Statistics: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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More probability density will be found the closer one gets to the expected (mean) value in a normal distribution. Statistics used in standardized testing assessment are shown. The scales include standard deviations, cumulative percentages, percentile equivalents, Z-scores, T-scores, standard nines, and percentages in standard nines.
.Statistics is the science of making effective use of numerical data relating to groups of individuals or experiments.^ The aim of Chance is to make students more informed, and critical, readers of current news that uses probability and statistics as reprted in daily newspapers, journals and magazines.
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^ SAND/index.html SAND (Statistical Analysis of Natural Resource Data), Geostatistics group at the Norwegian Computing Centre .
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^ The statistics are "derived from the statistical returns submitted to the Department of Health by local authorities and include data for individual local authorities and England estimates."
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It deals with all aspects of this, including not only the collection, analysis and interpretation of such data, but also the planning of the collection of data, in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.^ We all need love and support to deal with the effects of painful experiences.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resources for Parents & Caregivers Contents In this section I provide some basic resources for parents and caregivers – not only those with children who have experienced abuse, but all parents and caregivers, including those who themselves were abused as children.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The core experience of child abuse, like all severe traumas, is disempowerment: one's needs, wishes and choices (including not to be abused) are ignored and trampled upon.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.A statistician is someone who is particularly versed in the ways of thinking necessary for the successful application of statistical analysis.^ Finally, even when the necessary information is provided, most people simply don't have the tools to think critically about statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This way the concepts in probability and statistics are developed only as an extent necessary to understand the applications.
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.Often such people have gained this experience after starting work in any of a number of fields.^ Because many people have trouble appreciating the differences among big numbers, they tend to uncritically accept social statistics (which often, of course, feature big numbers).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Incidence refers to the number of new cases each year, and prevalence to the percentage of people in a population who have had such experiences.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you often wake up with such a hangover that you can't go to work?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a discipline called mathematical statistics, which is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject.^ Probability and statistics are fundamentally mathematical disciplines.
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^ Preparing this paper we wanted to find material for our traditional courses in the field, searching for statistics and probabilities presentation - two mathematical disciplines - as tools for managers.
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^ For example the Canadian electronic journal called NUA Internet Survey includes periodically editorials and papers concerning 'Internet Statistics'.
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The word statistics can either be singular or plural.[2] .In its singular form, a statistic is a quantity (such as a mean) calculated from a set of data,[3] whereas statistics is the mathematical science discussed in this article.^ Deductive arguments work just like mathematical equations: a set of equivalences - we can even reformulate such arguments as tautologies.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ "Innumeracy – widespread confusion about basic mathematical ideas – means that many statistical claims about social problems don't get the critical attention they deserve.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the absence of such recognition and repudiation, the gates are left open to the most lethal form of mysticism—the mysticism that postures as "science."
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Scope

.Statistics is considered by some to be a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data,[4] while others consider it to be a branch of mathematics[5] concerned with collecting and interpreting data.^ Some statistics that are presently kept were not available and therefore do not appear in these reports.
  • LSU Football Statistics - LSUsports.net - The Official Web Site of LSU Tigers Athletics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.lsusports.net [Source type: General]

^ For the technical science student who enjoys working with mathematics, the task of learning probability and statistics can be a source of pleasure.
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^ StatisticalLaboratory/index.html Aalborg University Statistical Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science .
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[6] .Because of its empirical roots and its focus on applications, statistics is usually considered to be a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics.^ Australian National University Statistics WWW/FTP server of the Statistics division of the Centre of Mathematics and its Applications.
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^ At the same time, thinking more to a useful readable paper than to a traditional talk, we have choose serious applications of statistics, available on Internet, trying to make these the focus of the discussion.
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^ Chance is an unconventional math course, choosing serious applications of probability and statistics and making these the focus of the course.
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[7][8]
Statisticians improve the quality of data with the design of experiments and survey sampling. .Statistics also provides tools for prediction and forecasting using data and statistical models.^ Providing data from a wide variety of topics so that statistics teachers can find real-world examples interesting to their students.
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^ Finally, even when the necessary information is provided, most people simply don't have the tools to think critically about statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. Jalobeanu Time Series Prediction by Using a Syntactic Method , The 18th Symposium on Forecasting, June 10-14, 1998, Edinburgh .
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.Statistics is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, including natural and social sciences, government, and business.^ Providing data from a wide variety of topics so that statistics teachers can find real-world examples interesting to their students.
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^ A variety of government agencies began collecting and publishing statistics....
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was growing respect for science, and statistics offered a way to bring the authority of science to debates about social policy.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Statistical methods can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data; this is called descriptive statistics.^ This section will still be useful to people who want to understand how different research methods yield different prevalence statistics.
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^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
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^ Lisak and his colleagues (1994, 1996) used an anonymous questionnaire which has 17 behavioral descriptions of possible experiences and an 18th item for "other" experiences subjects describe.
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.This is useful in research, when communicating the results of experiments.^ For some studies researchers have used gate questions , in which a subject is only asked a series of questions about possible abuse experiences if he or she answers "yes" to an initial question.
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.In addition, patterns in the data may be modeled in a way that accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations, and are then used to draw inferences about the process or population being studied; this is called inferential statistics.^ In contrast to studies with women, published studies using face-to-face interviews with men have yielded very low prevalence rates, perhaps due to subjects' adherence to stereotypes about males not being victims (Urquiza & Keating, 1990).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A related project called Electronic Encyclopedia of Statistical Exercises and Examples (EESEE) offers a self-study application.
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^ EdRes/Topic/Statistics/Resampling_Statistics Resampling Stats Text and software for inferential procedures that use Monte Carlo simulation, randomization tests, etc.
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Inference is a vital element of scientific advance, since it provides a prediction (based in data) for where a theory logically leads. To further prove the guiding theory, these predictions are tested as well, as part of the scientific method. If the inference holds true, then the descriptive statistics of the new data increase the soundness of that hypothesis. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (a.k.a., predictive statistics) together comprise applied statistics.[9]

History

Some scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics to 1663, with the publication of Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt.[10] .Early applications of statistical thinking revolved around the needs of states to base policy on demographic and economic data, hence its stat- etymology.^ Each organization is responsible for contributing sanitized data from web application security projects which was then combined to produce aggregated statistics.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Black box method security assessment statistics includes the results of manual and automated Web application analysis without any preliminary known data about the application.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STAT/engelsk/index.html Norwegian Computing Center Statistical Data Analysis .
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.The scope of the discipline of statistics broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection and analysis of data in general.^ Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies) Article on statistical analysis that should be on everyone's reading list.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ SAND/index.html SAND (Statistical Analysis of Natural Resource Data), Geostatistics group at the Norwegian Computing Centre .
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^ In general, four major types of studies are the sources for large-scale child abuse statistics: Studies that collect official government statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, statistics is widely employed in government, business, and the natural and social sciences.^ But, beginning in the nineteenth century and continuing through today, social statistics have had two purposes, one public, the other often hidden.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was growing respect for science, and statistics offered a way to bring the authority of science to debates about social policy.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, the Internet growing and its social nature make up a new medium for statistical analysis studies.
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Its mathematical foundations were laid in the 17th century with the development of probability theory by Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. Probability theory arose from the study of games of chance. .The method of least squares was first described by Carl Friedrich Gauss around 1794. The use of modern computers has expedited large-scale statistical computation, and has also made possible new methods that are impractical to perform manually.^ At least one or two methods used in any study must be chosen by researchers based on opinions and judgements, not just facts and logic.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black box method security assessment statistics includes the results of manual and automated Web application analysis without any preliminary known data about the application.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, four major types of studies are the sources for large-scale child abuse statistics: Studies that collect official government statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The American Statistical Association has ranked Deming, Fisher, and Rao as the greatest statisticians of all time.^ The American Statistical Association, Snake River Chapter .
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^ The American Statistical Association .
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[citation needed]

Overview

.In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or societal problem, it is necessary to begin with a population or process to be studied.^ Complex and subtle scientific issues are involved in studies that generate these statistics.
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.Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". A population can also be composed of observations of a process at various times, with the data from each observation serving as a different member of the overall group.^ Different prevalence rates have been found in samples of: college students; clinical populations or people receiving psychological treatment; and community populations or whoever lives in some area (e.g., a city, state, or country).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The illusion is due to selective attention based on a false assumption: that a given rate for a phenomenon will be perfectly uniform across all members of that group.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ And there are special software tools processing the data from this files, biding different histograms as result.
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.Data collected about this kind of "population" constitutes what is called a time series.^ The final data sets included six time series (from a clean physics laboratory experiment, to J.S. Bach's final unfinished fugue) were distributed by e-mail and ftp.
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^ It will take some time, but reading this will help you to understand this kind of research, and to think more critically about opinions you encounter in the popular media.
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^ FUL029.html Central Statistical Office, (Macro-Economic Time Series Data) .
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.For practical reasons, a chosen subset of the population called a sample is studied — as opposed to compiling data about the entire group (an operation called census).^ The following review is grouped into three sections, according to the sample studied: Male college students.
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^ Studies that survey a "representative" sample of people (e.g., from a country) about their first-hand knowledge of child abuse.
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^ An important methodological issue has to do with the population (group of people) from which a sample, or selected group of a population actually researched, is drawn .
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.Once a sample that is representative of the population is determined, data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting.^ Automatic scanning data is collected in fully automated scanning process without any preliminary settings (with standard profile) of hosting provider sites.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

.This data can then be subjected to statistical analysis, serving two related purposes: description and inference.^ Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies) Article on statistical analysis that should be on everyone's reading list.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Black box method security assessment statistics includes the results of manual and automated Web application analysis without any preliminary known data about the application.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The suspect debate tactic of 'misusing statistics' is a complicated subject, requiring an examination of the skills related to the scientific method.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Descriptive statistics summarize the population data by describing what was observed in the sample numerically or graphically.^ "During the nineteenth century, then, statistics – numeric statements about social life – became an authoritative way to describe social problems.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types (like heights or weights), while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data (like race).
  • Inferential statistics uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented, accounting for randomness.^ About Logic Disclaimers Terms of use .
    • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The same is true of our relationship to statistics: it is embedded in historical and cultural patterns, particularly how science and statistics are used to define important social problems, shape debates about them, and decide public policies.
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    ^ Black box method security assessment statistics includes the results of manual and automated Web application analysis without any preliminary known data about the application.
    • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

    These inferences may take the form of: answering yes/no questions about the data (hypothesis testing) estimating numerical characteristics of the data (estimation), describing associations within the data (correlation), modeling relationships within the data (regression), extrapolation, interpolation, or other modeling techniques like ANOVA, time series, and data mining.
“... it is only the manipulation of uncertainty that interests us. We are not concerned with the matter that is uncertain. Thus we do not study the mechanism of rain; only whether it will rain.”
Dennis Lindley, "The Philosophy of Statistics", The Statistician (2000).
The concept of correlation is particularly noteworthy for the potential confusion it can cause. .Statistical analysis of a data set often reveals that two variables (properties) of the population under consideration tend to vary together, as if they are connected.^ Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies) Article on statistical analysis that should be on everyone's reading list.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ SAND/index.html SAND (Statistical Analysis of Natural Resource Data), Geostatistics group at the Norwegian Computing Centre .
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Because many people have trouble appreciating the differences among big numbers, they tend to uncritically accept social statistics (which often, of course, feature big numbers).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a study of annual income that also looks at age of death might find that poor people tend to have shorter lives than affluent people.^ Some people get more love and support from their families and friends than others, and families in which abuse occurs tend to provide less of the love and support needed to recover from abuse.
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^ Presented with the same set of cases, the first coroner might find many more suicides than the second.
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^ It's a truism that one good case study example impresses people more than a book full of statistics - a phenomenon well studied in psychology.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.The two variables are said to be correlated; however, they may or may not be the cause of one another.^ One thing is held to to cause another, when in fact they are both the joint effects of an underlying cause.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first is that the coroner may label the death 'suicide' when, in fact, there was another cause (in mystery novels, at least, murder is often disguised as suicide).
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^ Related to complex cause , here one entity is held to cause another, and it does play a part in the causality, but it is insignificant compared to other causes of the effect.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The correlation phenomena could be caused by a third, previously unconsidered phenomenon, called a lurking variable or confounding variable.^ THIRD VARIABLE ERROR - This occurs when one takes correlational data and assumes a causal relationship.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.For this reason, there is no way to immediately infer the existence of a causal relationship between the two variables.^ According to this principle, two people can be treated differently if and only if there is a relevant difference between them.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a weak analogy because no causal connection can be drawn between speaking German and hating Jews (although BEING German and hating Jews might...
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no need for a baseless belief when one has reasons to believe, be they axioms or pragmatism.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

(See Correlation does not imply causation.)
.For a sample to be used as a guide to an entire population, it is important that it is truly a representative of that overall population.^ An important methodological issue has to do with the population (group of people) from which a sample, or selected group of a population actually researched, is drawn .
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Five important methodological issues are covered below: Population from which the research sample is drawn.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Representative sampling assured, inferences and conclusions can be safely extended from the sample to the population as a whole.^ Besharov and Dembosky observed that the study's conclusions emerge from a survey of a representative sample of 5,600 child-welfare professionals.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A major problem lies in determining the extent to which the sample chosen is actually representative. .Statistics offers methods to estimate and correct for any random trending within the sample and data collection procedures.^ Each story applies a particular statistical method to a set of data.
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^ CWIG collects and reports the statistics from two studies conducted using different methods.
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^ The statistics are "derived from the statistical returns submitted to the Department of Health by local authorities and include data for individual local authorities and England estimates."
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also methods for designing experiments that can lessen these issues at the outset of a study, strengthening its capability to discern truths about the population.^ To begin thinking critically about the issues involved, consider these questions: Which of the following are easier for people to do?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I especially recommend this book to students and others just beginning to learn about child abuse and how people recover from these experiences.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Complex and subtle scientific issues are involved in studies that generate these statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Statisticians describe stronger methods as more "robust".(See experimental design.)
The fundamental mathematical concept employed in understanding potential randomness is probability. .Mathematical statistics (also called statistical theory) is the branch of applied mathematics that uses probability theory and analysis to examine the theoretical basis of statistics.^ The project used a combination of document analysis and interviews with key personnel to examine the comparability of child protection data Australia-wide....
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of any statistical method is valid only when the system or population under consideration satisfies the basic mathematical assumptions of the method.^ "Innumeracy – widespread confusion about basic mathematical ideas – means that many statistical claims about social problems don't get the critical attention they deserve.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This section will still be useful to people who want to understand how different research methods yield different prevalence statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This fallacy can also be referred to as the EVERYONE BUT ME PHENOMENA when speakers specifically use a method that they find to be flawed only when it is used by another.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.Misuse of statistics can produce subtle, but serious errors in description and interpretation — subtle in the sense that even experienced professionals make such errors, and serious in the sense that they can lead to devastating decision errors.^ The process is subject to numerous biases, such as 'hindsight bias" which makes events appear more "predictable" than they actually are.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ These people make choices (and sometimes errors) that shape whatever statistics finally emerge from their organization or agency, and the organization provides a context for those choices....
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, coroners are probably more concerned with being able to justify their decisions in individual cases than they are with whatever overall statistics emerge from these decisions.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, social policy, medical practice, and the reliability of structures like bridges all rely on the proper use of statistics.^ In fact, this had been the main goal of the first statisticians – they wanted to study society through counting and use the resulting numbers to influence social policy.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, campaigns to create social problems use statistics to help arouse the public's concern.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same is true of our relationship to statistics: it is embedded in historical and cultural patterns, particularly how science and statistics are used to define important social problems, shape debates about them, and decide public policies.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even when statistics are correctly applied, the results can be difficult to interpret for those lacking expertise.^ Scholars organized statistical societies to share the results of their studies and to discuss the best methods for gathering and interpreting statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All statistics are created through people's actions: people have to decide what to count and how to count it, people have to do the counting and the other calculations, and people have to interpret the resulting statistics, to decide what the numbers mean.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The statistical significance of a trend in the data — which measures the extent to which a trend could be caused by random variation in the sample — may or may not agree with an intuitive sense of its significance.^ And it causes significant confusion - among members of the media, politicians, judges, and advocates for various causes, not to mention average citizens.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The set of basic statistical skills (and skepticism) that people need to deal with information in their everyday lives properly is referred to as statistical literacy.^ The media often report on statistics, good and bad, without providing the information we need to evaluate their quality and meaning.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, even when the necessary information is provided, most people simply don't have the tools to think critically about statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If people create statistics, then those numbers need to be assessed, evaluated.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Statistical methods

Experimental and observational studies

.A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on dependent variables or response.^ Whether or not, and to what extent child abuse and neglect (or other painful experiences) have negative effects depends on a variety of factors - related to the abuse itself, but also to relationships, in which the abuse and the child's responses occur.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a quick perusal of the flaws in this research will help guide us through the various modes in which ignorance of science leads to misuse of statistics.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ One version consists of drawing an analogy between a particular conclusion, and some aspect of the natural world -- and then stating that the conclusion is inevitable, because the natural world is similar: .
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.There are two major types of causal statistical studies: experimental studies and observational studies.^ There are are two types of correlational/causational errors.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two general types of fallacies in logic: formal and informal.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, four major types of studies are the sources for large-scale child abuse statistics: Studies that collect official government statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In both types of studies, the effect of differences of an independent variable (or variables) on the behavior of the dependent variable are observed. .The difference between the two types lies in how the study is actually conducted.^ According to this principle, two people can be treated differently if and only if there is a relevant difference between them.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ As noted in the report's introduction, the study is a "first" in two important ways: "First comprehensive, global study conducted by the United Nations on all forms of violence against children."
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The purposeful or erroneous transposition of meaning when the same word is used in two premises (or a premise and a conclusion), that is actually used in two different senses.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

Each can be very effective.
.An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements.^ This fallacy involves the use of a different word for a word we wish to avoid using, yet still containing the SAME meaning that we need to transmit.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. Instead, data are gathered and correlations between predictors and response are investigated.
An example of an experimental study is the famous Hawthorne study, which attempted to test changes to the working environment at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. The researchers were interested in determining whether increased illumination would increase the productivity of the assembly line workers. The researchers first measured the productivity in the plant, then modified the illumination in an area of the plant and checked if the changes in illumination affected productivity. It turned out that productivity indeed improved (under the experimental conditions). However, the study is heavily criticized today for errors in experimental procedures, specifically for the lack of a control group and blindness. .The Hawthorne effect refers to finding that an outcome (in this case, worker productivity) changed due to observation itself.^ Sometimes the "coincidence" of the sheer number of cases itself is held to be proof so this is also referred to as a consensus of independently arrived at conclusions.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometimes the "coincidence" of the sheer number of cases itself is held to be proof so this is also referred to as a CONSENSUS OF INDEPENDENTLY ARRIVED AT CONCLUSIONS. .
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Those in the Hawthorne study became more productive not because the lighting was changed but because they were being observed.^ "In short, the reported decline in child abuse was all the more significant because it seems to have occurred in spite of the methodological changes between the surveys.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, coroners are probably more concerned with being able to justify their decisions in individual cases than they are with whatever overall statistics emerge from these decisions.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another form of appeal to nature is to argue that because human beings are products of the natural world, we must mimic behavior seen in the natural world, and that to do otherwise is 'unnatural': .
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.An example of an observational study is one that explores the correlation between smoking and lung cancer.^ It's a truism that one good case study example impresses people more than a book full of statistics - a phenomenon well studied in psychology.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.This type of study typically uses a survey to collect observations about the area of interest and then performs statistical analysis.^ Studies that survey a "representative" sample of people (e.g., from a country) about their first-hand knowledge of child abuse.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, four major types of studies are the sources for large-scale child abuse statistics: Studies that collect official government statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this case, the researchers would collect observations of both smokers and non-smokers, perhaps through a case-control study, and then look for the number of cases of lung cancer in each group.^ In fact, this had been the main goal of the first statisticians – they wanted to study society through counting and use the resulting numbers to influence social policy.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Incidence Study - Executive Summary The National Incidence Study (NIS) is designed to estimate the actual number of abused and neglected children, including cases both reported and not reported to state Child Protective Services (CPS) agencies.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, the number of questions asked of subjects in a research study can have a large effect on prevalence rate findings.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The basic steps of an experiment are:
.
  1. Planning the research, including determining information sources, research subject selection, and ethical considerations for the proposed research and method.
  2. Design of experiments, concentrating on the system model and the interaction of independent and dependent variables.
  3. Summarizing a collection of observations to feature their commonality by suppressing details.^ With this kind of information researchers are in a better position to evaluate whether or not an experience fits a reasonable and understandable definition of sexual abuse.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Researchers must not ignore the effects this can have on subjects' responses to questions about childhood experiences that may have been abusive.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Welch provides a thoughtful essay on publicizing the release of one's perpetrator, including various ethical considerations.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (Descriptive statistics)
  4. Reaching consensus about what the observations tell about the world being observed. (Statistical inference)
  5. Documenting / presenting the results of the study.

