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.A stereotype is a commonly held public belief about specific social groups, or types of individuals.^ Contending with group image: They psychology of stereotype and social identity threat.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ By the term "stereotype threat" what we have in mind is simply being in a situation where a negative stereotype about your group could apply.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Another piece of research that really deals with this directly: Can you produce these effects in groups who are not subject to any negative stereotypes about something?
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.The concepts of "stereotype" and "prejudice" are often confused with many other different meanings.^ Best Swimsuits for Men Automatic Stereotyping and Prejudice: Activation of Categories and Stereotypes Automatic stereotyping, an implicit categorization that leads to stereotypes and perhaps prejudice, is a subconscious process that many people do.

^ We need to open up to each other and stop thinking, because we are different that we are not the same in many ways.
  • How To Sell a Stereotype | | AlterNet 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, there are so many stereotypes about gender difference that it's almost a mathematical certainty that some of them are grounded in reality.
  • Matthew Yglesias (September 05, 2007) - Stereotype-Confirming Science (Media) 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com [Source type: General]

.Stereotypes are standardized and simplified conceptions of groups, based on some prior assumptions.The vital component to recall is that generally speaking, these "stereotypes" are not based on objective truth, but rather subjective and often unverifiable content-matter.^ Another piece of research that really deals with this directly: Can you produce these effects in groups who are not subject to any negative stereotypes about something?
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Often, these portrayals stray away from the truth; however, directors have stuck with them in order to "give the audience what it wants."

^ From: Nina -- May 29, 2009 Well there r always some truth in stereotypes.

An 18th century stereotype of toileting in Europe.

Contents

Etymology

The word stereotype (στερεότυπος), literally meaning "solid-kind". It was invented by Firmin Didot in the world of printing; it was originally a duplicate impression of an original typographical element, used for printing instead of the original. .American journalist Walter Lippmann coined the metaphor, calling a stereotype a "picture in our heads" saying "Whether right or wrong (...^ Green includes a few pages on "Sayings, Proverbs, Proverbial Comparisons, and Other Metaphoric Usages" [10] that comment in a stereotypical way about Native Americans.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

) imagination is shaped by the pictures seen (...) .Consequently, they lead to stereotypes that are hard to shake."^ Hence, negative stereotypes may lead to lower performance because they can undermine confidence, which, in turn, can lead to a withdrawal of effort.
  • Distinctiveness and Stereotype Threat: How being in the Minority AffectsPerformance in Stereotyped Domains 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC bss.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.[1] In fact, the word cliché and stereotype were both originally printers' words, and in their literal printers' meanings were synonymous.^ In fact, high-T women in the stereotype-prime condition performed worse than low-T women in both the stereotype-prime and control conditions, indicating that the effect of the stereotype was quite large for high-T women.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Specifically, cliché was a French word for the printing surface for a stereotype.[2] The first reference to "stereotype", in its modern, English use was in 1850, in the noun, meaning "image perpetuated without change".[3]
The term "stereotype" derives from Greek στερεός (stereos) "solid, firm"[4] and τύπος (typos) "blow, impression, engraved mark"[5] hence "solid impression". The term, in its modern psychology sense, was first used by Walter Lippmann in his 1922 work Public Opinion[6] although in the printing sense it was first coined 1798.

Dynamics

Sociologists believe that mental categorizing (or labelling) is necessary and inescapable. .One perspective on how to understand stereotyping process is through the categories or ingroups and outgroups.^ Best Swimsuits for Men Automatic Stereotyping and Prejudice: Activation of Categories and Stereotypes Automatic stereotyping, an implicit categorization that leads to stereotypes and perhaps prejudice, is a subconscious process that many people do.

^ This relationship with social impact theory suggests new directions in understanding how role models alleviate stereotype threat.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I believe he understands the power in making a choice in how one responds.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Ingroups are viewed as normal and superior, and are generally the group that one associates with or aspires to join. An outgroup is simply all the other groups. .They are seen as lesser or inferior than the ingroups.^ Men were seen in more than nine times as many traditional as non-traditional jobs and women were portrayed in traditional jobs over 10 times as often as they were portrayed in nontraditional jobs.
  • Centre College: Gender Stereotyping 19 September 2009 9:47 UTC www.centre.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Female main characters nurtured more than male main characters did, and they were seen in more indoor than outdoor scenes.
  • Centre College: Gender Stereotyping 19 September 2009 9:47 UTC www.centre.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A second perspective is that of automatic and implicit or subconscious and conscious.^ Best Swimsuits for Men Automatic Stereotyping and Prejudice: Activation of Categories and Stereotypes Automatic stereotyping, an implicit categorization that leads to stereotypes and perhaps prejudice, is a subconscious process that many people do.

