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Stephen William Hawking

Stephen Hawking at NASA
Born Stephen William Hawking
8 January 1942 (1942-01-08) (age 68)
Oxford, England, United Kingdom
Residence England, United Kingdom
Nationality British
Fields Applied mathematician
Theoretical physicist
Institutions University of Cambridge
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Alma mater University of Oxford
University of Cambridge
Doctoral advisor Dennis Sciama
Other academic advisors Robert Berman
Doctoral students Bruce Allen
Raphael Bousso
Fay Dowker
Malcolm Perry
Bernard Carr
Gary Gibbons
Harvey Reall
Don Page
Tim Prestidge
Raymond Laflamme
Julian Luttrell
Known for Black holes
Theoretical cosmology
Quantum gravity
Influences Dikran Tahta
Notable awards Prince of Asturias Award (1989)
Copley Medal (2006)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
Signature
.Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942[1]) is a British theoretical physicist, whose world-renowned scientific career spans over 40 years.^ Stephen Hawking is arguably the world's best- known living physicist.
  • Stephen Hawking in space - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Stephen Hawking was born in Oxford.
  • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Hawking is Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at cambridge and is widely considered to be one of the greatest theoretical physicists since Newton and Einstein.
  • ASU Origins Conference: Stephen Hawking Lecture | ASU News 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC asunews.asu.edu [Source type: General]

.His books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity and he is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts,[2] a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences,[3] and in 2009 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States.^ This is probably because the Swedish Royal Academy demands that an award-winning discovery must be supported by verifiable experimental or observational evidence.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What I find odd is that Obama has included Stephen Hawking right alongside Mary Robinson when handing out his Presidential Medals of Freedom.
  • It doesn’t take Stephen Hawking to figure this one out | Jay Bookman 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Plus New Writers Award Science, Engineering & Technology Blog, February 16, 2009 ...in the June 2009 issue of Plus.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for thirty years, taking up the post in 1979 and retiring on 1 October 2009.[5][6] He is also a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and a Distinguished Research Chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario.^ Stephen Hawking will lead his research center at the Perimeter Institute.
  • Hawking, Stephen W. - Blogrunner 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ He was sitting next to me in the Gonville & Caius College dining room at Cambridge.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ Stephen Hawking is Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge; his other books for the general reader include the...
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

[7] .He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes.^ Lecture two will be about black holes and lecture three will be on quantum cosmology.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stephen Hawkings great discovery was that the mysterious regions in space we call black holes radiate heat through quantum effects.
  • Hawking, Stephen W. - Blogrunner 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ In super massive black holes which emit polar jets the stong force which holds the quark apart is overcome by gravity and the items separate.
  • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has also achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; these include the runaway best seller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British Sunday Times bestsellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.^ His popular science book ‘A Brief History of Time’ was a publishing sensation, staying at the top of the bestseller lists...
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ His publications for the general public on time and on black holes are best sellers.

^ Stephen Hawking's bestseller A Brief History of Time is the most popular book about cosmology ever written.
  • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[8][9]
.Hawking's key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose, theorems regarding singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation (or sometimes as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation).^ Hawking's work, to date, remains unproved.
  • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the singularity that the Hawking-Penrose theorem predicts.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theorems predict singularities in two situations.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.Hawking has a neuro-muscular dystrophy that is related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the years and has left him almost completely paralysed.^ One month later, Hawking was diagnosed with a debilitating disease, ALS or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, known in North America as Lou Gehrig's disease.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And chrismealy, Hawking wasn't diagnosed with ALS until he was in his 20s, so while he was born a few years before the NHS was created, his illness wasn't diagnosed until many years after the creation of the NHS in 1948.
  • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Hawking, who is Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University -- a post once held by Sir Isaac Newton -- suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease.

Contents

Early life and education

Stephen Hawking was born to Dr. Frank Hawking, a research biologist, and Isobel Hawking. He had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary and an adopted brother, Edward.[11] .Though Hawking's parents were living in North London, they moved to Oxford while his mother was pregnant with Stephen, desiring a safer location for the birth of their first child (London was under attack at the time by the Luftwaffe).^ Stephen Hawking, though, is another matter.
  • Stephen Hawking vs. Dr. Strangelove vs. Larry Flynt @ WWWF Grudge Match 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.grudge-match.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Permalink They did have a note that a previous version of the editorial had implied that Stephen Hawking did not live in Britain.
  • Stephen Hawking likes his "Death Panel" Health Care just fine, thanks | erica's Blog 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fernando Aguilar on January 08, 2007 at 11:21 PM Report this comment Stephen Hawking, you will live forever!
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

[12] .According to Hawking, a German V-2 missile struck only a few streets away.^ If only Stephen Hawking could attend a few heath care town halls via satellite or pre-taped video...
  • Stephen Hawking likes his "Death Panel" Health Care just fine, thanks | erica's Blog 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to his Cambridge collaborators, Hawking has been unwell for the past few weeks —he wasn't able to attend...
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ Dont need synchronous orbits for that, they only need to be far enough away to see their "half" of the body, a few thousand km for the moon.
  • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[13]
.After Hawking was born, the family moved back to London, where his father headed the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research.^ Professor Stephen Hawking has been appointed a distinguished research chair at Waterloo, Ont.'s Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.
  • Stephen Hawking coming to Waterloo, Ont.’s Perimeter Institute 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Strangeglove may have trouble with his hand, but Hawking can't move his head unaided!
  • Stephen Hawking vs. Dr. Strangelove vs. Larry Flynt @ WWWF Grudge Match 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.grudge-match.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .In 1950, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans in Hertfordshire where he attended St Albans High School for Girls from 1950 to 1953. (At that time, boys could attend the Girls school until the age of 10.[14]) From the age of 11, he attended St Albans School, where he was a good, but not exceptional, student.^ Hawking states "The idea that God might want to change His mind is an example of the fallacy, pointed out St. Augustine, of imagining God as a being existing in time.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meghan says: October 10, 2009 at 11:50 pm Was Stephen Hawking on Family Guy too, or did I make that up?
  • I WAS ON THE « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Report this comment #10 posted by gollux , August 11, 2009 8:12 AM Every time he opens his mouth, he brays.
  • Anti-health-care loon says Stephen Hawking wouldn't stand a chance under British health care system - Boing Boing 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

[11] .When asked later to name a teacher who had inspired him, Hawking named his mathematics teacher, Dikran Tahta.^ Yet are the millions of doctors and scientists thanked who thanks to empirical enquiry have been able to provide Hawking with means to keep him alive?
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Hawking, who is Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University -- a post once held by Sir Isaac Newton -- suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease.

^ 'Stephen Hawking's Universe' is a website for students and teachers who are interested in the physics of the universe.
  • Network Nuggets: Science 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.cln.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .He maintains his connection with the school, giving his name to one of the four houses and to an extracurricular science lecture series.^ As memorable as my Brezhnev hangover was, my last serious hangover--about four years ago--was the one that convinced me I'd rather not have any more ever again.
  • John Kelly's Washington - washingtonpost.com 25 September 2009 16:28 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ A statement that I think gives some balance to all of this is by one of my scientific heroes, Erwin Schrodinger, after whom the most famous equation in science is named: the Schrodinger equation.
  • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One can interpret the functional integral over all compact four-geometries bounded by a given three-geometry as giving the amplitude for that three-geometry to arise from a zero three-dimensional geometry, i.e., a single point.
  • Why Stephen Hawking's Cosmology Precludes a Creator 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

He has visited to deliver one of the lectures and has also granted a lengthy interview to pupils working on the school magazine, The Albanian.
.Hawking was always interested in science.^ He’s always been interested in science.
  • Solving the mysteries of the universe - Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a discussion of his childhood interest in models and games, Hawking has acknowledged this: "My aim was always to build working models that I could control.

^ To celebrate fully his disabled, cybernetic identity would be, for Hawking, a surrender to the forces that his life and science have always regarded as other and have been dedicated to overcoming.

[11] .Inspired by his mathematics teacher, he originally wanted to study the subject at university.^ Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole - its structure, origin, and development.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hawking was interested in studying mathematics but University College, Oxford, where he enrolled, did not offer the subject and so he studied physics instead focussing on relativity, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics.

^ Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole--it's structure, origin and development.
  • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Hawking's father wanted him to apply to University College, Oxford, where his father had attended.^ If this is what Mr. Hawking wants and a billionaire wants to give it to him I believe it is a great idea.
  • Stephen Hawking in space - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Why does Hawking find, within the functioning of the universe, aspects that appear to him to be limitations of God's power?
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hawking was interested in studying mathematics but University College, Oxford, where he enrolled, did not offer the subject and so he studied physics instead focussing on relativity, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics.

.As University College did not have a mathematics fellow at that time, it would not accept applications from students who wished to read that discipline.^ Now, those of you who carefully read my section on space time and the ergosphere, your just reward is here.

^ So I encourage you to be one of those who have actually read A Brief History of Time .
  • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have tried to show the entropy of such a universe would be a quarter of the area of the event horizon at the time of maximum expansion.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hawking therefore applied to read natural sciences, in which he gained a scholarship.^ Reading this I pictured Stephen Hawking reading some top science paper including one or two minor logical flaws and posting: "n00bfag" in comment section.
  • Stephen Hawking: "The Human Species Has Entered a New Stage of Evolution" - The Daily Galaxy Top Story of 2009 : science 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have been a Hawking groupie since first reading, "A Brief History of Time", sharing this book with science students for decades.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Once at University College, Hawking specialised in physics.^ The universe is a physically closed system that is described by the Hartle-Hawking "no-boundary" wave function of the universe.
  • Why Stephen Hawking's Cosmology Precludes a Creator 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am referring to the "no boundary proposal" that Hawking published in 1984 in work with James Hartle, a physics professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Stephen Hawking's Universe' is a website for students and teachers who are interested in the physics of the universe.
  • Network Nuggets: Science 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.cln.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .His interests during this time were in thermodynamics, relativity, and quantum mechanics.^ If you look at a mirror in the dark and say his name three times, a quantum mechanics problem appears and makes your brain explode.
  • I WAS ON THE « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking A great read for anyone interested in astrophysics and understanding quantum physics better.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ The similarity with thermodynamics is further increased by the so called Zeroth Law of Black Hole Mechanics: the surface gravity is the same everywhere on the event horizon of a time independent black hole.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said in The New York Times Magazine:
.It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it.^ What I want to know is how 322% of people managed to thumb this answer up an 222% managed to thumb it down.
  • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Elana Presumably without the CO2, we can radiate some of that into space, but how much more energy could we consume if we had that technology?
  • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally there looked like something that could make space travel look possible after Einstein put his ridiculous speed of light limit.

[...] .He didn't have very many books, and he didn't take notes.^ Imagine the many people who will take note of such an adventure and take action in their own lives.
  • Stephen Hawking in space - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Smart Dude Note to Stephen Hawking: Why not take the best 100 answers and put them in a new book?
  • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

Of course, his mind was completely different from all of his contemporaries
.[11]
.Hawking was passing, but his unimpressive study habits resulted in a final examination score on the borderline between first and second class honours, making an "oral examination" necessary.^ Hawking is, you might say, living, breathing proof that these people are first-class fools.
  • It doesn’t take Stephen Hawking to figure this one out | Jay Bookman 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ When Hawking finally convinced himself that his results were accurate, he was able to employ quantum mechanics to account for the mechanism by which this radiation could be emitted.

^ There are two responses we can make, simultaneously, to the challenges posed by Clarke, Hawking and Rees - and to the responsibilities passed on by Roosevelt.

Berman said of the oral examination:
.And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize they were talking to someone far more clever than most of themselves.^ They seem more than a tad umm unconventional.
  • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pelosi is far more deserving of the term Lady Gaga than that private citizen to whom THX gives the prize.
  • Stephen Hawking Has Not Yet Been Murdered by the NHS | The Spectator 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spectator.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Surely if one considers themselves to be intelligent at all, they realize that giving a person an IQ is like giving a person a tennis match.
  • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[11]
.After receiving his B.A. degree at Oxford University in 1962, he stayed to study astronomy.^ On completion of his degree he went to Cambridge for further study in Astronomy and cosmology.

^ Hawking was interested in studying mathematics but University College, Oxford, where he enrolled, did not offer the subject and so he studied physics instead focussing on relativity, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics.

.He decided to leave when he found that studying sunspots, which was all the observatory was equipped for, did not appeal to him and that he was more interested in theory than in observation.^ They did more than "fix it".
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I ask, in all honesty, how a Government Beauracrat can be more resistant to pressure than a for-profit-company which is answerable to no one, at all.
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aspiring to know the mind of God, he can imagine nothing more interesting than a set of equations governing the motion of particles.
  • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .He left Oxford for Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he engaged in the study of theoretical astronomy and cosmology.^ On completion of his degree he went to Cambridge for further study in Astronomy and cosmology.

^ The British professor, who was born in Oxford, England, in 1942, is known for his study of cosmology, which focuses on the universe in its totality, along with his work on quantum gravity, which is theoretical physics.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Physicist Stephen Hawking undergoing tests to diagnose trouble 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ He returned to Cambridge in 1986 as Dean of Trinity Hall and subsequently President of Queens' College.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

Career in theoretical physics

.Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge, he started developing symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (known colloquially in the USA as Lou Gehrig's disease), a type of motor neuron disease which would cost him almost all neuromuscular control.^ Hawking suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's Disease.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ One month later, Hawking was diagnosed with a debilitating disease, ALS or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, known in North America as Lou Gehrig's disease.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And he has Motor Neuron Disease, he is not quadraplegic or paraplegic .
  • I WAS ON THE « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During his first two years at Cambridge, he did not distinguish himself, but, after the disease had stabilised and with the help of his doctoral tutor, Dennis William Sciama, he returned to working on his Ph.D.[11]
.Hawking was elected as one of the youngest Fellows of the Royal Society in 1974, was created a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1982, and became a Companion of Honour in 1989. Hawking is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.^ Hawking subsequently became a celebrity pitchman himself, appearing in advertisements for British Telecommunications and later for U.S. Robotics, the modem manufacturer.

