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Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker
Human embryonic stem cell colony on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer
.Stem cells are cells found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms.^ Option to embryonic stem cells found .

^ Where are stem cells found?
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are stem cells found in adults?
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiating into a diverse range of specialized cell types.^ Cell types resulting from differentiation .
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cells spontaneously differentiate into various cell types, e.g.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The ability to differentiate is the potential to develop into other cell types.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till in the 1960s.^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ Scientists are still finding different stem cells.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Responses to “Stem cell research FTW!” .
  • Stem cell research FTW! | Bad Astronomy | Discover Magazine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] .The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in adult tissues.^ The prototypical adult stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell, is found in the bone marrow.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, it is not surprising that adult stem cells have been isolated from peripheral blood.
  • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

.In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues.^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ Embryonic stem cells .

.In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.^ Skin cells are not potential adults.

^ Bone marrow adult stem cells repair a damaged heart .

^ No such problems exist with adult stem cells.” .
  • Destructive Embryonic Stem Cell Research - Ethics and the Orthodox Church 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stem cells can now be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture.^ Smooth muscle stem cells for muscle implantation .
  • Stem Cell Research Forum - Topix 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ Muscle stem cells have been grown into muscles themselves, as well as components such as connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves.
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells can be obtained from various sources.
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

.Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, are routinely used in medical therapies.^ The prototypical adult stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell, is found in the bone marrow.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We will begin with the bone marrow stem cell.
  • stemnow.com » stem cell therapy 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.stemnow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, it is not surprising that adult stem cells have been isolated from peripheral blood.
  • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

.Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.^ Embryonic stem cells .
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

^ Stem-Cell Lines MSNBC.com .
  • Stem Cell Research Debate - The Caucus Blog - NYTimes.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

Properties

The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possess two properties:
.
  • Self-renewal - the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state.
  • Potency - the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types.^ The cells spontaneously differentiate into various cell types, e.g.
    • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cancer stem cells also maintain the ability to self-renew.
    • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stem cells are a special type of cell that has the ability to renew other cells in the body.
    • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]

    In the strictest sense, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent - to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells.

Potency definitions

.
Pluripotent, embryonic stem cells originate as inner mass cells within a blastocyst.
^ Embryonic stem cells .
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

^ Option to embryonic stem cells found .

.The stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta.^ Stem cells can be used to replace or heal damaged tissues and cells in the body.
  • ExtendLife.com: Stem Cells (Embryonic and Adult) 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.extendlife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells are the foundation cells for every organ, tissue and cell in the body.
  • ISSCR :: Stem Cell Science : Frequently Asked Questions 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.isscr.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research Protocols, Adult Bone Marrow Stem Cell Disease, Aging Treatments 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC stemcellsforhope.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Adult Stem Cells 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.stemcellsyourown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stem cells can become bone, skin – even heart tissue.
  • Stem-Cell Therapy and Repair after Heart Attack and Heart Failure 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

Only the morula's cells are totipotent, able to become all tissues and a placenta.
.
Human embryonic stem cells
A: Cell colonies that are not yet differentiated.
^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells (2003) ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Embryonic stem cells .


B: Nerve cell
.Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell.^ Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can develop into nearly any type of body cell.
  • Science News for Kids: Feature: From Stem Cell to Any Cell 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.sciencenewsforkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Types of stem cell .
  • Stem cell research - Alzheimer Scotland 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.alzscot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What types of stem cells exist?
  • Your Orthopaedic Connection: Frequently Asked Questions About Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC orthoinfo.aaos.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.
  • Totipotent (a.k.a omnipotent) stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types.^ Embryonic stem cells .
    • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

    ^ One type of embryonic stem cell not generally discussed is embryonic germ cells.
    • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Such cells can construct a complete, viable, organism.^ If a biological object is to be described as an individual organism it requires a certain level of integration, such that it is not just a collection of cells held together mechanically but a single integrated unit.
    • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stem cells of a pluripotent nature capable of forming multiple cell types also occur in fetal or adult organisms in tissues such as bone marrow, skin, and muscle.
    • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If the stem cell lines are capable of forming all specialized tissues but not a complete organism, they are said to be "pluripotent."
    • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

    [4] .These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell.^ These are stem cells that develop into oocytes (eggs) or sperm.
    • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gamete : The sex cell (sperm or egg).
    • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Non-somatic" cells: Germ cells ("sex cells") such as sperm and egg cells.

    .Cells produced by the first few divisions of the fertilized egg are also totipotent.^ In the first hours after fertilization, this cell divides into identical totipotent cells.
    • A Primer on Stem Cells - The ALS Association 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.alsa.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Stem Cells: A Primer, National Institutes of Health, May 2000 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC snhs-plin.barry.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cells produced by the first few divisions of the fertilized egg cell are also totipotent.
    • Islets of Hope - Diabetes Information - What are stem cells? 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Examples are the zygote formed at egg fertilization and the first few cells that result from the division of the zygote.

    [5]
  • Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells,[4] i.e. cells derived from any of the three germ layers.[6]
  • .
  • Multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cells, but only those of a closely related family of cells.^ Hierarchy of stem cells during differentiation.
    • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This was not the only research into adult stem cells in Queensland.
    • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stem cells can only come from embryos.

    [4]
  • .
  • Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cells, such as lymphoid or myeloid stem cells.^ Hierarchy of stem cells during differentiation.
    • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This was not the only research into adult stem cells in Queensland.
    • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stem cells can only come from embryos.

    [4]
  • .
  • Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type, their own,[4] but have the property of self-renewal which distinguishes them from non-stem cells (e.g.^ Cancer stem cells also maintain the ability to self-renew.
    • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stem cells are a special type of cell that has the ability to renew other cells in the body.
    • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
    • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One type of embryonic stem cell not generally discussed is embryonic germ cells.
    • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

    muscle stem cells).

Identification

.The practical definition of a stem cell is the functional definition - a cell that has the potential to regenerate tissue over a lifetime.^ Stem cells that come from adult tissue, .

^ "Stem cells have the potential to have that kind of impact.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Advocates for Stem Cell Research About the Author Stem Cell Research, specifically, Embryonic Stem Cell Research, has the potential to change the face of human disease that plagues mankind forever.
  • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | Advocates for Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC my.democrats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the gold standard test for a bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is the ability to transplant one cell and save an individual without HSCs.^ The prototypical adult stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell, is found in the bone marrow.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone marrow adult stem cells repair a damaged heart .