Automatic or subconscious stereotyping is that which everyone does without noticing. Automatic stereotyping is quickly preceded by an implicit or conscious check which permits time for any needed corrections. .Automatic stereotyping is affected by implicit stereotyping because frequent conscious thoughts will quickly develop into subconscious stereotypes.^ More technically, in contexts in which particular stereotypes are active, individuals who are members of the negatively stereotyped groups will be conscious of the content of those stereotypes, and this may negatively affect their performance.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A third method to categorizing stereotypes is general types and sub-types. .Stereotypes consist of hierarchical systems consisting of broad and specific groups being the general types and sub-types respectively.^ By the term "stereotype threat" what we have in mind is simply being in a situation where a negative stereotype about your group could apply.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The domain of a role model's specific success might be so important that only certain types of success alleviate the performance deficits associated with stereotype threat.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Steele (1997; Steele, Spencer, & Aronson, 2002) has consistently portrayed stereotype threat as a situational pressure on members of the stereotyped group.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A general type could be defined as a broad stereotype typically known among many people and usually widely accepted, whereas the sub-group would be one of the several groups making up the general group.^ Oddly, however, many black people feel perfectly comfortable engaging in a similar form of stereotyping .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ And who would ever have thought that one of America's classical children's books played its part in spreading the frontier stereotype to younger generations who had nothing to fear from Native Americans living on isolated reservations!
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While it is a stereotype it is based on the actions of a group for which you typically join if you agree with their actions.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.These would be more specific, and opinions of these groups would vary according to differing perspectives.^ And finally, should we hold these patrolmen with the C.P.D to a different standard than we would hold this Harvard professor?
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.Certain circumstances can affect the way an individual stereotypes.^ More technically, in contexts in which particular stereotypes are active, individuals who are members of the negatively stereotyped groups will be conscious of the content of those stereotypes, and this may negatively affect their performance.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, researchers have begun to look at the ways in which stereotype threat might affect women's performance on math tests.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance: Studies have shown that women stereotype more negatively than men, and that women read into appearance more than men.^ I guess I may’ve misinterpreted the trailing question on this post, because I definitely see how the stereotype can be beneficial inasmuch as it furthers a negative stereotype of women to keep them out of the market-place, but the impression I got on first read was that it was potentially beneficial because it lets men skirt work, which is not really a benefit anymore than any other stereotype about incompetence or low intelligence is a benefit.
  • Useless Men: A Useful Stereotype » Sociological Images 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC contexts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To insure that all participants were aware of and had recently been reminded of the stereotype that women do not perform as well as men on math tests, the experimenter stated the stereotype explicitly.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Y. Does Matt really believe that if a study concluded that men don't really care about women's looks after all, that study would get no attention?
  • Matthew Yglesias (September 05, 2007) - Stereotype-Confirming Science (Media) 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com [Source type: General]

.Some theorists argue in favor of the conceptual connection and that one's own subjective thought about someone is sufficient information to make assumptions about that individual.^ That’s not always the case: one may stereotype to establish a starting position which they modify upon gaining information about the specifics of the situation.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ So what if some kids thought your hair didn't get wet, what about the boy with pointy ears who no one ever wanted to play with?
  • How To Sell a Stereotype | | AlterNet 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There a prejudiced white man from the southern United States makes the following comment about an African American servant named Jesse: "'That is one of the houseboys.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other theorists argue that at minimum there must be a casual connection between mental states and behavior to make assumptions or stereotypes.^ Every hypothesis we tested concerning numbers of male vs. Two of the five behavioral measures we assessed showed stereotypical differences between the sexes.
  • Centre College: Gender Stereotyping 19 September 2009 9:47 UTC www.centre.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There a prejudiced white man from the southern United States makes the following comment about an African American servant named Jesse: "'That is one of the houseboys.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native Americans Modern Christians and the Stereotypes They Battle There are now several negative stereotypes that the Christian community must deal with to save face and faith for the church.

Thus results and opinions may vary according to circumstance and theory. An example of a common, incorrect assumption is that of assuming certain internal characteristics based on external appearance. The explanation for one's actions is his or her internal state (goals, feeling, personality, traits, motives, values, and impulses), not his or her appearance.
.Sociologist Charles E. Hurst of the College of Wooster states that, "One reason for stereotypes is the lack of personal, concrete familiarity that individuals have with persons in other racial or ethnic groups.^ Briefly, it’s true that we need to stereotype to survive — but we should also recognize the limitations of stereotyping and TRY to treat people as individuals WHEN POSSIBLE. Also recognize that NEGATIVE stereotyping is the most likely to be offensive, so when it’s not necessary for survival or other important reasons it’s best to TRY to avoid it.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Stereotypes Stereotypes and Mental Laziness A personal look at how mental laziness can effect how we view others.

^ NEGATIVE stereotyping is the most likely to be offensive, so when it’s not necessary for survival or other important reasons it’s best to TRY to avoid it.” .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Lack of familiarity encourages the lumping together of unknown individuals".[7]
.Stereotypes focus upon and thereby exaggerate differences between groups.^ Every hypothesis we tested concerning numbers of male vs. Two of the five behavioral measures we assessed showed stereotypical differences between the sexes.
  • Centre College: Gender Stereotyping 19 September 2009 9:47 UTC www.centre.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Bell Curve, for example, at least alludes to the idea that genetic differences between the groups to some degree account for the difference.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their group is not negatively stereotyped about math, but relative to Asians, there may be some possibility of a difference.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Competition between groups minimizes similarities and magnifies differences.^ In a similar way, the differences between races or religions can be shared creatively instead of fought over.
  • How To Sell a Stereotype | | AlterNet 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, it's the DIFFERENCE between men and women that evokes the passionate charge between them, not the similarities.
  • How To Sell a Stereotype | | AlterNet 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .This makes it seem as if groups are very different when in fact they may be more alike than different.^ The accounts seem very different.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ I gave it a little bit of thought at the time, and concluded that the difference was mostly due to the fact that girls tended to follow the instructors' instructions more often than the boys did.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think that Mr. Geddes and his friends believe the saying more than they will admit.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, among African Americans, identity as an American citizen is more salient than racial background; that is, African Americans are more American than African.^ Catholicism Understanding My Identity: It Is More Than My Race and Gender I believe that I am in the identity developmental stage of expanded sense of identity.