^ As British comic Ricky Gervais quipped in one of his stand-up routines, "Hawking is such a snob, with that phony American accent and all that."
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New co-chair of atomic scientists calls on US administration to reduce nuclear threat EurekAlert!, January 13, 2009 ...the School of Earth and Space Exploration, was named to the Board of Sponsors in 2006, along with Stephen Hawking , Lisa Randall and Brian Greene.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

.Hawking's achievements were made despite the increasing paralysis caused by the ALS. By 1974, he was unable to feed himself or get out of bed.^ Hawking himself said in an interview shortly following the publication of A Brief History of Time that "what really made a difference was that I got engaged to a woman named Jane Wilde.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other historical figures (Einstein and maybe someone else, I can't remember) were of course faked by made-up actors, but Stephen Hawking was the man himself.
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hawking himself has said that "what really made a difference was that I got engaged to a woman named Jane Wilde.
  • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.His speech became slurred so that he could only be understood by people who knew him well.^ Don't forget he uses a speech-enabled computer to convey his ideas to a highly qualified assistant who blackboards equations for him.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They're too far back, who knows what other people could have been smarter than them.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eddington, after giving the first public exposition of Einstein's new theory in England, was asked by a reporter if it was true that only three people in the world understood relativity.

.In 1985, he caught pneumonia and had to have a tracheotomy, which made him unable to speak at all.^ After contracting pneumonia in 1985 a tracheotomy was performed and he lost his power of speech completely which until then had become increasingly slurred.

^ Hawking lost his speech in 1985 after he fell ill with pneumonia and had to have a tracheotomy.
  • Interview: Stephen Hawking | Science | The Guardian 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.A Cambridge scientist built a device that enables Hawking to write onto a computer with small movements of his body, and then have a voice synthesizer speak what he has typed.^ Theoretically, the signals can also be sent to a speech synthesizer, allowing a paralyzed user to speak with all the intensity and creepiness of Stephen Hawking.

^ The Beeb reports "Leading scientist Stephen Hawking's condition has "improved" after being admitted to hospital with chest problems, Cambridge University says."
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Stephen Hawking, Maybe it is just me, but I thought that you needed to not only be able to understand Physics, but also be able to speak/write in a grammatically correct manner to get anywhere in science.
  • Stephen Hawking Message Board 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC stephen-hawking.com [Source type: General]

[16]

Research fields

.Hawking's principal fields of research are theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity.^ The British professor, who was born in Oxford, England, in 1942, is known for his study of cosmology, which focuses on the universe in its totality, along with his work on quantum gravity, which is theoretical physics.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ "The institute's twin focus, on quantum theory and gravity, is very close to my heart and central to explaining the origin of the universe," Dr. Hawking said in a statement.
  • Stephen Hawking coming to Waterloo, Ont.’s Perimeter Institute 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The institute provides a multi-disciplinary environment to foster scientific collaboration in research areas of cosmology, particle physics, quantum foundations, quantum gravity, quantum information, superstring theory, and related disciplines.
  • Stephen Hawking coming to Waterloo, Ont.’s Perimeter Institute 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

Professor Stephen Hawking in Cambridge.
.In the late 1960s, he and his Cambridge friend and colleague, Roger Penrose, applied a new, complex mathematical model they had created from Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.^ However in 1915, Einstein introduced his revolutionary General Theory of Relativity.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But string theory, at least at its current state of development, is quite incapable of making these predictions except by appealing to general relativity as the low energy effective theory.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They demonstrated that every solution to the equations of general relativity guarantees the existence of a singular boundary for space and time in the past.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] .This led, in 1970, to Hawking proving the first of many singularity theorems; such theorems provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a singularity in space-time.^ This is the singularity that the Hawking-Penrose theorem predicts.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hawking's book, which was on England's Sunday Times bestseller list for 237 weeks, was first published in 1988.
  • Physicist Stephen Hawking undergoing tests to diagnose trouble 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ They demonstrated that every solution to the equations of general relativity guarantees the existence of a singular boundary for space and time in the past.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

.This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic feature of general relativity.^ They demonstrated that every solution to the equations of general relativity guarantees the existence of a singular boundary for space and time in the past.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is correct, there will be a singularity, a point of infinite density and space-time curvature, where time has a beginning.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The equations of General Relativity would break down at the singularity.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.He supplied a mathematical proof, along with Brandon Carter, Werner Israel and D. Robinson, of John Wheeler's "No-Hair Theorem" – namely, that any black hole is fully described by the three properties of mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.^ This relates the change in mass of a black hole to the change in the area of the event horizon and the change in its angular momentum and electric charge.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The no hair theorem, proved by the combined work of Israel, Carter, Robinson and myself, shows that the only stationary black holes in the absence of matter fields are the Kerr solutions.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be shown that there are no more continuous degrees of freedom 22 No Hair Theorem Stationary black holes are characterised by mass M, angular momentum J and electric charge Q. of time independent Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hawking also suggested that, upon analysis of gamma ray emissions, after the Big Bang, primordial mini black holes were formed.^ All we have to do is find a primordial black hole.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He focused a good deal of his work on black holes, predicting that they emit radiation, which is generally known as Hawking radiation.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized | ITworld 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ He has focused a good deal of his work on black holes, predicting that they emit radiation, which is generally known as Hawking radiation.
  • Physicist Stephen Hawking undergoing tests to diagnose trouble 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.With Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics, drawing an analogy with thermodynamics.^ Second Law of Black Hole Mechanics δA ≥ 0 Second Law of Thermodynamics δS ≥ 0 The similarity with thermodynamics is increased by what is called the First Law of Black Hole Mechanics.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back That essay, "The Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes," is reprinted in Black Holes and Baby Universes , 101-13.

^ I propose that this is the case for many black holes and that this is why we see matter coming out of the poles of many black holes.
  • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1974, he calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles, known today as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation, until they exhaust their energy and evaporate.^ He focused a good deal of his work on black holes, predicting that they emit radiation, which is generally known as Hawking radiation.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized | ITworld 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet when Hawking began to explore this issue further, his calculations revealed that black holes should emit radiation at a steady rate.

^ However, if the black hole is emitting Hawking radiation, then it only has a finite lifetime.

[19]
.In collaboration with Jim Hartle, Hawking developed a model in which the universe had no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial singularity of the classical Big Bang models with a region akin to the North Pole: one cannot travel north of the North Pole, as there is no boundary.^ Don't be afraid to travel in Space and Time.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ One can choose the initial conditions of the universe at the Big Bang to be the initial conditions of this model.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hartle-Hawking universe.
  • Why Stephen Hawking's Cosmology Precludes a Creator 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

.While originally the no-boundary proposal predicted a closed universe, discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation that the no-boundary proposal is also consistent with a universe which is not closed.^ The no boundary proposal implies that the universe is spatially closed.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results so far agree with the predictions of the no boundary proposal.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The institute's twin focus, on quantum theory and gravity, is very close to my heart and central to explaining the origin of the universe," Dr. Hawking said in a statement.
  • Stephen Hawking coming to Waterloo, Ont.’s Perimeter Institute 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.Hawking's many other scientific investigations have included the study of quantum cosmology, cosmic inflation, helium production in anisotropic Big Bang universes, large N cosmology, the density matrix of the universe, topology and structure of the universe, baby universes, Yang-Mills instantons and the S matrix, anti de Sitter space, quantum entanglement and entropy, the nature of space and time, including the arrow of time, spacetime foam, string theory, supergravity, Euclidean quantum gravity, the gravitational Hamiltonian, Brans-Dicke and Hoyle-Narlikar theories of gravitation, gravitational radiation, and wormholes.^ Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole - its structure, origin, and development.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that there can not be a global time coordinate on Euclidean-de Sitter space.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "His best-selling book, A Brief History of Time , was written so that average people could understand current theories on the origins of the universe and other pretty complicated questions."
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

At a George Washington University lecture in honour of NASA's 50th anniversary, Professor Hawking theorised on the existence of extraterrestrial life, believing that "primitive life is very common and intelligent life is fairly rare."[20]

Losing an old bet

.
U.S. President Barack Obama talks with Stephen Hawking in the Blue Room of the White House before a ceremony presenting him and 15 others the Presidential Medal of Freedom on Aug.
^ President Barack Obama recently bestowed the honour on physicist Stephen Hawking , among others.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ President Obama recently bestowed the honour on physicist Stephen Hawking .
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ President Barack Obama recently bestowed the honour on physicist Stephen Hawking , amongst others.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

12, 2009. The Medal of Freedom is the nation's highest civilian honour.
.Hawking was in the news in July 2004 for presenting a new theory about black holes which goes against his own long-held belief about their behaviour, thus losing a bet he made with Kip Thorne and John Preskill of Caltech.^ He focused a good deal of his work on black holes, predicting that they emit radiation, which is generally known as Hawking radiation.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized | ITworld 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ He has focused a good deal of his work on black holes, predicting that they emit radiation, which is generally known as Hawking radiation.
  • Physicist Stephen Hawking undergoing tests to diagnose trouble 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Back Stephen Hawking, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (New York, 1993), 38.

.Classically, it can be shown that information crossing the event horizon of a black hole is lost to our universe, and that thus all black holes are identical beyond their mass, electrical charge and angular velocity (the "no hair theorem").^ However not all Black Holes are alike.
  • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the earth has no obvious event horizon.
  • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This relates the change in mass of a black hole to the change in the area of the event horizon and the change in its angular momentum and electric charge.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The problem with this theorem is that it implies the black hole will emit the same radiation regardless of what goes into it, and as a consequence that if a pure quantum state is thrown into a black hole, an "ordinary" mixed state will be returned.^ (Or, in this case, fall into a black hole.

^ He focused a good deal of his work on black holes, predicting that they emit radiation, which is generally known as Hawking radiation.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized | ITworld 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ He has focused a good deal of his work on black holes, predicting that they emit radiation, which is generally known as Hawking radiation.
  • Physicist Stephen Hawking undergoing tests to diagnose trouble 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.This runs counter to the rules of quantum mechanics and is known as the black hole information paradox.^ He focused a good deal of his work on black holes, predicting that they emit radiation, which is generally known as Hawking radiation.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Second Law of Black Hole Mechanics δA ≥ 0 Second Law of Thermodynamics δS ≥ 0 The similarity with thermodynamics is increased by what is called the First Law of Black Hole Mechanics.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However they have had very little success in showing how information can get out of a black hole.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mankind's future in space

.At the 50th Anniversary of NASA in 2008, Hawking gave a keynote speech on the final frontier exhorting and inspiring the space technology community on why we (the human race) explore space.^ April 2008 by David Shiga For similar stories, visit the Spaceflight Topic Guide Stephen Hawking called for a massive investment in establishing colonies on the Moon and Mars in a lecture in honour of NASA's 50th anniversary.
  • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ But in a speech in Washington, DC, US, delivered in honour of NASA's 50th anniversary in 2008, Hawking focused on near-term possibilities, backing the space agency's goals of returning astronauts to the Moon by 2020 and sending humans to Mars soon after that.
  • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ Are those who devote the time and effort in researching the technology that have enabled Hawking to keep communicating with the outside world thanked?
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

[21]
.At the celebration of his 65th birthday on 8 January 2007, Hawking announced his plan to take a zero-gravity flight in 2007 to prepare for a sub-orbital spaceflight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service.^ Stephen Hawking plans to see space .
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ SpaceShipTwo will make a sub-orbital flight to the edge of space.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ That is 8 times the speed that the Virgin Galactic flight will be.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Billionaire Richard Branson pledged to pay all expenses for the latter, costing an estimated £100,000.[22] Stephen Hawking's zero-gravity flight in a "Vomit Comet" of Zero Gravity Corporation, during which he experienced weightlessness eight times, took place on 26 April 2007.[23] He became the first quadriplegic to float in zero-gravity.^ Such as: Is Stephen Hawking a time traveler?
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ At present, a flight costs about £100,000 but Sir Richard will sponsor Prof Hawking's mission.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Professor Stephen Hawking, wheelchair-bound due to Lou Gehrig's disease for nearly 40 years and unable to speak or move his arms and legs, became the first person with such a disability to experience weightlessness on a zero-gravity jet .
  • Stephen Hawking, Freed from Earthly Handicap, Flies - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

.This was the first time in 40 years that he moved freely, without his wheelchair.^ He took eight plunges and for the first time in so many years was able to move freely without his wheelchair.

^ Professor Stephen Hawking, wheelchair-bound due to Lou Gehrig's disease for nearly 40 years and unable to speak or move his arms and legs, became the first person with such a disability to experience weightlessness on a zero-gravity jet .
  • Stephen Hawking, Freed from Earthly Handicap, Flies - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

^ I had a relative that succombed to MND only 3 years after first diagnosis and believe it is remarkable that Prof. Hawking is still contributing to society after all this time.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The fee is normally US$3,750 for 10–15 plunges, but Hawking was not required to pay the fee.^ In the US a normal (non wealthy) person with the same condition as Hawking would be left to die as he would not have adequate insurance.
  • It doesn’t take Stephen Hawking to figure this one out » Comment Page 6 | Jay Bookman 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ By masher2 (blog) on 6/15/06 , Rating: 2 By masher2 (blog) on 6/15/2006 10:24:27 AM , Rating: 2 The earth's ecosystem is in no danger from us.
  • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

A bit of a futurist,[24] Hawking was quoted before the flight saying:
.Many people have asked me why I am taking this flight.^ What they should be asking is "Why are we paying for war when people are starving?".
  • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ The difference, many people of faith admit, is not about the outcome, but takes place in the minds and attitude of the people praying.
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ The easiest rebuttal to anyone who tries to paint the NHS as awful is to ask them why very few people opt for private insurance?
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

I am doing it for many reasons. .First of all, I believe that life on Earth is at an ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, or other dangers.^ Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster, such as sudden global warming, nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus or other dangers we have not yet thought of.