Levels of measurement

There are four types of measurements or levels of measurement or measurement scales used in statistics:
  • nominal,
  • ordinal,
  • interval, and
  • ratio.
.They have different degrees of usefulness in statistical research.^ Because many people have trouble appreciating the differences among big numbers, they tend to uncritically accept social statistics (which often, of course, feature big numbers).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This section will still be useful to people who want to understand how different research methods yield different prevalence statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experts, officials, and private organizations commonly report having studied the problem, and they present statistics based on their research.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ratio measurements have both a zero value defined and the distances between different measurements defined; they provide the greatest flexibility in statistical methods that can be used for analyzing the data.^ Some statistics are pretty good; they reflect people's best efforts to measure social problems carefully.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because many people have trouble appreciating the differences among big numbers, they tend to uncritically accept social statistics (which often, of course, feature big numbers).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This section will still be useful to people who want to understand how different research methods yield different prevalence statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Interval measurements have meaningful distances between measurements defined, but have no meaningful zero value defined (as in the case with IQ measurements or with temperature measurements in Fahrenheit). Ordinal measurements have imprecise differences between consecutive values, but have a meaningful order to those values. Nominal measurements have no meaningful rank order among values.
.Since variables conforming only to nominal or ordinal measurements cannot be reasonably measured numerically, sometimes they are called together as categorical variables, whereas ratio and interval measurements are grouped together as quantitative or continuous variables due to their numerical nature.^ Example: Since science cannot totally explain how the universe got here, we have reason to question its claims .
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Before then they had not been compiled, largely due to the challenge posed by varying definitions of child abuse across the country's provinces and territories.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The regressive fallacy occurs when one fails to take into account that any measured phenomena will inevitably fluctuate for various reasons, and instead claims that some change over time MUST be be due to the cause of some purported independent variable.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

Key terms used in statistics

Null hypothesis

.Interpretation of statistical information can often involve the development of a null hypothesis in that the assumption is that whatever is proposed as a cause has no effect on the variable being measured.^ The flaw in the assumption here is that the arguer is assuming that he can keep whatever outcomes that please him, while denying those that do not, when in fact all variables in outcomes are connected and can never be separated.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The media often report on statistics, good and bad, without providing the information we need to evaluate their quality and meaning.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The media often insist on such statistics for their stories, even if no good ones exist.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The best illustration for a novice is the predicament encountered by a jury trial. The null hypothesis, H0, asserts that the defendant is innocent, whereas the alternative hypothesis, H1, asserts that the defendant is guilty.
The indictment comes because of suspicion of the guilt. .The H0 (status quo) stands in opposition to H1 and is maintained unless H1 is supported by evidence "beyond a reasonable doubt". However, "failure to reject H0" in this case does not imply innocence, but merely that the evidence was insufficient to convict.^ However, to doubt or reject a valid deduction based on the source, is an ad hominem fallacy.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The weakness of my argument does not imply the strength of yours - Sigmund Freud An argument from ignorance often is merely an expression of one's desires and little more.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because the mere fact that an event is particularly vivid or dramatic only means that an event will be memorable, it does not make the event more likely to occur, especially in the face of significant statistical evidence.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

So the jury does not necessarily accept H0 but fails to reject H0.

Error

Working from a null hypothesis two basic forms of error are recognised:
  • Type I errors where the null hypothesis is falsely rejected giving a "false positive".
  • Type II errors where the null hypothesis fails to be rejected and an actual difference between populations is missed.

Confidence intervals

.Most studies will only sample part of a population and then the result is used to interpret the null hypothesis in the context of the whole population.^ In fact, this had been the main goal of the first statisticians – they wanted to study society through counting and use the resulting numbers to influence social policy.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, this is a most complex and controversial (methodological) issue, not only among researchers but in society as a whole, and not only in terms of sexual abuse but physical and emotional abuse as well.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scholars organized statistical societies to share the results of their studies and to discuss the best methods for gathering and interpreting statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Any estimates obtained from the sample only approximate the population value. Confidence intervals allow statisticians to express how closely the sample estimate matches the true value in the whole population. Often they are expressed as 95% confidence intervals. .Formally, a 95% confidence interval of a procedure is any range such that the interval covers the true population value 95% of the time given repeated sampling under the same conditions.^ Joseph Goebbels discovered that if something is repeated enough times, people will eventually come to accept it as true, even unquestionable.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Five important methodological issues are covered below: Population from which the research sample is drawn.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If these intervals span a value (such as zero) where the null hypothesis would be confirmed then this can indicate that any observed value has been seen by chance. .For example a drug that gives a mean increase in heart rate of 2 beats per minute but has 95% confidence intervals of -5 to 9 for its increase may well have no effect whatsoever.^ Simply put, there may be no real placebo effect at all...
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, while an apologist may maintain that a belief in god is validated by a lack of negating evidence, the apologist himself has absolutely no problem whatsoever denying the reality of other gods without his requirement for negating evidence.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

The 95% confidence interval is often misinterpreted as the probability that the true value lies between the upper and lower limits given the observed sample. However this quantity is more a credible interval available only from Bayesian statistics.

Significance

.Statistics rarely give a simple Yes/No type answer to the question asked of them.^ If subjects in a research study are not asked further questions after answering "no" to a general question about unwanted sexual experiences in childhood, many of those who were in fact sexually abused will be categorized as never sexually abused.
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^ We see yet again that survey answers are much more meaningful when they are understood in the contexts of the way in which the questions are asked.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can also ask questions by giving people questionnaires, typically anonymous ones.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Interpretation often comes down to the level of statistical significance applied to the numbers and often refer to the probability of a value accurately rejecting the null hypothesis (sometimes referred to as the p-value).^ Because many people have trouble appreciating the differences among big numbers, they tend to uncritically accept social statistics (which often, of course, feature big numbers).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sources of Statistics - Official Numbers, Actual Numbers, & Estimates Contents Most abused and neglected children never come to the attention of government authorities.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes the "coincidence" of the sheer number of cases itself is held to be proof so this is also referred to as a consensus of independently arrived at conclusions.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.When interpreting an academic paper reference to the significance of a result when referring to the statistical significance does not necessarily mean that the overall result means anything in real world terms.^ Second excerpts on child abuse statistics from It Ain't Necessarily So - Is the trend really up ?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scholars organized statistical societies to share the results of their studies and to discuss the best methods for gathering and interpreting statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, Russo re-defined the term "small market" from meaning "a smaller city with a smaller population" (which is what it really means) to mean "a team with a smaller budget."
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.(For example in a large study of a drug it may be shown that the drug has a statistically significant but very small beneficial effect such that the drug will be unlikely to help anyone given it in a noticeable way.^ Trying to be supportive and helpful to someone you love who is suffering from the effects of child abuse can be very difficult and challenging.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's a truism that one good case study example impresses people more than a book full of statistics - a phenomenon well studied in psychology.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, four major types of studies are the sources for large-scale child abuse statistics: Studies that collect official government statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Examples

Some well-known statistical tests and procedures are:

Specialized disciplines

.Some fields of inquiry use applied statistics so extensively that they have specialized terminology.^ The fallacy is not committed if qualified researchers have failed after extensive and exhaustive attempts to demonstrate some phenomena, and the conclusion at hand states that what they have attempted to demonstrate is not so.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some statistics are pretty good; they reflect people's best efforts to measure social problems carefully.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These disciplines include:
In addition, there are particular types of statistical analysis that have also developed their own specialised terminology and methodology:
Statistics form a key basis tool in business and manufacturing as well. .It is used to understand measurement systems variability, control processes (as in statistical process control or SPC), for summarizing data, and to make data-driven decisions.^ This section will still be useful to people who want to understand how different research methods yield different prevalence statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In these roles, it is a key tool, and perhaps the only reliable tool.

Statistical computing

gretl, an example of an open source statistical package
The rapid and sustained increases in computing power starting from the second half of the 20th century have had a substantial impact on the practice of statistical science. .Early statistical models were almost always from the class of linear models, but powerful computers, coupled with suitable numerical algorithms, caused an increased interest in nonlinear models (such as neural networks) as well as the creation of new types, such as generalized linear models and multilevel models.^ "Statistics play an important role in campaigns to create – or defuse claims about – new social problems.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, four major types of studies are the sources for large-scale child abuse statistics: Studies that collect official government statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The general public tends to be receptive to claims about new social problems, and we rarely think critically about social problems statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Increased computing power has also led to the growing popularity of computationally-intensive methods based on resampling, such as permutation tests and the bootstrap, while techniques such as Gibbs sampling have made use of Bayesian models more feasible.^ At least one or two methods used in any study must be chosen by researchers based on opinions and judgements, not just facts and logic.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus good treatment is not something that a more powerful professional requires the client to accept and "comply" with, as the medical model of therapy tends to assume.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, 'the anonymity offered by the telephone [used in 1985 but not 1975] leads to more truthfulness and, therefore, increased reports of violence.'
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The computer revolution has implications for the future of statistics with new emphasis on "experimental" and "empirical" statistics. .A large number of both general and special purpose statistical software are now available.^ In general, four major types of studies are the sources for large-scale child abuse statistics: Studies that collect official government statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Misuse

.There is a general perception that statistical knowledge is all-too-frequently intentionally misused by finding ways to interpret only the data that are favorable to the presenter.^ As a frequent user of Internet data sites, I am happy to share the data on this page (and this page only for personal unpublished use) with world-wide Internet users, as they have shared their work with me.If you find this page to be useful in your own research, please write and let me know .
  • Dust Bowl Data 1933-1936 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ Insertionism and misuse of statistics are basically one step above the last, and most dishonest of all suspect debate tactics: Lying.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ There was growing respect for science, and statistics offered a way to bring the authority of science to debates about social policy.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A famous saying attributed to Benjamin Disraeli is, "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics." Harvard President Lawrence Lowell wrote in 1909 that statistics, "...like veal pies, are good if you know the person that made them, and are sure of the ingredients."
.If various studies appear to contradict one another, then the public may come to distrust such studies.^ Welch provides a thoughtful essay on publicizing the release of one's perpetrator, including various ethical considerations.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, surviving family members may be ashamed by a relative's suicide, and they may press the coroner to assign another cause of death, such as accident.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, one study may suggest that a given diet or activity raises blood pressure, while another may suggest that it lowers blood pressure.^ It's a truism that one good case study example impresses people more than a book full of statistics - a phenomenon well studied in psychology.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example: Ignoring painful feelings may reduce one's conscious experience of them.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The discrepancy can arise from subtle variations in experimental design, such as differences in the patient groups or research protocols, which are not easily understood by the non-expert. .(Media reports usually omit this vital contextual information entirely, because of its complexity.^ The media often report on statistics, good and bad, without providing the information we need to evaluate their quality and meaning.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recall that the media like to report statistics because numbers seem to be factual, little nuggets of truth.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The media like to report statistics because numbers seem to be 'hard facts' – little nuggets of indisputable truth.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
By choosing (or rejecting, or modifying) a certain sample, results can be manipulated. .Such manipulations need not be malicious or devious; they can arise from unintentional biases of the researcher.^ The process is subject to numerous biases, such as 'hindsight bias" which makes events appear more "predictable" than they actually are.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though they will never all agree, researchers have become increasingly sensitive to the need for carefully considered, and clearly articulated, definitions of child sexual abuse.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The graphs used to summarize data can also be misleading.
.Deeper criticisms come from the fact that the hypothesis testing approach, widely used and in many cases required by law or regulation, forces one hypothesis (the null hypothesis) to be "favored," and can also seem to exaggerate the importance of minor differences in large studies.^ Here is an infamous example of a euphemism being used to avoid making an embarrassing admission: One commits a crime by failing to comply with a law, so Dinkins is using a euphemism.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It occurs when one uses one system or argument in one case, and then denies it or fails to apply it, in another case.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A difference that is highly statistically significant can still be of no practical significance.^ This section will still be useful to people who want to understand how different research methods yield different prevalence statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No matter what kind of study it is, small changes in definitions can result in big differences in statistics on abuse and neglect.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See criticism of hypothesis testing and controversy over the null hypothesis.)
.One response is by giving a greater emphasis on the p-value than simply reporting whether a hypothesis is rejected at the given level of significance.^ "It is important to appreciate that coroners view their task as classifying individual deaths, as giving each one an appropriate label, rather than as compiling statistics for suicide rates.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that whether or not a sexual experience is abusive can also depend on one's subjective appraisal and emotional response to the incident.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The intent is more than just to hurl an insult, it's the act of insulting with the intent of undermining the credibility or competence of the arguer, so that one simply ignores the argument altogether.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

The p-value, however, does not indicate the size of the effect. Another increasingly common approach is to report confidence intervals. .Although these are produced from the same calculations as those of hypothesis tests or p-values, they describe both the size of the effect and the uncertainty surrounding it.^ One thing is held to to cause another, when in fact they are both the joint effects of an underlying cause.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Children have participated in all regional consultations held in connection with the Study, eloquently describing both the violence they experience and their proposals for ending it."
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Statistics applied to mathematics or the arts

.Traditionally, statistics was concerned with drawing inferences using a semi-standardized methodology that was "required learning" in most sciences.^ Therefore, campaigns to create social problems use statistics to help arouse the public's concern.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of information extracted from this site should be properly accredited using the most recent academic standards.
  • Dust Bowl Data 1933-1936 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ Does a particular statistic come from activists, who are striving to draw attention to and arouse concern about a social problem?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has changed with use of statistics in non-inferential contexts.^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

What was once considered a dry subject, taken in many fields as a degree-requirement, is now viewed enthusiastically. .Initially derided by some mathematical purists, it is now considered essential methodology in certain areas.^ Since they are very aware of the fact that no one can be an expert on all areas of science, it is almost certain that at least some of the "shot" hits its mark.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.
  • In number theory, scatter plots of data generated by a distribution function may be transformed with familiar tools used in statistics to reveal underlying patterns, which may then lead to hypotheses.
  • Methods of statistics including predictive methods in forecasting, are combined with chaos theory and fractal geometry to create video works that are considered to have great beauty.
  • The process art of Jackson Pollock relied on artistic experiments whereby underlying distributions in nature were artistically revealed.^ The Traumatized Child This video series, created by Cavalcade Productions, features Dr. Margaret Blaustein, with whom I have worked and respect very highly, and three of her colleagues.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Therefore, campaigns to create social problems use statistics to help arouse the public's concern.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Child Abuse and Neglect Child Sexual Abuse What is Emotional Abuse Family Violence and Substance Abuse NCFV also offers many videos on child abuse and family violence, for the general public and for professionals working in the field.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .With the advent of computers, methods of statistics were applied to formalize such distribution driven natural processes, in order to make and analyze moving video art.
  • Methods of statistics may be used predicatively in performance art, as in a card trick based on a Markov process that only works some of the time, the occasion of which can be predicted using statistical methodology.
  • Statistics is used to predicatively create art, as in applications of statistical mechanics with the statistical or stochastic music invented by Iannis Xenakis, where the music is performance-specific.^ In short, whether these ways of coping were learned during times of abuse and neglect or some time later, they are not working very well any more (if they ever did).
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At least one or two methods used in any study must be chosen by researchers based on opinions and judgements, not just facts and logic.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The process is subject to numerous biases, such as 'hindsight bias" which makes events appear more "predictable" than they actually are.
    • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

    Though this type of artistry does not always come out as expected, it does behave within a range predictable using statistics.

See also

Related disciplines

Notes

  1. ^ Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0199206139
  2. ^ "Statistics". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/statistics. 
  3. ^ "Statistic". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/statistic. 
  4. ^ Moses, Lincoln E. Think and Explain with statistics, pp. 1 - 3. Addison-Wesley, 1986.
  5. ^ Hays, William Lee, Statistics for the social sciences, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973, p.xii, ISBN 978-0030779459
  6. ^ Statistics at Encyclopedia of Mathematics
  7. ^ Moore, David (1992). "Teaching Statistics as a Respectable Subject". Statistics for the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: The Mathematical Association of America. pp. 14–25. 
  8. ^ Chance, Beth L.; Rossman, Allan J. (2005). "Preface". Investigating Statistical Concepts, Applications, and Methods. Duxbury Press. ISBN 978-0495050643. http://www.rossmanchance.com/iscam/preface.pdf. 
  9. ^ Anderson, , D.R.; Sweeney, D.J.; Williams, T.A.. Statistics: Concepts and Applications, pp. 5 - 9. West Publishing Company, 1986.
  10. ^ Willcox, Walter (1938) The Founder of Statistics. Review of the International Statistical Institute 5(4):321-328.

References

.
  • Best, Joel (2001).^ The June 8, 2001, "Science Friday" show of National Public Radio's "Talk of the Nation" included an interview with David Murray and Joel Best, authors of the books above.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Damned Lies and Statistics: Untangling Numbers from the Media, Politicians, and Activists.^ Damned Lies and Statistics: Untangling Numbers from the Media, Politicians, and Activists.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lies, damned lies and statistics -Ben Franklin .
    • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Recall that the media like to report statistics because numbers seem to be factual, little nuggets of truth.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21978-3. 
  • Desrosières, Alain (2004). The Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning. Trans. Camille Naish. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-68932-1. 
  • Hacking, Ian (1990). The Taming of Chance. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38884-8. 
  • Lindley, D.V. (1985). Making Decisions (2nd ed. ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-90808-8. 
  • Tijms, Henk (2004). Understanding Probability: Chance Rules in Everyday life. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83329-9. 