^ That would do more for racial harmony than any number of seminar classes or media interviews.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ When the president called the cops stupid, he made an impact on a new generation of black kids and other Americans who disrespect cops more than they did.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

[9]

Theories

.Different disciplines give different accounts of how stereotypes develop: Psychologists may focus on an individual's experience with groups, patterns of communication about those groups, and intergroup conflict.^ Stereotypes Stigmas, Stereotypes of Tattooing: Why the Medical Community is to Blame How the medical community has played a part in the stigmatizing and stereotyping of those with tattoos.

^ By the term "stereotype threat" what we have in mind is simply being in a situation where a negative stereotype about your group could apply.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jeff Cohen, a student of mine, and Lee Ross, a colleague, and I have done some work that I'm particularly excited about with regard to how to give feedback.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

Pioneering psychologist William James cautioned psychologists themselves to be wary of their own stereotyping, in what he called the psychologist's fallacy. Sociologists focus on the relations among groups and the position of different groups in a social structure. .Psychoanalytically-oriented humanists have argued (e.g., Sander Gilman) that stereotypes, by definition, are representations that are not accurate, but a projection of one to another.^ Taking a stereotype into consideration is one thing, basing your actions on it without evidence is another.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Everyone is bigoted in one way or another, as do they create stereotypes; neither of which are wrong initially.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ And it's hard to definitively assign a degree of causality to one of those causes or another.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.A number of theories have been derived from sociological studies of stereotyping and prejudicial thinking.^ We came up--Josh Arenson, Steve Spencer, Joseph Brown, a number of students and I--came up with a study that looks at stereotypes in white males on math performance.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These numbers demonstrate strong stereotyping, but earlier studies uncovered an even narrower range of job roles for women.
  • Centre College: Gender Stereotyping 19 September 2009 9:47 UTC www.centre.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In early studies it was believed that stereotypes were only used by rigid, repressed, and authoritarian people.^ If by racist you mean I do not use color to judge people, nor do I believe that others should do the same, then I guess I am.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ This comparison is encouraging, but with only one study to contrast to ours, we cannot be sure that the apparent reduction in stereotyping is real.
  • Centre College: Gender Stereotyping 19 September 2009 9:47 UTC www.centre.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ And because these people believe they already know the outcome of that person they’ve stereotyped, they can treat them as poorly as they want and feel justified in it.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Sociologists concluded that this was a result of conflict, poor parenting, and inadequate mental and emotional development. .This idea has been overturned; more recent studies have concluded that stereotypes are commonplace.^ In Keller's study, female participants form who the stereotype was primed were much more likely to perform self-handicapping behaviors.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Opiates Stereotype that Women Talk More Than Men Isn't True A recent study finds no real gender gap in talkativeness, and opens doors to future research.

^ Other studies, which as far as I can tell have been neglected in the discussion of Summers' remarks, have looked at the role of stereotype threat more directly.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One theory as to why people stereotype is that it is too difficult to take in all of the complexities of other people as individuals.^ Briefly, it’s true that we need to stereotype to survive — but we should also recognize the limitations of stereotyping and TRY to treat people as individuals WHEN POSSIBLE. Also recognize that NEGATIVE stereotyping is the most likely to be offensive, so when it’s not necessary for survival or other important reasons it’s best to TRY to avoid it.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Taking a stereotype into consideration is one thing, basing your actions on it without evidence is another.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Negative People The Feminist Stigma Addressing the stereotype that all feminists are hairy-legged lesbians, and looking at why this stigma was attached to begin with.

.Even though stereotyping is inexact, it is an efficient way to mentally organize large blocks of information.^ Spaces The Effects of Rhetoric and Stereotyping Even though there is usually a good explanation for why stereotypes begin, the negative effects on the classes remains an issue.

^ Even though some movies have shown the "good" Indian, most of them are guilty of "the enhancement and perpetuation of stereotype motifs of the Indian as drunken, savage, or treacherous, unreliable or childlike."
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Categorization is an essential human capability because it enables us to simplify, predict, and organize our world.^ Forget blaming gender, style, and the rest of the world for the difficulties presented to us because we made the choice to be in a field that is one of the most competitive there is.

^ A Guide to Stereotyping Behavior Prejudice obscures the complexity of the human experience because the person with prejudices simplifies the diversity of life found in a single society or throughout the world By Randy White   |  Published 1/1/2009 More topics: Complexity .

.Once one has sorted and organized everyone into tidy categories, there is a human tendency to avoid processing new or unexpected information about each individual.^ Then there's my high school English teacher who used to rant at us about the dangers of getting into a rut.