^ The renowned University of Cambridge physicist has previously spoken in favour of colonising space as an insurance policy against the possibility of humanity being wiped out by catastrophes like nuclear war and climate change.
  • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ The possibility of nuclear war, a killer virus (whether natural or engineered), a massive asteroid strike or nearby Gamma Ray Burst wiping out life altogether, a near-miss from a Kuiper-Belt object large enough to disrupt the orbit of the earth...the list goes on and on.
  • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.I think the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space.^ I'm happy you are going into space.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ I think the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space."

^ Oh, your trip into space will be wonderful and no one desreves it more than you.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

I therefore want to encourage public interest in space.[25]
.In an interview with The Daily Telegraph, he suggested that space was the Earth's long term hope.^ Human life on earth is tenuous at best when viewed in the long term.
  • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ In that case, actively cooling the Earth is the only long-term solution.
  • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[26] He continued this theme at a 2008 Charlie Rose interview.[27]

Illness

Hawking on 5 May 2006, during the press conference at the Bibliothèque nationale de France to inaugurate the Laboratory of Astronomy and Particles in Paris and the French release of his work God Created the Integers.
.Stephen Hawking is severely disabled by motor neuron disease also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (or ALS).^ Hawking suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's Disease.
  • Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking is hospitalized 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ One month later, Hawking was diagnosed with a debilitating disease, ALS or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, known in North America as Lou Gehrig's disease.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And he has Motor Neuron Disease, he is not quadraplegic or paraplegic .
  • I WAS ON THE « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hawking's illness is markedly different from typical ALS in the fact that his form of ALS would make for the most protracted case ever documented.^ Most industrialized nations in the world have some form of single payer health care because it makes the most sense economically, socially, and morally.
  • It doesn’t take Stephen Hawking to figure this one out | Jay Bookman 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Bulbar onset King Rat, July 22, 2009 ...The two most famous cases of A.L.S. are that of Lou Gehrig and Stephen Hawking .
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ And chrismealy, Hawking wasn't diagnosed with ALS until he was in his 20s, so while he was born a few years before the NHS was created, his illness wasn't diagnosed until many years after the creation of the NHS in 1948.
  • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.A survival for more than 10 years after diagnosis is uncommon for ALS; the longest documented durations are 32 and 39 years and these cases were termed benign because of the lack of the typical progressive course.^ ALS sufferers survive 3 years or more from diagnosis, 20% survive 5 years or more, 10% survive 10 years or more and 5% survive more than 20 years.
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ He’s now had it for more than 40 years.
  • Solving the mysteries of the universe - Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pelosi is far more deserving of the term Lady Gaga than that private citizen to whom THX gives the prize.
  • Stephen Hawking Has Not Yet Been Murdered by the NHS | The Spectator 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spectator.co.uk [Source type: General]

[28]
When he was young, he enjoyed riding horses and playing with other children. .At Oxford, he coxed a rowing team, which, he stated, helped relieve his immense boredom at the university.^ Dicke stated in 1965 that an infinitely old universe "would relieve us of the necessity of understanding the origin of matter at any finite time in the past."
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

Symptoms of the disorder first appeared while he was enrolled at Cambridge; he lost his balance and fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head. .Worried that he would lose his genius, he took the Mensa test to verify that his intellectual abilities were intact.^ I once took a brain teaser test and it said I had unusually strong mathematical abilities.  On the same site, I read Hawking's IQ was around 240.
  • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ And anyone claiming to have an i.q over 150, you've been misinformed or the test you took was not a standard (like for mensa) iq test.
  • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ I'm 12 and when i took my mensa test my IQ was 176 i think Steven Hawkins iq is 238 beause my dad said so and his iq was something stupidly large!
  • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[29] .The diagnosis of motor neuron disease came when Hawking was 21, shortly before his first marriage, and doctors said he would not survive more than two or three years.^ ALS sufferers survive 3 years or more from diagnosis, 20% survive 5 years or more, 10% survive 10 years or more and 5% survive more than 20 years.
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ And he has Motor Neuron Disease, he is not quadraplegic or paraplegic .
  • I WAS ON THE « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He’s now had it for more than 40 years.
  • Solving the mysteries of the universe - Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hawking gradually lost the use of his arms, legs, and voice, and as of 2009 has been almost completely paralysed.^ Reply the_original_shortright says: October 2, 2009 at 1:25 pm Americans are now banned from using any images of Stephen Hawking or of even talking about him.
  • I WAS ON THE « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was just searching the internet to find out what that voice box thingy Stephen Hawking uses is called...
  • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ It is complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all.” hazel8500, April 20, 2009 ...is as it is and why it exists at all.” 2009 April 20 tags: Black Holes by Hazel - Stephen Hawking .
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

.During a visit to the research centre CERN in Geneva in 1985, Hawking contracted pneumonia, which in his condition was life-threatening as it further restricted his already limited respiratory capacity.^ After contracting pneumonia in 1985 a tracheotomy was performed and he lost his power of speech completely which until then had become increasingly slurred.

^ Chris_40, Hawking recently was hospitalized at Addenbrooke hospital in Cambridge for a life-threatening chest infection.
  • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ I have been in a hospital a few times (for less than life threatening conditions, but still .
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

He had an emergency tracheotomy, and as a result lost what remained of his ability to speak. .He has since used an electronic voice synthesizer to communicate.^ He now uses a voice synthesizer which he jokingly remarks on as giving him an American accent.

.The DECtalk DTC01 voice synthesizer he uses, which has an American accent, is no longer being produced.^ He now uses a voice synthesizer which he jokingly remarks on as giving him an American accent.

^ This is made doubly ironic by that fact that Prof Hawking has refused to upgrade his voice synthesiser to a newer model because he doesn't want an American accent.
  • Anti-health-care loon says Stephen Hawking wouldn't stand a chance under British health care system - Boing Boing 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

^ It's a personal and private mater and has no business being used as a political attack tool by an American political party to score political points on a legislative issue.
  • Stephen Hawking likes his "Death Panel" Health Care just fine, thanks | erica's Blog 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Asked why he has still kept it after so many years, Hawking mentioned that he has not heard a voice he likes better and that he identifies with it.^ This voice was remarkably like Hawking.
  • Stephen Hawking vs. Dr. Strangelove vs. Larry Flynt @ WWWF Grudge Match 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.grudge-match.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many thanks to Dr. Hawking for asking the question.
  • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It's important to stand up and let our voices be heard on why health care reform is necessary.
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hawking is said to be looking for a replacement since, aside from being obsolete, the synthesizer is both large and fragile by current standards.^ Since questions and answers are categorized at the site, it's easy to browse and find out what's being said in your topic of interest.
  • Network Nuggets: Science 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.cln.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hawking's condition has apparently improved since being admitted.
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

As of mid 2009, he was said to be using NeoSpeech's VoiceText speech synthesizer.[30]
.In Hawking's many media appearances, he appears to speak fluently through his synthesizer, but in reality, it is a tedious drawn-out process.^ Theoretically, the signals can also be sent to a speech synthesizer, allowing a paralyzed user to speak with all the intensity and creepiness of Stephen Hawking.

^ I view the following statement as Hawking speaking in his right mind: "When one goes back to the real time in which we live, however, there will still appear to be singularities .
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hawking's setup uses a predictive text entry system, which requires only the first few characters in order to auto-complete the word, but as he is only able to use his cheek for data entry, constructing complete sentences takes time.^ In order to use the no boundary proposal to make predictions, it is useful to introduce a concept that can describe the state of the universe at one time.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But until we build a time machine and go back and take pictures of the event, it still remains "theory", no matter how much data we have to support it.
  • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Once one allows that singular histories could take part in the path integral they could occur any where and predictability would disappear completely.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His speeches are prepared in advance, but having a live conversation with him provides insight as to the complexity and work involved. During a Technology, Entertainment, & Design Conference talk, it took him seven minutes to answer a question.[31]
He describes himself as lucky despite his disease. .Its slow progression has allowed him time to make influential discoveries and has not hindered him from having, in his own words, "a very attractive family."^ As for the ranking of Roger Penrose, his work on singularities, his mathematical discoveries, his genius, and his superbly insightful books make him a strong all-time contender for the top-ten.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read Einstein's own words or find out what others have written about him.
  • Network Nuggets: Science 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.cln.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All his brilliant discoveries took place in a very short period of time, cut off by his piety.
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

[32] .When his wife, Jane, was asked why she decided to marry a man with a three-year life expectancy, she responded, "Those were the days of atomic gloom and doom, so we all had a rather short life expectancy."^ Stephen and Jane married and had three children.

^ He met his future wife of 25 years, Jane Wilde, at a New Year's Eve party.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oh, yes, those were the charmed substances that some years ago were felt to contain life-preserving properties.
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 20 April 2009, Cambridge University released a statement saying that Hawking was "very ill" with a chest infection, and was admitted to Addenbrooke's Hospital.^ Chris_40, Hawking recently was hospitalized at Addenbrooke hospital in Cambridge for a life-threatening chest infection.
  • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ "The institute's twin focus, on quantum theory and gravity, is very close to my heart and central to explaining the origin of the universe," Dr. Hawking said in a statement.
  • Stephen Hawking coming to Waterloo, Ont.’s Perimeter Institute 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Hawking -- who is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, a position once held by Isaac Newton -- will conduct regular stays at the institute beginning in the summer of 2009.
  • Stephen Hawking coming to Waterloo, Ont.’s Perimeter Institute 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

[33][34] .The following day, it was reported that his new condition is "comfortable" and he should make a full recovery from the infection.^ New technology will only make things even more comfortable.
  • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There's a lot more you can do on a rocky planet to make yourself comfortable than in a space station, and people could see their conditions improve day by day as tunnels were dug, facilities expanded and local resources exploited.
  • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

[35]
In 2009, Investor's Business Daily (IBD) claimed in an editorial,[36] "People such as scientist Stephen Hawking wouldn't have a chance in the UK, where the National Health Service would say the life of this brilliant man, because of his physical handicaps, is essentially worthless." This caused widespread criticism, as Hawking has in fact lived and worked in the UK his entire life and has relied extensively on NHS treatments.[37] .Hawking replied that, "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS ...^ "I wouldn't be alive today if it weren't for the NHS. I have received a large amount of high quality treatment without which I would not have survived."
  • Stephen Hawking likes his "Death Panel" Health Care just fine, thanks | erica's Blog 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be alive today if it weren't for the NHS. I have received a large amount of high quality treatment without which I would not have survived."
  • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Not only was Hawking treated at NHS hospitals, he is today either the longest-surviving ALS patient or very close to it.
  • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.I have received a large amount of high-quality treatment without which I would not have survived."^ Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be alive today if it weren't for the NHS. I have received a large amount of high quality treatment without which I would not have survived."
  • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ I wouldn’t be here today if it were not for the NHS, I have received a large amount of high-quality treatment without which I would not have survived.” .
  • It doesn’t take Stephen Hawking to figure this one out » Comment Page 6 | Jay Bookman 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ I have received a large amount of high-quality treatment without which I would not have survived ."
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[38] Eventually, IBD issued a correction,[39] but continued to defend the original editorial, calling the mention of Hawking a "bad example" and accusing those that mentioned their error of "chang[ing] the subject."[40]

As popular science advocate

.Hawking has played himself on many television shows and has been portrayed in many more.^ That's more of a reality show than anything on television right now.
  • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Barbara E. Price on January 08, 2007 at 08:42 PM Report this comment Professor Hawking, HAPPY BIRTHDAY...and many more!
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Jacqueline Claire Hodges on January 09, 2007 at 12:14 AM Report this comment Happy Bithday Prof. Hawking and hopefully you will have many more.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.He has played himself on a Red Dwarf anniversary special, played a hologram of himself on the episode "Descent" of Star Trek: The Next Generation, appeared in a skit on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, and appeared on the Discovery Channel special Alien Planet.^ Flynt was played by Woody Harrelson in the movie, Hawking played himself on "Star Trek: The Next Generation".
  • Stephen Hawking vs. Dr. Strangelove vs. Larry Flynt @ WWWF Grudge Match 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.grudge-match.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Actors crave to play even a bit part on a "Star Trek" production (as you did!
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ While Stephen Hawking's appearance in one episode each of The Simpsons and Star Trek qualifies under the "humor" part, neither episode was very sick.
  • Stephen Hawking vs. Dr. Strangelove vs. Larry Flynt @ WWWF Grudge Match 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.grudge-match.com [Source type: Original source]

[41] He has also played himself in several episodes of The Simpsons and Futurama. When he was portrayed on episodes of Family Guy, the voice was actually done by a speech synthesizer on a Macintosh computer, according to DVD Commentary. He has also appeared in an episode of the Dilbert cartoon. .His actual synthesizer voice was used on parts of the Pink Floyd song "Keep Talking" from the 1994 album The Division Bell, as well as on Turbonegro's "Intro: The Party Zone" on their 2005 album Party Animals, Wolfsheim's "Kein Zurück (Oliver Pinelli Mix)". As well as being fictionalised as nerdcore hip hop artist MC Hawking, he was impersonated in duet with Richard Cheese on a cover of "The Girl Is Mine". In 2008, Hawking was the subject of and featured in the documentary series Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe for Channel 4.^ Shaun Curry/AFP/Getty Images British scientist Stephen Hawking attends the 2008 Cambridge Honnorary Degrees 2008's procession on June 23, 2008 at Cambridge University in east England.
  • Stephen Hawking coming to Waterloo, Ont.’s Perimeter Institute 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Theoretically, the signals can also be sent to a speech synthesizer, allowing a paralyzed user to speak with all the intensity and creepiness of Stephen Hawking.

