70000038.7‰ &0000000000000071.40000071.4
Bandeira Estado Ceara Brasil.svg Ceará CE Fortaleza &0000000000148825.600000148,825.6 &0000000008097276.0000008,097,276 &0000000000000054.40000054.40 &0000000050331000.00000050,331,000 (&0000000000000001.9000001.9%) &0000000000006149.0000006,149 &0000000000000000.7230000.723 78% &0000000000000035.10000035.1‰ &0000000000000069.60000069.6
Bandeira do Distrito Federal.svg Distrito Federal DF Brasília &0000000000005822.1000005,822.1 &0000000002333108.0000002,333,108 &0000000000000400.730000400.73 &0000000099946000.00000099,946,000 (&0000000000000003.8000003.8%) &0000000000040696.00000040,696 &0000000000000000.8740000.874 96% &0000000000000017.50000017.5‰ &0000000000000074.90000074.9
Bandeira do Espírito Santo.svg Espírito Santo ES Vitória &0000000000046077.50000046,077.5 &0000000003408365.0000003,408,365 &0000000000000073.97000073.97 &0000000060340000.00000060,340,000 (&0000000000000002.3000002.3%) &0000000000018003.00000018,003 &0000000000000000.8020000.802 90% &0000000000000020.90000020.9‰ &0000000000000073.10000073.1
Bandeira de Goiás.svg Goiás GO Goiânia &0000000000340086.700000340,086.7 &0000000005619917.0000005,619,917 &0000000000000016.52000016.52 &0000000065210000.00000065,210,000 (&0000000000000002.5000002.5%) &0000000000011548.00000011,548 &0000000000000000.8000000.800 90% &0000000000000020.70000020.7‰ &0000000000000072.80000072.8
Bandeira do Maranhão.svg Maranhão MA São Luís &0000000000331983.300000331,983.3 &0000000006103327.0000006,103,327 &0000000000000018.38000018.38 &0000000031606000.00000031,606,000 (&0000000000000001.2000001.2%) &0000000000005165.0000005,165 &0000000000000000.6830000.683 77% &0000000000000046.30000046.3‰ &0000000000000066.80000066.8
Bandeira de Mato Grosso.svg Mato Grosso MT Cuiabá &0000000000903357.900000903,357.9 &0000000002803274.0000002,803,274 &0000000000000003.1000003.10 &0000000042687000.00000042,687,000 (&0000000000000001.6000001.6%) &0000000000014954.00000014,954 &0000000000000000.7960000.796 90% &0000000000000021.50000021.5‰ &0000000000000072.60000072.6
Bandeira de Mato Grosso do Sul.svg Mato Grosso do Sul MS Campo Grande &0000000000357125.000000357,125.0 &0000000002264468.0000002,264,468 &0000000000000006.3400006.34 &0000000028121000.00000028,121,000 (&0000000000000001.1000001.1%) &0000000000012411.00000012,411 &0000000000000000.8020000.802 91% &0000000000000019.20000019.2‰ &0000000000000073.20000073.2
Bandeira de Minas Gerais.svg Minas Gerais MG Belo Horizonte &0000000000586528.300000586,528.3 &0000000019237450.00000019,237,450 &0000000000000032.79000032.79 &Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ",".Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","241,293,000 (&0000000000000009.1000009.1%) &0000000000012519.00000012,519 &0000000000000000.8000000.800 89% &0000000000000020.80000020.8‰ &0000000000000074.10000074.1
Bandeira do Pará.svg Pará PA Belém &0000000001247689.5000001,247,689.5 &0000000006970586.0000006,970,586 &0000000000000005.5800005.58 &0000000049507000.00000049,507,000 (&0000000000000001.9000001.9%) &0000000000007007.0000007,007 &0000000000000000.7550000.755 90% &0000000000000027.30000027.3‰ &0000000000000071.40000071.4
Bandeira da Paraíba.svg Paraíba PB João Pessoa &0000000000056439.80000056,439.8 &0000000003595886.0000003,595,886 &0000000000000063.71000063.71 &0000000022202000.00000022,202,000 (&0000000000000000.8000000.8%) &0000000000006097.0000006,097 &0000000000000000.7180000.718 75% &0000000000000045.50000045.5‰ &0000000000000068.30000068.3
Bandeira do Paraná.svg Paraná PR Curitiba &0000000000199314.900000199,314.9 &0000000010261856.00000010,261,856 &0000000000000051.48000051.48 &0000000161582000.000000161,582,000 (&0000000000000006.1000006.1%) &0000000000015711.00000015,711 &0000000000000000.8200000.820 93% &0000000000000020.70000020.7‰ &0000000000000073.50000073.5