^ In short, this new study's one small sample of German daters and unclear evidence for a causal pathway together leave me unimpressed about the generalizability of their findings.
  • Matthew Yglesias (September 05, 2007) - Stereotype-Confirming Science (Media) 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com [Source type: General]

^ That’s not always the case: one may stereotype to establish a starting position which they modify upon gaining information about the specifics of the situation.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Assigning general group characteristics to members of that group saves time and satisfies the need to predict the social world in a general sense.
.Another theory is that people stereotype because of the need to feel good about oneself.^ Oddly, however, many black people feel perfectly comfortable engaging in a similar form of stereotyping .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ The writer of this article is always wondering: who makes the decisions about what kind of portrayals appear in media, the kind of portrayals that stereotype people?

^ Another piece of research that really deals with this directly: Can you produce these effects in groups who are not subject to any negative stereotypes about something?
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Stereotypes protect one from anxiety and enhance self-esteem.^ Brown Eyes The Psychology of Master and Commander Examining the concepts of obedience, self esteem, stereotyping, conformity and group-think through the lens of the Hollywood feature.

^ It's weakness, however, is that it did not look at the role of stereotypes specifically, and that its only measure of anxiety was post-test self-report.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By designating one's own group as the standard or normal group and assigning others to groups considered inferior or abnormal, it provides one with a sense of worth.^ Before drawing such a conclusion, one would want to replicate the present experiment's social impact curve with other groups and other stereotypes.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some believe that childhood influences are some of the most complex and influential factors in developing stereotypes.^ In the Stanford psychologist's theory, the most recent or oft-repeated stereotype has the most potent influence.

^ Past research (see the paper for citations) has shown that the presence of an "external handicap," i.e., some external factor that may hurt performance, can alleviate stereotype threat.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though some movies have shown the "good" Indian, most of them are guilty of "the enhancement and perpetuation of stereotype motifs of the Indian as drunken, savage, or treacherous, unreliable or childlike."
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

Though they can be absorbed at any age, stereotypes are usually acquired in early childhood under the influence of parents, teachers, peers, and the media. Once a stereotype is learned, it often becomes self-perpetuating.

Effects, accuracy, terminology

.Stereotypes can have a negative and positive impact on individuals.^ While often viewed as entirely negative, social scientists now tend toward viewing stereotyping as having positive aspects.

^ This indicates that the effects of gender-related math stereotypes can be positive or negative.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EXPLANATION: This inversion can be cancelled out by suggesting that stereotype threat will respectively help and hinder those positively and negatively stereotyped.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Joshua Aronson and Claude M. Steele have done research on the psychological effects of stereotyping, particularly its effect on African Americans and women.^ Stereotype threat Print Letter May 29, 2009 Dear Artist, In 1995, Stanford University psychologists Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson coined the term "Stereotype threat."

^ At the time, they were dealing with such stereotypes as "Girls do poorly in math" and "African Americans are challenged in higher education."

^ Due to stereotyping have African Americans and ranges in income between African Americans in this country and the higher range in salary of the majority group, the African Americans seem to have no middle class in comparison.

[10] They argue that psychological research has shown that competence is highly responsive to situation and interactions with others.[11] .They cite, for example, a study which found that bogus feedback to college students dramatically affected their IQ test performance, and another in which students were either praised as very smart, congratulated on their hard work, or told that they scored high.^ To test this, Schmader conducted a study using participants with either high or low gender identification, and found that women for whom their gender identity was important performed worse on a math test when they were told that the test produced gender differences than men, while women who placed little importance on their gender identity performed as well as men on the same test 6 .
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attitude of the Jewish student in the colleges and universities towards his religion; a social study of religious changes [by] Marvin Nathan, Ph.D. .

^ Attitude of the Jewish student in the colleges and universities towards his religion, a social study of religious changes ...

.The group praised as smart performed significantly worse than the others.^ As predicted on the math test, women scored worse than men in the no successful women role models condition, but scored significantly better (and as well as men) in the four successful women role models condition.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Less than three years ago, we started a small group of three to lift each other up.

^ Specifically, when the stereotype that Asian males have better math skills than white males is active, white men perform worse on standardized math tests than when the stereotype is not activated 2 .
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They believe that there is an 'innate ability bias'. These effects are not just limited to minority groups. .Mathematically competent white males, mostly math and engineering students, were asked to take a difficult math test.^ Recall that participants were also asked, after the math test had ended, to rate the extent that reading the biographies led them to conclude that women (and they) could do well at math.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Under the guise of helping to develop and standardize new questions for the GRE, she administered a mathematics test that consisted of 34 difficult quantitative items from sample GRE tests.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The experimenter claimed to have written the test, and thus to be highly competent in math.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

One group was told that this was being done to determine why Asians were scoring better. .This group performed significantly worse than the other group.^ Are you saying that the sterotyping of racial or ethnic groups other than blacks is not racism.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ As predicted on the math test, women scored worse than men in the no successful women role models condition, but scored significantly better (and as well as men) in the four successful women role models condition.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Less than three years ago, we started a small group of three to lift each other up.