^ Stephen and Lucy Hawking offer the universe Examiner.com, March 27, 2009 ...using light bulbs, (George?s parents), but this is fiction and fiction created by the man himself ?
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

He was also portrayed in the movie "Superhero Movie" by Robert Joy. In the TV series Dark Angel Logan's technology savvy colleague Sebastian is characterized with many similarities to the actual physicist. .In September 2008, Hawking presided over the unveiling of the 'Chronophage' (time-eating) Corpus Clock at Corpus Christi College Cambridge.^ He returned to Cambridge in 1986 as Dean of Trinity Hall and subsequently President of Queens' College.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hawking finished his Ph.D and was awarded a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

^ NWI Times, September 1, 2009 ...Dictionary,' by Samuel Johnson (1755), 'All the President's Men,' by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein (1974) and Stephen Hawking 's 'A Brief History of Time' (1988).
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

[42]

Recognition

Acclaim

.On 19 December 2007, a statue of Professor Stephen Hawking by renowned late artist Ian Walters was unveiled at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Cambridge University.^ Hawking is Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at cambridge and is widely considered to be one of the greatest theoretical physicists since Newton and Einstein.
  • ASU Origins Conference: Stephen Hawking Lecture | ASU News 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC asunews.asu.edu [Source type: General]

^ TRANSCRIPT: Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture BERKELEY — The is the text of the J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture in Physics, delivered March 13, 2007, by Stephen Hawking, the Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge University.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 2007 - 06:05 AM I just finished reading Stephen Hawking's book A Briefer History of Time.

[43] .In May 2008 the statue of Hawking was unveiled at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cape Town.^ Ellis is Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Cape Town, South Africa.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador, El Salvador is named in honour of Stephen Hawking, citing his scientific distinction and perseverance in dealing with adversity.^ I LOVE Stephen Hawking, he is one of my heroes; He has done so much to popularise science to the public (including me) which is a wonderful thing.
  • Stephen Hawking, Freed from Earthly Handicap, Flies - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

^ In the euphoria that followed, Stephen Hawking described the big bang ripples observations as "the scientific discovery of the century, if not all time."
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stephen Hawking Hospitalized TDG - Science, Magick, Myth and History, April 20, 2009 ...Recent news report that scientific celebrity Stephen Hawking has been hospitalized and is currently undergoing some tests.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

[44] .Stephen Hawking Building in Cambridge, opened on 17 April 2007. The building belongs to Gonville and Caius College and is used as an undergraduate accommodation and conference facility.^ He was sitting next to me in the Gonville & Caius College dining room at Cambridge.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ Hawking finished his Ph.D and was awarded a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

^ TRANSCRIPT: Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture BERKELEY — The is the text of the J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture in Physics, delivered March 13, 2007, by Stephen Hawking, the Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge University.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]

Distinctions

.Hawking's belief that the lay person should have access to his work led him to write a series of popular science books in addition to his academic work.^ This is the upside of popular science writing.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ I LOVE Stephen Hawking, he is one of my heroes; He has done so much to popularise science to the public (including me) which is a wonderful thing.
  • Stephen Hawking, Freed from Earthly Handicap, Flies - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

^ The reason the book has sold more than 10 million copies, i.e., the reason for Hawking's success as a popularizer of science, is that he addresses the problems of meaning and purpose that concern all thinking people.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first of these, A Brief History of Time, was published on 1 April 1988 by Hawking, his family and friends, and some leading physicists.^ August 2007 - 06:05 AM I just finished reading Stephen Hawking's book A Briefer History of Time.

^ In an obviously contradictory statement in A Brief History of Time , Hawking actually concedes this point.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In A Brief History of Time , Hawking states, "If the no boundary proposal is correct, He [God] had no freedom at all to choose initial conditions" This statement strikes me as a leap into irrationality.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

It surprisingly became a best-seller and was followed by The Universe in a Nutshell (2001). Both books have remained highly popular all over the world. .A collection of essays titled Black Holes and Baby Universes (1993) was also popular.^ Although it is not obvious from the wave function, a de Sitter universe has thermal properties rather like a black hole.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like in the case of the pair creation of black holes, one can describe the spontaneous creation of an exponentially expanding universe.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My guess is that Black Holes can be explained, that nature will behave similar but more extreme then in the rest of the universe and that we (we as in mankind) will be able to understand these phenomena.
  • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.His most recent book, A Briefer History of Time (2005), co-written by Leonard Mlodinow, aims to update his earlier works and make them accessible to an even wider audience.^ Jane Hawking commented on this aspect of her husband's work following the publication of A Brief History of Time .
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His popular science book ‘A Brief History of Time’ was a publishing sensation, staying at the top of the bestseller lists...
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ I enjoyed your book, "Brief History of Time" and although I didn't quite get it all at first, later reviews wowed me.
  • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

He and his daughter, Lucy Hawking, have recently published a children's book focusing on science that has been described to be "like Harry Potter, but without the magic." This book is called George's Secret Key to the Universe and includes information on Hawking radiation.
Hawking is also known for his wit; he is famous for his oft-made statement, "When I hear of Schrödinger's cat, I reach for my pistol." This was a deliberately ironic paraphrase of "Whenever I hear the word culture... I release the safety-catch of my Browning", from the play Schlageter (Act 1, Scene 1) by German playwright and Nazi Poet Laureate Hanns Johst. His wit has both entertained the non-specialist public and helped them to understand complex questions. Asked in October 2005 on the British daytime chat show Richard & Judy, to explain his assertion that the question "What came before the Big Bang?" was meaningless, he compared it to asking "What lies north of the North Pole?"
.Hawking has generally avoided talking about politics at length, but he has appeared on a political broadcast for the United Kingdom's Labour Party.^ For these reasons, I shall talk about general relativity in these lectures.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Otherwise, we are talking about the political ideals that propose replacing one group of humans with another.
  • Stephen Hawking: "The Human Species Has Entered a New Stage of Evolution" - The Daily Galaxy Top Story of 2009 : science 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was actually researching famous people's IQs in history, and Stephen Hawking appeared on the list - according to estimates, Stephen Hawking has an IQ of around 160, about what Einstein's was.
  • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

He supports the children's charity SOS Children's Villages UK.[46]

Awards and honours

Personal life

.Hawking revealed that he did not see much point in obtaining a doctorate if he were to die soon.^ If so, at what point did Hawking choose to have ALS? .
  • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

.Hawking later said that the real turning point was his 1965 marriage to Jane Wilde, a language student.^ But that didn't make any sense, and then I realized the Guardian had also probably emailed Hawking and he said the same thing to them that he said to me.
  • Stephen Hawking likes his "Death Panel" Health Care just fine, thanks | erica's Blog 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hawking himself said in an interview shortly following the publication of A Brief History of Time that "what really made a difference was that I got engaged to a woman named Jane Wilde.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Our aim is to make real science as exciting as science fiction," Hawking said.

[11] .After gaining his Ph.D. at Trinity Hall, Stephen became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College.^ He returned to Cambridge in 1986 as Dean of Trinity Hall and subsequently President of Queens' College.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hawking finished his Ph.D and was awarded a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

^ Later, of course, Hawking began to carry out independent research, both by himself and with his own doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jane Hawking (née Wilde), Hawking's first wife, cared for him until 1991 when the couple separated, reportedly due to the pressures of fame and his increasing disability.^ He met his future wife of 25 years, Jane Wilde, at a New Year's Eve party.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was finding Jane Wilde that enabled him to break out of his depression and regenerate some belief in his life and work.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hawking himself said in an interview shortly following the publication of A Brief History of Time that "what really made a difference was that I got engaged to a woman named Jane Wilde.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

They had three children: Robert (b. 1967), Lucy (b. 1969), and Timothy (b. 1979). .Hawking then married his nurse, Elaine Mason (who was previously married to David Mason, the designer of the first version of Hawking's talking computer), in 1995. In October 2006, Hawking filed for divorce from his second wife.^ Hawking files for divorce Oct 20, 2006 .
  • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Permalink They did have a note that a previous version of the editorial had implied that Stephen Hawking did not live in Britain.
  • Stephen Hawking likes his "Death Panel" Health Care just fine, thanks | erica's Blog 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I am told by eyewitness observers that in recent years Stephen Hawking has appeared "once or twice a month" in an Anglican church with his second wife.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

[50]
In 1999, Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars, detailing her own long-term relationship with a family friend whom she later married. .Hawking's daughter, Lucy, is a novelist.^ Acclaimed author and astrophysicist Stephen Hawking and his daughter Lucy Hawking contribute a foreword to this remarkable book.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

^ The book was written with his daughter Lucy, who came up with the idea, and Christophe Galfard, the first Frenchman to write a doctorate thesis on Hawking's observations.

^ Stephen Hawking began a children's book trilogy with his daughter Lucy and the French physicist Christophe Galfard: the first book was released in 2007.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

.Their oldest son, Robert, emigrated to the United States, married, and has one child, George Edward Hawking.^ Incidentally, Hawking's fame is now such that he felt obligated to endorse one of the candidates in the 2000 United States presidential election.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Master Maverick In either case, why in the hell did you select one that directly contradicted Hawking’s stated purpose for asking the question?
  • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

Reportedly, Hawking and his first family were reconciled in 2007.[51]

Religious views

.Hawking takes an agnostic position on matters of religion,[52][53] He has repeatedly used the word 'God' (in metaphorical meanings)[54] to illustrate points made in his books and public speeches.^ Does Hawking mean there is a God?
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stephen Hawking thus appears uncertain (agnostic) of his belief in a god of his own creation.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hawking himself said in an interview shortly following the publication of A Brief History of Time that "what really made a difference was that I got engaged to a woman named Jane Wilde.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

.His ex-wife Jane however said he was an atheist during their divorce proceedings,[55][56] Hawking has stated that he is "not religious in the normal sense" and he believes that "the universe is governed by the laws of science.^ Or is the initial state of the universe, determined by a law of science.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The beginning of the universe, would be governed by the laws of science.
  • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However as Steven Hawking rightly said what comes out is exactly the same as what comes out but you cannot read the book that fell into the blck hole.
  • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.The laws may have been decreed by God, but God does not intervene to break the laws."^ For example, Hawking writes on page 122 of the first edition, "These laws (of physics) may have originally been decreed by God, but it appears that He has since left the universe to evolve according to them and does not now intervene in it".
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

[52]

Selected publications

Technical

Popular

.
  • A Brief History of Time, (Bantam Press 1988) ISBN 055305340X
  • Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, (Bantam Books 1993) ISBN 0553374117
  • The Universe in a Nutshell, (Bantam Press 2001) ISBN 055380202X
  • On The Shoulders of Giants.^ Stephen Hawking celebrated scientist and author of “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes” , is...
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Is "A Brief History of Time" also available in polish ?
    • Stephen Hawking Message Board 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC stephen-hawking.com [Source type: General]

    ^ September of 2005 saw the release of A Briefer History of Time (a collaboration with Leonard Mlodinow), which is an abridged version of the original book.

    The Great Works of Physics and Astronomy
    , (Running Press 2002) ISBN 076241698X
  • A Briefer History of Time, (Bantam Books 2005) ISBN 0553804367
.Footnote: On Hawking's website, he denounces the unauthorised publication of The Theory of Everything and asks consumers to be aware that he was not involved in its creation.^ Eddington, after giving the first public exposition of Einstein's new theory in England, was asked by a reporter if it was true that only three people in the world understood relativity.

^ Stephen Hawking and the Theory of Everything Online Documentaries 4 U, April 25, 2009 ...tantalizingly close.
  • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

Children's fiction

.These are co-written with his daughter Lucy.^ The book was written with his daughter Lucy, who came up with the idea, and Christophe Galfard, the first Frenchman to write a doctorate thesis on Hawking's observations.

Films and series

.A list of Hawking's publications through the year 2002 is available on his website.^ The Hawkings were not financially well off in the years prior to publication of his best selling book and needed some help to keep going.
  • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Times 8 January 2010, Retrieved 2010-01-09
  2. ^ "Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts". Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce. http://www.rsa.org.uk/acrobat/honorary_fellows.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  3. ^ Mason, Michael. "Alliance, Many of the greatest minds of science meet regularly in Vatican City to counsel the pope on the hot topics of the day". Discover Magazine (Discover Magazine) (September 2008): 43. 
  4. ^ a b "Hawking receives honour from Obama". Guardian. 13 August 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/feedarticle/8654740?FORM=ZZNR3. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
  5. ^ "Stephen Hawking to give up prestigious Cambridge title". Associated Press. CBC News. 2008-10-24. http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2008/10/24/hawking-cambridge.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  6. ^ "Hawking gives up academic title". BBC News. 2009-09-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/cambridgeshire/8282358.stm. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  7. ^ "Stephen Hawking accepts post at Ontario institute". CTV.ca. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20081127/steven_hawking_081127/20081127?hub=TopStories. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  8. ^ Hawking, Stephen (1988). A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-38016-8. 
  9. ^ Redfor, Tim "How God propelled Stephen Hawking into the bestsellers lists" Guardian 31 July 2009 [1]
  10. ^ "Particle creation by black holes". Project Euclid. http://projecteuclid.org/Dienst/UI/1.0/Summarize/euclid.cmp/1103899181. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Current Biography, 1984. New York City: H. W. Wilson Company. 1984. 
  12. ^ a b O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. "Stephen William Hawking". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. University of St Andrews. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Hawking.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  13. ^ Hawking, Stephen W. (1993). Black Holes And Baby Universes and Other Essays. London: Bantam Books. ISBN 0553374117. 
  14. ^ .Stephen Hawking A Biography.^ Stephen Hawking’s Biography iPhone and iPod Touch Application List, April 28, 2009 ...
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Get Email Alerts About Stephen Hawking Biography Stephen Hawking's Books Message Board Loading..
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    Greenwood Press. 1995.
     