^ For example, chemotherapy kills blood-producing cells in bone marrow.
  • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this case, a stem cell must be able to produce new blood cells and immune cells over a long term, demonstrating potency.^ We must have stem cell research...
  • The Fix - White House Cheat Sheet: The Politics of Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Embryonic] stem cells can produce tumors.
  • Destructive Embryonic Stem Cell Research - Ethics and the Orthodox Church 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can hematopoietic stem cells form cells other than blood and immune cells?
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew.^ Cancer stem cells also maintain the ability to self-renew.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem Cell Collection should be Routine .
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Then they extracted the stem cells, transplanted them into the heart.
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

.Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where single cells are characterized by their ability to differentiate and self-renew.^ Cancer stem cells also maintain the ability to self-renew.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Can stem cells be used to combat cancer?
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells are a special type of cell that has the ability to renew other cells in the body.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

[7][8] .As well, stem cells can be isolated based on a distinctive set of cell surface markers.^ CD34 is a cell surface marker on hematopoietic stem cells.
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the surface, stem cells might seem irrelevant to you because you lack any of the disorders mentioned on TV, such as: spinal cord injury, diabetes etc.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Type 1 diabetes, the problem that concerns Melton, is well-suited to stem-cell therapy.
  • Stem-cell Science | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2004 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells will behave in a similar manner in vivo.^ Yet to date, no transplantation of human neural stem cells or of their derivatives, called glial progenitor cells, have ever altered the condition or fate of recipient animals.
  • Stem Cells | Think Gene 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.thinkgene.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We have identified these cells as primitive endoderm, suggesting that these culture conditions promote a cascade of steps in vitro that emulate in vivo embryogenesis.
  • Burnham Institute for Medical Research - Technology Centers - Stem Cell Research Center 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.burnham.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The two cells may look alike and share similar properties, but will they behave the same way?
  • Two Big Boosts For Stem Cell Research: NIH Approves New Lines, Director Presents Moral Case For the Use of Embryonic Stem Cells - The Human Condition Blog - Newsweek.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC blog.newsweek.com [Source type: News]

.Considerable debate exists whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells.^ What types of stem cells exist?
  • Your Orthopaedic Connection: Frequently Asked Questions About Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC orthoinfo.aaos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult stem cells are more limited.
  • CBC News - Health - Stem cells: FAQs 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ No such problems exist with adult stem cells.” .
  • Destructive Embryonic Stem Cell Research - Ethics and the Orthodox Church 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Embryonic

.Embryonic stem cell lines (ES cell lines) are cultures of cells derived from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass (ICM) of a blastocyst or earlier morula stage embryos.^ These are usually derived from early embryos or embryonic germ cells.
  • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ At this stage, stem cell research is at the exploratory stage.
  • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[9] .A blastocyst is an early stage embryo—approximately four to five days old in humans and consisting of 50–150 cells.^ A few days later, a blastocyst-stage embryo develops.
  • Stem-cell Science | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2004 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blastocyst : A preimplantation embryo of 30-150 cells.
  • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The early embryo doesn’t look human?
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

.ES cells are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.^ Pluripotent stem cell : A stem cell with the capacity to differentiate into cells of all germ layers (endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm).
  • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients were administered mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal stem cells isolated from germ layers of 4-8 weeks old cadaverous embryos systems and organs; amounts administered - 0,5-3 ml, cell count- 0,1-100x105/ml.
  • EmCell Clinic, Embryonic Stem Cell Kiev Ukraine, Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Ukraine 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All human stem cell lines, other human cells or cell lines of a pluripotent nature from human embryos, fetuses or adults, must be anonymized (i.e.
  • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type.^ Are there other adult stem cells?
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Such cells are able to develop into a variety of cells in that specific organ.

^ Stem cells are a special type of cell that has the ability to renew other cells in the body.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

.They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta.^ Isolated human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent , and although they can generate any cell in the body, they would not be able to generate the placenta.  .
  • Glossary | Harvard Stem Cell Institute 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.hsci.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Totipotent stem cells Cells that can form an entire organism, including the extra embryonic tissue such as the placenta (in mammals) that do not become part of the fetus.
  • Glossary | Harvard Stem Cell Institute 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.hsci.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The next stage is the blastocyst which consists of a hollow ball of cells; trophoblast cells along the periphery develop into the embryonic membranes and placenta while the inner cell mass develops into the fetus.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nearly all research to date has taken place using mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES).^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells (2003) ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Labels: egg cell , Embryonic Stem Cell Research .

^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Both have the essential stem cell characteristics, yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state.^ While embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells are both sources of undifferentiated cells, they both have several differences.
  • Stem Cell Research: The Impact on Public Health 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.case.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The advantage of maintaining stem cells in culture is that they are a source of a large number of cells in the undifferentiated state.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem Cells: What will they be when they grow out?
  • Learn About the Latest Trends in Stem Cell Research and Events 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemsave.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin and require the presence of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF).^ Generally, ES cells are maintained in culture on feeder cells (mouse fibroblast cells) There have been recent reports of ES cultured on feeder cell-free medium.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ES cells from mouse embryos have been cultured since the 1980s by various groups of researchers working independently.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because they are grown in a petri dish, ES cells are easy to work on.
  • Stem-cell Science | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2004 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Human ES cells are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and require the presence of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF or FGF-2).^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

^ Cultured human ES cells .
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation,[12] embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate.^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Embryonic stem cells .
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

.A human embryonic stem cell is also defined by the presence of several transcription factors and cell surface proteins.^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells (2003) ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Approved: 1st human trial with embryonic stem cells .
  • Stem cells, Embryonic - Mary Meets Dolly 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 form the core regulatory network that ensures the suppression of genes that lead to differentiation and the maintenance of pluripotency.^ Sustained expansion and maintenance of endothelial cells is shown to depend on expression of the vascular transcription factor Id1.

^ Regulatory Network Balances Stem Cell Maintenance, Differentiation While much of the promise of stem cells springs from their ability to develop into any cell type in the body, the biological workings that control that maturation process are still largely unknown.
  • Stem Cell Research News 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC cure4lupus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nuclear receptor Nr5a2 enhances reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts ► Nr5a2 can replace Oct4 in the reprogramming cocktail ► Nr5a2 with enhanced transcriptional activity more effective in reprogramming ► DNA binding links Nr5a2 to the core pluripotency network .

[13] .The cell surface antigens most commonly used to identify hES cells are the glycolipids SSEA3 and SSEA4 and the keratan sulfate antigens Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. The molecular definition of a stem cell includes many more proteins and continues to be a topic of research.^ Most types of stem cell research are morally acceptable and laudable.

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ At this stage, stem cell research is at the exploratory stage.
  • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.After nearly ten years of research,[15] there are no approved treatments using embryonic stem cells.^ Opposing embryonic stem cell research currently stems from a fallacy...
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ Embryonic stem cells .
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

.The first human trial was approved by the US Food & Drug Administration in January 2009.[16] ES cells, being pluripotent cells, require specific signals for correct differentiation - if injected directly into another body, ES cells will differentiate into many different types of cells, causing a teratoma.^ ES cells have been induced to differentiate into neurons, cardiomyocytes and endoderm cells.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These can turn into almost any type of cells, and therefore are pluripotent.

^ The cells spontaneously differentiate into various cell types, e.g.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Differentiating ES cells into usable cells while avoiding transplant rejection are just a few of the hurdles that embryonic stem cell researchers still face.^ Opposing embryonic stem cell research currently stems from a fallacy...
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ Embryonic stem cells .