[11]:443
Possible prejudicial effects of stereotypes are:
  • Justification of ill-founded prejudices or ignorance
  • Unwillingness to rethink one's attitudes and behavior towards stereotyped group
  • Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fields
.The effects of stereotyping can fluctuate, but for the most part they are negative, and not always apparent until long periods of time have passed.^ NEGATIVE stereotyping is the most likely to be offensive, so when it’s not necessary for survival or other important reasons it’s best to TRY to avoid it.” .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Native Americans Modern Christians and the Stereotypes They Battle There are now several negative stereotypes that the Christian community must deal with to save face and faith for the church.

^ Spaces The Effects of Rhetoric and Stereotyping Even though there is usually a good explanation for why stereotypes begin, the negative effects on the classes remains an issue.

.Over time, some victims of negative stereotypes display self-fulfilling prophecy behavior, in which they assume that the stereotype represents norms to emulate.^ Everyone at some time or another has a stereotype.

^ Harriet Jacobs 10 Common Stereotypes in Teen Dating Let's have a look at some very common and, in some cases, very wrong stereotypes that teens assume about dating.

^ I assume they’ve seen me do something that in their view violated a statue of some kind.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.Negative effects may include forming inaccurate opinions of people, scapegoating, erroneously judgmentalism, preventing emotional identification, distress, and impaired performance.^ For the most part, people of various races, genders, sexual orientations, etc., form their beliefs and opinions based on their individual life experiences.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ The difference in the 0 biographies condition may be taken as a manipulation check, showing that reminding participants of the stereotype had the intended effect of placing women under stereotype threat sufficient to impair their performance, relative to men's.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Gender identification moderates stereotype threat effects on women's math performance.
  • Mixing Memory: Gender, Math, Stereotype Threat, and Testosterone 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC mixingmemory.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stereotyping painfully reminds those being judged of how society views them.

Role in art and culture

.Stereotypes are common in various cultural media, where they take the form of dramatic stock characters.^ "The Golden Girls" ingeniously portrays each of the most common stereotypes of the modern woman, their personalities, and how they interact with one another.

^ To Kill a Mockingbird Racial Stereotypes in the Media This paper discusses the various racial stereotypes portrayed in today's media.

^ Girl Power Sexist Stereotypes in the Media This paper dicusses the various sexist stereotypes in the media.

.These characters are found in the works of playwright Bertolt Brecht, Dario Fo, and Jacques Lecoq, who characterize their actors as stereotypes for theatrical effect.^ The effect of the American media in perpetuating these stereotypes is also highlighted.

^ But it seems that there is a whole new set of stereotypical characters black actors are asked to play...

^ I disagree with the stereotype of glasses being unattractive, and these are the characters I use to disprove that conception By Angela Tircuit .

In commedia dell'arte this is similarly common. .The instantly recognizable nature of stereotypes mean that they are effective in advertising and situation comedy.^ That’s not always the case: one may stereotype to establish a starting position which they modify upon gaining information about the specifics of the situation.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.These stereotypes change, and in modern times only a few of the stereotyped characters shown in John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress would be recognizable.^ Not only do these stereotypes affect the treatment that many immigrants, both legal and illegal, experience but they also affect the treatment of Americans as well.

.In literature and art, stereotypes are clichéd or predictable characters or situations.^ Native American identities [electronic resource] : from stereotype to archetype in art and literature / Scott B. Vickers.

.Throughout history, storytellers have drawn from stereotypical characters and situations, in order to connect the audience with new tales immediately.^ Ageism Asian Stereotypes in Film History This research paper covers a variety of stereotypes that Asians have portrayed throughout the history of film.

^ Quran Fairy Tales: The Real Deal Behind Their Morals and Character Stereotypes Fairy tales are not, in reality, as harmless as they are made to seem.

^ But it seems that there is a whole new set of stereotypical characters black actors are asked to play...

.Sometimes such stereotypes can be sophisticated, such as Shakespeare's Shylock in The Merchant of Venice.^ Stereotype Shylock's Humanity in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice This paper seeks to locate through Shakespeare's language the root of the supposed "humanity" modern readers find present in the character of Shylock, who can alternatively be seen merely as a stock Jewish stereotype.

Arguably a stereotype that becomes complex and sophisticated ceases to be a stereotype per se by its unique characterization. .Thus while Shylock remains politically unstable in being a stereotypical Jew, the subject of prejudicial derision in Shakespeare's era, his many other detailed features raise him above a simple stereotype and into a unique character, worthy of modern performance.^ Stereotype Shylock's Humanity in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice This paper seeks to locate through Shakespeare's language the root of the supposed "humanity" modern readers find present in the character of Shylock, who can alternatively be seen merely as a stock Jewish stereotype.

^ Like him, many people do not fit the stereotype of a colored contact user.

^ From: Jeanne -- May 30, 2009 It is a part of the human psyche to want to find a way to stereotype, or pigeon hole other human beings.

Simply because one feature of a character can be categorized as being typical does not make the entire character a stereotype.
.Despite their proximity in etymological roots, cliché and stereotype are not used synonymously in cultural spheres.^ While it is useful to make well-substantiated generalizations about the characteristic values of different cultures, it is dangerous to over-generalize and make the mistake of stereotyping.
  • Practical Planet: Avoiding the "Ugly American" Stereotype 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC talesmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While some Australians use stereotypes to define their cultural identity, other Australians create fictional stereotypes to deconstruct Australia's identity.