External links

Online non-commercial textbooks

Other non-commercial resources

Multimedia


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.^ Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies) Article on statistical analysis that should be on everyone's reading list.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Black box method security assessment statistics includes the results of manual and automated Web application analysis without any preliminary known data about the application.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a GUI-based product which contains many innovative graphical data analysis and statistical analysis features.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.
  • There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics.^ Lies, damned lies and statistics -Ben Franklin .
    • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics.
    • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies) Article on statistical analysis that should be on everyone's reading list.
    • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

  • The rise of biometry in this 20th century, like that of geometry in the 3rd century before Christ, seems to mark out one of the great ages or critical periods in the advance of the human understanding.^ One wonders how the weather stations around the globe seemed to go up and down at roughly the same time over the last century.
    • Jennifer Marohasy: White paint, asphalt, concrete, BBQ’s and air con units, plus some cherry picking. 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies) Article on statistical analysis that should be on everyone's reading list.
    • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Prevalence of the Sexual Abuse of Boys Contents Approximately one in six boys is sexually abused before age 16.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • A well-wrapped statistic is better than Hitler's "big lie"; it misleads, yet it cannot be pinned on you.^ It's a truism that one good case study example impresses people more than a book full of statistics - a phenomenon well studied in psychology.
    • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Well better to be a climate nerd than a climate turd I guess.
    • Jennifer Marohasy: White paint, asphalt, concrete, BBQ’s and air con units, plus some cherry picking. 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There is a project for you Ian - better than taking happy snaps.
    • Jennifer Marohasy: White paint, asphalt, concrete, BBQ’s and air con units, plus some cherry picking. 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • The epistemological value of probability theory is based on the fact that chance phenomena, considered collectively and on a grand scale, create non-random regularity.^ How was this statistic created?
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The points below are intended to explain how the controversy arose and to demonstrate that the main criticism of EMDR is not based on facts.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ BillInfo/Quack.html Characterization of Quack Theories Article on how the misuse of statistics can lead to problems in theorizing.
    • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

    • Andrey Kolmogorov, Limit Distributions for Sums of Independent Random Variables, tr. .K. L. Chung, Addison Wesley, 1954
  • Politicians use statistics like drunkards use lampposts: not for illumination, but for support.^ The Student Edition of MINITAB, is distributed internationally by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, and is widely used by college and high school students.
    • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Supports and promotes the use of computers in teaching mathematics and statistics in the UK. .
    • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

    ^ But people also use statistics to support particular views about social problems.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Average a left-hander with a right-hander and what do you get?
  • To understand God's thoughts we must study statistics, for these are the measure of his purpose.^ Complex and subtle scientific issues are involved in studies that generate these statistics.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If one statistic is compared to another statistic from an earlier study, were different methods of measurement used, or was the object of measurement changed or redefined?
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Before looking at any findings from these studies, it is important to understand some limitations of the data .
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • The true foundation of theology is to ascertain the character of God. It is by the art of statistics that law in the social sphere can be ascertained and codified, and certain aspects of the character of God thereby revealed. The study of statistics is thus a religious service. .
    • Attributed to Florence Nightingale by F.N. David in Games, Gods, and Gambling: A History of Probability and Statistical Ideas, 1962, page 103.
  • Thomasina: If there is an equation for a curve like a bell, there must be an equation for one like a bluebell, and if a bluebell, why not a rose?^ StatPages/StatHomePage.html Statistical Home Page - Home page of David Howell, author of a popular statistics text.
    • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A statistical analysis of the Web site (page) visitors must discriminate visitors by their Internet domains, and by their special interest regarding particular HTML documents of the site (page).
    • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Because child abuse is stigmatized, one must always be cautious about equating what people report with what they actually did.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Do we believe nature is written in numbers?
    Septimus: We do.
    Thomasina: Then why do your shapes describe only the shapes of manufacture?
    Septimus: I do not know.
    Thomasina: Armed thus, God could only make a cabinet. .
  • There are two kinds of statistics, the kind you look up and the kind you make up.^ For a local Net-admin, there is another kind of statistical studies, concerning the local traffic, and local user activities, and especially, the Web site visitors.
    • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Furthermore, the Internet growing and its social nature make up a new medium for statistical analysis studies.
    • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, when we make an honest chart, and begin at a true zero point, look what happens: Then, when we replace the 'error bars' which every honest and scientific chart must have: We see that not only is there no large difference, there isn't even a significant difference In fact, statistically we can say that the two candidates have statistically equal support .
    • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read or write.^ "It is important to appreciate that coroners view their task as classifying individual deaths, as giving each one an appropriate label, rather than as compiling statistics for suicide rates.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Finally, even when the necessary information is provided, most people simply don't have the tools to think critically about statistics.
    • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
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Look up statistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Correlation examples
Statistics is an applied branch of Mathematics.

Contents

Courses

Category tree

ANOVA
Data

See also

External links

Software

Online textbooks

Online videos

SOCR Videos

Statistics rap

These (selected) student-made "statistics rap" videos can be used as fun introductions/reviews of concepts commonly taught in undergraduate statistics courses:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.STATISTICS. The word " statistic " is derived from the Latin status, which, in the middle ages, had come to mean a " state " in the political sense.^ To illustrate methods of descriptive statistics, the previous example in which data were collected on the age, gender, marital status, and annual income of 100 individuals will be examined.
  • statistics (science) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ State Demographics : State statistics on the income status, education level, family structure, and employment status of families and children.

^ Politics and Public Opinion reports Statement of Vote (election returns from the Secretary of State) and other political and public opinion statistics.
  • RAND California Statistics 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC ca.rand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

." Statistic," therefore, originally denoted inquiries into the condition of a state.^ Provides tables and graphs of statistics on the social, political, and economic conditions of the United States.
  • U.S. Government Bookstore: Browse by Subject: Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC bookstore.gpo.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Statistical Abstract of the United States Contains a collection of statistics on social and economic conditions in the United States.
  • Youthwork Links and Ideas: Adolescence Research and Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.youthwork.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since the 18th century the denotation of the word has been extended, while at the same time its scope has become more definite, and may now be said, for all practical purposes, to be fixed.^ The same partner who initially refused to get marriage help may see the change in you and they might eventually want to join you at this time.
  • Marriage Help for Families Dealing With a Addiction marriage tips 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC marriagediary.net [Source type: General]

^ Check out how incumbents have become more and more popular over the last two centuries!
  • GovTrack: Congressional Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.govtrack.us [Source type: General]

^ Although there is now more transparency in police and prison deaths, the same cannot be said for deaths in psychiatric detention and so it is impossible to monitor any emerging trends.

Table of contents

History

The origin of what is now known as " statistics " (Ger. die Statistik; Fr. la statistique; Ital. statistica) can only be referred to briefly here. .As human societies became more and more highly organized, there can be no doubt that a very considerable body of official statistics must have come into existence, and been constantly used by statesmen, solely with a view to administration.^ There are no sub categories Category » Statistics .
  • GetResponse Email Marketing :: Statistics 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC faq.getresponse.com [Source type: General]

^ Use any of these statistics with the understanding that even statistics usually come with a bias.
  • Learning Statistics - Learnativity.com 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.learnativity.com [Source type: General]

^ People in need must be able to turn to others, to people who will help them find their way out of a life of pain and into a purposeful existence.
  • http://www.godhearsus.com/Statistics.html 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.godhearsus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Romans were careful to obtain accurate information regarding the resources of the state, and they appear to have taken the census with a regularity which has hardly been surpassed in modern times.^ Caregiver Self-Awareness Over 90% of family caregivers become more proactive about seeking resources and skills they need to assist their care recipient after they have self-identified.
  • National Family Caregivers Association 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.nfcacares.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Federal Bureau of Statistics is committed to provide accurate, reliable, timely, comprehensive and user-friendly information to public, private, national and international organizations.
  • Introduction - Federal Bureau of Statistics 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.statpak.gov.pk [Source type: Academic]

^ Although reasonable efforts are taken to ensure the validity of the information stated above, it is not implied that is complete or error free.
  • Coffee Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.e-importz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Statistics, or rather the material for statistics, therefore existed at a very early period, but it was not until within the last three centuries that systematic use of the information available began to be made for purposes of investigation and not of mere administration.^ The StatTutor labs are available using any of the three Statistics packages.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC oli.web.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Crash Statistics contain information that can be used to identify safety problems in specific geographical areas or to compare state statistics to the national crash figures.
  • Crash Statistics Online Main 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC ai.fmcsa.dot.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Statistical methods are used for studying relationships, predicting results, testing hypotheses, and a variety of other purposes.
  • SDSU Statistics Program 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC arweb.sdsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A volume compiled by Francesco Sansovino, entitled Del Govern() et amministrazione di diversi regni et republiche, was printed in Venice and bears the date 1583. Other works of a similar kind were published towards the end of the 16th century in Italy and France.^ It presents an annotated bibliography of recently published books, journal articles, working papers, and other material on population topics.
  • STATISTICAL 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC courses.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the justice system witnesses are also often not independent and may end up influencing each other's testimony--a situation similar to reducing sample size.
  • Type I and Type II Errors 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.intuitor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Careers OTHER FLEET SITES: Automotive Fleet Business Fleet Fleet Financials Government Fleet Work Truck Fleet-Central Copyright © 2010 Automotive Fleet.
  • Research and Best Practices - Automotive Fleet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.automotive-fleet.com [Source type: General]

.Works on state administration and finance continued to be published during the first half of the 17th century, and the tendency to employ figures, which were hardly used at all by Sansovino, became more marked, especially in England, where the facts connected with " bills of mortality " had begun to attract attention.^ Facts & figures of all 7summiteers!
  • 7 summits list: statistics, the Carstensz & Kosciuszko lists of the seven summits! The oldest, youngest, male or female etc, find all 7 summits statistics here at 7summits.com 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC 7summits.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reflects the fact that most reporting sources dot not cover all disasters or may have political or other limitations that could affect the figures.
  • International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unisdr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Land use, development activity, filming, and population and real estate growth figures are some of the measures to be found in the Greater Vancouver Key Facts.

.G. Achenwall is usually credited with being the first to use the word " statistics," but statistics, in the modern sense of the word, did not really come into existence until the publication (1761) by J. P. Sussmilch, a Prussian clergyman, of a work entitled Die glittliche Ordnung in den Veranderungen des menschlichen Geschlechts aus der Geburt, dem Tode, and der Fortpflanzung desselben erwiesen. In this book a systematic attempt was made to make use of a class of facts which up to that time had been regarded as belonging to " political arithmetic," under which description some of the most important problems of what modern writers term " vital statistics " had been studied, especially in England.^ Use any of these statistics with the understanding that even statistics usually come with a bias.
  • Learning Statistics - Learnativity.com 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.learnativity.com [Source type: General]

^ But most move up into the middle income class.
  • An alternative hypothesis 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC cafehayek.com [Source type: General]

^ The public tends to agree; we usually treat statistics as facts.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sussmilch had arrived at a perception of the advantage of studying what Quetelet subsequently termed the " laws of large numbers." He combined the method of " descriptive statistics " with that of the " political arithmeticians," who had confined themselves to investigations into the facts regarding mortality and a few other similar subjects, without much attempt at generalizing from them.
.Political arithmetic had come into existence in England in the middle of the 17th century.^ The forerunner of statistics was 'political arithmetic'; these studies – mostly attempts to calculate population size and life expectancy – emerged in seventeenth-century Europe, particularly in England and France.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest example of this class of investigation is the work of Captain John Graunt of London, entitled Natural and Political Annotations made upon the Bills of Mortality, which was first published in 1666. This remarkable work, which dealt with mortality in London only, ran through many editions, and the line of inquiry it suggested was followed up by various other writers, of whom the most distinguished was Sir William Petty, who published in 1683 his Five Essays in Political Arithmetick. Other writers, of whom Halley, the celebrated mathematician and astronomer, was one, entered on similar investigations, and during the greater part of the 18th century the number of persons who devoted themselves to " arithmetical " inquiries into problems of the class now known as statistical was steadily increasing.^ Journals Statistics and related journals can be found on-line in increasing numbers.
  • RESOUR> Finding Out About a Number of Things - nethappenings - FreeLists 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.freelists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Women made up 29% of writers.

^ But most move up into the middle income class.
  • An alternative hypothesis 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC cafehayek.com [Source type: General]

.Much attention was given to the construction of tables of mortality.^ The Berkeley Mortality Database (UCB Department of Demography) "This database contains life tables for national populations and, whenever available, the raw data used in constructing these tables."
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Attempts were also made to deal with figures as the basis of political and fiscal discussion by Arthur Young, Hume and other historical writers, as well as by the two Mirabeaus.^ This reflects the fact that most reporting sources dot not cover all disasters or may have political or other limitations that could affect the figures.
  • International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unisdr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Herman integrates a great deal of research with decades of clinical wisdom and some thought-provoking historical and political perspectives.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is now necessary to return to Siissmilch, who, as already mentioned, endeavoured to form a general theory of society, based on what were then termed " arithmetical " premises.^ Those who would not and do not cohabitate before marriage are, in general, going to have a higher view of marriage–I would guess many of those have those beliefs based on a faith system like Christianity.
  • Statistics on Living Together Before Marriage at Ray Fowler .org 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.rayfowler.org [Source type: General]

^ Waste Disposed (or Generated - Recycled) + Imports + Exports Population = Performance Based on the principal that states can and should manage their own waste, ZWA's performance formula penalizes states who import or export waste.

^ The tax, reported on Form 706, United States Estate (and Generation Skipping Transfer) Tax Return , is applied to estates for which at-death gross assets, the "gross estate," exceed the filing threshold.
  • SOI Tax Stats - Estate Tax Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.irs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In modern language, he made use of quantitative aggregateobservation as an instrument of social inquiry.^ In constructing her questionnaire items, Koss made a good faith effort to use language that fit the legal definition of rape in the state where she lived when she conducted the research.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is true he did not enter on hit, investigation' with an " open mind." He desired to support a foregone conclusion, as the title of his work shows. .But nevertheless his work was a most valuable one, since it pointed out a road which others who had no desire to procure evidence in favour of a particular system of thought were not slow to follow.^ When the scatter comes from the sum of numerous sources (with no one source contributing most of the scatter), you expect to find a roughly Gaussian distribution.
  • How to choose a statistical test 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.graphpad.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no one central office counting the numbers, and there is the added complexity of immigrants and American converts, along with those who enjoy a meditation practice or participate in other Buddhist practices but do not consider themselves Buddhist.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.pluralism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, the most one can hope to do in establishing a working database upon which to base a statistical probability, is to make a general overall survey and census of inscribed ossuaries.
  • Of 917 ossuaries in the collections of the State of Israel, 231 (25 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.uhl.ac [Source type: Original source]

.Although for many years after the appearance of Siissmilch's book there was a good deal of resistance to the introduction of " arithmetic " as the coadjutor of moral and political investigations, yet, practically there was a tacit admission of the usefulness of figures, even by the chiefs of the socalled " descriptive " school.^ Suffice it to say, there are a great many and, more important, they are engaged in practicing the dharma in a wide variety of fascinating ways."
  • The Pluralism Project: Statistics by Tradition 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.pluralism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many ways of accessing data from the Census, good places to start include the Gateway to the 2000 Census and the American Factfinder .
  • Campus Library Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC library.uwb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A mathematician has developed an estimate for how many no-hitters there will be in major league baseball this year, based on a simple statistical.
  • ScienceDaily: Statistics Articles 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: Academic]
  • ScienceDaily: Statistics Books 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

.On the other hand, Siissmilch's success was the origin of a "mathematical" school of statisticians, some of whom carried their enthusiasm for figures so far that they refused to allow any place for mere " descriptions " at all.^ CGI scripts allow for the client to send information back to the server, for the server to carry out some action based on data from the client, and for the server to generate a web page dynamically based on the client's data.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Actuaries use high-level mathematical and statistical calculations in order to help determine the risk that some people and some groups might pose to the insurance carrier.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some quantitative observations, on the other hand, can assume an infinite number of values on a measuring scale.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

.These two schools have now coalesced, each admitting the importance of the point of view urged by the other.^ It is now more than a month since you promised to "discuss these points" with Professor Good.

^ Please note: Because this is a 1994 publication, and this is a growing field of research, additional studies for some of these countries and other countries have been published by now.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These and many other statistics on homeschooling are also covered in Home Schooling: The Right Choice, also by Christopher Klicka.
  • HSLDA | Academic Statistics on Homeschooling 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.hslda.org [Source type: Academic]

.They were, however, still perceptibly distinct even as late as 1850, and the ignorant hostility with which many people even among the cultivated classes still regard statistical inquiries into the nature of human society may be regarded as a survival of the much stronger feeling which showed itself among " orthodox " professors of law and economics on the publication of Siissmilch's treatise.^ Next to that there are some statistics on economic factors like wealth, infrastructure; statistics on natural phenomena; .......
  • GeoHive: Global Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC geohive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such arguments may sound stronger than they really are, however, because it is the arguments in themselves and not the persons that advocate them, that should be the basis for reaching conclusions.
  • Matter-of-Fact Analyses, Clear Thinking Etc. - The Gold Scales 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC oaks.nvg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even many of the State Departments of Education, which are generally biased toward the public school system, cannot argue with these facts.
  • HSLDA | Academic Statistics on Homeschooling 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.hslda.org [Source type: Academic]

.To the impulse given by the great Belgian, Quetelet, must he attributed the foundation in 1834 of the Statistical Society of London, a body which, though it has contributed little to the theory of statistics, has had a considerable influence on the practical work of carrying out statistical investigations in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.^ Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License Funded in part by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation .
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC oli.web.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ninety-four percent of adults in the United States-and 91 percent of teenagers-think it important that school-aged children and teenagers be given a strong message from society that they should abstain from sex until they are out of high school.
  • Teen Pregnancy statistics, signs, facts teenage pregnancy prevention 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.familyfirstaid.org [Source type: General]

^ Statistics From Other Countries Great Britain: Child Welfare Statistics in Great Britain This website from the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Skills contains reports on "looked after" children (those in foster care and other placements) as well as those on child protection registers.

.Quetelet was above all things an exponent of the " laws of large numbers."^ If frequentist statistics were analogously named, it might be called “Bernoullian statistics” after Jacob Bernoulli’s law of large numbers .
  • Statistics — The Endeavour 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.johndcook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was especially fascinated with the tendency to relative constancy of magnitude displayed by the figures of moral statistics, especially those of crime, which inspired him with a certain degree of pessimism.^ Those concerned with America's children might be pleased that each year's 'official statistics' on child abuse tops the previous year's figures.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The U.S. Department of Justice administers two statistical programs to measure the magnitude, nature, and impact of crime in the nation: the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).
  • Statistics - Rape Crisis Information Pathfinder 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Academic]

.His conception of an average man (l'homme moyen) and his disquisition on the " curve of possibility " were most important contributions to the technical development of the statistical method.^ No, the best thing about the book is the clear and visual explanations of basic statistical concepts and methods.