[17] .Many nations currently have moratoria on either ES cell research or the production of new ES cell lines.^ ES (embryonic stem cells) still differ in many properties than stem cells that have been redifferentiated form adult human skin cells (as done by japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka).
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama: 'Stem Cell' - Politico.com 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Following the approval of stem cell lines to be federally funded by the NIH, NYSCF was featured on NY1 news.
  • The New York Stem Cell Foundation 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.nyscf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Finally, researchers remain free to pursue work (including the derivation of new lines of embryonic stem cells) in the private sector, without government funding.
  • PCBE: Monitoring Stem Cell Research: Chapter 2: Current Federal Law and Policy 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.bioethics.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease.^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Embryonic stem cells .
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

Fetal

.Fetal stem cells are primitive cell types found in the organs of fetuses.^ Option to embryonic stem cells found .

^ Where are stem cells found?
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Can two types of stem cells co-exist in the same organ?
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

[18] .The classification of fetal stem cells remains unclear and this type of stem cell is currently often grouped into an adult stem cell.^ Adult stem cells are a natural solution.

^ Treatments from adult stem cells .

^ Pluripotent : the ability of stem cells to turn into multiple cell types.

.However, a more clear distinction between the two cell types appears necessary.^ Special adult-type stem cells from bone marrow and from umbilical cords have been isolated recently which appear to be as flexible as the embryonic type .

^ With increasing press coverage on stem cell research there have been two distinctive groups: those who are opponents of human embryonic stem cell research and those who are proponents of human embryonic stem cell research.
  • Stem Cell Research: The Impact on Public Health 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.case.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After receiving two trial stem cell treatment procedures, there are no more leukemia cells in Adolfo’s body, and he can finally live a normal life.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

Adult

Stem cell division and differentiation. A - stem cell; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell division; 2 - asymmetric stem cell division; 3 - progenitor division; 4 - terminal differentiation
.The term adult stem cell refers to any cell which is found in a developed organism that has two properties: the ability to divide and create another cell like itself and also divide and create a cell more differentiated than itself.^ The prototypical adult stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell, is found in the bone marrow.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Later in development, the cell divides asymmetrically with one of the daughter cells produced also a stem cell and the other a more differentiated cell.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If I had to choose, I'd rather have adult stem cells."

.Also known as somatic (from Greek Σωματικóς, "of the body") stem cells and germline (giving rise to gametes) stem cells, they can be found in children, as well as adults.^ The prototypical adult stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell, is found in the bone marrow.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells are unique in that they are the only cells in our body that can regenerate.
  • Learn About the Latest Trends in Stem Cell Research and Events 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemsave.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were able to derive stem cells from adult skin cells.
  • Stem cell breakthrough may transform future of medicine | Science | The Guardian 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[19]
.Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number but can be found in a number of tissues including umbilical cord blood.^ The prototypical adult stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell, is found in the bone marrow.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, it is not surprising that adult stem cells have been isolated from peripheral blood.
  • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But these use stem cells (once seen as less versatile) found in adult tissues and in umbilical cord blood from live births.

[20] .A great deal of adult stem cell research has focused on clarifying their capacity to divide or self-renew indefinitely and their differentiation potential.^ Skin cells are not potential adults.

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ I completely agree with stem cell research.
  • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .In mice, pluripotent stem cells are directly generated from adult fibroblast cultures.^ Problems with adult stem cells?
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If I had to choose, I'd rather have adult stem cells."

^ Where do adult type stem cells come from?

.Unfortunately, many mice don't live long with stem cell organs.^ ES (embryonic stem cells) still differ in many properties than stem cells that have been redifferentiated form adult human skin cells (as done by japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka).
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama: 'Stem Cell' - Politico.com 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Bone marrow stem cells also repopulated liver after irradiation of mice to destroy their bone marrow.
  • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Research is paving the way for stem cell therapy as a way to repair blood-deprived regions of organs that have been damaged by heart attacks and other conditions.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, etc.^ They were able to derive stem cells from adult skin cells.
  • Stem cell breakthrough may transform future of medicine | Science | The Guardian 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ If I had to choose, I'd rather have adult stem cells."

^ Where do adult type stem cells come from?

).[23][24]
.Adult stem cell treatments have been successfully used for many years to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants.^ The prototypical adult stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell, is found in the bone marrow.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone marrow adult stem cells repair a damaged heart .

^ Difficulties arise in the extraction of these cells through the use of invasive bone marrow transplants.

[25] .Adult stem cells are also used in veterinary medicine to treat tendon and ligament injuries in horses.^ Problems with adult stem cells?
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in veterinary medicine.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

[26]
.The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo.^ I think stem cell research is wrong.
  • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Embryonic stem cells are not coming from babies, but from embryos.
  • » Stem Cell Research Finally Unleashed! (Follow it via JDRF’s New Twitter) - DiabetesMine: the all things diabetes blog 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.diabetesmine.com [Source type: General]

^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, because in some instances adult stem cells can be obtained from the intended recipient, (an autograft) the risk of rejection is essentially non-existent in these situations.^ If I had to choose, I'd rather have adult stem cells."

^ Are there other adult stem cells?
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells that come from adult tissue, .

.Consequently, more US government funding is being provided for adult stem cell research.^ Elections have consequences for stem cell resea...
  • Stem Cell Research Forum - Topix 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ 'Long road' for stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

[27]

Amniotic

.Multipotent stem cells are also found in amniotic fluid.^ Option to embryonic stem cells found .

^ Where are stem cells found?
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are stem cells found in adults?
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These stem cells are very active, expand extensively without feeders and are not tumorogenic.^ Are these stem cells?
  • Stem cells, Embryonic - Mary Meets Dolly 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These stem cells: .
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lecturers focused on the latest breakthroughs in stem cell technology, biomedical research, and how these two can be combined to cure children of dangerous diseases.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

.Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, hepatic and also neuronal lines.^ Moreover, an analysis of genetic and ultrastructural characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing differentiation and dedifferentiation has revealed reversibility in the characteristics studied.
  • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So the stem cells were grown in the lab under conditions that favoured the development of neurons that made this vital neurotransmitter, then implanted into the patient’s brain.
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The next segment shows the same rat after an injection of oligodendrocytes made from a line of embryonic stem cells.
  • Stem Cell Research: Science and the Future : NPR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Academic]

[28] .All over the world, universities and research institutes are studying amniotic fluid to discover all the qualities of amniotic stem cells, and scientist such as Anthony Atala[29][30] and Giuseppe Simoni [31][32] [33] have discovered important results.^ Researchers from the National Institute of Health discovered the presence of stem cells in teeth.
  • Learn About the Latest Trends in Stem Cell Research and Events 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemsave.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Responses to “Stem cell research FTW!” .
  • Stem cell research FTW! | Bad Astronomy | Discover Magazine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this stage, stem cell research is at the exploratory stage.
  • Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Recommendations for CIHR-Funded Research - CIHR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.From an ethical point of view, stem cells from amniotic fluid can solve a lot of problems, because it's possible to catch amniotic stem cells without destroying embryos.^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ This is the point at which researchers destroy the embryo by extracting its stem cells.