^ Our hunch was that this “something else” was rooted in the cultural stereotypes of intellectual inferiority that these students so frequently complained about.
  • Educational Leadership:Closing Achievement Gaps:The Threat of Stereotype 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.ascd.org [Source type: Academic]

For example a cliché is a high criticism in narratology where genre and categorization automatically associates a story within its recognizable group. Labeling a situation or character in a story as typical suggests it is fitting for its genre or category. Whereas declaring that a storyteller has relied on cliché is to pejoratively observe a simplicity and lack of originality in the tale. To criticize Ian Fleming for a stereotypically unlikely escape for James Bond would be understood by the reader or listener, but it would be more appropriately criticized as a cliché in that it is overused and reproduced. Narrative genre relies heavily on typical features to remain recognizable and generate meaning in the reader/viewer.
.The teen sitcom Saved by the Bell features a typical group of high school stereotypes such as a class clown (Zack Morris), a jock (A.C. Slater), a nerd (Samuel "Screech" Powers), a cheerleader (Kelly Kapowski), a feminist (Jessie Spano), and a superficial fashion plate (Lisa Turtle).^ Due to stereotyping have African Americans and ranges in income between African Americans in this country and the higher range in salary of the majority group, the African Americans seem to have no middle class in comparison.

^ While it is a stereotype it is based on the actions of a group for which you typically join if you agree with their actions.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Before drawing such a conclusion, one would want to replicate the present experiment's social impact curve with other groups and other stereotypes.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some observed the sitcom, like many teen sitcoms of that time, in addition to stereotyping people, stereotyping an institution itself, that of high school.^ But do some people actually like that this stereotype has been created or do they feel like I do?
  • Question about Black/Asian, 'Blasian' stereotype.? - Yahoo! Answers 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ What are some of today's teen stereotypes?

^ In addition, if the stereotype is at all negative, it can be read as indicting an entire group of people: All Italian-Americans are Mafiosi, all blondes have the brains of cabbages, all Arabs are terrorists.
  • Writer’s Digest - Who''s a Stereotype? 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.writersdigest.com [Source type: General]

.Television stereotypes of high schools have often promoted a "typical American school" as football games, fashion styles, flirting, and not much devotion to academics or studying.^ Published 5/5/2008 More topics: Stereotype How the Model Minority Stereotype Affects Asian Americans and Their Performance in School A look at how the model minority stereotype affects Asian Americans and their performance in school.

In movies and TV the halo effect is often used. This is when, for example, attractive men and women are assumed to be happier, stronger, nicer people [12].

Racial and ethnic stereotyping

Native Americans

The red-faced mascot of the Cleveland Indians baseball team, Chief Wahoo.
The discontinued mascot of the Atlanta Braves baseball team, Chief Noc-A-Homa.
.Native Americans have been stereotyped by others in both a negative and positive sense.^ While often viewed as entirely negative, social scientists now tend toward viewing stereotyping as having positive aspects.

^ NEGATIVE stereotyping is the most likely to be offensive, so when it’s not necessary for survival or other important reasons it’s best to TRY to avoid it.” .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ This is a tasteless, despicable, and racially motivated joke at the expense of Native Americans, and it shows the tenacity of proverbial stereotypes in today's United States of America.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.There has long been an admiration of Native Americans as fitting the archetype of the noble savage within European thought, stemming from a cultural sympathy grounded within the post-Enlightenment theory of primitivism.^ It reflects American culture because once long ago the Indians possessed our continent.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Herself a Native American, she chose the title The Only Good Indian: The Image of the Indian in American Vernacular Culture (1973) for her voluminous and enlightening study.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Far too long has it given justification to the literal and spiritual killing of Native Americans.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

[13][14] .These positive portrayals of Native Americans as being noble, peaceful people, who lived in harmony with nature and each other continue within modern culture, e.g.^ Positive as this assessment by a man of the religious order might be at first glance, it does nevertheless endorse the attempts of "civilizing" the Native Americans into Christians, thereby destroying their traditional beliefs and culture.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And who would ever have thought that one of America's classical children's books played its part in spreading the frontier stereotype to younger generations who had nothing to fear from Native Americans living on isolated reservations!
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Green includes a few pages on "Sayings, Proverbs, Proverbial Comparisons, and Other Metaphoric Usages" [10] that comment in a stereotypical way about Native Americans.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

the 1990 film Dances with Wolves.
.Over time, as settlers spread west, Native Americans were seen as obstacles and their image became more negative.^ Herself a Native American, she chose the title The Only Good Indian: The Image of the Indian in American Vernacular Culture (1973) for her voluminous and enlightening study.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Roback is incorrect in ascribing the 17th or at least 18th century as the time of origin of the proverb, he does give an authentic picture of the socio-political problems that existed between the Native Americans and the early settlers.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Native Americans were portrayed in popular media as wild, primitive, uncivilised, dangerous people who continuously attack white settlers, cowboys, and stagecoaches and ululate while holding one hand in front of their mouths.^ And who would ever have thought that one of America's classical children's books played its part in spreading the frontier stereotype to younger generations who had nothing to fear from Native Americans living on isolated reservations!
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The writer of this article is always wondering: who makes the decisions about what kind of portrayals appear in media, the kind of portrayals that stereotype people?