^ The most important criterion is a major investment in the language, methods, and use of statistics in the cognate field.
  • Statistics - The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.gsas.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The "Normal distribution" is important because in most cases, it well approximates the function that was introduced in the previous paragraph (for a detailed illustration, see Are all test statistics normally distributed?
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

.The influence exercised by Quetelet on the development of statistics is clearly seen from the fact that, though there is still considerable controversy among statisticians, the old controversy between the " descriptive " and arithmetical schools has disappeared, or perhaps we should say has been transformed into a discussion of another kind, the question now at issue being whether there is a science of statistics as well as a statistical method.^ Descriptive statistics - Tabular methods .
  • statistics (science) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is clearly a very controversial issue.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statistics also are discussed with regard to the conservation of species and whether IQ scores differ among various races (check out the controversial book The Bell Curve , a butchering of regression).
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.geneseo.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is true that a few books were published between 1830 and 1850 in which the politico-geographical description of a country is spoken of as " statistics," which is thus distinguished from " political arithmetic."^ These reports contain general description of the country/province/district and broad analysis of population and housing data followed by detailed statistical tables.
  • Population Census Organization 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.statpak.gov.pk [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, the book produced a rather odd juxtaposition between a third-person history of the Clinton administration from 1993 to 1997, a few pages of first-person personal history, a first-person history of the Clinton administration from 1997 to 2001 that seemed oddly detached in places, and a third-person evaluation of the Clinton presidency after the fact.

^ JASA publishes selected papers on theoretical and applied aspects of statistics as well as comprehensive reviews of books bearing on the field of statistics.
  • Welcome to the Statistics GIDP Homepage 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC stat.bio5.org [Source type: Academic]

.The title of Knies's great work, Die Statistik als selbstandige Wissenschaft (Cassel, 1850), is especially noteworthy as showing that the nature of the controversy was changing.^ In effect, nature didn't show up for work that year and we have the extra CO2 to show for it.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: Carbon dioxide and Methane Levels rise in 2007 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Knies claimed that the really " scientific " portion of statistics consisted of the figures employed.^ Hard, scientific research is often the only real way to figure out what works.
  • Entry level jobs in Statistics | One Day, One Job 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.onedayonejob.com [Source type: News]

^ For example, when we modify a portion of data in a specific module, or when we change the value of parameters of a statistical module, this effect is propagated to all the other modules in real time.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.As Haushofer says, " his starting point is political arithmetic."^ The bill was clearly unconstitutional from the start, which is why it remains so mindboggling why the Congress and White House acceded to it (political brownie points with the extremist crowd, well, obviously).

.Some eminent statisticians of the latter half of the igth century accepted the view of Knies, but the majority of modern writers on the theory of statistics, especially in Germany, have adopted a slightly different standpoint according to which statistics is at once a science relating to the social life of man and a method of investigation applicable to all sciences.^ The theory forms the base for statistical science.
  • nsf.gov - Funding - Statistics - US National Science Foundation (NSF) 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ SCSCI 10 Statistics for Social Sciences .
  • SJSU Articulation 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC info.sjsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stories are classified according to statistical methods and major topics of interest.
  • Statistical Science Web: Data Sets 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.statsci.org [Source type: Academic]

.This view was ably maintained by von Mayr, Haushofer, Gabaglio and Block, whose views, published fifteen to twenty years before the close of last century, still substantially represent the opinions held by the majority of statisticians in Germany, and probably on the European continent.^ He has published over twenty research papers in the major journals in the field of the statistics and operations research.
  • SDSU Statistics Program 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC arweb.sdsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Submissions have increased substantially over the years and we now publish more papers than we did in the 1990s.
  • Journal of Statistics Education (JSE) Home Page 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.amstat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They represent all the homeschoolers whose tests were scored through the Riverside Publishing Company.
  • HSLDA | Academic Statistics on Homeschooling 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.hslda.org [Source type: Academic]

.In France, however, several writers of importance have recently published works on the subject in which, in spite of the influence of M. Block, the claim of statistics to be considered as an independent sociological science has been rejected.^ It presents an annotated bibliography of recently published books, journal articles, working papers, and other material on population topics.
  • STATISTICAL 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC courses.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This bibliography includes the most recent statistical abstracts for states published since 2003, plus those that will be issued in late 2008.
  • The 2009 Statistical Abstract: State Abstracts 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ More recent work that focus on the statistical capabilities of the S-PLUS system include Modern Applied Statistics with S-PLUS by Venables and Ripley and Statistical Analysis in S-Plus by StatSci.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

There has been little systematic exposition of the subject in the United Kingdom. .Isolated dicta have been furnished by authorities on the practice of statistics, such as the late Dr W. A. Guy, Professor J. K. Ingram, Sir Rawson W. Rawson, Sir Robert Giffen and others, Professor Foxwell has lectured on statistics at University College, London.^ At other colleges and universities?
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.geneseo.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other annual publications, such as Hate Crime Statistics and Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted address specialized facets of crime such as hate crime or the murder and assaults of law enforcement officers respectively.
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation - How To, Use Our Resources 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.fbi.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Alcohol and Other Drugs on Campus—The Scope of the Problem The most widespread health problem on college and university campuses in the United States is high-risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use.

The most important English work dealing with the matter is that of Mr A. L. Bowley. .His volume, Elements of Statistics (first published in 1901), is intended as a practical handbook for teaching the principles on which statistics should be handled.^ Doctors need not be experts in statistics, but they should understand the principles of sound methods of research.
  • The Scandal of Poor Medical Research | chiroweb.com 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.chiroweb.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those students aspiring for a Ph.D. (statistics emphasis) should take Math 5318-5319 sequence during their first year of graduate studies.
  • Texas Tech University: Mathematics & Statistics -- Graduate Program Information 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.math.ttu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ J. of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics The Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics publishes papers of immediate and practical value to applied researchers and statistical consultants in the agricultural sciences, the biological sciences, and the environmental sciences.
  • Statistics Journals, Academic Books & Online Media | Springer 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The nature of Mr Bowley's book is, indeed, an indication of the fact that in the United Kingdom the study of statistics has been, in the main, of a practical character, the investigation of the theoretical basis of the statistical method attracting little interest.^ You probably have identified several problems with such a study but the ones I want to briefly describe are those that indicate a misuse of statistics and plain bad science.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.geneseo.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ PENet: Prostitution Issues: Statistics Return to Prostitution in The United States - The Statistics-- The figures quoted here are based on studies compiled through the 1980s.
  • PENet: Prostitution Issues: Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.bayswan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ JASA publishes selected papers on theoretical and applied aspects of statistics as well as comprehensive reviews of books bearing on the field of statistics.
  • Welcome to the Statistics GIDP Homepage 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC stat.bio5.org [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, numerous monographs have been published by English writers on particular points connected with the technique of statistical investigation, as was natural considering the excellence of the practical use made of statistics in the United Kingdom.^ It is becoming increasingly important for those in other disciplines to have good familiarity with basic statistical techniques and inference procedures.
  • Statistics Fact Sheet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.ndsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ United States Telecommunications Market Statistics Fixed-line subscribers and revenue continued to decline during 2007, while wireless revenues enjoyed strong growth, driven largely by increased SMS and other data revenues and by increased minutes of use.
  • World Internet Usage Statistics News and World Population Stats 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.internetworldstats.com [Source type: News]

^ Statistics, on the other hand, levels out individual differences and thus makes many interesting phenomena quite difficult to ascertain, tackle and handle.
  • Matter-of-Fact Analyses, Clear Thinking Etc. - The Gold Scales 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC oaks.nvg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With regard to the few earlier invasions of the domain of theory attempted by English writers, it may be observed that the authorities above mentioned were not unanimous. Dr Guy as well as Sir Rawson W. Rawson both claim that statistics is to be regarded as an independent science, apart from sociology, while Professor Ingram maintained that statistics cannot occupy a position co-ordinate with that of sociology, and that they " constitute only one of the aids or adminicula of science." Sir Robert Giffen has also expressed himself adversely to the continental doctrine that there is an independent science of statistics, and this opinion appears to be the correct one, but, as Dr Guy and Sir Rawson W. Rawson had the support of the great body of systematic teaching emanating from distinguished continental statisticians in support of their view, while their opponents have so far only the obiter dicta of a few eminent men to rely upon, it appears needful to examine closely the views held by the continental authorities, and the grounds on which they are based.
.The clearest and shortest definition of the science of statistics as thus conceived is that of M. Block, who describes it as " la science de l'homme vivant en societ y en tant qu'elle peut titre exprimee par les chiffres."^ You probably have identified several problems with such a study but the ones I want to briefly describe are those that indicate a misuse of statistics and plain bad science.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.geneseo.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ United Nations Population Fund / Fonds des Nations Unies pour la population en Mauritanie (Nouakchott) In French.
  • African Statistics on the Internet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For the technical science student who enjoys working with mathematics, the task of learning probability and statistics can be a source of pleasure.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

He proposes to give a new name to the branch of study thus defined, namely " demography." Von Mayr's definition is longer. .He defines the statistical science as " die systematische Darlegung and Erdrterung der thatsachlichen Vorgange and der aus diesen sich ergebendcn Gesetze des gesellschaftlichen menschlichen Lebens auf Grundlage quantitativer Massenbeobachtungen" (the systematic statement and explanation of actual events, and of the laws of man's social life that may be deduced from these, on the basis of the quantitative observation of aggregates).^ SCSCI 10 Statistics for Social Sciences .
  • SJSU Articulation 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC info.sjsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It may sound like a boring topic, but it is very important and a correct understanding of the use of statistics can often mean the difference between life and death.
  • Alternative Medicine 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because GovTrack collects its data automatically from various sources, the data may contain errors, and these statistics may not be fully accurate.
  • GovTrack: Congressional Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.govtrack.us [Source type: General]

.Gabaglio's view is practically identical with those adopted by von Mayr and Block, though it is differently expressed.^ Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, or the National Science Foundation.
  • The Scout Report - June 25, 1999 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC scout.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.
  • Statistical Software Engineering 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Urban Institute, its trustees, or its funders.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

.He says " statistics may be interpreted in an extended and in a restricted sense.^ As one involved in the learning and teaching of Statistics I may say that it is painful.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The type of the statistic restricts the way in which the statistic object may be used to record information.
  • SAMRAI: SAMRAI::tbox::Statistic Class Reference 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.ams.sunysb.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • SAMRAI: SAMRAI::tbox::Statistic Class Reference 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC wwwrel.ph.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In the former sense it is a method, in the latter a science.^ In one of the studies (1987) the former method was employed, and it produced a rate of 2.8% with a sample of 357; in the other study (1989) the latter method yielded a prevalence rate of 11% with a sample of 777.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a science it studies the actual social-political order by means of mathematical induction." Most German writers on the subject have endorsed the views of Block and von Mayr. .Among them may be mentioned Professors J. Conrad, Lexis and Westergaard, but Dr Augst Meitzen of Berlin, a second edition of whose Geschichte, Theorie and Technik der Statistik was published in 1903, makes a much less wide claim.^ The effects of the pressure to publish may be seen most clearly in the increase in scientific fraud, 10 much of which is relatively minor and is likely to escape detection.
  • The Scandal of Poor Medical Research | chiroweb.com 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.chiroweb.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This fallacy can be much like the centipede fallacy (See centipede fallacy) when it is then used to make the claim that the abstract concept that you cannot define, therefore cannot exist.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Consumers may feel more or less strongly about the taste of a hamburger, but it would be difficult to say that one consumer likes a certain hamburger twice as much as another consumer.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

.In France opinions are divided, Professors Andre Liesse and Fernand Faure and others accepting the view that statistics is essentially a method.^ Essentials of Statistical Methods in 41 pages and other books by T.P. Hutchinson.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Statistical modeling and analysis, including the collection and interpretation of data, form an essential part of the scientific method in diverse fields, including social, biological, and physical sciences.
  • Statistics - The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.gsas.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Support of expert users is given by coverage of methods not included in or done poorly by other statistical packages.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.This discussion regarding the nature of statistics is to a large extent a discussion about names.^ Spatial data may be stored, linked, analyzed, and displayed using SAS/GIS. SAS is to a large extent an industry standard statistical software package.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This article is about the under-discussed use and misuse of security technology, use and misuse of statistics software, and use and misuse of people in projects that use project management applications.
  • Project Management Issues to Consider - www.projectmanagerplanet.com 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.projectmanagerplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If frequentist statistics were analogously named, it might be called “Bernoullian statistics” after Jacob Bernoulli’s law of large numbers .
  • Statistics — The Endeavour 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.johndcook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is really no difference of opinion among statistical experts as to the subject-matter of statistics, the only question being - Shall statistics be termed a science as well as a method?^ Journals Overview New Journal as of 2009 More information Editorial Board Journal Lifetime Data Analysis The only journal devoted to statistical methods and applications for lifetime data.
  • Statistics Journals, Academic Books & Online Media | Springer 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the discussion however, the authors state only that there were "no significant weight differences among larvae as a function of distance from the corn field or pollen level."
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics" - Benjamin Disraeli satan delights equally in statistics and in quoting scripture - HG Wells.
  • Sox First: When statistics lie 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.soxfirst.com [Source type: General]

.That there are some investigations in which statistical procedure is employed which certainly do not belong to the domain of the supposed statistical science is generally admitted.^ National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Trauma, Shock, Burn, and Injury Facts and Figures) NIH statistical site dedicated to trauma, shock, burn, and injuries .
  • statistics - HSL Wiki Farm - Health Sciences Library - University at Buffalo Libraries 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC libweb.lib.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although there have been some notable efforts across federal statistical agencies to coordinate the dissemination of child and youth indicator data at the national level, 3 these efforts have not generally been extended to state and local estimates.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Spreadsheets, Mathematics, Science, and Statistics Education This page tries to collect some information about spreadsheets with an emphasis on mathematics and statistics education.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.But, as already shown, an attempt has been made to claim that the phenomena of human society, or some part of those phenomena, constitute the subject-matter of an independent statistical science.^ These matters can be at the heart of why some projects fail, just as easily as those other matters more commonly examined in palimpsests on the art of project management.
  • Project Management Issues to Consider - www.projectmanagerplanet.com 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.projectmanagerplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statistics plays an extremely important role in many aspects of economics and science, allowing educated guesses to be made with a minimum of expensive or difficult-to-obtain data.
  • Statistics -- from Wolfram MathWorld 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC mathworld.wolfram.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You probably have identified several problems with such a study but the ones I want to briefly describe are those that indicate a misuse of statistics and plain bad science.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.geneseo.edu [Source type: Original source]

It is not easy to see why this claim should be admitted. .There is no reason either of convenience or logic why the use of a certain scientific method should be held to have created a science in one department of inquiry, while in others the said method is regarded merely as an aid in investigation carried on under the superintendence of a science already in existence.^ Why should one use Bayesian inference, as opposed to classical inference?
  • Statistics — The Endeavour 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.johndcook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, and the reason why not is simple.
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The precautionary principle states that when there is reasonable suspicion of harm, lack of scientific certainty or consensus must not be used to postpone preventative action.
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is impossible to get over the fact that in meteorology, medicine, and other physical sciences statistical inquiries are plainly and obviously examples of the employment of a method, like microscopy, spectrum analysis, or the use of the telescope.^ S tatistical Analysis Quick Reference Guidebook: With SPSS Examples is a practical "cut to the chase" handbook that quickly explains the when, where, and how of statistical data analysis as it is used for real-world decision-making in a wide variety of disciplines.
  • Mann-Whitney Test|Nonparameric Comparison 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.texasoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Statistical analysis provides guidance in determining what information is reliable from observed data and which predictions can be trusted; this is useful in a broad variety of fields , including medicine, government, education, agriculture, business, and law.
  • Welcome to the Statistics GIDP Homepage 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC stat.bio5.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Three hours in an area other than Statistics, e.g., Mathematics, Animal Science, Biology, Economics, Engineering, Psychology, or Sociology.
  • Texas Tech University: Mathematics & Statistics -- Graduate Program Information 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.math.ttu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Why should the fact of their employment in sociology be considered as authorizing the classification of the phenomena thus dealt with to form a new science ?^ Thus, the advancement of science must always involve finding new relations between variables.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most effective argument put forward by the advocates of this view is the assertion that statistics are merely a convenient aid to investigation in the majority of sciences, but are the sole method of inquiry in the case of sociology.^ It covers the areas of statistics, probability theory, biostatistics, quality control, and economics with emphasis in applications of statistical methods in sociology, engineering, computer science, biomedicine, psychology, survey methodology, and other client disciplines."
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For a statistics major, 12 to 15 credits in mathematics, three to seven credits in computer science and 22 to 25 credits in statistics are required.
  • Statistics Fact Sheet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.ndsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Editable (wiki) version of this page The Statistics window can most conveniently be viewed by pressing F5 ( Window : Layout : Warrior layout ).
  • SuperMemo: Statistics window 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.supermemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When, indeed, it is tested by reference to the important class of social facts which are named economic, it becomes obvious that the argument breaks down.^ Consequently, percentages should be presented in context so that readers can draw their own conclusions as you emphasize facts important to your argument.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this question is answered, it becomes an argument with the conclusion that you have in fact beaten your wife at some point in time.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Refer back to these demonstrations for a review and a visual guide to some of the conceptual topics related the tests we learn in class.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.Economics is a branch - the only scientifically organized branch - of sociology, and statistics are largely used in it, but no one, so far as we are aware, has proposed to call economics a department of statistical science.^ Three hours in an area other than Statistics, e.g., Mathematics, Animal Science, Biology, Economics, Engineering, Psychology, or Sociology.
  • Texas Tech University: Mathematics & Statistics -- Graduate Program Information 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.math.ttu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It covers the areas of statistics, probability theory, biostatistics, quality control, and economics with emphasis in applications of statistical methods in sociology, engineering, computer science, biomedicine, psychology, survey methodology, and other client disciplines."
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ You probably have identified several problems with such a study but the ones I want to briefly describe are those that indicate a misuse of statistics and plain bad science.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.geneseo.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although, however, the above considerations forbid the acceptance of the continental opinion that the study of man in the social state is identical with statistics, it must be admitted that without statistics the nature of human society could never become known.^ The Golden Ratio Mario Livio This is one of the first accounts of the never-ending number phi, also known as the Golden Ratio, a figure found throughout the laws of nature.

^ However, they are usually driven fast, recklessly, and without consideration for the rules of the road.
  • SAJAforum: Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.sajaforum.org [Source type: News]

^ Responsible medical journals invest considerable effort in getting papers refereed by statisticians; however, few papers are rejected solely on statistical grounds.
  • The Scandal of Poor Medical Research | chiroweb.com 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.chiroweb.com [Source type: Academic]

For society is an aggregate, or rather a congeries of aggregates. .Not only that, but the individuals composing these aggregates are not in juxtaposition, and what is, from the sociological point of view, the same aggregate or organ of the " body politic " is not always composed of the same individuals.^ This page includes links to Web sites that address these issues and provide statistics, including sites with different statistics and points of view on these issues.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Constancy of social form is maintained concurrently with the most extensive changes in the collocation and identity of the particles composing the form. .A " nation " is really changed, so far as the individuals composing it are concerned, every moment of time by the operation of the laws of population.^ It also examines the ways in which the economic behavior of the affected population has changed over time in response to market, technological, and political stimuli.
  • SOI Tax Stats - Estate Tax Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.irs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At this time, people are working to sustain changes achieved thus far, and considerable attention is focused on avoiding slips or a relapse.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, when we modify a portion of data in a specific module, or when we change the value of parameters of a statistical module, this effect is propagated to all the other modules in real time.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.But the nation, considered sociologically, remains the same in spite of this slow change in the particles composing it, just as a human being is considered to be the same person year by year, although year by year the particles forming his er her body are constantly being destroyed and fresh particles substituted.^ For example, consider the same argument form, with a substitution: .
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trends in the Well-Being of America's Children and Youth is the fifth edition of an annual report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on trends in the well-being of the nation's children and youth.