  15. ^ "Dick Tahta". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/story/0,,1983173,00.html. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  16. ^ Hawking, Stephen W.. "Disability Advice". http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=55. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  17. ^ "Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture". University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20080615011734/http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/03/16_hawking_text.shtml/. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  18. ^ Hawking, Stephen; Roger Penrose (January 1970). "The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology". Proceedings of the Royal Society A 314 (1519): 529–548. doi:10.1098/rspa.1970.0021 (inactive 2009-03-13). http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/314/1519/529.abstract. 
  19. ^ Hawking, SW (1974). "Black Hole Explosions". Nature 248 (1): 30–31. doi:10.1038/248030a0. http://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/hawking/. Retrieved 2007-03-23. 
  20. ^ "Primitive life 'likely elsewhere'". Channel 4 News. 22 April 2008. http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/science_technology/primitive+life+likely+elsewhere/2055457. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  21. ^ Hawking, Stephen W. (2008-09-24). "The final frontier". Cosmos Magazine. http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/2209/full. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  22. ^ "Stephen Hawking plans to see space". Telegraph.co.uk. 2007-01-09. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/01/08/nhawking08.xml. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  23. ^ "Hawking takes zero-gravity flight". news.bbc.co.uk. 2007-04-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6594821.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  24. ^ "Move To New Planet, says Hawking". BBC. 2006-11-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6158855.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  25. ^ "Physicist Hawking experiences zero gravity". CNN. 2007-04-26. Archived from the original on 2007-05-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20070504171857/http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/space/04/26/hawking.flight.ap/index.html. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  26. ^ "Colonies in space may be only hope, says Hawking". Telegraph.co.uk. 15 October 2001. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/10/16/nhawk16.xml. Retrieved 2007-08-05. 
  27. ^ Video: A conversation with Dr. Stephen Hawking & Lucy Hawking Charlie Rose, 7 March 2008
  28. ^ Hitshumoto & Munsat (2001). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, A guide for patients and family. Demos Medical Publishing, LLC. p. 36. ISBN 1888799285. 
  29. ^ Hawking, Stephen (1992). Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time: A Reader's Companion. New York Bantam. p. 44. ISBN 0553077724. 
  30. ^ "Stephen Hawking chooses a new voice". http://www.gizmag.com/go/2708/. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  31. ^ "Stephen Hawking: Asking big questions about the universe (Video time index 8:25)". TED Conferences, LLC. http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/242. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  32. ^ "My experience with ALS". Wattpad. http://www.wattpad.com/100128-my-experience-with-als-stephen-hawking. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
  33. ^ Booth, Robert. Stephen Hawking 'very ill' in hospital, The Guardian, 20 April 2009.
  34. ^ "Scientist Hawking 'very ill'". CNN.com. 21 April 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/science/04/20/hawking.health/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  35. ^ Sample, Ian and Booth, Robert (21 April 2009). "Stephen Hawking expected to make full recovery | Science | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/apr/21/hawking-stephen-hospital. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  36. ^ "How House Bill Runs Over Grandma". Investor's Business Daily. 31 July 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-08-11. http://webcitation.org/5iwloITq5. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  37. ^ "Bloggers debate British healthcare". BBC. 2009-08-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8198084.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  38. ^ "Stephen Hawking: I would not be alive without the NHS". The Daily Telegraph. 2009-08-12. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/6017878/Stephen-Hawking-I-would-not-be-alive-without-the-NHS.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  39. ^ "How House Bill Runs Over Grandma". Investor's Business Daily. http://www.ibdeditorials.com/IBDArticles.aspx?id=333933006516877. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  40. ^ "Health Care Here And Over There". Investor's Business Daily. http://www.ibdeditorials.com/IBDArticles.aspx?id=334974250188090&kw=hawking. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  41. ^ "Stephen Hawking". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0370071/. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  42. ^ "News from Cambridge UK". Cambridgenetwork.co.uk. 22 September 2008. http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/article/default.aspx?objid=51566. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  43. ^ "Vice-Chancellor unveils Hawking statue". University of Cambridge. 2007-12-21. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2007122111. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  44. ^ Komar, Oliver; Linda Buechner (October 2000). "The Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador Central America Honours the Fortitude of a Great Living Scientist". Journal of College Science Teaching XXX (2). http://www.oocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/5046/article.html. Retrieved 2008-09-28. 
  45. ^ The Stephen Hawking Building: HRH Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh, visits Cambridge for the official opening of a stunning student accommodation and conference venue, the Stephen Hawking Building 2007-04-18
  46. ^ "Our Friends". SOS Children's Villages. http://www.soschildrensvillages.org.uk/sos-children-charity/our-friends.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-06. 
  47. ^ "Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize". American Physical Society. http://www.aps.org/programs/honors/prizes/lilienfeld.cfm. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  48. ^ "Oldest, space-travelled, science prize awarded to Hawking". The Royal Society. 24 August 2006. http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/news.asp?year=&id=5066. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  49. ^ "Fonseca Prize 2008". University of Santiago de Compostela. http://www.usc.es/en/cursos/conciencia/premio_fonseca2008.html. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  50. ^ "Hawking and second wife agree to divorce". Telegraph.co.uk. 2007-01-09. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/10/20/nhawking20.xml. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  51. ^ "Welcome back to the family, Stephen". The Times. 2007-05-06. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1751518.ece. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  52. ^ a b "Pope sees physicist Hawking at evolution gathering | Science". Reuters. 2008-10-31. http://www.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUSTRE49U6E220081031?feedType=RSS&feedName=scienceNews. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  53. ^ "Stephen Hawking". Nndb.com. http://www.nndb.com/people/563/000022497/#FN1. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  54. ^ "Though A Brief History of Time brings in God as a useful metaphor, Hawking is an atheist" Anthony Burgess, 'Towards a Theory of Everything', The Observer, 29 December 1991, Pg. 42
  55. ^ "Then, in 1999, his former wife published Music To Move The Stars: My Life with Stephen, in which she detailed (...) how her Christian faith clashed with his steadfast atheism; (...) The last line in A Brief History Of Time is famous for saying that, if we could tie together the equations describing the universe, we would "know the mind of God." But, as his former wife says, he is an atheist. So why is the deity making an appearance? The obvious answer is that it helps sell books." Charles Arthur, 'The Crazy World of Stephen Hawking', The Independent (London), 12 October 2001, Features, Pg. 7.
  56. ^ "Jane took much of her dramatic hope at the time from her faith, and still sees something of the irony in the fact that her Christianity gave her the strength to support her husband, the most profound atheist. 'Stephen, I hope, had belief in me that I could make everything possible for him, but he did not share my religious - or spiritual - faith.' " Tim Adams, 'A Brief History of a First Wife', The Observer, 4 April 2004, Review Pages, Pg. 4.
  57. ^ "The Hawking Paradox". Internet Movie Database. 2005. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0819995/. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 

Further reading

  • Boslough, John (1985). .Stephen Hawking's Universe.^ That work isfrom Stephen Hawkings Black Holes and Baby Universes...

    ^ The Beeb reports "Leading scientist Stephen Hawking's condition has "improved" after being admitted to hospital with chest problems, Cambridge University says."
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Stephen Hawking: George's Secret Key to the Universe Jun 28, 2009 Brightcove: .
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    New York: Avon Books. .ISBN 0-380-70763-2.  A layman's guide to Stephen Hawking.
  • Ferguson, Kitty (1991).^ A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking (1988) Stephen Hawking 's excellent layman's guide to the cosmos has loads of information about the Big Bang, black holes and superstring...
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    Stephen Hawking: Quest For A Theory of Everything. Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-553-29895-X.
  • Hawking, S. W. & Ellis, G. F. R. (1973). .The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime.^ Galaxies have "two or one dimensional" gravitational spreads which will work as "surface tension" for forming large scale bubble, or void, structures.

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09906-4.
     . Highly influential in the field.
  • Hawking, S. W. & Israel, W. (1979). .General relativity: an Einstein centenary survey.^ Godel got to know about general relativity when he and Einstein spent their later years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.

    ^ If Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is correct, there will be a singularity, a point of infinite density and space-time curvature, where time has a beginning.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However in 1915, Einstein introduced his revolutionary General Theory of Relativity.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22285-0.
     . A much cited centennial survey.
  • Misner, Charles; Thorne, Kip S. & Wheeler, John Archibald (1995). .Stephen Hawking A Biography.^ Stephen Hawking’s Biography iPhone and iPod Touch Application List, April 28, 2009 ...
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Get Email Alerts About Stephen Hawking Biography Stephen Hawking's Books Message Board Loading..
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    San Francisco: Greenwood Press. .ISBN 978-0313323928. 
  • Morris, Errol (Director).^ An excellent film (1991, director Errol Morris) has been made about A Brief History of Time , and we enjoy the film every year in my freshman seminar.
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

    .A Brief History of Time [Documentary].^ Stephen Hawking celebrated scientist and author of “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes” , is...
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In an obviously contradictory statement in A Brief History of Time , Hawking actually concedes this point.
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jane Hawking commented on this aspect of her husband's work following the publication of A Brief History of Time .
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

    Triton Pictures.
  • Pickover, Clifford, Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them, Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0195336115

External links

Dated

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
For millions of years, mankind lived just like the animals.
^ Der Spiegel (17 October 1988) For millions of years, mankind lived just like the animals.
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For millions of years mankind lived just like the animals.
  • Stephen Hawking at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Stephen Hawking wrote the science bestseller A Brief History of Time - From the New Universe 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newuniverse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jump to: navigation , search For millions of years, mankind lived just like the animals.
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Then something happened which unleashed the power of our imagination.^ Then something happened which unleashed the power of our imagination.
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Stephen Hawking at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Stephen Hawking wrote the science bestseller A Brief History of Time - From the New Universe 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newuniverse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will preserve our species should something happen to the Earth, and ultimately, it may ease the burden of overpopulation here on our green planet.
  • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ In so doing, he has stirred our imagination and shown us the power of the human spirit here on Earth," Obama said.
  • Stephen Hawking // Current 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

We learned to talk and we learned to listen...
.Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS (born 1942-01-08) is a British theoretical physicist.^ Stephen William Hawking , CH , CBE , FRS (born 1942 - 01-08 ) is a British theoretical physicist .
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Template:Infobox Scientist Stephen William Hawking CH , CBE , FRS , FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist .
  • Stephen Hawking - Gravity Wiki 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC gravity.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physicist Stephen Hawking 'comfortable' in hospital .
  • Hawking, Stephen W. - Blogrunner 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

Contents

Sourced

.We need something new.^ We need something new.
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.We can't predict what that will be or when we will find it because if we knew that, we would have found it already!
  • Many people would claim that the boundary conditions are not part of physics but belong to metaphysics or religion.^ We can't predict what that will be or when we will find it because if we knew that, we would have found it already!
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many people would claim that the boundary conditions are not part of physics but belong to metaphysics or religion.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Under such conditions all the laws of science, and therefore all ability to predict the future, would break down.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Stephen W. Hawking Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They would claim that nature had complete freedom to start the universe off any way it wanted.
    That may be so, but it could also have made it evolve in a completely arbitrary and random manner.^ Were it worked out it would not tell how the universe started off.
    • God vs Stephen Hawking's Unbound Theory | CrossLeft 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC crossleft.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They would claim that nature had complete freedom to start the universe off any way it wanted.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They will correspond to universes that would start off expanding at an ever increasing rate.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • 03.16.2007 - Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Professor Stephen Hawking finished his visit in Israel and the Palestinian Authority with a lecture on the origin of the universe. 25 September 2009 16:28 UTC www.hayadan.org.il [Source type: Original source]

    .Yet all the evidence is that it evolves in a regular way according to certain laws.^ Elsewhere he writes: “Yet it appears that God chose to make it [the universe] evolve in a very regular way, according to certain laws”.
    • Ruminating on the Stephen Hawking phenomenon - New English Review 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.newenglishreview.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yet all the evidence is that it evolves in a regular way according to certain laws.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These laws, may have originally been decreed by God, but it appears that he has since left the universe to evolve according to them and does not now intervene in it.
    • Janus Head GWU - 2001 / Is Stephen Hawking Modern?: A Study of A Brief History of Time in Relation to the Theories of Bruno Latour 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.janushead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It would therefore seem reasonable to suppose that there are also laws governing the boundary conditions.
    • "The Quantum State of the Universe", Nuclear Physics (1984)
  • My goal is simple.^ It seems, therefore, that there must be different boundary conditions at the two ends of time.

    ^ My goal is simple.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Stephen Hawking // Current 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]
    • Stephen Hawking wrote the science bestseller A Brief History of Time - From the New Universe 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newuniverse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ My goal is simple,” he famously explained.
    • Stephen Hawking Is Making His Comeback « 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC zikkir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all.
    • As quoted in Stephen Hawking's Universe (1985) by John Boslough, Ch.^ It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all Not only does God play dice, but...
      • Stephen Hawking wrote the science bestseller A Brief History of Time - From the New Universe 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newuniverse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ John Boslough, Stephen Hawking's Universe (New York: Morrow, 1985), 127.

      ^ It is complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all.” hazel8500, April 20, 2009 ...is as it is and why it exists at all.” 2009 April 20 tags: Black Holes by Hazel - Stephen Hawking .
      • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

      7 : The Final Question, p. .77
  • There ought to be something very special about the boundary conditions of the universe and what can be more special than that there is no boundary?
  • What I have done is to show that it is possible for the way the universe began to be determined by the laws of science.^ I feel the necessity to say something here about the anthropic principle.
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But this story is about the universe and unfortunately there are no data for the very beginning.
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sorry there is no way out that way.
    • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In that case, it would not be necessary to appeal to God to decide how the universe began.^ In that case, it would not be necessary to appeal to God to decide how the universe began.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen W. Hawking Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "What I meant when I said we would know the mind of God was that if we discovered the complete set of laws, and understood why the universe existed, we would be in the position of God.
    • Hands up who really understands what Stephen Hawking is telling us? - Science, News - The Independent 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ If Hawking's no-boundary model of the universe is correct, then the answer to another of Einstein's questions, "How much choice did God have in constructing the universe?"