^ Anybody resisting this policy was "bad", and once the popular white attitude was geared towards the demonization of the Native Americans, the stage was set for killing thousands of them or driving the survivors onto inhuman reservations.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

They speak invariably in a deep voice and use stop words like "How" and "Ugh".
In drawings their skin colour was depicted as deep red. .In westerns and other media portrayals they are usually called "Indians". Examples of this stereotypical image of Native Americans can be found in many American westerns until the early 1960s, and in cartoons like Peter Pan.^ My informant is a native of North Dakota where she tells me there were many Indian reservations.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Green includes a few pages on "Sayings, Proverbs, Proverbial Comparisons, and Other Metaphoric Usages" [10] that comment in a stereotypical way about Native Americans.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Herself a Native American, she chose the title The Only Good Indian: The Image of the Indian in American Vernacular Culture (1973) for her voluminous and enlightening study.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

In other stereotypes, they smoked peace pipes, wore face paint, danced round totem poles (often with a hostage tied to them), sent smoke signals, lived in tepees, wore feathered head-dresses, scalped their foes, and said 'um' instead of 'the' or 'a'.
.As colonisation continued in the U.S., groups were separated into categories like "Christians" and "civilised" against "heathen" and "savage". Many Whites view Native Americans as devoid of self-control and unable to handle responsibility.^ Positive as this assessment by a man of the religious order might be at first glance, it does nevertheless endorse the attempts of "civilizing" the Native Americans into Christians, thereby destroying their traditional beliefs and culture.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The proverbial title sets the tone - here is a meticulous account of the "popular" view of Native Americans as expressed by the American population of all age groups, all social classes, and all regions.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not yet, I think, are white men civilized enough to handle savages successfully.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is thought that such ideas about Native Americans form the ideology that is used today to justify the disparity between Whites and Native Americans [15].^ Such willfully planned and ruthlessly executed destruction of the Native Americans needed its battle slogan, a ready-made catch phrase that could help the perpetrators to justify the inhuman treatment of their victims.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a tasteless, despicable, and racially motivated joke at the expense of Native Americans, and it shows the tenacity of proverbial stereotypes in today's United States of America.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Green includes a few pages on "Sayings, Proverbs, Proverbial Comparisons, and Other Metaphoric Usages" [10] that comment in a stereotypical way about Native Americans.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Today, a 19th century stereotype of Native Americans lives on for many people.^ Oddly, however, many black people feel perfectly comfortable engaging in a similar form of stereotyping .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Like him, many people do not fit the stereotype of a colored contact user.

^ And who would ever have thought that one of America's classical children's books played its part in spreading the frontier stereotype to younger generations who had nothing to fear from Native Americans living on isolated reservations!
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Modern Native Americans as they live today are rarely portrayed in popular culture.^ Herself a Native American, she chose the title The Only Good Indian: The Image of the Indian in American Vernacular Culture (1973) for her voluminous and enlightening study.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then they might be "good", but as far as their native Indian culture is concerned they would in fact be dead.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a tasteless, despicable, and racially motivated joke at the expense of Native Americans, and it shows the tenacity of proverbial stereotypes in today's United States of America.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

Native Americans were also portrayed as all-bring fierce warrior braves—often appearing in school sports teams' names until such team names fell into disfavor in the later 20th century. Many school team names have been revised to reflect current sensibilities, though professional teams like the Kansas City Chiefs, the Atlanta Braves, the Cleveland Indians, and the Washington Redskins continue. .Some controversial upper-level Native American team mascots such as Chief Noc-A-Homa and Chief Illiniwek have been discontinued; others like Chief Wahoo and Chief Osceola and Renegade remain.^ Green includes a few pages on "Sayings, Proverbs, Proverbial Comparisons, and Other Metaphoric Usages" [10] that comment in a stereotypical way about Native Americans.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Due to somewhat recent reparations made by the U.S. government to the tribes which allow unregulated construction of casinos, along with unmonitored revenue received from the gambling, it has become a modern stereotype that a Native American must either own a casino or be in the family of one who does.^ The American competitor, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, does the Oxford editors one better.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And who would ever have thought that one of America's classical children's books played its part in spreading the frontier stereotype to younger generations who had nothing to fear from Native Americans living on isolated reservations!
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a tasteless, despicable, and racially motivated joke at the expense of Native Americans, and it shows the tenacity of proverbial stereotypes in today's United States of America.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Inuit stereotypes

Inuit or Eskimo people are usually dressed in parkas, carving out trinkets, living in igloos, going fishing with a harpoon, traveling by sleigh and huskies, eating cod-liver oil and the men are usually called Nanook in reference to the documentary Nanook of the North. Eskimo children may have a seal for a best friend. Eskimos are often believed to have an unusually large number of words for snow. This is however an urban legend, which was claimed to be true by Ashley Montagu.
Eskimos are sometimes shown rubbing each other noses together as some sort of greeting ritual (Eskimo kissing). They're also often depicted surrounded by polar bears, walruses and inaccurately, with penguins, which only live in the Southern hemisphere and not on the North Pole. Sometimes Eskimos themselves are depicted living on the South Pole, which is again wrong for the same reason.