^ Is stem cell research ethical?

For example, the Vatican newspaper "Osservatore Romano" called amniotic stem cell "the future of medicine".[34]
.It's possible to collect amniotic stem cells for donors or for autologuous use: the first US amniotic stem cells bank [35][36] opened in Medford, MA, by Biocell Center Corporation [37][38][39][40] and collaborates with various hospitals and universities all over the world.^ Stem Cell Collection should be Routine .
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

^ That is why I am in favor of using stem cells.
  • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stem cells can be obtained from various sources.
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

[41]

Induced pluripotent

.These are not adult stem cells, but rather reprogrammed cells (e.g.^ By contrast, adult stem cells and other .

^ Problems with adult stem cells?
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult stem cells are a natural solution.

epithelial cells) given pluripotent capabilities. .Using genetic reprogramming with protein transcription factors, pluripotent stem cells equivalent to embryonic stem cells have been derived from human adult skin tissue.^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells (2003) ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Skin cells are not potential adults.

^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

[42][43][44] .Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues at Kyoto University used the transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4[42] in their experiments on cells from human faces.^ ES (embryonic stem cells) still differ in many properties than stem cells that have been redifferentiated form adult human skin cells (as done by japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka).
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama: 'Stem Cell' - Politico.com 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Harvard University developed a way to turn “ ordinary skin cells into what appear to be embryonic stem cells — without having to use human eggs or make new human embryos in the process.” .
  • Think Progress » Harvard Scientists Say White House Distorted Their Research On Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And yes, they can be used in some cases, but they are no where near as good or as universal as embryonic stem cells.
  • Stem cell research FTW! | Bad Astronomy | Discover Magazine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Junying Yu, James Thomson, and their colleagues at the University of Wisconsin–Madison used a different set of factors, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28,[42] and carried out their experiments using cells from human foreskin.^ This may come as a surprise to you but research in the stem cell field grew out of findings by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till in the 1960s.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harvard University developed a way to turn “ ordinary skin cells into what appear to be embryonic stem cells — without having to use human eggs or make new human embryos in the process.” .
  • Think Progress » Harvard Scientists Say White House Distorted Their Research On Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And yes, they can be used in some cases, but they are no where near as good or as universal as embryonic stem cells.
  • Stem cell research FTW! | Bad Astronomy | Discover Magazine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result of the success of these experiments, Ian Wilmut, who helped create the first cloned animal Dolly the Sheep, has announced that he will abandon nuclear transfer as an avenue of research.^ From somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) .

^ Therapeutic cloning Somatic cell nuclear transfer was used to clone Dolly, the sheep.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (SCNT) This is the same process that was used to create the cloned sheep, Dolly.

[45]

Lineage

.To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram).^ Stem cells and a cure for type 1 diabetes?
  • Research Highlight : Stem cells: Sharing common factors for self-renewal 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.stemcellcommunity.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Research Highlight: Stem cells: Introducing the next generation 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.stemcellcommunity.org [Source type: Academic]
  • US stem-cell research expands: Biomedical agency announces new funding policy for cell lines. 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellcommunity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, stem cells undergo "asymmetric" divisions, producing both another stem cell, in a process called self-renewal, and a cell that will become differentiated.
  • NIMR :: Mill Hill Essays 2001 :: Stem cell therapy and research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.nimr.mrc.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells are unspecialized cells that continually renew themselves through cell division.
  • Concerned Women for America - Fact Sheet on Stem-Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cwfa.org [Source type: Academic]

.Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties.^ During division, stem cells divide into either two daughter stem cells or one...
  • Stem Cell - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells can give rise to specialized cells .
  • The Science Creative Quarterly » STEM CELL BIOENGINEERING 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.scq.ubc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Differentiation is the process whereby stem cells give rise to specialized cells.
  • The Science Creative Quarterly » STEM CELL BIOENGINEERING 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.scq.ubc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential.^ Stem cells are a special type of cell that has the ability to renew other cells in the body.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

^ By contrast, adult stem cells and other .

^ Stem cells can only come from embryos.

.Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before terminally differentiating into a mature cell.^ Better yet are new studies that have scientists getting differentiated cells to go backwards--to de-differentiate into a more primitive condition, to become the functional equivalent of embryonic stem cells.
  • Biotechnology & Stem-Cell Research: Interview With Dr. Leon Kass - Health (washingtonian.com) 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.washingtonian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is claimed that this cocktail stimulates the patients own stem cells to differentiate into nerve precursor cells and migrate to where they are needed.

^ Lagasse et al ., “Purified hematopoietic stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in vivo”, Nature Medicine 6, 1229-1234; November 2000 .
  • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is possible that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells.^ Later in development, the cell divides asymmetrically with one of the daughter cells produced also a stem cell and the other a more differentiated cell.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This ethical-political distinction lies at the heart of the stem cell debate.
  • PCBE: Monitoring Stem Cell Research: Chapter 2: Current Federal Law and Policy 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.bioethics.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, according to one source, 3 when a stem cell divides at least one of the daughter cells it produces is also a stem cell; when a progenitor cell undergoes cell division it produces two specialized cells.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

[46]
.An alternative theory is that stem cells remain undifferentiated due to environmental cues in their particular niche.^ Finally, researchers remain free to pursue work (including the derivation of new lines of embryonic stem cells) in the private sector, without government funding.
  • PCBE: Monitoring Stem Cell Research: Chapter 2: Current Federal Law and Policy 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.bioethics.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells divide and each new cell can remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a specialized function.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Embryonic neural stem cells have the ability to differentiate to become particular cells that can reverse the damage.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

.Stem cells differentiate when they leave that niche or no longer receive those signals.^ Embryonic stem cell research no longer necessary?
  • What is Wrong With Embryonic Stem Cell Research? 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.godandscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hierarchy of stem cells during differentiation.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That is why they are called stem cells.
  • lifeissues.net | The Stem Cell Debate 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.lifeissues.net [Source type: Academic]

.Studies in Drosophila germarium have identified the signals dpp and adherens junctions that prevent germarium stem cells from differentiating.^ Hierarchy of stem cells during differentiation.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The best we can hope for is that stem cell research can lead to gene therapy that can help prevent retarded conservatives from killing off the rest of us.
  • US Revives Embryonic Stem Cell Research | Drudge Retort 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.drudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thing that differentiates human embryonic stem cell research from adult stem cell research is that, with embryonic experiments, there are no results.
  • Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.wf-f.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47][48]
.The signals that lead to reprogramming of cells to an embryonic-like state are also being investigated.^ PS cells are adult cells reprogrammed to behave like embryonic stem cells.
  • Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Viewed 27 views A much-celebrated breakthrough that turns adult skin cells to embryonic-like stem cells is not the solution to the problem of destroying embryos for pluripotent stem cells.