    .This doesn't prove that there is no God, only that God is not necessary.^ This doesn't prove that there is no God, only that God is not necessary.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And if no teaching has taken place, there’s only one person to blame, and that’s the teacher.
    • Ruminating on the Stephen Hawking phenomenon - New English Review 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.newenglishreview.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Another problem is that there is no candidate for the theistic necessary truth q 1 .
    • Why Stephen Hawking's Cosmology Precludes a Creator 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Der Spiegel (17 October 1988)
  • We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star.^ "We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star.
    • The Infidels - Stephen Hawking 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.theinfidels.org [Source type: General]

    ^ We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star.
    • Stephen Hawking at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Stephen Hawking wrote the science bestseller A Brief History of Time - From the New Universe 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newuniverse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although it is not original with him, it is this: "We are such insignificant creatures on a minor planet of a very average star in the outer suburb of one of a hundred billion galaxies.
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    But we can understand the Universe. .That makes us something very special.^ That makes us something very special.
    • Stephen Hawking at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Infidels - Stephen Hawking 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.theinfidels.org [Source type: General]
    • Stephen Hawking wrote the science bestseller A Brief History of Time - From the New Universe 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newuniverse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If we do make contact with an advanced alien race, it would be very, very, very ,very bad for us all.
    • Stephen Hawking on Intelligent Life in the Universe, an insightful discussion., page 1 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are a very happy co-host, along with Lockheed Martin and NASA, of this afternoon's lecture by Professor Stephen and Lucy Hawking, which promises to be something that will be special.
    • Stephen Hawking: "Why We Should Go Into Space" - Asiaing.com: Free eBooks, Free Magazines, Free Magazine Subscriptions 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.asiaing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Der Spiegel (17 October 1988)
  • For millions of years, mankind lived just like the animals.^ Der Spiegel (17 October 1988) For millions of years, mankind lived just like the animals.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For millions of years mankind lived just like the animals.
    • Stephen Hawking wrote the science bestseller A Brief History of Time - From the New Universe 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newuniverse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jump to: navigation , search For millions of years, mankind lived just like the animals.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Then something happened which unleashed the power of our imagination.^ It will preserve our species should something happen to the Earth, and ultimately, it may ease the burden of overpopulation here on our green planet.
    • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

    ^ These differences explain how our universe got its structure and tell us something of the powerful forces that drove its astonishing early growth.

    ^ In so doing, he has stirred our imagination and shown us the power of the human spirit here on Earth," Obama said.
    • Stephen Hawking // Current 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .We learned to talk and we learned to listen.
    Speech has allowed the communication of ideas, enabling human beings to work together to build the impossible.^ It allows your brain to alternate between working on science and returning "back to earth" to meet an interesting human being with all his problems and victories.
    • Amazon.com: Stephen Hawking: A Quest For The Theory Of Everything (9780553298956): Kitty Ferguson: Books 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ With a rapidly aging population requiring unprecedented medical attention, we need to get used to the idea that human beings are still mortal and likely always will be.
    • Marginal Revolution: Debbie Hirst, not Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.marginalrevolution.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is one world elite I can admire & wish humans were wired different, but don't see a planet at peace working together toward space colonilation.
    • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

    .Mankind's greatest achievements have come about by talking, and its greatest failures by not talking. It doesn't have to be like this. Our greatest hopes could become reality in the future.^ Our greatest hopes could become reality in the future.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sounded like he is talking about plasmids.
    • Stephen Hawking: "Humans Have Entered a New Stage of Evolution" 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailygalaxy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Mankind's greatest achievements have come about by talking, and its greatest failures by not talking.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    With the technology at our disposal, the possibilities are unbounded. .All we need to do is make sure we keep talking.^ All we need to do is make sure we keep talking.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For the most part, I did know what she was talking about - and even then I was astounded by how confusing she had managed to make it all seem, and how imprecise a few of her facts and analogies were.
    • Amazon.com: Stephen Hawking: A Quest For The Theory Of Everything (9780553298956): Kitty Ferguson: Books 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Akula971 all the best to your dad and I'll keep making the payments mate.
    • Anti-health-care loon says Stephen Hawking wouldn't stand a chance under British health care system - Boing Boing 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

    .
  • I don't believe that the ultimate theory will come by steady work along existing lines.^ I don't believe that the ultimate theory will come by steady work along existing lines.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pink Floyd on the song Keep Talking ) *It was my idea.
    • Stephen Hawking at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hawking gave his "voice" to parts of the Pink Floyd song "Keep Talking".
    • The Infidels - Stephen Hawking 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.theinfidels.org [Source type: General]

    .We need something new.^ We need something new.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .We can't predict what that will be or when we will find it because if we knew that, we would have found it already!
    It could come in the next 20 years, but we might never find it.^ It could come in the next 20 years, but we might never find it.
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We can't predict what that will be or when we will find it because if we knew that, we would have found it already!
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Hawking - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would be grateful if you could determine from him why he has this belief when he also accepts as true the first law of thermodyamics that decrees that nothing can come into being from nothing.
    • Charlie Rose - A conversation with Dr. Stephen Hawking & Lucy Hawking 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.charlierose.com [Source type: General]

    • Science Watch (September 1994)
.
Although September 11 was horrible, it didn't threaten the survival of the human race, like nuclear weapons do.
  • All of my life, I have been fascinated by the big questions that face us, and have tried to find scientific answers to them.^ What if all of life was like middle school?
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Stephen Hawking, Associated Press, 30 September 2000 "Although September 11 was horrible, it didn't threaten the survival of the human race, like nuclear weapons do.
    • Cambridge Conference Correspondence 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This creation myth, like many others, tries to answer the questions we all ask.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • 03.16.2007 - Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Professor Stephen Hawking finished his visit in Israel and the Palestinian Authority with a lecture on the origin of the universe. 25 September 2009 16:28 UTC www.hayadan.org.il [Source type: Original source]

    .Perhaps that is why I have sold more books on physics than Madonna has on sex.
    • The Illustrated A Brief History of Time (1996) [Disputed...^ I have sold more books on physics than Madonna has on sex.

      ^ His book, A Brief History of Time , is available in paperback and I strongly recommend it.
      • Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I knew more physics than when I started.
      • Interview: Stephen Hawking | Science | The Guardian 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

      see Discussion page.]
.
I don't think the human race will survive the next thousand years, unless we spread into space...
  • I don't think the human race will survive the next thousand years, unless we spread into space.^ "I don't think the human race will survive the next thousand years, unless we spread into space.
    • Cambridge Conference Correspondence 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unless the human race spreads into space, I doubt it will survive the next 1,000 years."
    • Cambridge Conference Correspondence 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Prof Hawking has predicted humans will not survive the next thousand years unless they spread into space.
    • Cambridge Conference Correspondence 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .There are too many accidents that can befall life on a single planet.^ There are too many accidents that can befall life on a single planet.
    • Cambridge Conference Correspondence 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "There are too many accidents that can befall life on a single planet.
    • Cambridge Conference Correspondence 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If the argument about the time scale for the appearance of life on Earth is correct, there ought to be many other stars, whose planets have life on them.
    • Life in the Universe by Prof. Stephen Hawking | Rational Vedanta 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.rationalvedanta.net [Source type: Original source]

    But I'm an optimist. We will reach out to the stars.
    • "Colonies in space may be only hope, says Hawking" by Roger Highfield in Daily Telegraph (16 October 2001)
.
Consideration of black holes suggests, not only that God does play dice, but that He sometimes confuses us by throwing them where they can't be seen.
  • I'm sorry to disappoint science fiction fans, but if information is preserved, there is no possibility of using black holes to travel to other universes.^ Sorry there is no way out that way.
    • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ God not only plays dice.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ God really does play dice.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • 03.16.2007 - Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .If you jump into a black hole, your mass energy will be returned to our universe but in a mangled form which contains the information about what you were like but in a state where it can not be easily recognized.^ (Or, in this case, fall into a black hole.

    ^ I hope that you will write about it when you return.
    • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ But I wonder about black holes a lot.
    • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

    It is like burning an encyclopedia. .Information is not lost, if one keeps the smoke and the ashes.^ On the one side were Susskind and those who believed that Hawking was wrong: information could not be lost.
    • The Universe in a Nutshell: Amazon.ca: Stephen Hawking: Books 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.amazon.ca [Source type: General]

    ^ One could imagine that particles and information could fall into these holes and get lost.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    But it is difficult to read. .In practice, it would be too difficult to re-build a macroscopic object like an encyclopedia that fell inside a black hole from information in the radiation, but the information preserving result is important for microscopic processes involving virtual black holes.^ The holes would then radiate and lose mass.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If information is lost in macroscopic black holes it should also be lost in processes in which microscopic, virtual black holes appear because of quantum fluctuations of the metric.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A black hole would be the end of itself.

    .
  • So Einstein was wrong when he said "God does not play dice". Consideration of black holes suggests, not only that God does play dice, but that He sometimes confuses us by throwing them where they can't be seen.
    • "The Nature of Space and Time" (online text)
    • Unsourced variants: Not only does God play dice with the Universe; he sometimes casts them where they can't be seen.^ Thus a black hole space-time violates this conservation.

      ^ Time is a property only of the universe that God created.
      • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ So Einstein was wrong when he said “God does not play dice”.
      • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


      .Not only does God play dice, but...^ God not only plays dice.
      • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ God really does play dice.
      • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • 03.16.2007 - Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ So Einstein was wrong when he said “God does not play dice”.
      • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      he sometimes throws them where they cannot be seen.
    • .
  • Einstein is the only figure in the physical sciences with a stature that can be compared with Newton.^ Uses the poker game to compare the different concepts of physics of the players and asks the question - Can science prove God does not exist?
    • Science-Lab Science laboratory and information exchange 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC alaricrh.home.sprynet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Stephen Hawking, Maybe it is just me, but I thought that you needed to not only be able to understand Physics, but also be able to speak/write in a grammatically correct manner to get anywhere in science.
    • Stephen Hawking Message Board 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC stephen-hawking.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Judged only by his contributions to physics, he cannot match the giants of the last century: not just Einstein but also Bohr, Heisenberg, and Feynman.
    • Stephen Hawking Is Making His Comeback « 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC zikkir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Newton is reported to have said 'If I have seen further than other men, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants.'^ Doctors and Nurses that are brought in from other countries because they are cheaper than our own specialists.

    ^ Scientists know they need evidence to make claims, and more evidence than just having seen some unexplained lights and anecdotal reports of other people seeing something they cannot explain.
    • Stephen Hawking on Intelligent Life in the Universe, an insightful discussion., page 1 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Other than that, don't look for the seal anymore because - Baby, baby, baby, you're "Out of Time."
    • Stephen Hawking interview 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.blackraiser.com [Source type: Original source]

    .This remark is even more true of Einstein who stood on the shoulders of Newton.^ Even einstein is not more than 200.
    • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ It's even more remarkable.
    • Ezra Klein - How Stephen Hawking Proves That Investor's Business Daily's Editorial Page Tells Lies 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Yeah, that is true, I am thinking more of susan blackmore and james randi, those sceptics who are asserting.
    • Stephen Hawking on Intelligent Life in the Universe, an insightful discussion., page 1 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Both Newton and Einstein put forward a theory of mechanics and a theory of gravity but Einstein was able to base General Relativity on the mathematical theory of curved spaces that had been constructed by Riemann while Newton had to develop his own mathematical machinery. It is therefore appropriate to acclaim Newton as the greatest figure in mathematical physics and the Principia is his greatest achievement.^ However in 1915, Einstein introduced his revolutionary General Theory of Relativity.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • 03.16.2007 - Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Professor Stephen Hawking finished his visit in Israel and the Palestinian Authority with a lecture on the origin of the universe. 25 September 2009 16:28 UTC www.hayadan.org.il [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General relativity: an Einstein centenary survey .
    • Stephen Hawking - Gravity Wiki 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC gravity.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The theory has since been refined to fall in line with quantum mechanics and with general developments in physics.
    • The Infidels - Stephen Hawking 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.theinfidels.org [Source type: General]

    .
  • I have no idea.^ New York: Cambridge University Press .
    • Stephen Hawking - Gravity Wiki 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC gravity.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If Hawking's no-boundary model of the universe is correct, then the answer to another of Einstein's questions, "How much choice did God have in constructing the universe?"

    ^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.
    • Janus Head GWU - 2001 / Is Stephen Hawking Modern?: A Study of A Brief History of Time in Relation to the Theories of Bruno Latour 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.janushead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .People who boast about their IQ are losers.^ People who blame others are losers.
    • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John Zwerling : Allow me to be perfectly clear: I am not talking about withholding representation from people who have been sentenced to die.
    • ZLM - In the News 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.zwerling.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It's the people who can do things that shouldn't pray - like pilots who are about to crash their plane.
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Response upon being questioned as to his IQ, in interview with Deborah Solomon "The Science of Second-Guessing", The New York Times (12 December 2004)
  • Life would be tragic if it weren't funny.^ Hawking clearly possesses a natural teacher's gifts—easy, good-natured humor and an ability to illustrate highly complex propositions with analogies plucked from daily life."— New York Times See all Editorial Reviews .
    • Amazon.com: A Brief History of Time (9780553380163): Stephen Hawking: Books 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ New York Times Book Review , 3 April 1988, 10.

    ^ Email feedback(at)blogrunner.com Copyright 2007-2008 The New York Times Company .
    • Hawking, Stephen W. - Blogrunner 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

    .
    • As quoted in "The Science of Second-Guessing", The New York Times (12 December 2004)
  • I am discounting reports of UFOs.^ New York Times Book Review , 3 April 1988, 10.

    ^ Email feedback(at)blogrunner.com Copyright 2007-2008 The New York Times Company .
    • Hawking, Stephen W. - Blogrunner 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Back Lawrence Van Gelder, "At the Movies," New York Times , 1 June 1990, sec.