^ If we consider the possibility of extending the web in a natural way to acquiring data in the same way we acquire human-consumable information, new mechanisms must be sought to provide for the distribution of that data.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Of course the analogy between the life of a human being and the life of a human community must not be pressed too far.^ This is a weak analogy because no causal connection can be drawn between speaking German and hating Jews (although BEING German and hating Jews might...
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus a therapist must be capable of connecting with her or his client, of being present as another human being with genuine relatedness and empathy.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another form of appeal to nature is to argue that because human beings are products of the natural world, we must mimic behavior seen in the natural world, and that to do otherwise is 'unnatural': .
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.Indeed, in several respects human communities more nearly resemble some of the lower forms of animal life than the more highly organized forms of animal existence.^ We have progressed from a society begging to obtain some data to one that has more data than consumers.

^ (HDR) On current trends over the next 20 years humans will use 40% more water than they do now.
  • Statistics | WaterAid 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.wateraid.org [Source type: News]

^ Nevertheless, the society in which our parents move, with its manners, customs, neighborhoods, social organizations and even watering holes, is highly determinative of our future position in life.

.There are organisms which are fissiparous, and when cut in two form two fresh independent organisms, so diffused is the vitality of the original organism; and the same phenomenon may be observed in regard to human communities.^ This fallacy occurs where there is no definitive demarcation line between two things and it is therefore argued that they are the same.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Now the only means whereby the grouping of the individuals forming a social organism can be ascertained, and the changes in the groups year by year observed, is the statistical method.^ Some years have statistical appendices only."
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Journals Overview New Journal as of 2009 More information Editorial Board Journal Lifetime Data Analysis The only journal devoted to statistical methods and applications for lifetime data.
  • Statistics Journals, Academic Books & Online Media | Springer 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To illustrate methods of descriptive statistics, the previous example in which data were collected on the age, gender, marital status, and annual income of 100 individuals will be examined.
  • statistics (science) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.Accordingly the correct view seems to be that it is the function of this method to make perceptible facts regarding the constitution of society on which sociology is to base its conclusions.^ At least one or two methods used in any study must be chosen by researchers based on opinions and judgements, not just facts and logic.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that USA Today seems to get away with these techniques does make them OK for an academic argument.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, this presumption is the very opposite conclusion: it assumes that we are unable to make a statement while in a state of ignorance.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.It is not claimed, or ought not to be claimed, that statistical investigation can supply the whole of the facts a knowledge of which will enable sociologists to form a correct theory of the social life of man.^ Supplies facts and statistics on illegal drugs.

^ "Innumeracy – widespread confusion about basic mathematical ideas – means that many statistical claims about social problems don't get the critical attention they deserve.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are the audience, or at least one important audience, for statistics and other claims about social problems.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The statistical method is essentially a mathematical procedure, attempting to give a quantitative expression to certain facts; and the resolution of differences of quality into differences of quantity has not yet been effected, even in chemical science.^ Three hours in an area other than Statistics, e.g., Mathematics, Animal Science, Biology, Economics, Engineering, Psychology, or Sociology.
  • Texas Tech University: Mathematics & Statistics -- Graduate Program Information 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.math.ttu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It covers the areas of statistics, probability theory, biostatistics, quality control, and economics with emphasis in applications of statistical methods in sociology, engineering, computer science, biomedicine, psychology, survey methodology, and other client disciplines."
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The paper gives a brief description of meta-analysis methods based on procedures suggested by Hunter, Schmidt, and Jackson (1982) and Hunter and Schmidt (1990).
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.In sociological science the importance of differences of quality is enormous, and the effect of these differences on the conclusions to be drawn from figures is sometimes neglected, or insufficiently recognized, even by men of unquestionable ability and good faith.^ These figures are even more significant when we consider the total number of marriages involved, since it's unlikely that all the men and women having affairs happen to be married to each other.
  • Infidelity Statistics, Cheating Spouse Statistics - WomanSavers 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.womansavers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signs and Symptoms - PDF Version What are the effects of child abuse and neglect on children?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As I mentioned above , and as NCCAN recognizes, these statistics are under-estimates , since most cases of abuse and neglect never come to the attention of these state agencies.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of politicians, social " reformers " and amateur handlers of statistics generally are in the habit of drawing the conclusions that seem good to them from such figures as they may obtain, merely by treating as homogeneous quantities which are heterogeneous, and as comparable quantities which are not comparable.^ From the Statistical Office of the European Communities, whose mission is to gather and analyze figures from the different European statistics offices in order to provide comparable and harmonized data to the European Institutions so they can define, implement and analyze Community policies.

^ Finally we want to note some addition URLs that may be of general interest for statistics audiences.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ General Data Dissemination System (GDDS) Provides recommendations on good practice for the production and dissemination of statistics.
  • IMF Data and Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.imf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even to the conscientious and intelligent inquirer the difficulty of avoiding mistakes in using statistics prepared by other persons is very great.^ All the tables required for a school-level study of statistics can be generated very easily using Excel's in-built statistical functions.
  • Mathtools.net : Excel/Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.mathtools.net [Source type: General]

^ This paper describes the development of a spreadsheet-based CAA package for use in the teaching and learning of Statistics and other quantitative disciplines.
  • Mathtools.net : Excel/Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.mathtools.net [Source type: General]

^ For instance, there was a big push to use "statistical sampling" instead of counting each person.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.geneseo.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There are usually " pit-falls " even in the simplest statistical statement, the position and nature of which are known only to the persons who have actually handled what may be called the " raw-material " of the statistics in question; and in regard to complex statistical statements the " outsider " cannot be too careful to ascertain from those who compiled them as far as possible what are the points requiring elucidation.^ Wherever possible the supporting material makes it clear whether statistics are from surveys, census data, organizational reporting, or other sources.
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Full consideration is guaranteed to those who apply by November 13, 2009, however, the search will remain open until all positions are filled.
  • UCLA Department of Statistics Home Page 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.stat.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There is, however, ample evidence that lack of health insurance is hazardous to an individual's health, and that those who do have coverage (as Giuliani did as mayor) live longer.
  • FactCheck.org: A Bogus Cancer Statistic 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.factcheck.org [Source type: Academic]

The Statistical Method

.This method is a scientific procedure (1) whereby certain phenomena of aggregation not perceptible to the senses are rendered perceptible to the intellect, and (2) furnishing rules for the correct performance of the quantitative observation of these phenomena.^ These quantitative observations are further classified as either discrete or continuous.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

.The class of phenomena of aggregation referred to includes only such phenomena as are too large to be perceptible to the senses.^ This fallacy can also be referred to as the EVERYONE BUT ME PHENOMENA when speakers specifically use a method that they find to be flawed only when it is used by another.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

It does not, e.g. include such phenomena as are the subject-matter of microscopy. .Things which are very large are often quite as difficult to perceive as those which are very small.^ Also, if you have a very large table, it may take quite a while to reach the 10% metric -- longer than you want in some cases.

^ For those of us who believe in individual liberty - that is a very good thing.
  • An alternative hypothesis 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC cafehayek.com [Source type: General]

.A familiar example of this is the difficulty which is sometimes experienced in finding the large names, as of countries or provinces, on a map.^ Before then they had not been compiled, largely due to the challenge posed by varying definitions of child abuse across the country's provinces and territories.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This country’s weather specialists covered very large areas indeed in terms of distance and service difficulties.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: White paint, asphalt, concrete, BBQ’s and air con units, plus some cherry picking. 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

^ Database: Locate religious statistics for specific countries, states & provinces, for specific religious groups by name, using our: Religion by Location Index or Religion by Name Index Questions?
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of course, the terms " large," " too large," " small " and " too small " must be used with great caution, and with a clear comprehension on the part of the person using them of the standard of measurement implied by the terms in each particular caste.^ When comparing three or more groups, the term paired is not apt and the term repeated measures is used instead.
  • How to choose a statistical test 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.graphpad.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Used to verify the gage, the equipment and the person that is checking the parts.
  • Mathtools.net : Excel/Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.mathtools.net [Source type: General]

^ Of course just fitting a line to just two points is not as good as using all the data, but unless you have a fairly large amount of data, it’s not too much worse either.
  • Statistics — The Endeavour 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.johndcook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A careful study of the first few pages of De Morgan's Differential and Integral Calculus will materially assist the student of statistics in attaining a grasp of the principles on which standards of measurement should be formed.^ While it is not yet possible to have access to a computer during the AP Statistics Exam, standard computer output may be provided, and students will be expected to interpret it.

^ His first statistical discovery was a study on the number of infidels that claim that Halal food is better tasting than Kosher food.
  • Statistics - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This semester course builds on the concepts of multivariable calculus, and challenges students to apply the calculus of higher dimensions and principles of linear algebra to a variety of problems in science and business.
  • Lake Forest High School Mathematics Courses 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.lfhs.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is not necessary that he should become acquainted with the calculus itself, or even possess anything more than an elementary knowledge of mathematical science, but it is essential that he should be fully conscious of the fact that " large " and " small " quantities can only be so designated with propriety by reference to a common standard.^ More than that, it is just common sense.
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Three hours in an area other than Statistics, e.g., Mathematics, Animal Science, Biology, Economics, Engineering, Psychology, or Sociology.
  • Texas Tech University: Mathematics & Statistics -- Graduate Program Information 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.math.ttu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We collect "street rates" from the loan officers, which produces more accurate results than rates gathered from the marketing department or even the lender's own website.
  • HSH Associates: Mortgage Rates and loan information 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.hsh.com [Source type: General]

.It is also necessary that he should be acquainted with the theory of probability as applied to statistical investigations, the need of which is well set forth by Mr A. L. Bowley in Part II. of his work, already referred to, and by other writers.^ These kind of statistics do not apply well to small data sets.
  • Quick Hit: Rebecca Traister on Palin - Feministing 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In statistics the standard is the maximum acceptable probability that the effect is due to random variability in the data rather than the potential cause being investigated.
  • Type I and Type II Errors 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.intuitor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Knowledge of the source of the statistics, as well as further knowledge of the particulars of a cultural, religious or regional group are necessary for an adequate understanding of the sociological implication of this type of data.
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Valuable instruction on this technical subject can be obtained from monographs by Professor F. Y. Edgeworth, Professor Karl Pearson, Dr John Venn, Mr Udney Yule and many other contributors to the Transactions of the Royal Society, the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, the Economic Journal, the Quarterly Journal of Economics and similar publications in different countries.^ Three hours in an area other than Statistics, e.g., Mathematics, Animal Science, Biology, Economics, Engineering, Psychology, or Sociology.
  • Texas Tech University: Mathematics & Statistics -- Graduate Program Information 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.math.ttu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Certainly, the disproportionate representation of Nobel laureates from different countries indicates something -- most likely, the country's political stability or economic strength of each.
  • Cogs303 - UBC Wiki 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC wiki.ubc.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Cogs303 - UBC Wiki 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC wiki.ubc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The problem with obtaining accurate statistics on adultery is that most people will not tell the truth because it is such a sensitive subject.
  • Infidelity Statistics, Cheating Spouse Statistics - WomanSavers 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.womansavers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sources whence Statistics are Derived

The term " statistics " in the concrete sense means systematic arrangements of figures representing " primary statistical quantities." A primary statistical quantity is a number obtained from numbers representing phenomena, with a view to enable an observer to perceive a certain other phenomenon related to the former as whole to parts. .They represent either a phenomenon of existence at a given point of time or a phenomenon of accretion during a given period.^ In short, whether these ways of coping were learned during times of abuse and neglect or some time later, they are not working very well any more (if they ever did).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prevalence The number of people who have received a diagnosis of cancer during a defined time period, and who are alive on the last day of that period.
  • SEER Stat Fact Sheets - Cancer of the Pancreas 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC seer.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevalence X Close The number of people who have received a diagnosis of cancer during a defined time period, and who are alive on the last day of that period.
  • SEER Stat Fact Sheets - Cancer of the Pancreas 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC seer.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.As examples may be mentioned the number of deaths in a given district during a given time, the number of pounds sterling received by the London & North Western railway during a given time, and the number of " inches of rain " that fell at Greenwich during a given time.^ This number reflects the number of transplants that occurred, not the number of recipients – some recipients may have received more than one transplant.
  • Statistics-Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.heartandstroke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prevalence The number of people who have received a diagnosis of cancer during a defined time period, and who are alive on the last day of that period.
  • SEER Stat Fact Sheets - Cancer of the Pancreas 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC seer.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevalence X Close The number of people who have received a diagnosis of cancer during a defined time period, and who are alive on the last day of that period.
  • SEER Stat Fact Sheets - Cancer of the Pancreas 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC seer.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Other examples are the number of tons of pig-iron lying in a particular store at a given date, the number of persons residing (the term " residing " to be specially defined) in a given territory at a given date, and the number of pounds sterling representing the private deposits " of the Bank of England at a given date.^ Detailed information on family and household structure includes number of persons, presence of parents and other adult relatives, and parental marital status.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A real buy windows 2008 datacenter phone number with a real person on the other end to help solve any issues that may come up.
  • Department of Statistics - Florida State University 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC stat.fsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ For example, US citizens should investigate fellowships offered by the National Science Foundation and many other public and private sources.
  • Statistics - The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.gsas.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Primary statistical quantities are the result of labours carried on either (A) by governments or (B) by individuals or public or private corporations.^ Provides broadest possible access to U.S., International, State, Local, and Privately produced statistical information indexed in the following three publications: .

^ Managers can apply some statistical technique to virtually every branch of public and private enterprise.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The SASS is a survey of the nation’s public and private schools at the primary and secondary levels.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

A Government Statistics. - i. .A vast mass of statistical material of more or less value comes into existence automatically in modern states in consequence of the ordinary administrative routine of departments.^ More recent work that focus on the statistical capabilities of the S-PLUS system include Modern Applied Statistics with S-PLUS by Venables and Ripley and Statistical Analysis in S-Plus by StatSci.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, in a Normal distribution, observations that have a standardized value of less than -2 or more than +2 have a relative frequency of 5% or less.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selected teaching colleagues, from both the application and statistics departments, were asked to evaluate the material and to trial on their students.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

.To this class belong the highly important statistical information published in England by the registrar-general, the returns of pauperism issued by the local government board, the reports of inspectors of prisons, factories, schools, and those of sanitary inspectors, as well as the reports of the commissioners of the customs, and the annual statements of trade and navigation prepared by the same officials.^ Annual Reports • Issues for discussion by the Committee .
  • IMF Data and Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.imf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statistical Universe "Contains statistical data produced by the U.S. government; important international intergovernmental organizations; professional and trade organizations, business organizations, commercial publishers, independent research organizations, state government agencies, and universities."
  • Statistics - Rape Crisis Information Pathfinder 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We present data from both primary research sources such as government census reports, statistical sampling surveys and organizational reporting, as well as citations from secondary literature which mention adherent statistics.
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also the various returns compiled and issued by the board of trade, which is the body most nearly resembling the statistical bureaus with which most foreign governments are furnished.^ The most recent comprehensive analysis issued by NCHS appeared in the Advance Report of Final Marriage Statistics, 1989-90 [PDF: 201 KB/ 24 p] .
  • A Guide to the Wedding Industry (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress) 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the ultimate goal of most statistical tests is to evaluate relations between variables, most statistical tests follow the general format that was explained in the previous paragraph.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sources of Statistics - Official Numbers, Actual Numbers, & Estimates Contents Most abused and neglected children never come to the attention of government authorities.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the government departments publish some statistics for which they are solely responsible as regards both matter and form, and they are very jealous of their right to do so, a fact which is to some extent detrimental to that uniformity as to dates and periods which should be the ideal of a well-organized system of statistics.^ The most recent statistical publications can be downloaded at no cost while some earlier publications are available for the years and prices shown below.
  • Publications - Higher Education Statistics Collections 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.dest.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Write your question on a form, submit it and you'll get a response back via e-mail in a day or so, depending on how busy they are.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Speaker: Diane Lambert, Google Title: Statistics at Google Scale Abstract: In a very real sense, Google can be thought of as a huge statistical analysis system.
  • UCLA Department of Statistics Home Page 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.stat.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Finally may be mentioned the very important set of statistical quantities known as the budget, and the statistics prepared and published by the commissioners of inland revenue, by the post office, and by the national debt commissioners.^ Due to budget constraints, Occupational Employment Statistics has reduced the sample size of the May 2008 panel by 20 percent.
  • Occupational Employment Statistics Home Page 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As you may have gathered from this tip, statistic updating and tuning can be a very complex task.

^ Finally we want to note some addition URLs that may be of general interest for statistics audiences.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.All these sets of primary statistical quantities arise out of the ordinary work of departments of the public service.^ Even many of the State Departments of Education, which are generally biased toward the public school system, cannot argue with these facts.
  • HSLDA | Academic Statistics on Homeschooling 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.hslda.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The department encourages applications from students with strong math­ematical backgrounds who plan to concentrate on theoretical statistics, students with training in substantive fields whose primary interest is in applied statistics, and students whose backgrounds and interests lie between these two extremes.
  • Statistics - The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.gsas.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At this stage two events turned out to be a dampener or otherwise that made statistics a public property.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of them have been in existence, in some form or other, ever since a settled government existed in the country.^ "Terabytes of data are being generated from the constant measurement of businesses, workers, government and other activity, and there are many ways to draw inferences from the raw data.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please note: Because this is a 1994 publication, and this is a growing field of research, additional studies for some of these countries and other countries have been published by now.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This error also occurs when one makes the claim that since one can imagine some phenomenon, then this phenomenon must exist.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.There are records of customs receipts at London and other ports of the time of Edward III., covering a period of many years, which leave nothing to be desired in point of precision and uniformity.^ [The number of countries covered, as well as the time period in this database changes over time, usually the numbers increase.

^ And I'll leave it up to the pundits, historians and the people who were actually cognizant of something other than You Can't Do That On Television at the time to argue about it.

^ Information for trends over a fixed period of time, for example 1996-2006, can be evaluated by the annual percentage change (APC) X Close The average annual percent change over several years.
  • SEER Stat Fact Sheets - Cancer of the Pancreas 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC seer.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It may be added that many of these sets of figures are obtained in much the same form by all civilized governments, and that it is often possible to compare the figures relating to different countries and thus obtain evidence as to the sociological phenomena of each, but in regard to others there are differences which make comparison difficult.^ Few comparisons among countries are possible because of methodological and definitional differences.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But widely varying definitions of sexual abuse in the studies and differences in who was being studied make it difficult to accurately gauge the prevalence of sexual abuse, he said."