^ Recently, Japanese and American scientists have developed a third type of stem cell, which are skin cells that have been 'reprogrammed' to be similar to embryonic stem cells.
  • 5 Things You Should Know About Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.scientificblogging.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These signal pathways include several transcription factors including the oncogene c-Myc.^ Please DO NOT expand these guidelines to include stem cell lines derived from embryos created expressly for research purposes, including embryos created by somatic cell nuclear transfer.
  • Stem cells, Embryonic - Mary Meets Dolly 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initial studies indicate that transformation of mice cells with a combination of these anti-differentiation signals can reverse differentiation and may allow adult cells to become pluripotent.^ So these cells are pluripotent .
  • Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These are called adult stem cells.
  • lifeissues.net | The Stem Cell Debate 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.lifeissues.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides studying the translational impact of these cells, we are also studying the biology of differentiation of these cells.
  • Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC stemcell.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

[49] .However, the need to transform these cells with an oncogene may prevent the use of this approach in therapy.^ The best we can hope for is that stem cell research can lead to gene therapy that can help prevent retarded conservatives from killing off the rest of us.
  • US Revives Embryonic Stem Cell Research | Drudge Retort 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.drudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After further purification, these stem cells were transformed into neural stem cells by culturing them with autoimmune cells previously isolated from the patient.

^ Finally, it is possible that the research on these existing stem cell lines could result in therapies or cures that rely upon the destruction of more embryos.

.Challenging the terminal nature of cellular differentiation and the integrity of lineage commitment, it was recently determined that the somatic expression of combined transcription factors can directly induce other defined somatic cell fates; researchers identified three neural-lineage-specific transcription factors that could directly convert mouse fibroblasts (skin cells) into fully-functional neurons.^ Isolated cells from mouse could be propagated in vitro and differentiated into all three mammary epithelial lineages.
  • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The cells have also shown the capability of differentiation into neuronal cells.
  • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Equally important, we don't yet know whether research on embryonic stem cells will teach us how to revise the differentiation program of a tissue-specific stem cell, thereby circumventing the need for embryonic cells."
  • Stem Cell Research Facts Sheet 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.This "induced neurons" (iN) cell research inspires the researchers to induce other cell types implies that all cells are totipotent: with the proper tools, all cells may form all kinds of tissue.^ All cell types .
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also it has been observed that the presence of all the islet cell types is preferable to only beta cells since the former are better able to respond to changing levels of glucose in the blood.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those who want to call for stem cell research and cures “we can all live with” may speak out by visiting www.usccb.org/stemcellcampaign and clicking on “Contact Congress & NIH Now.” .
  • Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.wf-f.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

Treatments

.
Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is promising or emerging.
^ One fact is that treatments are emerging from stem cell research.

^ Stem cell treatments 'years away' .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The promise of stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

[51] Bone marrow transplantation is, as of 2009, the only established use of stem cells.
.Medical researchers believe that stem cell therapy has the potential to dramatically change the treatment of human disease.^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ I completely agree with stem cell research.
  • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We must have stem cell research...
  • The Fix - White House Cheat Sheet: The Politics of Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A number of adult stem cell therapies already exist, particularly bone marrow transplants that are used to treat leukemia.^ Problems with adult stem cells?
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stem cells are already used in clinics with resounding success.
  • Stem Cell Research: Science and the Future : NPR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone marrow stem cells have also been used to rebuild a woman’s windpipe .
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

[52] .In the future, medical researchers anticipate being able to use technologies derived from stem cell research to treat a wider variety of diseases including cancer, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and muscle damage, amongst a number of other impairments and conditions.^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ Responses to “Stem cell research FTW!” .
  • Stem cell research FTW! | Bad Astronomy | Discover Magazine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: When considering stem cell research, remember that not all research uses stem cells derived from embryos.
  • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53][54] .However, there still exists a great deal of social and scientific uncertainty surrounding stem cell research, which could possibly be overcome through public debate and future research, and further education of the public.^ 'Long road' for stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ The big debate: Stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

.Stem cells, however, are already used extensively in research, and some scientists do not see cell therapy as the first goal of the research, but see the investigation of stem cells as a goal worthy in itself.^ Why do scientists want to use stem cell lines?
  • Diabetes Monitor - Diabetes Monitor - Stem Cell Information Faqs 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.diabetesmonitor.com [Source type: Academic]

^ 'Long road' for stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

[55]

Controversy surrounding research

.Opponents of the research argue that embryonic stem cell technologies are a slippery slope to reproductive cloning and can fundamentally devalue human life.^ Opposing embryonic stem cell research currently stems from a fallacy...
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Money spent on embryonic-stem-cell research and human cloning is money that cannot be spent on [investigating] adult stem cells.

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

.Some in the pro-life movement argue that a human embryo is already a human life that is entitled to protection.^ Some do not consider human embryos to be human individuals.
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Notes 1 Finnis, J. (2000) `Some fundamental evils in generating human embryos by cloning' in Mazzoni, C.M. (2000) Etica della Ricerca Biologica Florence: Leo S. Olschki.
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Given that embryos are human beings, they have a right to self and a right to life.
  • Stem cells, Embryonic - Mary Meets Dolly 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contrarily, supporters of embryonic stem cell research argue that such research should be pursued because the resultant treatments could have significant medical potential.^ Opposing embryonic stem cell research currently stems from a fallacy...
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

^ Embryonic stem cells .
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is also noted that excess embryos created for in vitro fertilization could be donated with consent and used for the research.^ No embryos will be created for research purposes..."

^ That’s right, excess embryos created at fertility clinics are routinely discarded!

^ Embryos can be created in the lab by in vitro fertilization, with the use of sperm and egg.

.The ensuing debate has prompted authorities around the world to seek regulatory frameworks and highlighted the fact that stem cell research represents a social and ethical challenge.^ 'Long road' for stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ World premiere in stem cell research in Montreal .
  • Biology News Net : Stem Cell Research Archives 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.biologynews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Biology News Net : Stem Cell Research Archives 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.biologynews.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

.The recent development of iPS cells has been called a bypass of the legal controversy.^ As embryo develops further, more specialization occurs, and the stem cells have less potential, but can still develop into a number of tissue, so are called multipotent .
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This conference will bring recent developments in stem cell therapy to the international scene and articulate Grekos’ work with adult stem cells to cure patients across the globe.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Research and development initiatives relating to the use of stem cells from menstrual blood continue to gain momentum, as evidenced by a recent international partnership.
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

.Laws limiting the destruction of human embryos have been credited for being the reason for development of iPS cells, but they are less efficient and reliable than natural stem cells.^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

^ What, then, are the basic rights of human beings as they apply to the embryo?
  • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That's why they are called stem cells.
  • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various methods are being developed to bypass this problem by removing mutations.^ In addition, they can be developed without the kind of problems embryonic stem cells have had when injected into humans -- including being rejected or causing tumors to develop.

[56][57]

Research patents

.The patents covering a lot of work on human embryonic stem cells are owned by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF).^ Labels: egg cell , Embryonic Stem Cell Research .