Bandeira de Pernambuco.svg Pernambuco PE Recife &0000000000098311.60000098,311.6 &0000000008413593.0000008,413,593 &0000000000000085.58000085.58 &0000000062256000.00000062,256,000 (&0000000000000002.3000002.3%) &0000000000007337.0000007,337 &0000000000000000.7180000.718 79% &0000000000000044.80000044.8‰ &0000000000000067.50000067.5
Bandeira do Piauí.svg Piauí PI Teresina &0000000000251529.200000251,529.2 &0000000003006885.0000003,006,885 &0000000000000011.95000011.95 &0000000014136000.00000014,136,000 (&0000000000000000.5000000.5%) &0000000000004662.0000004,662 &0000000000000000.7030000.703 72% &0000000000000033.10000033.1‰ &0000000000000068.20000068.2
Bandeira Estado RiodeJaneiro Brasil2.svg Rio de Janeiro RJ Rio de Janeiro &0000000000043696.10000043,696.1 &0000000015383407.00000015,383,407 &0000000000000352.050000352.05 &0000000296768000.000000296,768,000 (&0000000000000011.20000011.2%) &0000000000019245.00000019,245 &0000000000000000.8320000.832 96% &0000000000000019.50000019.5‰ &0000000000000072.40000072.4
Bandeira do Rio Grande do Norte.svg Rio Grande do Norte RN Natal &0000000000052796.80000052,796.8 &0000000003003087.0000003,003,087 &0000000000000056.88000056.88 &0000000022926000.00000022,926,000 (&0000000000000000.9000000.9%) &0000000000007607.0000007,607 &0000000000000000.7380000.738 77% &0000000000000041.90000041.9‰ &0000000000000069.80000069.8
Bandeira Estado RioGrandedoSul Brasil.svg Rio Grande do Sul RS Porto Alegre &0000000000281748.500000281,748.5 &0000000010845087.00000010,845,087 &0000000000000038.49000038.49 &0000000176615000.000000176,615,000 (&0000000000000006.6000006.6%) &0000000000016689.00000016,689 &0000000000000000.8320000.832 95% &0000000000000015.40000015.4‰ &0000000000000074.50000074.5
Bandeira de Rondônia.svg Rondônia RO Porto Velho &0000000000237576.200000237,576.2 &0000000001534594.0000001,534,594 &0000000000000006.4600006.46 &0000000015003000.00000015,003,000 (&0000000000000000.6000000.6%) &0000000000010320.00000010,320 &0000000000000000.7760000.776 92% &0000000000000024.60000024.6‰ &0000000000000070.60000070.6
Bandeira de Roraima.svg Roraima RR Boa Vista &0000000000224299.000000224,299.0 &0000000000391317.000000391,317 &0000000000000001.7400001.74 &0000000004169000.0000004,169,000 (&0000000000000000.2000000.2%) &0000000000010534.00000010,534 &0000000000000000.7500000.750 91% &0000000000000017.80000017.8‰ &0000000000000069.30000069.3
Bandeira Santa Catarina.svg Santa Catarina SC Florianópolis &0000000000095346.20000095,346.2 &0000000005866568.0000005,866,568 &0000000000000061.53000061.53 &0000000104623000.000000104,623,000 (&0000000000000003.9000003.9%) &0000000000017834.00000017,834 &0000000000000000.8400000.840 95% &0000000000000018.20000018.2‰ &0000000000000074.80000074.8
Bandeira do Estado de São Paulo.svg São Paulo SP São Paulo &0000000000248209.400000248,209.4 &0000000040442795.00000040,442,795 &0000000000000162.930000162.93 &0000000902784000.000000902,784,000 (&0000000000000033.90000033.9%) &0000000000022667.00000022,667 &0000000000000000.8330000.833 95% &0000000000000017.40000017.4‰ &0000000000000073.70000073.7
Bandeira de Sergipe.svg Sergipe SE Aracaju &0000000000021910.30000021,910.3 &0000000001967761.0000001,967,761 &0000000000000089.81000089.81 &0000000016896000.00000016,896,000 (&0000000000000000.6000000.6%) &0000000000008712.0000008,712 &0000000000000000.7420000.742 90% &0000000000000040.60000040.6‰ &0000000000000070.30000070.3
Bandeira do Tocantins.svg Tocantins TO Palmas &0000000000277620.900000277,620.9 &0000000001305728.0000001,305,728 &0000000000000004.7000004.70 &0000000011094000.00000011,094,000 (&0000000000000000.4000000.4%) &0000000000008921.0000008,921 &0000000000000000.7560000.756 83% &0000000000000028.40000028.4‰ &0000000000000070.70000070.7

See also

External links

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