    .Why would they appear only to cranks and weirdos?^ Why would they appear only to cranks and weirdos?
    • Stephen Hawking: "Why We Should Go Into Space" - Asiaing.com: Free eBooks, Free Magazines, Free Magazine Subscriptions 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.asiaing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Cosmology Curiosity: Stephen Hawking on UFOs and ETs 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC woodside.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They would need to make many evolutionary steps at once to become competitive which cannot be done because they are not competitive (only what is already working is selected).
    • Stephen Hawking: "The Human Species Has Entered a New Stage of Evolution" - The Daily Galaxy Top Story of 2009 : science 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, I would hypothesize that they would be impossible to comprehend in our current situation as the hosts of only genes and memes.
    • Stephen Hawking: "The Human Species Has Entered a New Stage of Evolution" - The Daily Galaxy Top Story of 2009 : science 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • My expectations were reduced to zero when I was 21. Everything since then has been a bonus.
    • As quoted in "The Science of Second-Guessing", The New York Times (12 December 2004)
    • Unsourced variant: "When one's expectations are reduced to zero, one really appreciates everything one does have."
.
Evolution has ensured that our brains just aren't equipped to visualise 11 dimensions directly...
  • Evolution has ensured that our brains just aren't equipped to visualise 11 dimensions directly.^ Just because evolution led to intelligence in our case, we shouldn't assume that intelligence is an inevitable consequence of Darwinian natural selection.
    • Stephen Hawking: "Why We Should Go Into Space" - Asiaing.com: Free eBooks, Free Magazines, Free Magazine Subscriptions 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.asiaing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However, from a purely mathematical point of view it's just as easy to think in 11 dimensions, as it is to think in three or four.^ One can interpret the functional integral over all compact four-geometries bounded by a given three-geometry as giving the amplitude for that three-geometry to arise from a zero three-dimensional geometry, i.e., a single point.
    • Why Stephen Hawking's Cosmology Precludes a Creator 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I gave it a thought and in a evolutionary view point it would be kind of stupid to develop a brain ten times we need - thinking that the brain consumes a huge amount of energy ;) .
    • Stephen Hawking calls for Moon and Mars colonies - space - 21 April 2008 - New Scientist 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

    ^ However, when one looks at the action of the Euclidean Schwarzschild solution from a four dimensional point of view rather than a 3+1, there is no reason to include a surface term on the horizon because the metric is regular there.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • I think that it's important for scientists to explain their work, particularly in cosmology.^ T he quotes and the other references to Davies are drawn from a review of A Briefer History of Time by Tim Radford, and published in The Guardian on Sept 27, 2005 .
    • Ruminating on the Stephen Hawking phenomenon - New English Review 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.newenglishreview.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hawking celebrates own brief history , 7 January 2002, BBC Black holes turned “inside out" , 22 July 2004, BBC Template:Hour25 Stephen Hawking’s concept of God The role of God within the no boundary cosmology and Imaginary time Return of the time lord , Interview about “A Brief History of Time”, 27 September 2005, The Guardian .
    • Stephen Hawking - Gravity Wiki 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC gravity.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Despite all this, I think Roger has put his finger on an important difference between the two ends of time.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This now answers many questions once asked of religion.^ Many thanks to Dr. Hawking for asking the question.
    • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ More to the point, you haven’t yet answered the question I asked: What system do you think would work better and still cover the uninsured?
    • Stephen Hawking never stood a chance « raincoaster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC raincoaster.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Now you answer my question: Does your religion tell you to lie so much, or does it come naturally to you?
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • It is a waste of time to be angry about my disability.^ T he quotes and the other references to Davies are drawn from a review of A Briefer History of Time by Tim Radford, and published in The Guardian on Sept 27, 2005 .
    • Ruminating on the Stephen Hawking phenomenon - New English Review 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.newenglishreview.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hawking celebrates own brief history , 7 January 2002, BBC Black holes turned “inside out" , 22 July 2004, BBC Template:Hour25 Stephen Hawking’s concept of God The role of God within the no boundary cosmology and Imaginary time Return of the time lord , Interview about “A Brief History of Time”, 27 September 2005, The Guardian .
    • Stephen Hawking - Gravity Wiki 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC gravity.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ My disability makes this a rather slow process, so I had plenty of time" (99).

    One has to get on with life and I haven't done badly. People won't have time for you if you are always angry or complaining.
Equations are just the boring part of mathematics. I attempt to see things in terms of geometry.
  • Equations are just the boring part of mathematics. I attempt to see things in terms of geometry. .
    • As quoted in Stephen Hawking: A Biography (2005) by Kristine Larsen, p.^ Understanding the Universe: On Stephen Hawking's Physics Pictures & Quotes 'A Brief History of Time', Biography .
      • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Stephen Hawking #quote MarkAShanahan Grant hawking merch: "As much as i don't like making money on music..."
      • Stephen Hawking is Hospitalized for Serious Respiratory Problem 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

      ^ In regards to Stephen Hawkings, these are his exact quotes as from the Guardian website .
      • It doesn’t take Stephen Hawking to figure this one out » Comment Page 6 | Jay Bookman 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

      .43
  • The victim should have the right to end his life, if he wants.^ They want to have their bullshit, taught in public class, Stephen J. Gould should put his foot right up their ass.
    • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    But I think it would be a great mistake. .However bad life may seem, there is always something you can do, and succeed at.^ If you look closely, there’s always SOMETHING that the filter catches…even if you don’t actually agree that it should.
    • It doesn’t take Stephen Hawking to figure this one out | Jay Bookman 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The public plans in Germany and France may or may not be paying for Sutent, but in any case, they have limited budgets and there will always be treatments that they do not pay for.
    • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the usual r and t coordinates there is an apparent singularity at the Schwarzschild radius r = 2M. However, this is just caused by a bad choice of coordinates.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    While there's life, there is hope. .
  • The danger is that global warming may become self-sustaining, if it has not done so already.^ By TomZ on 6/15/06 , Rating: 2 By TomZ on 6/15/2006 10:37:47 AM , Rating: 2 Where are you getting your "facts" on global warming - from the media and from politicians?
    • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Like global warming, every credible scientist agrees on that figure give or take a few years, yet people refuse to accept facts.
    • Stephen Hawking: "The Human Species Has Entered a New Stage of Evolution" - The Daily Galaxy Top Story of 2009 : science 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hurricane intensity may actually *decrease* (storms are driven by temperature differentials , and global warming decreases those differences).
    • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    .The melting of the Arctic and Antarctic ice caps reduces the fraction of solar energy reflected back into space, and so increases the temperature further.^ Elana Presumably without the CO2, we can radiate some of that into space, but how much more energy could we consume if we had that technology?
    • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Even if we were to increase the international budget 20 times to make a serious effort to go into space, it would only be a small fraction of world GDP. .
    • Stephen Hawking: "Why We Should Go Into Space" - Asiaing.com: Free eBooks, Free Magazines, Free Magazine Subscriptions 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.asiaing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I was under the impression that extreme weather phenomena increase in quantity and magnitude as the overall heat energy in the atmosphere and oceans (which roughly translates into average global temperature) increases ...
    • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    .Climate change may kill off the Amazon and other rain forests, and so eliminate once one of the main ways in which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere.^ What if we answer one way or the other?
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But one hypothesis : in the near of strong gravity, all particles and rays, waves or other physican phenomenas are slower in this way how stronger the gravity becames.
    • Stephen Hawking Message Board 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC stephen-hawking.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Success” is a relative and subjective term; relative in that, what is “success” for one may be unimportant to another; and subjective in that, there should be no way to quantify it.
    • My Life With Stephen « Not Even Wrong 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.math.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

    The rise in sea temperature may trigger the release of large quantities of carbon dioxide, trapped as hydrides on the ocean floor. .Both these phenomena would increase the greenhouse effect, and so global warming further.^ You'll find out why the theory of ice skating is all wet and how the media confuses the greenhouse effect with global warming.
    • Network Nuggets: Science 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.cln.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Elana I am curious if Dr. Hawkings has seen any studies regarding what solving the CO2 global warming effect really would mean.
    • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ At first I thought that these arguments about perturbations being in their ground state would apply at both ends of the expansion contraction cycle.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .We have to reverse global warming urgently, if we still can.^ I am not denying the importance of fighting climate change and global warming, but we can do that and still spare a quarter of a percent of world GDP for space.
    • Stephen Hawking: "Why We Should Go Into Space" - Asiaing.com: Free eBooks, Free Magazines, Free Magazine Subscriptions 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.asiaing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • The downside of my celebrity is that I cannot go anywhere in the world without being recognized.^ The right to refuse invasive life-exending medical procedures is widely recognized in the western world to be without the moral taint of suicide.
    • My Life With Stephen « Not Even Wrong 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.math.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Parent (1 Hidden) RE: moon base By masher2 (blog) on 6/16/06 , Rating: 2 By masher2 (blog) on 6/16/2006 9:49:17 AM , Rating: 2 Now you're just being silly.
    • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ My celebrity status ended with thirteen minutes left to go.
    • The Unification of Stephen Hawking 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pacificnews.org [Source type: Original source]

    It is not enough for me to wear dark sunglasses and a wig. The wheelchair gives me away.
  • As scientists, we understand the dangers of nuclear weapons and their devastating effects, and we are learning how human activities and technologies are affecting climate systems in ways that may forever change life on Earth.^ 'How may life develop in the future?'
    • Life in the Universe by Prof. Stephen Hawking | Rational Vedanta 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.rationalvedanta.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ First of all, I believe that life on Earth is at an ever increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, or other dangers.
    • Stephen Hawking - Gravity Wiki 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC gravity.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ May God continue to grant you life upon this earth and you have and always will touch my life!!!
    • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .As citizens of the world, we have a duty to alert the public to the unnecessary risks that we live with every day, and to the perils we foresee if governments and societies do not take action now to render nuclear weapons obsolete and to prevent further climate change...^ You'll also find information about how to participate in the live event that will take place online, on Space Day.
    • Network Nuggets: Science 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.cln.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Threats of nuclear war, biological catastrophe, and climate change now bring into question as to how humanity can continue to survive.
    • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I've been taking that challenge every day for the last fifteen years or so.
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .There’s a realization that we are changing our climate for the worse.^ Yet if there really were a complete unified theory, it would determine our actions – so the theory itself would determine the outcome of our search for it!”.
    • Ruminating on the Stephen Hawking phenomenon - New English Review 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.newenglishreview.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You believe more than we don't believe, because we are not only willing, but able, to change our minds and realize that we've been mistaken.
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To do this we must change our perspective for describing reality from matter, to the Space in which all matter exists.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .That would have catastrophic effects.^ So long as that remains true, the idea that colonising another planet would enable us to avoid the effects of the catastrophe is just silly.
    • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    .Although the threat is not as dire as that of nuclear weapons right now, in the long term we are looking at a serious threat.^ Threats of nuclear war, biological catastrophe, and climate change now bring into question as to how humanity can continue to survive.
    • How can the human race survive the next hundred years? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "Although September 11 was horrible, it didn't threaten the survival of the human race, like nuclear weapons do," said the Cambridge University scientist.
    • Cambridge Conference Correspondence 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bottom line the cheapest insurance pool is the biggest insurance pool and has to include those least likly to have ilness now, and prevention requires long term thinking, of that insurance pool.
    • Stephen Hawking Has Not Yet Been Murdered by the NHS | The Spectator 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spectator.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .
  • The zero-G part was wonderful and the higher-G part was no problem.^ Ben Carpenter on January 08, 2007 at 11:35 AM Report this comment i think it is wonderful that stephen will have a chance to experience space flight.
    • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Such trepidations tumbled in my mind like dice as Miguel pushed me into the student union building, where the press conference was to be held in Heller Lounge.
    • The Unification of Stephen Hawking 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.pacificnews.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mark Welton on January 08, 2007 at 06:27 PM Report this comment What a wonderful thing for Hawking to do.
    • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    I could have gone on and on. .Space, here I come!^ Not surprisingly, Stephen was totally stoked about his trip, saying afterward, "space, here I come."
    • Stephen Hawking holds it together in zero-g vomit comet -- Engadget 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A Brief History of Time (1988)

.
The whole history of science has been the gradual realization that events do not happen in an arbitrary manner, but that they reflect a certain underlying order, which may or may not be divinely inspired.
  • Someone told me that each equation I included in the book would halve the sales.^ He also authored several popular books, including A Brief History of Time (1988) and George's Secret Key to the Universe (2007).
    • Stephen Hawking coming to Waterloo, Ont.’s Perimeter Institute 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If this exposes him to charges of hubris in the popular press and criticism from philosophers and theologians, it's nonetheless good for sales--which Hawking has said would have been halved had he cut the book's final sentence, as he at one point contemplated.

    ^ In his book The Pasteurization of France , Latour traces the social and cultural acceptance of Louis Pasteur’s theories of contagion to show how science, culture, and history are inextricably linked.
    • Janus Head GWU - 2001 / Is Stephen Hawking Modern?: A Study of A Brief History of Time in Relation to the Theories of Bruno Latour 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.janushead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I therefore resolved not to have any equations at all. .In the end, however, I did put in one equation, Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2.^ You all couldn't even understand a simple einstein field equation, let alone the universe, or anything Sidis did.
    • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The singularity was a creature of general relativity: Squeeze enough matter and energy into one spot and Einstein’s equations of general relativity predict that the density will become infinite.
    • Stephen Hawking Is Making His Comeback « 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC zikkir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A statement that I think gives some balance to all of this is by one of my scientific heroes, Erwin Schrodinger, after whom the most famous equation in science is named: the Schrodinger equation.
    • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I hope that this will not scare off half of my potential readers.
  • Any physical theory is always provisional, in the sense that it is only a hypothesis: you can never prove it.^ My 7 yr old granddaughter is an avid reader and an 'old soul'- as I believe you are.
    • Stephen Hawking plans to see space - Telegraph 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Stephen Hawking, Maybe it is just me, but I thought that you needed to not only be able to understand Physics, but also be able to speak/write in a grammatically correct manner to get anywhere in science.
    • Stephen Hawking Message Board 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC stephen-hawking.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Holbach wrote: ...even though from the dawn of humans this imaginary thing has never shown itself physically but only in the minds of those who wish it were so.
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .No matter how many times the results of experiments agree with some theory, you can never be sure that the next time the result will not contradict the theory.
    On the other hand, you can disprove a theory by finding even a single observation that disagrees with the predictions of the theory.^ "How many of you are on Medicare?"
    • Daily Kos: Stephen Hawking: "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS." 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It's how well you do what you do that matters, not what you do.
    • What is Stephen Hawking's IQ? - Q&A 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ How would you find this out?
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .As philosopher of science Karl Popper has emphasized, a good theory is characterized by the fact that it makes a number of predictions that could in principle be disproved or falsified by observation.^ We shall take the simpleminded view that a theory is just a model of the universe, or a restricted part of it, and a set of rules that relate quantities in the model to observations that we make.
    • A Briefer History of Time, Stephen Hawking, Book - Barnes & Noble 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But string theory, at least at its current state of development, is quite incapable of making these predictions except by appealing to general relativity as the low energy effective theory.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Steady State theory predicted the shape of the graph of the number of sources, against source Strength.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Each time new experiments are observed to agree with the predictions the theory survives, and our confidence in it is increased; but if ever a new observation is found to disagree, we have to abandon or modify the theory.
  • It has certainly been true in the past that what we call intelligence and scientific discovery have conveyed a survival advantage.^ How many theories have been developed and discoveries facilitated by this man's intelligence over the past twenty years when he should have been (would have been) a victim of the private health care system "death panels" had he not been a US resident rather than a UK resident?
    • Stephen Hawking Enters U.S. Health Care Debate 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Royal Society celebrates 350 years of discovery Journal-News, November 29, 2009 ...to discovery through observation and experiment, form a roll-call of scientific fame: Isaac Newton, Benjamin Franklin, Charles Darwin, Stephen Hawking .
    • Stephen Hawking – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the euphoria that followed, Stephen Hawking described the big bang ripples observations as "the scientific discovery of the century, if not all time."
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It is not so clear that this is still the case: our scientific discoveries may well destroy us all, and even if they don’t, a complete unified theory may not make much difference to our chances of survival.
    However, provided the universe has evolved in a regular way, we might expect that the reasoning abilities that natural selection has given us would be valid also in our search for a complete unified theory, and so would not lead us to the wrong conclusions.
  • Bodies like the earth are not made to move on curved orbits by a force called gravity; instead, they follow the nearest thing to a straight path in a curved space, which is called a geodesic.^ Parent (1 Hidden) What difference would it make?
    • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Hidden) RE: What difference would it make?
    • DailyTech - Scientist Stephen Hawking Believes Humans Must go Into Space 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ However, a plausible scientific case for an infinite or near infinite number of universes has yet to be made.
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