^ 'Long road' for stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The big debate: Stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

.WARF does not charge academics to study human stem cells but does charge commercial users.^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

^ FDA approves human embryonic stem cell study .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human embryo stem cells?
  • The Fix - White House Cheat Sheet: The Politics of Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

WARF sold Geron .Corp. exclusive rights to work on human stem cells but later sued Geron Corp.^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

^ School: Human stem cell work faked .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human embryo stem cells?
  • The Fix - White House Cheat Sheet: The Politics of Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

to recover some of the previously sold rights. The two sides agreed that Geron Corp. would keep the rights to only three cell types. .In 2001, WARF came under public pressure to widen access to human stem-cell technology.^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

^ Human embryo stem cells?
  • The Fix - White House Cheat Sheet: The Politics of Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

[58]
.These patents are now in doubt as a request for review by the US Patent and Trademark Office has been filed by non-profit patent-watchdogs The Foundation for Taxpayer & Consumer Rights and the Public Patent Foundation as well as molecular biologist Jeanne Loring of the Burnham Institute.^ He is also the founder and director of The Wellness Research Foundation, a non-profit organization involved in on-going original research to evaluate natural alternatives to pharmaceutical therapies.

^ Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) holds patent rights for development of new drug therapies using human embryonic stem cells.

^ Right now there is no "public consensus" for funding embryonic stem cell research from embryos made especially for research.
  • Stem cells, Embryonic - Mary Meets Dolly 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to them, two of the patents granted to WARF are invalid because they cover a technique published in 1993 for which a patent had already been granted to an Australian researcher.^ Singer has no trouble with experimentation on humans granted that they have a diminished mental/functioning capacity since we already experiment on animals.
  • The Fix - White House Cheat Sheet: The Politics of Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, congressional supporters of destructive human embryo research have already said they will pursue a more extreme policy.
  • Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.wf-f.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, they make it considerably harder to publish your research, since they want to keep a lid on any potentially patentable discoveries and they don’t want your research to help their competitors.
  • Stem cell research FTW! | Bad Astronomy | Discover Magazine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another part of the challenge states that these techniques, developed by James A. Thomson, are rendered obvious by a 1990 paper and two textbooks.^ See also commentary on these two papers, same issue, pp.
  • Stem cells and Genesis 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC creation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This web focus gathers these two papers together with papers more recently published by Nature in the same spirit.

^ Development continues on techniques to increase the number of these cells ex vivo.
  • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

The outcome of this legal challenge is particularly relevant to the Geron Corp. as it can only license patents that are upheld.[59]

Key research events

.
  • 1908 - The term "stem cell" was proposed for scientific use by the Russian histologist Alexander Maksimov (1874–1928) at congress of hematologic society in Berlin.^ That is why I am in favor of using stem cells.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also called therapeutic cloning , is a method for obtaining stem cells that has been used to clone animals.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Discussion of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) often brings up related issues, including therapy using embryonic stem cells.
    • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    .It postulated existence of haematopoietic stem cells.
  • 1960s - Joseph Altman and Gopal Das present scientific evidence of adult neurogenesis, ongoing stem cell activity in the brain; like André Gernez, their reports contradict Cajal's "no new neurons" dogma and are largely ignored.
  • 1963 - McCulloch and Till illustrate the presence of self-renewing cells in mouse bone marrow.
  • 1968 - Bone marrow transplant between two siblings successfully treats SCID.
  • 1978 - Haematopoietic stem cells are discovered in human cord blood.
  • 1981 - Mouse embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass by scientists Martin Evans, Matthew Kaufman, and Gail R. Martin.^ The thing that differentiates human embryonic stem cell research from adult stem cell research is that, with embryonic experiments, there are no results.
    • Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.wf-f.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bone marrow derived stem cells also have been shown to contribute to regeneration of gastrointestinal epithelia in human patients.
    • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Therefore, it is not surprising that adult stem cells have been isolated from peripheral blood.
    • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Gail Martin is attributed for coining the term "Embryonic Stem Cell".
  • 1992 - Neural stem cells are cultured in vitro as neurospheres.
  • 1997 - Leukemia is shown to originate from a haematopoietic stem cell, the first direct evidence for cancer stem cells.
  • 1998 - James Thomson and coworkers derive the first human embryonic stem cell line at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.^ It's the first FDA-approved study of an embryonic stem cell product in human patients.
    • Stem cells, Embryonic - Mary Meets Dolly 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1998, Dr. James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin first isolated human embryonic stem cells (ESCs).

    ^ Q: The first president to fund embryonic stem cell research?
    • Stem cells, Embryonic - Mary Meets Dolly 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [60]
  • .
  • 2000s - Several reports of adult stem cell plasticity are published.
  • 2001 - Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology clone first early (four- to six-cell stage) human embryos for the purpose of generating embryonic stem cells.^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells (2003) ed.
    • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
    • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It's the first FDA-approved study of an embryonic stem cell product in human patients.
    • Stem cells, Embryonic - Mary Meets Dolly 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [61]
  • 2003 - Dr. Songtao Shi of NIH discovers new source of adult stem cells in children's primary teeth.[62]
  • .
  • 2004–2005 - Korean researcher Hwang Woo-Suk claims to have created several human embryonic stem cell lines from unfertilised human oocytes.^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells (2003) ed.
    • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Labels: egg cell , Embryonic Stem Cell Research .

    ^ Human Embryonic Stem Cells ed.
    • What Are Stem Cells? 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The lines were later shown to be fabricated.
  • 2005 - Researchers at Kingston University in England claim to have discovered a third category of stem cell, dubbed cord-blood-derived embryonic-like stem cells (CBEs), derived from umbilical cord blood.^ I think stem cell research is wrong.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Labels: egg cell , Embryonic Stem Cell Research .

    ^ Opposing embryonic stem cell research currently stems from a fallacy...
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The group claims these cells are able to differentiate into more types of tissue than adult stem cells.
  • 2005 - Researchers at UC Irvine's Reeve-Irvine Research Center are able to partially restore the ability of mice with paralyzed spines to walk through the injection of human neural stem cells.
  • August 2006 - Rat Induced pluripotent stem cells: the journal Cell publishes Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka.^ I personaly believe that most types of stem cell research is okay.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most types of stem cell research are morally acceptable and laudable.