^ Simple syntax makes it easy to translate mathematical formulas into program statements, and there are many features for arithmetic and character expressions.
  • Interactive matrix programming, SAS/IML | SAS 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.sas.com [Source type: Academic]

.2. Besides being responsible for the issue of what may be called administration statistics, all governments are in the habit of ordering from time to time special inquiries into special subjects of interest, either to obtain additional information needful for administrative purposes, or, in countries possessed of representative institutions, to supply statistics asked for by parliaments or congresses.^ All sources contain statistical tables on a variety of subjects for the state as a whole, its component parts, or both.
  • The 2009 Statistical Abstract: State Abstracts 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ To compute a leader-follower score for a Member of Congress, call him X, we make a table that lists all other Members of Congress.
  • GovTrack: Congressional Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.govtrack.us [Source type: General]

^ National Planning Commission , NPC of the Presidency responsible for the electronic storage of all relevant Statistical and Non-Statistical Data and Information needed for National Planning and Administration in Nigeria."
  • African Statistics on the Internet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is not necessary to refer particularly to this class of statistical information, except in the case of the census.^ In common usage, most people use the word "statistic" to refer to research figures and calculations, either from information based on a sample or an entire population.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.

^ Finally, even when the necessary information is provided, most people simply don't have the tools to think critically about statistics.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is an inquiry of such great importance that it may be regarded as one of the regular administrative duties of governments, though as the census is only taken once in a series of years it must be mentioned under the head of occasional or special inquiries undertaken by governments.^ As I understand, NOAA personnel have in recent times, under the Bush administration, been forced to have their interviews “cleared” with their own administrators, so I suppose that what has been reported must be a reasonable summary of their comments.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: Carbon dioxide and Methane Levels rise in 2007 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional publications in the Library of Congress collection on marketing to various ethnic groups may be identified by searching the Online Catalog under appropriate Library of Congress subject headings.
  • A Guide to the Wedding Industry (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress) 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data analysis may be taken to provide some guidance regarding what is happening using the pattern that emerges from the analysis and nothing more.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the United Kingdom the work is done by the registrars-general who are in office when the period for taking the census comes round.^ Students who take this course should be competent in basic arithmetic skills, abstract reasoning and working with the symbols of mathematics.
  • Lake Forest High School Mathematics Courses 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.lfhs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The application takes a shapefile containing geographic areas linked with attributes and automatically generates a working Google Maps website from the data.
  • free statistical software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC gsociology.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each student is expected to exercise initiative in seeking out both a disser­tation topic and a faculty advisor who will take primary responsibility for supervising the student’s work.
  • Statistics - The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.gsas.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.On the Continent the work is carried out by the statistical bureaus of each country - except France, where it is under the supervision of the minister of the interior.^ Quite apart from the use of statistics, it generally requires considerable skill to design and carry out an experiment to provide a convincing demonstration that an effect does not occur.
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, as a lot of work in biology depends on statistics, neglect or misuse of the precautionary principle often arises out of a misunderstanding and abuse of statistics.
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A Labour Force Survey is a standard survey of work-related statistics.Countries and territories included on this page make their Labour Force Surveys available online.

.The new regulations as to income-tax assessment and the new land taxes will furnish the government with much fresh information as to incomes; and the census of production ordered in the session of 1907 and already carried out as regards a number of trades will also be useful.^ The BJS website was recently redesigned to provide not just a new look and feel, but to make it much easier to find information.
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.ojp.usdoj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usability, or user base?Numbers could indicate that the majority of smartphone users do not use it to access the web as much as the typical iPhone user who may...
  • user statistic Resources | ZDNet 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC updates.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Quite apart from the use of statistics, it generally requires considerable skill to design and carry out an experiment to provide a convincing demonstration that an effect does not occur.
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.B. The primary statistical quantities for which individuals or corporations are responsible may be divided into three categories: t.^ Marketing researchers have increasingly used qualitative statistical techniques to describe phenomena that are not easily measured, but can instead be described and classified into meaningful categories.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While this may seem like a positive trait when you plug them into your paper and pray for your reader to submit to their power, remember that before we are writers of statistics, we are readers.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These techniques are commonly separated into two broad categories: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

.Among those which are compiled in obedience to the law of the land are the accounts furnished by municipal corporations, by the Bank of England, by railway, gas, water, banking, insurance and other public companies making returns to the board of trade, by trades unions, and by other bodies which are obliged to make returns to the registrar of friendly societies.^ "To promote the rule of law, increase public confidence in the Criminal Justice System, and to enhance the ability of private sector to make and enforce commercial contracts."
  • African Statistics on the Internet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sage Publications This company publishes lots of quantitative books, including those handy little green books, the Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences series.

^ A key statistic from the Bank of England used to measure the value of sterling against the UK's top trading partners exaggerates the importance of the euro, a report from...
  • statistic Resources | BNET 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: Academic]

The information thus obtained is published in full by the departments receiving it, and is also furnished by the companies themselves to their proprietors or members.
2. An enormous mass of statistical information is furnished xxv. .26 a voluntarily by public companies in the reports and accounts which, in accordance with their articles of association, are presented to their proprietors at stated intervals.^ The latest state-level estimates, for 1998, are reported in Child Welfare Outcome s, which can be viewed at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/ .
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This appeared in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (July 4, 2003 / 52(26);605-610), a publication of the Centers for Disease Control.
  • DOG BITE LAW - Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.dogbitelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ellen Wheeler, Assistant Director of the Office of Public Information for the Baha'is of the United States (212-803-2500) reports: .
  • The Pluralism Project: Statistics by Tradition 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.pluralism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With these statistics may be classed the figures furnished by the various trade associations, some of them of great importance, such as Lloyd's, the London Stock Exchange, the British Iron Trade Association, the London Corn Exchange, the Institute of Bankers, the Institute of Actuaries, and other such bodies too numerous to mention.^ Other statistical systems which are of the same general vintage as SAS are MINITAB, BMDP and SPSS. All of these systems began as mainframe systems, but have evolved to smaller scale systems as computing has evolved.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Statistics vary according to how the numbers are processed and RAINN reports the figure as 1 in 6.
  • Statistics - Rape Crisis Information Pathfinder 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some statistical methods that involve many comparisons, and thus a good chance for such errors, include some "correction" or adjustment for the total number of comparisons.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

.3. There are cases in which individuals have devoted themselves with more or less success to obtaining original statistics on special points.^ There are faith groups, churches and philosophies which are NOT listed here, especially smaller groups outside the U.S. Broad philosophies and movements not defined by organized religious bodies are, of course, more difficult to obtain statistics for.
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this introduction, we will briefly discuss those elementary statistical concepts that provide the necessary foundations for more specialized expertise in any area of statistical data analysis.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Traditionaly employed in second-year classes so that slightly less clueless students can think they're doing slightly more useful statistics.
  • Statistics - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great work done by Messrs Behm and Wagner in arriving at an approximate estimate of the population of the earth does not belong to this category, though its results are really primary statistical quantities.^ In reality, statistics are hard to ascertain and may be estimated by local and regional worldwide sources.

^ It is a PC events tracker that surveys the time you spend working on your PC. Results are shown as an activity chart and a statistics report.
  • Statistic downloads at VicMan 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: General]

^ The sample size for each month of the CPS has recently been enlarged, particularly in states with smaller populations, resulting in more accurate estimates for those states.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many of these results have not been arrived at by a direct process of enumeration at all, but by ingenious processes of inference.^ According to Jensen, "a proper accounting of the entire testing process is needed to keep these types of results in perspective."
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CNN--All Politics --Go to this CNN site, enter a search with the key word "POLL" How many results do you get?
  • USI: Sociology Department-Social Research and Statistical Links 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.usi.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The presented collection has 327,845 elements in the learning process and these elements make up 100.0% of all elements destined to enter the learning process, i.e.
  • SuperMemo: Statistics window 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.supermemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It need hardly be said that it is not easy for individuals to obtain the materials for any primary statistical quantity of importance, but it has been done in some cases with success.^ In some cases, both will need updating.

^ In some cases, only your column statistics need updating, while in other cases only your index statistics need updating.

^ This is my list of some useful links related to Statistics Education - Online Statistical teaching material, courses , handouts, exercises, articles, datasets, Useful lists of links e.t.c ..
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.The investigations of Mr Charles Booth into labour and wages questions, carried out with care over many years, are a remarkable example of this.^ You keep saying that I am reading too much into your questions, implying that you are merely asking them out of idle curiosity.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, US citizens should investigate fellowships offered by the National Science Foundation and many other public and private sources.
  • Statistics - The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.gsas.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

Operations Performed on Primary Statistical Quantities

.Only a brief description of matters connected with the technique of the statistical method can be given in this article.^ By using statistical techniques in management related data without proper validation, I can only say that misuse of statistics is taught in the classroom itself.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That provided ample scope for me to understand practical aspects of statistical methods which I had heard only at the theoretical level in my course.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resource Descriptions - Statistical Analysis Methods for Chemists Link: http://www.chemsoc.org/networks/learnnet/stat-analysis.htm .

.In order to form statistics properly so called the primary statistical quantities must be formed into tables, and in the formation of these tables lies the art of the statistician.^ But there are myriad subjective choices that go into frequentist statistics as well, though these choices are often implicit.
  • Statistics — The Endeavour 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.johndcook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are actual routines that take data (entered via a form) and return statistical results.

^ These citations of adherent statistics are presented here in a uniform format for the sake of simplicity; this is not meant to imply that data from different sources and citations are directly comparable.
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is not a very difficult art when the principles relating to it have been properly grasped, but those who are unfamiliar with the subject are apt to underrate the difficulty of correctly practising it.

Simple Tables

The first thing to be done in the construction of a table is to form a clear idea of what the table is to show, and to express that idea in accurate language. .This is a matter which is often neglected, and it is a source of much waste of time and occasionally of misapprehension to those who have to, study the figures thus presented.^ Studies that include official government statistics plus additional sources of data intended to "provide a more comprehensive measure of the scope of child abuse and neglect known to community professionals, including both abused and neglected children who are in the official statistics and those who are not" (quote from U.S. National Incidence Study).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who hear about the homicides often support breed bans.
  • DOG BITE LAW - Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.dogbitelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, these people would believe marriage more special than those who would treat it more casually, and therefore are less likely to seek divorce.
  • Statistics on Living Together Before Marriage at Ray Fowler .org 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.rayfowler.org [Source type: General]

.No table ought to be considered complete without a " heading " accurately describing its contents, and it is frequently necessary that such headings should be rather long.^ But at the same time I also emphasize that other tools such as medical reports should be considered as strong evidence to counter this case rather than providing conclusions based on statistical data.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you tossed such a coin ten times and each toss produced heads, most people would consider it sufficient evidence that something is "wrong" with the coin.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

.It has been said that " you can prove anything by statistics."^ You can use statistics to prove anything.
  • Statistics - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John Paul II on how to use Statistics “ Oh, people can come up with statistics to prove anything, Kent.
  • Statistics - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every time someone said you couldn't do it, you proved them wrong.

This statement is, of course, absurd, taken absolutely, but, like most assertions which are widely believed, it has a grain of truth in it. .If this popular saying ran " you can prove anything by tables with slovenly and ambiguous headings," it might be assented to without hesitation.^ You can use statistics to prove anything.
  • Statistics - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you were facing one head on, and it was annoyed, you might want something quite large.
  • small dead animals: Overheard At A Saskatchewan Dinner Table 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: General]

^ If a coin is slightly asymmetrical, and when tossed is somewhat more likely to produce heads than tails (e.g., 60% vs. However, is it so that 10 tosses is not enough to prove anything?
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

.The false " statistical " facts which obtain a hold of the public mind may often be traced to some widely circulated table, to which, either from stupidity or carelessness, an erroneous or inaccurate " heading " has been affixed.^ The first is that the coroner may label the death 'suicide' when, in fact, there was another cause (in mystery novels, at least, murder is often disguised as suicide).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By empirical or statistical patterns in the data, we mean patterns that have been observed over a long period of time that may be thought to have some underlying statistical structure.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, as a lot of work in biology depends on statistics, neglect or misuse of the precautionary principle often arises out of a misunderstanding and abuse of statistics.
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.A statistical table in its simplest form consists of " primaries " representing phenomena of the same class, but existing at different points of time, or coming into existence during different portions of time.^ Consists chiefly of tables and statistics.
  • U.S. Government Bookstore: Browse by Subject: Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC bookstore.gpo.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I've seen companies use the same statistics to reach different conclusions about foreign markets that they are not that qualitatively familiar with.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vulnerability of this class are not incuded into reports during web application security assessment by black box method.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is all that is essential to a table, though other things are usually added to it as an aid to its comprehension.^ All the other parties in Bihar have been doing more or less the same thing.
  • General Elections in Bihar – A Paradise Lost For Muslims | TwoCircles.net 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC twocircles.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All graphics interact via the data table with brushing, highlighting, hiding and other capabilities.
  • SAS Visual Data Discovery | SAS 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.sas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's also broadly a reflection of two other things though.

.A table stating the number of persons residing in each county of England on a given day of a given year, and also, in another column, the corresponding numbers for the same counties on the corresponding day of the tenth year subsequently, would be a simple tabular statement of the general facts regarding the total population of those counties supplied by two successive censuses.^ Even many of the State Departments of Education, which are generally biased toward the public school system, cannot argue with these facts.
  • HSLDA | Academic Statistics on Homeschooling 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.hslda.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the future, state estimates are to be produced every year, and county and school district estimates in odd-numbered years.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Users of NDAS can develop their own tables and graphs for a state or group of states in a single year or across years."
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Various figures might, however, be added to it which would greatly add to its clearness.^ It would surprise me greatly if BoM has not done these relative simple checks over decades to prove their systems respond to various uncertainties appropriately.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: White paint, asphalt, concrete, BBQ’s and air con units, plus some cherry picking. 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

^ However, while banning the pit bull might lower the number of human deaths, such a ban would probably not reduce the number dog bites in any significant manner.
  • DOG BITE LAW - Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.dogbitelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There might be columns showing the increase or decrease for each county and for the whole kingdom during the ten years, and another column showing what proportion, expressed in percentages, these increases or decreases bore to the figures for the earlier of the two years.^ It's quite simple Lawrie: the data show quite clearly that the annual rate of CO2 increase is greater now than it was two or three decades ago.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: Carbon dioxide and Methane Levels rise in 2007 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Users can see how enrollment and the number of Medicare Advantage plans in their county have increased or decreased since 1999.
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In almost all of these stadiums, the stadium had far more quirks in its later years than its earlier years.

.Then there might be two columns showing what proportions, also expressed as percentages, the figures for each county bore in each year to the figures for the whole kingdom.^ Those concerned with America's children might be pleased that each year's 'official statistics' on child abuse tops the previous year's figures.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a very good reason for focusing on these two breeds: in recent years, they have usually been the number one and number two canine killers of humans.
  • DOG BITE LAW - Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.dogbitelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a bare majority in hand when combined with the NDP, the government might hang on for a little while, but anything longer than two years seems rather unlikely.

.The nine-column table thus resulting would still be simple, all the figures being merely explicit assertions of facts which are contained implicitly in the original " primaries."^ Not so fast, because we still do not have all the facts.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even worse, it would perform a table scan instead of any index operation at all.

^ All Density Average Length Columns 0.000551572 4 C1 The third result set is the most important.

Complex Tables. - .Suppose now we have another table precisely similar in form to the first, and also relating to the counties of England, but giving the number of houses existing in each of them at the same two dates.^ In other words, it says how probable it is that a similar relation would be found if the experiment was replicated with other samples drawn from the same population.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As noted in the report's introduction, the study is a "first" in two important ways: "First comprehensive, global study conducted by the United Nations on all forms of violence against children."
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have a table that stays at approximately the same number of rows, but data is added and removed on a regular basis, your statistics will become out of date rather quickly.

.A combination of the two would form a complex table, and an application of the processes of arithmetic would make evident a number of fresh facts, all of which would be implied in the table, but would not be obvious to most people until explicitly stated.^ All sources contain statistical tables on a variety of subjects for the state as a whole, its component parts, or both.
  • The 2009 Statistical Abstract: State Abstracts 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, Gender and WCC would be considered to be related if most males had high WCC and most females low WCC, or vice versa; Height is related to Weight because typically tall individuals are heavier than short ones; IQ is related to the Number of Errors in a test, if people with higher IQ's make fewer errors.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For our set, the mode would be 5, since it occurs 3 times, whereas all other numbers occur only once.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The technical work of the statistician consists largely in operations of which the processes just referred to are types.

Proportions

.The most usual and the best mode of expressing the proportion borne by one statistical quantity to another is to state it as a percentage.^ This might seem like just another unimportant primary, but it may be one of the most important this year for the Democratic Party.

^ One of the most comprehensive Web sites on statistics with several links to other statistical resources on the Internet.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The highest percentage of deaths occured in the one bite states and the mixed statute states.
  • DOG BITE LAW - Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.dogbitelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In some cases another method is adopted, viz. that of stating the proportion in the form " one in so many." .This method is generally a bad one, and its use should be discouraged as much as possible, the chief reason being that the changing portion of this kind of proportional figure becomes greater or less inversely, and not directly, as the phenomenon it represents increases or diminishes.^ One may use the SAS system to conduct simulation studies with random number generators for many different distributions.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At least one or two methods used in any study must be chosen by researchers based on opinions and judgements, not just facts and logic.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arguing from uncertainty occurs when one attempts to use the tentative nature of inductive claims as a reason, in of itself, to reject an inductive claim.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

A verages. - .Averages or means are for statistical purposes divided into two classes, the arithmetical and weighted. An arithmetical mean is the sum of all the members forming the series of figures under consideration divided by their number, without reference to their weight or relative importance among themselves.^ The arithmetic mean is simply the average.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the weighted average—a total of all numbers included divided by the quantity of numbers represented.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is obtained by dividing the sum of all variates in the population by the total number of variates.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

.A weighted mean is the sum of such figures divided by their number, with due allowance made for their weight.^ This is the weighted average—a total of all numbers included divided by the quantity of numbers represented.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is obtained by dividing the sum of all variates in the population by the total number of variates.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus the mean of the above set of numbers is 5+5+5+8+12+14+21+33+38, all divided by 9, which equals 15.644444444444 (Wow!
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An example will make this clear, and the simplest example is taken from a class of statistical quantities of a peculiar kind, viz.^ Wherever possible the supporting material makes it clear whether statistics are from surveys, census data, organizational reporting, or other sources.
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do a Word search, using a word or words that describe the kind of statistics you want, or a region you'd like statistics for, combined with the word STATISTICS, for example: COLORADO ECONOMIC STATISTICS. .

^ Their hypotheses are serious in their intention, i.e., when evidence is statistically provided for a drug’s capability for something then it is taken with a kind of permanency and stability.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.prices. The price of a given article is the approximate mathematical expression of the rates, in terms of money, at which exchanges of the article for money were actually made at or about a given hour on a given day.^ Exchange rates are updated every hour.