    A geodesic is the shortest (or longest) path between two nearby points.
.
If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists...
  • The whole history of science has been the gradual realization that events do not happen in an arbitrary manner, but that they reflect a certain underlying order, which may or may not be divinely inspired.
  • Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science.
  • One could say: "The boundary condition of the universe is that it has no boundary." The universe would be completely self-contained and not affected by anything outside itself.^ It has to be replaced by a more complete theory..
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On the other hand, if it's one person that's harder to understand than Flynt, it's Hawking.
    • Stephen Hawking vs. Dr. Strangelove vs. Larry Flynt @ WWWF Grudge Match 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.grudge-match.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One could say that this is a replicator.
    • Stephen Hawking: "The Human Species Has Entered a New Stage of Evolution" - The Daily Galaxy Top Story of 2009 : science 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It would neither be created nor destroyed.^ It would neither be created nor destroyed.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He predicted that man-made viruses created through genetic engineering would destroy the human race, if it remained trapped on the Earth.
    • Cambridge Conference Correspondence 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It would just BE.
  • Just like a computer, we must remember things in the order in which entropy increases.^ Just as a computer, we must remember things in the order in which entropy increases.
    • Janus Head GWU - 2001 / Is Stephen Hawking Modern?: A Study of A Brief History of Time in Relation to the Theories of Bruno Latour 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.janushead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The funny thing about Cosmos is that if you watch it today, it seems like just another science show telling accepted facts.
    • Stephen Hawking Sings | Drudge Retort 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.drudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hey,Steve Im writing from a school in Switzerland and i would just like to ask you what ispired you to write 'A brief History of Time' .
    • Stephen Hawking Message Board 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC stephen-hawking.com [Source type: General]

    .This makes the second law of thermodynamics almost trivial.^ This makes the second law of thermodynamics almost trivial.
    • Janus Head GWU - 2001 / Is Stephen Hawking Modern?: A Study of A Brief History of Time in Relation to the Theories of Bruno Latour 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.janushead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Second Law of Black Hole Mechanics δA ≥ 0 Second Law of Thermodynamics δS ≥ 0 The similarity with thermodynamics is increased by what is called the First Law of Black Hole Mechanics.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The second law of thermodynamics says that entropy in any system is always increasing, that is to say, that all systems tend to become disordered.

    .Disorder increases with time because we measure time in the direction in which disorder increases. You can’t have a safer bet than that!
  • Maybe that is our mistake: maybe there are no particle positions and velocities, but only waves.^ I think that you are a hero of our time.
    • Stephen Hawking Message Board 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC stephen-hawking.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But maybe that is our mistake: maybe there are no particle positions and velocities, but only waves.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ According to Susskind, if Hawking's ideas were correct then it would infect all physics, there would no longer be any direct link between cause and effect.
    • The Universe in a Nutshell: Amazon.ca: Stephen Hawking: Books 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.amazon.ca [Source type: General]

    .It is just that we try to fit the waves to our preconceived ideas of positions and velocities.The resulting mismatch is the cause of the apparent unpredictability.
  • Even if there is only one possible unified theory, it is just a set of rules and equations.^ But maybe that is our mistake: maybe there are no particle positions and velocities, but only waves.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is just that we try to fit the waves to our preconceived ideas of positions and velocities.The resulting mismatch is the cause of the apparent unpredictability.
    • Stephen Hawking: WSM Explains Stephen Hawking's Physics. Biography StephenHawking (Steven Hawkings) 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even if there is only one possible unified theory, it is just a set of rules and equations.

    .What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?^ What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?...

    ^ In order to use the no boundary proposal to make predictions, it is useful to introduce a concept that can describe the state of the universe at one time.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The usual approach of science of constructing a mathematical model cannot answer the questions of why there should be a universe for the model to describe.
    Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing?

Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1993)

.
  • If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists.^ "I'm just describing my attitude at the time, which I shared with most of my fellow students: an attitude of complete boredom and feeling that nothing was worth making an effort for."
    • A Briefer History of Time, Stephen Hawking, Book - Barnes & Noble 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Like the uncertainty principle, Godels incompleteness theorem may be a fundamental limitation on our ability to understand and predict the universe, but so far at least it hasnt seemed to be an obstacle in our search for a complete unified theory.

    ^ At the end of the book he states, "However, if we do discover a complete theory.
    • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist.^ It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is, and why it exists at all.” .
    • Stephen Hawking Is Making His Comeback « 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC zikkir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing?

    ^ Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist.

    .If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we would know the mind of God.
    • Last lines.^ The book's famous concluding sentence declares that a complete theory of the universe would be "the ultimate triumph of human reason--for then we would know the mind of God" (175).

      ^ If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason - for then we would know the mind of God.

      ^ "If human life were long enough to find the ultimate theory, everything would have been solved by previous generations.
      • Interview: Stephen Hawking | Science | The Guardian 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

      .Hawking later wrote: "In the proof stage I nearly cut the last sentence in the book...^ If this exposes him to charges of hubris in the popular press and criticism from philosophers and theologians, it's nonetheless good for sales--which Hawking has said would have been halved had he cut the book's final sentence, as he at one point contemplated.

      ^ I come to you a month later and tell you that I chanted the words from the book over my cat every day since I saw you last and that I have an appointment with the vet tomorrow.
      • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Hawking presented the outline of proof that he hoped would at last solve the problem that he had posed almost 30 years earlier.
      • The Universe in a Nutshell: Amazon.ca: Stephen Hawking: Books 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.amazon.ca [Source type: General]

      Had I done so, the sales might have been halved.

The Beginning of Time

Online text
.
To show this diagram properly, I would really need a four dimensional screen.
^ However, I think Penrose himself would agree they really should be called Carter diagrams because Carter was the first to use them systematically.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would have liked to draw you a four dimensional picture.
  • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, because of government cuts, we could manage to provide only a two dimensional screen.
  • When I gave a lecture in Japan, I was asked not to mention the possible re-collapse of the universe, because it might affect the stock market.^ However, government cuts have meant that Cambridge university can afford only two dimensional screens.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He says that because the universe "keeps on rolling the dice to see what happens next, it doesn't just have one history, as one might have thought.
    • The Universe in a Nutshell: Amazon.ca: Stephen Hawking: Books 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.amazon.ca [Source type: General]

    ^ Ross has a substantial discussion of the anthropic principle and demonstrates why many physicists and astronomers have considered the possibility that the universe not only was divinely caused, but in fact divinely designed.
    • Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang, and God 9 October 2009 22:022 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

    .However, I can re-assure anyone who is nervous about their investments that it is a bit early to sell: even if the universe does come to an end, it won't be for at least twenty billion years.^ He has had it at least six years, maybe longer, and he does not even have respiratory complications - yet.
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As Parker works, so does the universe, expanding faster and faster, the end uncertain.

    ^ The story does not end there; a second "forecast skill" map indicates how accurate those summer predictions have been over the years.
    • Network Nuggets: Science 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.cln.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .By that time, maybe the GATT trade agreement will have come into effect.
  • The Steady State theory was what Karl Popper would call a good scientific theory: it made definite predictions, which could be tested by observation, and possibly falsified.^ And second, if the model makes definite predictions that can be tested, and possibly falsified, by observation.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A dictionary definition of the hot big bang theory is "the entire physical universe, all the matter and energy and even the four dimensions of time and space, burst forth from a state of infinite or near infinite density, temperature, and pressure."
    • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But string theory, at least at its current state of development, is quite incapable of making these predictions except by appealing to general relativity as the low energy effective theory.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Unfortunately for the theory, they were falsified.
  • To show this diagram properly, I would really need a four dimensional screen.^ The Theothuglicans did some real damage to the USA and would destroy it if they could.
    • Stephen Hawking seriously ill : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They would need to make many evolutionary steps at once to become competitive which cannot be done because they are not competitive (only what is already working is selected).
    • Stephen Hawking: "The Human Species Has Entered a New Stage of Evolution" - The Daily Galaxy Top Story of 2009 : science 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, I think Penrose himself would agree they really should be called Carter diagrams because Carter was the first to use them systematically.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However, because of government cuts, we could manage to provide only a two dimensional screen.
  • The universe would have expanded in a smooth way from a single point.^ However, government cuts have meant that Cambridge university can afford only two dimensional screens.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The universe would start smooth and ordered and would get more disordered and irregular as it expanded.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Not only could this increase the size of the region by an enormous factor like 1030 or more, it would also leave the region homogeneous and isotropic and expanding at just the critical rate to avoid collapsing again.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .As it expanded, it would have borrowed energy from the gravitational field, to create matter.^ There is an hypothesis that the gravitational drag from the rotating mass could be channeling matter towards the poles where the gravitational dragging would be lower.
    • Black Holes: Eternal Prisons No More, Stephen Hawking's Lecture 17 September 2009 21:44 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In short, the existence of matter and energy in the universe did not require the violation of energy conservation at the assumed creation.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the Steady State theory, as galaxies moved apart, the idea was that new galaxies would form from matter that was supposed to be continually being created throughout space.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .As any economist could have predicted, the result of all that borrowing, was inflation.^ The theory predicts that all the galaxies in the universe should be rushing away from each other at high speeds as a result of that initial big bang.
    • Dr. Fritz Schaefer: Stephen Hawking, the Big Bang and God 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The universe expanded and borrowed at an ever-increasing rate.^ It would initially expand at an ever increasing rate.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The universe is expanding at almost exactly the critical rate to avoid col- lapsing again.
    • The Nature Of Space And Time By Stephen Hawking 1 February 2010 5:05 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They will continue to expand at an ever increasing rate, and will form the bubbles we see.
    • 'Stephen Hawking Says Universe Created from Nothing' by Slashdot - RichardDawkins.net 28 January 2010 1:56 UTC richarddawkins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Fortunately, the debt of gravitational energy will not have to be repaid until the end of the universe.

Misattributed

  • I have hardly ever known a mathematician who was able to reason.
    • Plato, The Republic, Book VII, 531-E.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

Stephen Hawking
File:Stephen Hawking.
BornJanuary 8, 1942 (1942-01-08) (age 69)
Oxford, England
ResidenceEngland
NationalityBritish
FieldMathematics, Physics
InstitutionsUniversity of Cambridge
Alma materUniversity of Oxford
University of Cambridge
Academic advisor  Dennis Sciama
Notable students  Bruce Allen
Fay Dowker
Malcolm Perry
Bernard Carr
Gary Gibbons
Known forBlack holes
Theoretical cosmology
Quantum gravity
Notable prizesPrince of Asturias Award (1989)
Copley Medal (2006)

Prof. Dr. Stephen Hawking, CH CBE FRS (born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist and mathematician. He is one of the world's leading theoretical physicists. A theoretical physicist is someone who uses information from experiments to make predictions about the world. Hawking writes many science books for the public, or the people who are not scientists.

Hawking was a professor of mathematics at the University of Cambridge (a position that Isaac Newton once had[1]). He retired on 1 October 2009.[2]

He has ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease), and because of that he can not move or talk very well. The illness has worsened over the years and he is now almost completely paralyzed. He uses a wheelchair to move, and an Intel computer to talk for him.

Contents

Selected publications

Technical

  • Singularities in Collapsing Stars and Expanding Universes with D. W. Sciama, 1969 Comments on Astrophysics and Space Physics Vol 1 #1
  • The Nature of Space and Time with Roger Penrose, foreword by Michael Atiyah, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-691-05084-8
  • The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with George Ellis, 1973 ISBN 0-521-09906-4
  • The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind, (with Abner Shimony, Nancy Cartwright, and Roger Penrose), Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-56330-5 (hardback), ISBN 0-521-65538-2 (paperback), Canto edition: ISBN 0-521-78572-3
  • Information Loss in Black Holes, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  • God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed History, Running Press, 2005 ISBN 0-7624-1922-9

Popular

Children's books

  • George's Secret Key To The Universe, with Lucy Hawking (Simon & Taylor Blevins Publishing 2007)

Note: On Hawking's website, he criticises the unauthorized publication of The Theory of Everything and asks buyers to boycott the book.

Notes



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Stephen Hawking, which are similar to those in the above article.








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