    ^ I think stem cell research is wrong.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [63]
  • .
  • October 2006 - Scientists at Newcastle University in England create the first ever artificial liver cells using umbilical cord blood stem cells.^ Scientists confirm that studies add to the potential uses for cord blood stem cells .
    • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
    • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Nevertheless, using cord blood has advantages.
    • Stem Cell Research: Science and the Future : NPR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Blood from umbilical cord and placenta is rich in hematopoietic stem cells.
    • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [64][65]
  • January 2007 - Scientists at Wake Forest University led by Dr. Anthony Atala and Harvard University report discovery of a new type of stem cell in amniotic fluid.[66] .This may potentially provide an alternative to embryonic stem cells for use in research and therapy.^ Opposing embryonic stem cell research currently stems from a fallacy...
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

    ^ Embryonic stem cells .
    • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

    [67]
  • .
  • June 2007 - Research reported by three different groups shows that normal skin cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic state in mice.^ A group of embryonic stem cells.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Embryonic stem cell therapy Adult stem cell therapy and research Umbilical cord stem cell therapy At their most basic definition, stem cells have the ability to limitlessly divide and are capable of developing into one or several different types of the 220 cells found in the human body.
    • Stem Cell Treatment Abroad | Cheap Stem Cell Treatment Hospitals, Clinics, Doctors, Specialist and Health Centers 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Advocates for Stem Cell Research About the Author Stem Cell Research, specifically, Embryonic Stem Cell Research, has the potential to change the face of human disease that plagues mankind forever.
    • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | Advocates for Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC my.democrats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [68] .In the same month, scientist Shoukhrat Mitalipov reports the first successful creation of a primate stem cell line through somatic cell nuclear transfer[69]
  • October 2007 - Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies win the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work on embryonic stem cells from mice using gene targeting strategies producing genetically engineered mice (known as knockout mice) for gene research.^ Opposing embryonic stem cell research currently stems from a fallacy...
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

    ^ Embryonic stem cells .

    [70]
  • .
  • November 2007 - Human induced pluripotent stem cells: Two similar papers released by their respective journals prior to formal publication: in Cell by Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka, "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors",[71] and in Science by Junying Yu, et al., from the research group of James Thomson, "Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells":[72] pluripotent stem cells generated from mature human fibroblasts.^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .

    ^ I completely agree with stem cell research.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We must have stem cell research...
    • The Fix - White House Cheat Sheet: The Politics of Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is possible now to produce a stem cell from almost any other human cell instead of using embryos as needed previously, albeit the risk of tumorigenesis due to c-myc and retroviral gene transfer remains to be determined.
  • January 2008 - Robert Lanza and colleagues at Advanced Cell Technology and UCSF create the first human embryonic stem cells without destruction of the embryo[73]
  • January 2008 - Development of human cloned blastocysts following somatic cell nuclear transfer with adult fibroblasts[74]
  • February 2008 - Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult mouse liver and stomach: these iPS cells seem to be more similar to embryonic stem cells than the previous developed iPS cells and not tumorigenic, moreover genes that are required for iPS cells do not need to be inserted into specific sites, which encourages the development of non-viral reprogramming techniques.^ Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also called therapeutic cloning , is a method for obtaining stem cells that has been used to clone animals.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Up to now, no human being has ever been cured of a disease using embryonic stem cells.

    ^ These cells possess multipotent markers similar to stem cells from other sources.
    • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]
    • Cord blood and Placental Stem Cells - Cryo-Cell 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.cryo-cell.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Treatments - Treatments Using Stem Cells - Research on Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearchnews.net [Source type: Academic]

    [75]
  • .
  • March 2008-The first published study of successful cartilage regeneration in the human knee using autologous adult mesenchymal stem cells is published by clinicians from Regenerative Sciences[76]
  • October 2008 - Sabine Conrad and colleagues at Tübingen, Germany generate pluripotent stem cells from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis by culturing the cells in vitro under leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) supplementation.^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

    ^ Stem cells are already used in clinics with resounding success.
    • Stem Cell Research: Science and the Future : NPR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The cells will be categorized based on general tissue of isolation, with the primary emphasis on human adult stem cells, supplemented with information from animal studies.
    • stemcellresearch.org - "Adult Stem Cells" by David Prentice 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

    [77]
  • .
  • 30 October 2008 - Embryonic-like stem cells from a single human hair.^ Embryonic stem cells .
    • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

    ^ Embryonic stem cells have not helped a single human patient or demonstrated any .

    [78]
  • .
  • 1 March 2009 - Andras Nagy, Keisuke Kaji, et al. discover a way to produce embryonic-like stem cells from normal adult cells by using a novel "wrapping" procedure to deliver specific genes to adult cells to reprogram them into stem cells without the risks of using a virus to make the change.^ Embryonic stem cells .
    • Cloning and Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.linacre.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It had been given human embryonic stem cells.

    ^ Gene therapy can be improved by using stem cells.
    • Stem Cell Research: Science and the Future : NPR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Academic]

    [79][80][81] .The use of electroporation is said to allow for the temporary insertion of genes into the cell.^ I disagree with allowing religious dogma to dictate public policy, but Kaine is still willing to use other types of stem cells besides those from embryos.
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This researcher is micro-injecting mouse stem cells into fertilized mouse eggs to be used in drug research.
    • BioZine: Stem Cell Research — Potential Solutions, Practical Challenges 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC biologybiozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gene therapy can be improved by using stem cells.
    • Stem Cell Research: Science and the Future : NPR 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Academic]

    [82][83][84][85]
  • 28 May 2009 Kim et al. announced that they had devised a way to manipulate skin cells to create patient specific "induced pluripotent stem cells" (iPS), claiming it to be the 'ultimate stem cell solution'.[86]

See also

References

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  51. ^ Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's disease, osteoarthritis: Stroke and traumatic brain injury repair: Learning defects: Spinal cord injury repair:
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    Heart infarction:
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    Anti-cancer: Baldness: Replace missing teeth: Repair hearing: Restore vision: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis:
    • Drs. Gearhart and Kerr of Johns Hopkins University. April 4, 2001 edition of JAMA (Vol. 285, 1691-1693)
    Crohn's disease: Wound healing:
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External links

General
Peer-reviewed journals

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Stem cells article)

From Wikiversity

.Welcome to the Stem Cells Study Project.^ Her future goals are to translate her basic science studies of human stem cell behavior into clinical and operative tissue engineering interventions.
  • Leadership - SSSCR - Student Society for Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.ssscr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Strategic Development Fund will provide financial support to develop and accelerate projects in stem cell research towards a well-defined goal.

^ American Association for the Advancement of Science studies on stem cell research.
  • BU Libraries | Guides | Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Microscopy of human stem cells.

Contents

Content summary

.Stem cells are undifferenciated cells that can be found in bone marrow, aborted fetuses, menstrual blood, exc.^ The prototypical adult stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell, is found in the bone marrow.
  • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences | Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC njms.umdnj.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We will begin with the bone marrow stem cell.
  • stemnow.com » stem cell therapy 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.stemnow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, blood stem cells cannot form bone.
  • Basic Stem Cell Facts|International Stem Cell Registry at UMass Medical School 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.umassmed.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They have shown potential to replace damaged body tissue and repair spinal cord injuries.^ They have shown potential to replace damaged body tissue and repair spinal cord injuries.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Others have the potential to repair or replace damaged tissue or cells.

^ It has been shown that stem cells from this blood can migrate to damaged tissues and repair them.
  • Stem Cell Research - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • HOME : Stem Cell Cord Blood Banking 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.stemcellcordblood.net [Source type: Academic]

.Parkinson's Disease is also a subject in stem cell research and has show some progress.^ Another breakthrough in Stem Cell Research .
  • .: United States Senator Tom Coburn :: Stem Cell Information :. 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC coburn.senate.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ 'Long road' for stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Policy of research on embryos and embryo stem cell research .