^ It's silly how Americans complain about how "outrageous" gas prices are, given that they have some of the lowest gas prices on the planet.
  • Car Almanac | Statistics about Pollution, Energy Use, and Danger 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC bicycleuniverse.info [Source type: News]

^ Average all-day urban automobile speed is about 25 mph, but slower during peak hours.
  • Car Almanac | Statistics about Pollution, Energy Use, and Danger 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC bicycleuniverse.info [Source type: News]

.A quotation of price such as appears in a daily price list is, if there has been much fluctuation, only a very rough guide to the actual rates of exchange that have been the basis of the successive bargains making up the day's business.^ There were thirty-six incidents of child abuse per thousand children in 1975, but only nineteen such incidents of child abuse per thousand children in 1985.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process is subject to numerous biases, such as 'hindsight bias" which makes events appear more "predictable" than they actually are.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ They phoned in and listed these cities, as well as other cites such as Seattle and Oakland that appeared in the playoffs only last year.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.But let us suppose that the closing price each day may be accepted as a fair representative of the day's transactions, and let us further suppose that we desire to obtain the average price for thirty days.^ Let us say that in our sample, the average index of WCC is 100 in males and 102 in females.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the dangers are considered serious enough, the principle may require us to withdraw the products or impose a ban or moratorium on further use.
  • Use and Abuse of The Precautionary Principle, by Peter Saunders 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.Now, the sum of the prices in question divided by thirty would be the arithmetical mean, and its weak point would be that it made no allowance for the fact that the business done on some days is much larger than that done on others; in other words, it treats them as being all of equal weight.^ All things being equal, it would be better to be unbiased than biased.
  • Statistics — The Endeavour 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.johndcook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Write your question on a form, submit it and you'll get a response back via e-mail in a day or so, depending on how busy they are.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ Another important fact is that automatic scanning was made for hosting provider sites which in some cases have no active content, while security assessment is usually done for application with complicated business logic.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

.Now if, as is actually the case in some markets, we have a daily account of the total quantities sold we can weight the members accurately, and can then obtain their weighted mean.^ The biggest pickups, which were just 8.6 percent of the nation's new vehicles in 1990, now account for 13.2 percent, about one in every eight vehicles sold.
  • Car Almanac | Statistics about Pollution, Energy Use, and Danger 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC bicycleuniverse.info [Source type: News]

^ In some cases (under a normal distribution) the mean and median are equal or nearly equal.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

There are cases in which the careless use of arithmetical means misleads the student of the social organism seriously. .It is often comparatively easy to obtain arithmetical means, but difficult to obtain weighted means.^ The arithmetic mean is used more often than the median and mode to describe the average variate in the population.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

Inferences based on the former class of average should be subjected to the most rigid investigation.
.There are many methods of weighting averages; for descriptions of these statistical processes the reader must be referred to the works on the technique of statistics.^ It looks like some of the references were culled from discussions on the statistics newsgroups, though many were written by Rich himself.

^ In my humble opinion, many doing this kind of work in Management do not know what a hypothesis is and how it is to be converted into a statistical hypothesis.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some statistical methods that involve many comparisons, and thus a good chance for such errors, include some "correction" or adjustment for the total number of comparisons.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

In chapter v. of Mr Bowley's volume, the subject is dealt with in a manner suitable for students.
.Before closing this short survey of the very important subject of averages or means, it is needful to discuss briefly the nature of the phenomena which they may safely be regarded as indicating, when they have been properly obtained.^ Percentage of students who did not go to school on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey because they felt they would be unsafe at school or on their way to or from school.
  • SafeYouth.org - Data on Youth Violence 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.safeyouth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In short, whether these ways of coping were learned during times of abuse and neglect or some time later, they are not working very well any more (if they ever did).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies that survey adults and ask them to recall and report abuse that they may have experienced in childhood.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Given a weighted mean of a series of numbers referring to no matter what phenomenon, it is obvious that the value of the mean as a type of the whole series will depend entirely on the extent of divergence from it of the members of the series as a body.^ Mode The mode is the number or value that occurs most frequently in a series.
  • Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, Ender, the whole point of the graph was that it clearly indicated temperature differences between the two types of paint.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: White paint, asphalt, concrete, BBQ’s and air con units, plus some cherry picking. 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

^ Ian Mott - "No, Ender, the whole point of the graph was that it clearly indicated temperature differences between the two types of paint.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: White paint, asphalt, concrete, BBQ’s and air con units, plus some cherry picking. 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

If we are told that there are in a certain district moo men, and that their average height is 5 ft. .8 in., and are told nothing further about them, we can make various hypotheses as to the structure of this body from the point of view of height.^ But what about when statistical analyses are used in a situation where the outcome is not tied to a particular point of view?
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It didn't sound like the ad in question was making a statistical point about the family of funds in relation to its percentage of four- or five-star ratings.
  • The Use -- and Misuse -- of Statistics: How and Why Numbers Are So Easily Manipulated - Knowledge@Wharton 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible that they may consist of a rather large number of men about 6 ft.^ Statistical data may consist of a very large number of observations.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People may still experience fear or anxiety about possible relapse, and worry about how they would deal with a situation that presented a high risk for relapse.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their website has many resources for the men they serve, and for people who care about them.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

high, and a great many about 5 ft. 5 in. .Or the proportions of relatively tall and short men may be reversed, that is, there may be a rather large number of men about 5 ft.^ The VDADC is designed to accommodate large data sets in the sense that a large number of descriptors (metadata) characterize the data, as opposed to a large quantity of data with relatively few characterizing parameters.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, I think that the data can be interpreted in various ways, and it may be the agenda of the person utilizing the data that informs the results rather than the numbers themselves.
  • An alternative hypothesis 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC cafehayek.com [Source type: General]

^ Statistical data may consist of a very large number of observations.
  • Statistics - Quantitative and qualitative statistics, Descriptive and inferential statistics, Frequency distribution, Parameters 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Academic]

4 in., and a moderate number of men about 5 ft. II in. .It is also possible that there may be very few men whose height is exactly 5 ft.^ If there are very few observations, then there are also respectively few possible combinations of the values of the variables, and thus the probability of obtaining by chance a combination of those values indicative of a strong relation is relatively high.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

.8 in., and that the bulk of the whole body consists of two large groups - one of giants and the other of dwarfs.^ Amongst other things, his comparison of two similar courses in Stanford (one from the Computer Science department, one from Statistics) leads him to conclude: .

^ Thus there are two aspects: one is the refinement of the precision of an individual search and the other is the refinement of the search process.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two hospitals: in the first one, 120 babies are born every day, in the other, only 12.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

Lastly, it is possible that 5 ft. 8 in. may really give a fair idea of the height of the majority of the men, which it would do if .(say) 660 of them were within an inch of that height, either by excess or deficiency, while of the remainder one half were all above 5 ft.^ Within one year of quitting, the risk of dying from smoking-related heart disease is cut in half.
  • Statistics-Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.heartandstroke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Importantly, all of them allow the client to associate, within the session and within exposures , to different memories, themes, and ideas - including positive ones.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, all we can say is that 2 individuals are different in terms of variable A (e.g., they are of different race), but we cannot say which one "has more" of the quality represented by the variable.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

9 in. and the other half all below 5 ft. 7 in. .This latter supposition would most likely be found to be approximately correct if the men belonged to a race whose average height was 5 ft.^ My favorite example would be a website I found once, which purported to prove that rock stars died, on average, much earlier than other people.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If WCC scores were in the range of 0-1000, the same difference (of 2) between the average WCC of males and females found in the study would account for such a small part of the overall differentiation of scores that most likely it would be considered negligible.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Assuming that there is no relation between the respective variables in the population, the most likely outcome would be also finding no relation between those variables in the research sample.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

8 in., and if they had been collected by chance. .The extent of the divergence of the items composing an average from the average itself may be accurately measured and expressed in percentages of the average, the algebraic signs + and - being employed to indicate the direction of the variation from the mean.^ This would include such common measures as the student-teacher ratio, expenditures per pupil, average school size, and teachers as a percentage of all school staff.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The tendency for any measurable variable to move toward the average expected measure for that variable and away from extremes was called "regression" by Sir Francis Galton.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The e tendency for any measurable variable to move toward the average expected measure for that variable and away from extremes was called "regression" by Sir Francis Galton - i.e.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.An average may, therefore, advantageously be supplemented: (1) by a figure showing what proportion of the members from which it is derived differs from the average by a relatively small quantity, and (2) by figures showing the maximum and minimum deviations from the average.^ Or does the figure come from officials, bureaucrats who routinely keep track of some social phenomenon, and who may not have much stake in what the numbers show?
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, an image data set in visible light available on one database may be compared to an image data set taken in infrared by a different instrument and available on a second database may be compared in order to show a high infrared-to-visible light intensity.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The meaning of the term " relatively small " must be considered independently in each investigation.^ Warning Catchphrase to look for: The solution to uncovering this fallacy is simple in theory, but difficult in practice - as a logician you must ask the meaning of terms when you are unsure of them.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, Russo re-defined the term "small market" from meaning "a smaller city with a smaller population" (which is what it really means) to mean "a team with a smaller budget."
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

Fuller remarks on averages will be found in the works mentioned at the conclusion of this article, Prices. - .Reference has already been made to the peculiar class of statistical quantities known as prices. Prices in their widest sense include all figures expressing ratios of exchange. In modern society the terms of exchange are always expressed in money, and the things for which money is exchanged are: (1) concrete entities with physical attributes, such as iron or wheat; (2) immediate rights, such as those given by interest-bearing securities of all kinds, by bills of exchange, by railway or steamship contracts to carry either passengers or goods, and by bargains relative to the foreign exchanges; (3) contingent rights, such as those implied in policies of insurance.^ "This reference for statistical content contains regularly updated articles and revisions to previously published articles and includes the full text of the second print edition, the entire original edition, plus supplements and updates all on one searchable site.
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The fallacy of believing that money is a criterion of correctness; that those with more money are more likely to be right.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Black box method security assessment statistics includes the results of manual and automated Web application analysis without any preliminary known data about the application.
  • The Web Application Security Consortium / Web Application Security Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.webappsec.org [Source type: Academic]

.All these rates of exchange belong to the same category, whether they are fixed within certain limits by law, as in the case of railway charges, or are left to be determined by the " higgling of the market."^ Other statistical systems which are of the same general vintage as SAS are MINITAB, BMDP and SPSS. All of these systems began as mainframe systems, but have evolved to smaller scale systems as computing has evolved.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In short, whether these ways of coping were learned during times of abuse and neglect or some time later, they are not working very well any more (if they ever did).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are useful in their own right and, perhaps more important, they provide users with the population data necessary to generate rates when combined with other data.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

.All these cases of price may conceivably come within the operation of the statistical method, but the only matter connected with price which it is necessary to refer to here is the theory of the index number.^ We provide all statistics we find, listing them side by side so that researchers can draw their own conclusions, assisted by the quotes, survey parameters and/or bibliographical references provided here, or by referring to the original sources.
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are in the fields of computer information systems, quantitative methods and modeling, and statistics.
  • Computer Information Systems and Statistics - Undergraduate Bulletin - Academic Programs - Baruch College 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.baruch.cuny.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other statistical systems which are of the same general vintage as SAS are MINITAB, BMDP and SPSS. All of these systems began as mainframe systems, but have evolved to smaller scale systems as computing has evolved.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Index Numbers. - .The
need for these became conspicuous during the investigations of Tooke, Newmarch and others into the general cyclical movements of the prices of commodities; and to construct a good system of these may be said to be one of the highest technical aims of the statistical method.^ One may use the SAS system to conduct simulation studies with random number generators for many different distributions.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other statistical systems which are of the same general vintage as SAS are MINITAB, BMDP and SPSS. All of these systems began as mainframe systems, but have evolved to smaller scale systems as computing has evolved.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Spreading this hate politics may staisfy some animal inside you but does no good to any one else.
  • General Elections in Bihar – A Paradise Lost For Muslims | TwoCircles.net 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC twocircles.net [Source type: Original source]

.In comparing the prices of different years it was soon observed that, though whole groups of articles moved upwards or downwards simultaneously, they did not all move in the same proportion, and that there were nearly always cases in which isolated articles or groups of articles moved in the opposite direction to the majority of articles.^ In fact, there are several major differences between EMDR and traditional exposure treatments; this is very clearly demonstrated in the comparative description above.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is still the problem that the top 1% is populated by different people each year, meaning inequality is overstated by such measures.
  • An alternative hypothesis 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC cafehayek.com [Source type: General]

^ Most states fail to report one or more of the standard items in the NCANDS system, though nearly all report number, source, and disposition of cases; type of maltreatment; and deaths from maltreatment.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

.The problem presented to statisticians therefore was, and is, to devise a statistical expression of the general movement of prices, in which all prices should be adequately represented.^ Other statistical systems which are of the same general vintage as SAS are MINITAB, BMDP and SPSS. All of these systems began as mainframe systems, but have evolved to smaller scale systems as computing has evolved.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Excerpt 3: "The Public as an Innumerate Audience" "Most claims drawing attention to social problems aim to persuade all of us – that is, the members of the general public.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experts, officials, and private organizations commonly report having studied the problem, and they present statistics based on their research.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first rough approximation to the desired result was attained by setting down the percentages representing the movements, with their proper algebraic signs before them, and adding them together algebraically. The total with its proper sign was then divided by the number of articles, and the quotient represented the movement in the prices of the whole body of articles during the period under consideration. .It was soon seen, however, that this procedure was fatally defective, inasmuch as it treated all prices as of equal weight.^ For example, if we assume that God treats all people equally, then the following is an ad hoc explanation: "I was healed from cancer."
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.Cotton weighed no more than pimento, and iron no more than umbrellas.^ Faith has never been shown to be anything more than believing what you want to believe no matter the reality.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ And even those averages do not count the very biggest vehicles those weighing more than 8,500 pounds fully loaded which are exempt under federal law.
  • Car Almanac | Statistics about Pollution, Energy Use, and Danger 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC bicycleuniverse.info [Source type: News]

^ Assuming there is no causal connection between B and A, how can the possibility of both premises A AND B being true be more likely than just premise A , being true?!
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly an improvement was made in the procedure, first by giving the prices of several different articles into which cotton, iron and other important commodities entered, and only one price each in the case of the minor articles, and secondly by fixing on the price of some one article representing iron or cotton, and multiplying it by some number selected with the view of assigning to these articles their proper weights relatively to each other and to the rest.^ Some disclaimers and important points to keep in mind: First, the citations available here refer to the size and location of faith groups (number of adherents, meeting units, and countries).
  • World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This number reflects the number of transplants that occurred, not the number of recipients – some recipients may have received more than one transplant.
  • Statistics-Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.heartandstroke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are useful in their own right and, perhaps more important, they provide users with the population data necessary to generate rates when combined with other data.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

.The objection to both these plans is the same - that the numbers attached to the various articles or groups of articles are purely arbitrary; and attempts have been made to obtain what may be called natural index numbers, the most successful so far being that of Sir Robert Giffen, whose index numbers were obtained from the declared values of the imports or exports into or from the United Kingdom of the articles whose prices are dealt with.^ For some large number M , you could estimate the central value of 9 M data points by applying the ninther to groups of 9 points and take the median of the M ninthers.
  • Statistics — The Endeavour 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.johndcook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is interesting to note that both these groups show average or above-average levels of economic assimilation, a first clue that cultural assimilation is not a prerequisite for economic assimilation.
  • SAJAforum: Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.sajaforum.org [Source type: News]

^ The reader may obtain an index of the S Statlib software by sending email to statlib@lib.stat.cmu.edu with the single line message send index from S. S-PLUS runs on both PC and UNIX based platforms.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the case of both _imports and exports Sir Robert worked out the proportion borne by the value of each article to the total value for a series of years.^ A total of 1.6 million new cases of diabetes were diagnosed in people ages 20 years or older in 2007.

^ Source : 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimates of total prevalence (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) were projected to year 2007.

^ Whenever statistical reports come out of coroners' offices (say, total number of suicides in the jurisdiction during the past year), are by-products of their real work (classifying individual deaths).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deducting the " unenumerated " articles, a series of numbers was thus obtained which could be used as the means of weighting the prices of the articles in an investigation of a movement of prices.^ Thus, we could say that on average, the deviation of each individual score from the grand mean (101) contains a component due to the gender of the subject; the size of this component is 1.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

This procedure is no doubt susceptible of further improvement, like its predecessors. .The index numbers prepared and published every month by the Economist, and by Mr Augustus Sauerbeck, which are weighted, are of great value; owing to the frequency of their appearance they make it possible to watch the tendency of prices closely.^ Statistics Every Writer Should Know Numbers can't "talk" but they can tell you as much as your human sources can.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is usually possible to get some estimates from state and local vital statistics offices the year after they are collected, and in some states in as little as six months.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, what they lack in frequency, these canine homicides make up for in horror, grief and loss.
  • DOG BITE LAW - Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.dogbitelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Desirability of Increased Uniformity in Statistics

.One of the most serious difficulties in connexion with statistical investigations is the variety of the modes in which primaries of the same order are obtained, as regards dates and periods.^ One of the most comprehensive Web sites on statistics with several links to other statistical resources on the Internet.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insertionism and misuse of statistics are basically one step above the last, and most dishonest of all suspect debate tactics: Lying.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If serious abuse had in fact quadrupled, one would expect to see a comparably enormous increase for the most deadly abuse of all.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a matter of which all persons who have occasion to use statistics are made painfully aware from time to time.^ For example, when we modify a portion of data in a specific module, or when we change the value of parameters of a statistical module, this effect is propagated to all the other modules in real time.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maintenance stage This stage refers to a time when the behavior change has been made and maintained for at least several months (six months is commonly used as an indicator of entering this stage).
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The statistics distribution in day time, or on the week, may be also an useful indicator.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

.Some attempts have lately been made to introduce more harmony into the official statistics of the United Kingdom, and many years ago a committee of the treasury sat to inquire into the matter.^ It looks like some of the references were culled from discussions on the statistics newsgroups, though many were written by Rich himself.

^ Some statistical methods that involve many comparisons, and thus a good chance for such errors, include some "correction" or adjustment for the total number of comparisons.
  • Elementary Concepts in Statistics 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.statsoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ChildStats.gov ChildStats.gov is the web site of the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, which is made up of representatives from many federal agencies and departments.
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The committee received a good deal of evidence, and presented a report, from which, however, certain members of the committee dissented, preferring to express their views separately.^ However, in scientific investigation, if it is known that an event would produce certain evidence of its having occurred, the absence of such evidence can validly be used to infer that the event didn't occur.
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In all fairness, the books deals more with charts and chart presentation and really does have some good insights.
  • Untitled Document 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC mountdata.com [Source type: General]

.The evidence will be found very interesting by all who wish to obtain an insight into the genesis of the official statistics of the country.^ Nearly two-thirds (61%) of parents who have used the V-Chip say they found it "very" useful.
  • Sex, Violence, and Profanity in the Media Fact Sheet, TV Statistics - Parents Television Council 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.parentstv.org [Source type: General]

^ Will Yancey's Web Site This site contains a wealth of tax and financial information and references, including some very interesting listings on statistical evidence in litigation and use of sampling in audits .

^ "The example of suicide records reveals that all official statistics are products – and often by-products – of decisions by various officials: not just coroners, but also the humble clerks who fill out and file forms, the exalted supervisors who prepare summary reports, and so on.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The International Institute of Statistics

.The absence of uniformity in statistics which is felt in England is not so marked in foreign countries, where the principle of centralization in arrangements of a political character is more powerful.^ "Those who participate in the politics of their home countries in some manner are actually more likely to vote in the United States than those who do not (65% versus 50%)."
  • SAJAforum: Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.sajaforum.org [Source type: News]

.In several continental countries and in the United States there are statistical bureaus with definite duties to perform.^ Crime in the United States, 1995-2001 (CD-ROM) Publisher: Justice Dept., Federal Bureau of Investigation .
  • U.S. Government Bookstore: Browse by Subject: Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC bookstore.gpo.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Schools offering graduate degrees in Statistics in the United States and Canada, and departments with statistics concentrations are listed.
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

^ "Those who participate in the politics of their home countries in some manner are actually more likely to vote in the United States than those who do not (65% versus 50%)."
  • SAJAforum: Statistics 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.sajaforum.org [Source type: News]

.In the United Kingdom, as already remarked, the nearest approach to a central statistical office is the commercial and statistical department of the board of trade, on which the work of furnishing such statistics as are not definitely recognized as within the province of some other state department usually falls.^ A great souce of statistical information about nonfatal dog bites is Nonfatal Dog Bite-Related Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments - United States, 2001 .
  • DOG BITE LAW - Statistics about dog bites in the USA and elsewhere 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.dogbitelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crime Statistics Unit - Statistical Analysis Center Link: http://www.tbi.state.tn.us/divisions/isd_csu_sac.htm .

^ Bureau of Justice Statistics , within the U.S. Department of Justice, collects, analyzes, and disseminates statistical information on crime victims, criminal offenders, and the justice system.

.Various attempts have been made to introduce more uniformity into the statistics of all countries.^ Validated statistical data and metadata are replicated from the various directorates' "production" databases into OECD.Stat.

^ Covers variables, the more popular statistical distributions, CLT, confidence limits and two-sample tests.

^ "UNCDB for statistics is a wide-ranging database which covers all countries and areas and selected series from more than 30 specialized international data sources.
  • Statistical/Data Resources - Sheldon Margen Public Health Library - UC Berkeley 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It was with this object that statistical congresses have met from time to time since 1853. An endeavour was made at the congress held in 1876 at Budapest to arrange for the publication of a system of international statistics, each statistical bureau undertaking a special branch of the subject.^ At any time since about 1960 I had good reason to follow up on international instrument system improvements as well, particularly with remote sensing techniques.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: White paint, asphalt, concrete, BBQ’s and air con units, plus some cherry picking. 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

^ Since that time, the SAS System has expanded to become an evolving system for complete data management and analysis.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ CNStats is a real-time system for accumulation and analysis of site attendance statistics.
  • Statistic downloads at VicMan 17 September 2009 20:42 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: General]

.The experiment was, however, foredoomed to be only a very partial success, first because all countries were not then and are not yet furnished with central statistical offices, and secondly because the work which fell on the offices in existence could only be performed slowly, as the ordinary business of the offices necessarily left them little leisure for extra work.^ The only way it could is if you are insinuating that Folwer, because of his status as a Christian, would purposely shape his theory of faiths to ensure Christianity made the top of the list.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Recall that the media like to report statistics because numbers seem to be factual, little nuggets of truth.
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So to compare the life spans of people performing an art form for only the last 60 years to all other people is unfair.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

.In 1885, at the jubilee of the London Statistical Society, a number of eminent statistical officials from all parts of the world except Germany were present, and the opportunity was taken to organize an International Institute of Statistics with a view to remedying the defects already ascertained to exist in the arrangements made by the congresses.^ This is, of course, a highly personalized view of the statistical software world.
  • A Guide to Statistical Software 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.galaxy.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ From the World Health Organization.  Historical editions in print under the title World Health Statistics .

^ The Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability The Bernoulli Society is a section of the International Statistical Institute focusing on probability and mathematical statistics.

.The only obstacle to securing a proper representation of all countries was the absence of any German delegates, none of the official heads of the German statistical office being allowed to attend - apparently on political grounds.^ World Factbook Use the Field Listing section to compare all countries by geographic, demographic, cultural, political, education, etc.
  • African Statistics on the Internet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But seeing as a sense of wonder only speaks to being overwhelmed by the limits of our understanding, we can't allow this sense of wonderment put a stop to our striving to understand.
  • Logical Fallacies by Todangst - FreeThoughtPedia 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC freethoughtpedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Informal Fallacies - Logic 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC editthis.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In short, official government statistics are only "the tip of the iceberg."
  • Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources for Recovery 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.jimhopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since then assurances of a satisfactory kind have been given to the German government that their servants would be in no way committed to any course disapproved by that government if they gave their assistance to the Institute, from the formation of which it is hoped that much advantage may result.^ Percentage of students who did not go to school on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey because they felt they would be unsafe at school or on their way to or from school.
  • SafeYouth.org - Data on Youth Violence 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.safeyouth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fifty percent of pastors are so discouraged that they would leave the ministry if they could, but have no other way of making a living.
  • Pastor Statistics A Christian retreat and renewal centre 11 September 2009 2:48 UTC www.bethesdarenewalcentre.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coalition governments would seem more stable, since any upheaval by the junior parter would not just be tied to their seats in parliament, but also their ability to hold the coalition together.

.For information as to the constitution and objects of the Institute reference may be made to a paper by the late Dr F. X. von NeumannSpallart in vol.^ This information may be used and copies made for research, academic, policy or other non-commercial purposes.
  • Tracking the Well-Being of Children and Youth at the State and Local Levels Using the Federal Statistical System 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: Academic]

i. .(1886) of the Bulletin de l'institut international de statistique (Rome, 1886).^ Université Catholique de Louvain Institut de Statistique .
  • http://rilw.itim-cj.ro/98/Stat-pap.html 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC rilw.itim-cj.ro [Source type: Academic]

Meetings of the Institute have been held annually ever since its formation in various cities of the world.
Literature. - E. Blaschke, Vorlesungen fiber mathematische Statistik (die Lehre von den statistischen Masszahlen) (Leipzig and Berlin, 1906); Maurice Block, Traite theorique et pratique de statistique (Paris, 1878); Luigi Bodio, Della Statistica nei suoi rapporti toll' economia politica, &c. .(Milan, 1869); Arthur L. Bowley, Elements of Statistics (London, 1901); J. Conrad, " Statistik," Grundriss zum Studieren der politischen Oekonomie, vierter Teil; (2nd ed., Jena, 1902) (vierter Teil); Elderton (W. Palin and Ethel M.), Primer of Statistics (London, 1910); F. Faure, Elements de statistique (Paris, 1906); A. Gabaglio, Storia e teoria della statistics (Milan, 1880); Max Haushofer, Lehrand Handbuch der Statistik (2nd ed., Vienna, 1882); K. Knies, Die Statistik als selbstandige Wissenschaft (Cassel, 1850); A. Liesse, La Statistique (Paris, 1905); R. Mayo-Smith, Science of Statistics (1895); G. von Mayr, Die Gesetzmassigkeit im Gesellschaftsleben (Munich, 1877), abridged translation in Journ.^ Institut National de la Statistique Basic statistics, Economic indicators (Estimation de la population 2002, Indices des prix à la consommation, Indices de production industrielle des entreprises franches, Etablissements formels nouvellement créés à Antananarivo.
  • African Statistics on the Internet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Has population statistics from the Office National de la Statistique.
  • African Statistics on the Internet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Howell, Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 3rd ed.
  • claviusweb 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www.claviusweb.net [Source type: Academic]
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

Roy. Stat. Soc.
(Sept. 1883); idem, Statistik and Gesellschaftslehre, pts. i. and ii. (Freiburg, 1897); A. Meitzen, Geschichte, Theorie and Technik der Statistik (2nd ed., Stuttgart and Berlin, 1903); A. Quetelet, various works, but especially that entitled Sur l'homme et le developpement de ses facultes, ou Essai de physique sociale (Paris, 1837); and Letters on the Theory of Probability; idem, Lettres d s.a.r. le duc regnant de .Saxe-Coburg et Gotha sur la theorie des probabilites (Brussels, 1846); A. C. F. Schaffle, Ban und Leben des socialen Kiirpers (Tubingen, 1881), especially pt.^ Ministere de l'Economie, des Finances et de la Planification charg de la Privatisation In French.
  • African Statistics on the Internet 8 January 2010 13:24 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

ii. pp. 463 seq., and pt. iv. pp. 493 sqq.; Herbert Spencer, Principles of Sociology (London, 1877), especially pt. ii. p. 465 seq.; A. Wagner, article " Statistik," in Buntschli-Brater's StaatswOrterbuch, vol. x.; H. Westergaard, Die Grundziige der Theorie der Statistik (Jena, 1890).
(W. Ho.)


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Welcome to the Wikibook of
Statistics
Probability
and Data Analysis
.Statistics - Area of applied mathematics concerned with the data collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation.^ Net Benefits articles on internet resources for statistics by Mike Fuller Adventures in Statistics We describe a mathematics project involving fifth grade students and the area of classrooms, which incorporates measurement, graphing, computation, data analysis, and presentation of results.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies) Article on statistical analysis that should be on everyone's reading list.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Spreadsheets, Mathematics, Science, and Statistics Education This page tries to collect some information about spreadsheets with an emphasis on mathematics and statistics education.
  • A few links related to Statistics Education 25 September 2009 6:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

  1. Introduction
    1. What Is Statistics?
    2. Subjects in Modern Statistics
    3. Why Should I Learn Statistics? Development stage: 00% (as of {{{2}}})
    4. What Do I need to Know to Learn Statistics?
  2. Different Types of Data
    1. Primary and Secondary Data
    2. Quantitative and Qualitative Data
  3. Methods of Data Collection
    1. Experiments
    2. Sample Surveys
    3. Observational Studies
  4. Data Analysis
    1. Data Cleaning
  5. Summary Statistics
    1. Measures of center
      1. Mean, Median, and Mode
      2. Geometric Mean
      3. Harmonic Mean
      4. Relationships among Arithmetic, Geometric, and Harmonic Mean
      5. Geometric Median
    2. Measures of dispersion
      1. Range of the Data
      2. Quartiles and Quartile Range
      3. Variance and Standard Deviation
    3. Other summaries
      1. Quantiles
      2. Moving Average
  6. Displaying Data
    1. Bar Charts
    2. Comparative Bar Charts
    3. Histograms
    4. Scatter Plots
    5. Box Plots
    6. Pie Charts
    7. Comparative Pie Charts
    8. Pictograms
    9. Line Graphs
    10. Frequency Polygon
  7. Probability
    1. Introduction to Probability
    2. Bernoulli Trials
    3. Introductory Bayesian Analysis
  8. Distributions
    1. Discrete Distributions
      1. Bernoulli Distribution
      2. Binomial Distribution
      3. Poisson Distribution
      4. Geometric Distribution
      5. Negative Binomial Distribution
    2. Continuous Distributions
      1. Uniform Distribution
      2. Exponential Distribution
      3. Gamma Distribution
      4. Normal Distribution
      5. Chi-Square Distribution
      6. Student-t Distribution
      7. F Distribution
      8. Weibull Distribution
  9. Testing Statistical Hypothesis
    1. Purpose of Statistical Tests
    2. Different Types of Tests
    3. z Test for a Single Mean
    4. z Test for Two Means
    5. t Test for a single mean
    6. t Test for Two Means
    7. One-Way ANOVA F Test
    8. z Test for a Single Proportion
    9. z Test for Two Proportions
    10. Testing whether Proportion A Is Greater than Proportion B in Microsoft Excel
    11. Spearman's Rank Coefficient
    12. Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
    13. Chi-Squared Tests
      1. Chi-Squared Test for Multiple Proportions
      2. Chi-Squared Test for Contingency
    14. Approximations of distributions
  10. Point EstimatesDevelopment stage: 100% (as of 12:07, 28 March 2007 (UTC))(12:07, 28 March 2007 (UTC))
    1. Unbiasedness
    2. Measures of goodness
    3. UMVUE
    4. Completeness
    5. Sufficiency and Minimal Sufficiency
    6. Ancillarity
  11. Practice Problems
    1. Summary Statistics Problems
    2. Data-Display Problems
    3. Distributions Problems
    4. Data-Testing Problems
  12. Numerical Methods
    1. Basic Linear Algebra and Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization
    2. Unconstrained Optimization
    3. Quantile Regression
    4. Numerical Comparison of Statistical Software
    5. Numerics in Excel
    6. Statistics/Numerical_Methods/Random Number Generation
  13. Multivariate Data Analysis
    1. Principal Component Analysis
    2. Factor Analysis for metrical data
    3. Factor Analysis for ordinal data
    4. Canonical Correlation Analysis
    5. Discriminant Analysis
  14. Analysis of Specific Datasets
    1. Analysis of Tuberculosis - This page is currently under construction.

Appendix

  1. Authors
  2. Glossary
  3. Index
  4. Links

See also

Note

As with any wikibook please feel free to make corrections, expand explanations, and make additions where necessary.

Simple English

For the Wikipedia statistics, see Wikipedia:Statistics

Statistics is a part of mathematics. Many fields of science do tests or measurements. Statistics is a collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation of data.[1] Statistics can help in two basic ways:

  1. It can help describe the results. This part is known as Descriptive Statistics. Descriptive statistics is about finding meaningful ways to summarize the data, because it is easier to use the "summary" than having to use the whole set of data all the time. Summarizing the data also allows to find common patterns. In Statistics, such patterns are called probability distributions. The basic idea is to look at the results of an experiment, and look at how the results are grouped.
  2. Once the results have been summarized, and described they can be used for prediction. This is called Inferential Statistics. As an example, the size of an animal is dependent on many factors. Some of these factors are controlled by the environment, but others are called by inheritance. A biologist might therefore make a model that says that with a high probability, the offspring will be small in size, if the parents were small in size. This model probably allows to predict the size in better ways than by just guessing at random. Testing whether a certain drug can be used to cure a certain condition or disease is usually done by comparing the results of people who are given the drug against those of people who are given a placebo.

Contents

History

Statistics has been in use for a long time. The first known statistics are census data. The Babylonians did a census around 3500BC, the Egyptians around 2500 BC, and the Ancient Chinese around 1000 BC.

Collecting data

Before we can describe the world with statistics, we must collect data. The data that we collect in statistics are called measurements. After we collect data, we use one or more numbers to describe each observation or measurement. For example, suppose we want to find out how popular a certain TV show is. We can pick a group of people (called a sample) out of the total population of viewers. Then we ask each one how often they watch the show, or (better) we measure it by attaching an apparatus to each of their television sets. For another example, if we want to know whether a certain drug can help lower blood pressure, we could give the drug to people for some time and measure their blood pressure before and after.

Methods

Most often we collect statistical data by doing surveys or experiments. To do a survey, we pick a small number of people and ask them questions. Then, we use their answers as the data.

The choice of which individuals to take for a survey or data collection is important, as it directly influences the statistics. When the statistics are done, it can no longer be determined which individuals are taken. Suppose we want to measure the water quality of a big lake. If we take samples next to the waste drain, we will get different results than if the samples are taken in a far away, hard to reach, spot of the lake.

There are two kinds of problems which are commonly found when taking samples:

  1. If there are many samples, the samples will likely be very close to what they are in the real population. If there are very few samples, however, they might be very different from what they are in the real population. This error is called a chance error (see Errors and residuals in statistics).
  2. The individuals for the samples need to be chosen carefully, usually they will be chosen randomly. If this is not the case, the samples might be very different from what they really are in the total population. This is true even if a great number of samples is taken. This kind of error is called bias.

Errors

We can reduce chance errors by taking a larger sample, and we can avoid some bias by choosing randomly. However, sometimes large random samples are hard to take. And bias can happen if some people refuse to answer our questions, or if they know they are getting a fake treatment. These problems can be hard to fix. See also standard error.

Descriptive statistics

Finding the middle of the data

The middle of the data is called an average. The average tells us about a typical individual in the population. There are three kinds of average that are often used: the mean, the median and the mode.

The examples below use this sample data:

 Name | A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J
---------------------------------------------
 score| 23  26  49  49  57  64  66  78  82  92

Mean

The formula for the mean is

\bar x = \frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^N x_i = \frac{x_1+x_2+\cdots+x_N}{N}

Where x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_N are the data and N is the population size. (see Sigma Notation).

This means that you add up all the values, and then divide by the number of values.

In our example \bar x = (23+26+49+49+57+64+66+78+82+92)/10 = 58.6

The problem with the mean is that it does not tell anything about how the values are distributed. Values that are very large or very small change the mean a lot. In statistics, these extreme values might be errors of measurement, but sometimes the population really does contain these values. For example, if in a room there are 10 people who make $10/day and 1 who makes $1,000,000/day. The mean of the data is $90,918/day. Even though it is the average amount, the mean in this case is not the amount any single person makes, and is probably useless.

Median

The median is the middle item of the data. To find the median we sort the data from the smallest number to the largest number and then choose the number in the middle. If there is an even number of data, there will not be a number right in the middle, so we choose the two middle ones and calculate their mean. In our example there are 10 items of data, the two middle ones are "57" and "64", so the median is (57+64)/2 = 60.5. Another example, like the income example presented for the mean, consider a room with 10 people who have incomes of $10, $20, $20, $40, $50, $60, $90, $90, $90, $100, and $1,000,000, the median is $55 because $55 is the average of the two middle numbers, $50 and $60. If the extreme value of $1,000,000 is ignored, the mean is $57. In this case, the median is close to the value obtained when the extreme value is thrown out. The median solves the problem of extreme values as described in the definition of mean above.

Mode

The mode is the most frequent item of data. For example the most common letter in English is the letter "e". We would say that "e" is the mode of the distribution of the letters.

For example, if in a room there are 10 people with incomes of $10, $20, $20, $40, $50, $60, $90, $90, $90, $100, and $1,000,000, the mode is $90 because $90 occurs three times and all other values occur fewer than three times.

There can be more than one mode. For example, if in a room there are 10 people with incomes of $10, $20, $20, $20, $50, $60, $90, $90, $90, $100, and $1,000,000, the modes are $20 and $90. This is bi-modal, or has two modes. Bi-modality is very common and often indicates that the data is the combination of two different groups. For instance, the average height of all adults in the U.S. has a bi-modal distribution. This is because males and females have separate average heights of 1.763 m (5 ft 9+1/2 in) for men and 1.763 m (5 ft 9+1/2 in) for women. These peaks are apparent when both groups are combined.

The mode is the only form of average that can be used for data that can not be put in order.

Finding the spread of the data

Another thing we can say about a set of data is how spread out it is. A common way to describe the spread of a set of data is the standard deviation. If the standard deviation of a set of data is small, then most of the data is very close to the average. If the standard deviation is large, though, then a lot of the data is very different from the average.

If the data follows the common pattern called the normal distribution, then it is very useful to know the standard deviation. If the data follows this pattern (we would say the data is normally distributed), about 68 of every 100 pieces of data will be off the average by less than the standard deviation. Not only that, but about 95 of every 100 measurements will be off the average by less that two times the standard deviation, and about 997 in 1000 will be closer to the average than three standard deviations.

Other descriptive statistics

We also can use statistics to find out that some percent, percentile, number, or fraction of people or things in a group do something or fit in a certain category.

For example, social scientists used statistics to find out that 49% of people in the world are males.

References

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  1. Moses, Lincoln E. (1986). Think and Explain with statistics. Addison-Wesley. pp. 1 - 3. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Statistics, which are similar to those in the above article.








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