.Some countries have banned stem cell research since the embryonic stem cell type involves the disposal of fertilized female embryo (Zygote) in order to retrieve a mass of 30 stem cells the eighth day of life.^ Where do embryonic stem cells come from?
  • Rutgers Stem Cell Research Center 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC scrc.rutgers.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Treatments for Cerebral Palsy: Stem Cell Therapy 28 January 2010 0:55 UTC www.healing-arts.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Myth Embryonic stem cell research uses embryos that have begun to develop as babies.
  • Stem Cell Research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What types of stem cells exist?
  • Your Orthopaedic Connection: Frequently Asked Questions About Stem Cells 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC orthoinfo.aaos.org [Source type: Academic]

Goals

.Help Wikiversity participants understand what stem cells are and how they can be used in medical treatments.^ L. Medical research using stem cells obtained from human embryos .
  • Stem Cell Veto Contrary to Public Opinion 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.gallup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are using her cord for the stem cell.
  • Stem Cell Research | Facebook 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

^ Do embryos have to be used to harvest stem cells?

.This interdisciplinary project also investigates why and how some governments regulate stem cell research.^ Another breakthrough in Stem Cell Research .
  • .: United States Senator Tom Coburn :: Stem Cell Information :. 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC coburn.senate.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ 'Long road' for stem cell research .
  • Stem Cell Research: News & Videos about Stem Cell Research - CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How do you invest in stem cell research?

Learning materials

.Learning materials and learning projects are located in the main Wikiversity namespace.^ Learning materials and learning projects are located in the main Wikiversity namespace.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Learning materials and learning projects can be used by multiple projects.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Content summary 2 Goals 3 Learning materials 3.1 Texts 3.2 Lessons 3.3 Assignments 3.3.1 Activities 3.3.2 Readings 4 References 5 Active participants 6 Learning Project Summary 7 See also 8 External links .
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

.Simply make a link to the name of the lesson (lessons are independent pages in the main namespace) and start writing!^ Simply make a link to the name of the lesson (lessons are independent pages in the main namespace ) and start writing!
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mail the publication in care of the English Department at that address or email through the Contact link at the top of the main page.
  • The American Democracy Project at Indiana University South Bend 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC ee.iusb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When you start writing your stem cell research paper think of how you are going to make it more interesting for the reader.
  • Stem Cell Research - Blogs, Pictures, and more on Blogged 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: Academic]

.You should also read about the Wikiversity:Learning model.^ What have you learned about life?
  • Biotechnology & Stem-Cell Research: Interview With Dr. Leon Kass - Health (washingtonian.com) 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.washingtonian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But you should not worry about it.

^ You can read more about it in "The Constitution" .
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Kaine blocks funding for embryonic stem cell research « - Blogs from CNN.com 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lessons should center on learning activities for Wikiversity participants.^ Lessons should center on learning activities for Wikiversity participants.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You should also read about the Wikiversity:Learning model.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Content summary 2 Goals 3 Learning materials 3.1 Texts 3.2 Lessons 3.3 Assignments 3.3.1 Activities 3.3.2 Readings 4 References 5 Active participants 6 Learning Project Summary 7 See also 8 External links .
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

.Learning materials and learning projects can be used by multiple projects.^ Learning materials and learning projects can be used by multiple projects.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Can these materials be shared with other researchers for use in connection with federally funded projects?
  • UCSF Stem Cell Research - Frequently Asked Questions 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.research.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Learning materials and learning projects are located in the main Wikiversity namespace.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cooperate with other departments that use the same learning resource.^ Cooperate with other departments that use the same learning resource.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It does not respect the dignity or right to life of the human embryo and instead treats him/her as resource material to be used for the treatment of others.
  • Stem cell research 9 February 2010 16:31 UTC www.spuc.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Learning which genes are used in self-renewing adult stem cells compared with cancer stem cells in the same tissue is also important since both cells self-renew, but only the cancer cells grow indefinitely and spread to other organs.
  • Stem Cell FAQs | Connecting for Kids 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC sickkidsus.org [Source type: Academic]

  • ...

Texts

Lessons

  • Lesson 1: ...

Assignments

Activities

  • Activity 1.
  • etc.

Readings

.Each activity has a suggested associated background reading selection.^ Each activity has a suggested associated background reading selection.
  • Stem cells - Wikiversity 12 January 2010 5:47 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Academic]

  • Reading 1:
  • Reading 2 (howto example):
  • etc.

References

Additional helpful readings include:
  • whaaz, a general science wiki site, have recent updates on stem cells.
  • ...

Active participants

Active participants in this Learning Group
  • ...

Learning Project Summary

  • Project code:
  • Suggested Prerequisites:
    • ...
  • Time investment:
  • Assessment suggestions:
  • Portal:
  • School:
  • Department:
  • Stream
  • Level:

See also

External links


Simple English

File:Human embryonic stem
Human embryonic stem cells
A: Cell colonies that are not yet differentiated.
B: Nerve cell

Stem cells are cells of the body (somatic cells) which can divide and become differentiated.[1]p425

When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skin, muscle, blood, bone, liver, nerves, all have different types of cell. Because stem cells are not yet differentiated, they can change to become some kind of specialized cells. Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells during lifetime.

Stem cells are found in most, if not all, plants and animals. They divide and differentiate into a range of cell types. Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings in the 1960s.[2][3]

The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells, and adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialised embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of blood, skin, and intestinal tissues.

Stem cells can be grown in cell culture. In culture, they can be transformed into specialised cells, such as those of muscles or nerves. Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, (umbilical cord, blood, bone marrow), are now routinely used in medical therapies. Researchers expect that stem cells will be used in many future therapies.[4]

Embryonic stem cells

[[File:|250px|thumb|left|Human embryonic stem cell colony.]] Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are stem cells taken from the inner cell mass of the early stage embryo known as a blastocyst. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days after fertilization. At that time, they are made up of between 50 and 150 cells.

The stem cells' state, and what the daughter cells turn into, is influenced by signals from other cells in the embryo.

Other websites

References

  1. King R.C. Stansfield W.D. & Mulligan P.K. 2006. A dictionary of genetics, 7th ed. Oxford.
  2. Becker AJ, McCulloch EA, Till JE (1963). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Cytological demonstration of the clonal nature of spleen colonies derived from transplanted mouse marrow cells"]. Nature 197: 452–4. doi:10.1038/197452a0. PMID 13970094. 
  3. Siminovitch L, McCulloch EA, Till JE (1963). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The distribution of colony-forming cells among spleen colonies"]. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 62: 327–36. doi:10.1002/jcp.1030620313. PMID 14086156. 
  4. Tuch BE (2006). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Stem cells—a clinical update"]. Australian Family Physician 35 (9): 719–21. PMID 16969445. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Stem cell, which are similar to those in the above article.








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