Black stereotypes

Early stereotypes

Early minstrel shows lampooned the supposed stupidity of black people. Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843
.In centuries before and during the first half of the 20th century black people were often depicted as dumb, evil, lazy, poor, cannibalistic, smelly, uncivilized, un-Christian [7] people.^ Why put scare quotes around “black people” (twice, in fact) in your second comment when you didn’t in the first one?
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.The early British colonists brought these initial thoughts with them to the U.S. White colonists commonly believed that black people were inferior to white people.^ And because these people believe they already know the outcome of that person they’ve stereotyped, they can treat them as poorly as they want and feel justified in it.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ I’m less interested in whether the people at the center of this controversy are black or white (or anything else).
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ It was like the last 50 years did not happen and WHITE PEOPLE did not just put a black guy into office.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.These thoughts helped to justify black slavery and the institution of many laws that continually condoned inhumane treatment and perpetuated to keep black people in a lower socioeconomic position.^ Oddly, however, many black people feel perfectly comfortable engaging in a similar form of stereotyping .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Such willfully planned and ruthlessly executed destruction of the Native Americans needed its battle slogan, a ready-made catch phrase that could help the perpetrators to justify the inhuman treatment of their victims.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And because these people believe they already know the outcome of that person they’ve stereotyped, they can treat them as poorly as they want and feel justified in it.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

[7]
Black people were usually depicted as slaves or servants, working in cane fields or carrying large piles of cotton. They were often portrayed as devout Christians going to church and singing gospel music. .In many vaudeville shows, minstrel acts, cartoons, comics and animated cartoons of this period they were depicted as sad, lazy, dim-witted characters with big lips who sing bluesy songs and are good dancers, but get excited when confronted with dice games, chickens or watermelons (examples: all the characters portrayed by Stepin Fetchit and black characters in cartoons like "Sunday Go to Meetin' Time" and "All This and Rabbit Stew").^ He all but says, “Do I look like that type of (black) person?
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, someone dressed like a bum comes up to you, you stereotype them as a bum and are prepared to act accordingly but modify your behavior when you discover he is going to a costume party and needs directions.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ And yes….the man was BLACK, but that’s not what I was going by – he was acting shifty like he was sizing us up.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.A more joyful black image, yet still very stereotypical, was provided by eternally happy black characters like Uncle Tom, Uncle Remus and Louis Armstrong's equally joyous stage persona.^ Alabama is No More Racist Than Your State For years people stereotype people from Alabama as being racist saying Alabamians still live in the 50's.

.Another popular stereotype from this era was the black who is scared of ghosts (and usually turns white out of fear).^ Stereotype threat effects on black and white athletic performance.
  • CRISP Volume 10 No. 9 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

Butlers were sometimes portrayed as black (for example the butler in many Shirley Temple movies). .Housemaids were usually depicted as black, heavy-set middle-aged women who dress in large skirts (examples of this type are Mammy Two-Shoes, Aunt Jemima, Beulah and more recently the title character of Big Momma's House).^ The cartoon in the New Yorker just mentioned is a small example of this type of sick humor, but even more upsetting is a short story by Mack Reynolds with the suspect title Good Indian (1964).
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The editors of two more recent books of quotations from 1988 obviously realized this mistake and have gone back to giving Sheridan his due credit.
  • Good Indians...Dead Indians... 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who will set the white man free from this oppression from black intellectuals.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Children are often pickaninnies like Little Black Sambo and Golliwog. .African American Vernacular English speech was also often used in comedy, like for instance in the show Amos 'n' Andy.^ In the past two decades when unscripted TV has taken hold of the American airwaves, there have been a number of instances where the TV show has depicted, and even focused on certain behaviors that are used to stereotype young African-American males.

^ Glaucoma Do Reality TV Shows Perpetuate Stereotypes About Young African-American Males?

.African black people were usually depicted as primitive, childlike, cannibalistic persons who live in tribes, carry spears, believe in witchcraft and worship their wizard.^ I always thought it was unwise to yell at people who (as someone put it) legally carry batons, cuffs, and guns.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Gates lives a professor’s life built on and around how black people and culture have been treated in America.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Form an image of a racist in your mind: someone who watches a TV report about a crime committed by a black person, and says: “I’m not surprised.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

White colonists are depicted tricking them by selling junk in exchange for valuable things and/or scaring them with modern technology. A well-known example of this image is Tintin in the Congo. When white people are caught by African tribes they are usually put in a large, black cauldron so they can be cooked and eaten. Sometimes black Africans are depicted as pygmies with childlike behavior so that they can be ridiculed as being similar to children.
.Other stereotypical images are the male black African dressed in lip plates or with a bone sticking through his nasal septum.^ Glaucoma Do Reality TV Shows Perpetuate Stereotypes About Young African-American Males?

.Stereotypical female black African depictions include the bare breasted woman with large breasts and notably fat buttocks (examples of this stereotype are the 19th century sideshow attraction Saartjie Baartman) or the woman who wears multiple rings around her giraffe-like neck (note: this type of neck ornament is also common in Burma with women from the Kayan tribe, but is generally associated with Africa (like in the Bugs Bunny cartoon "Which Is Witch").^ He all but says, “Do I look like that type of (black) person?
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ I just think it was ironic to write an article to condemn racial stereotyping committed by Gates, and include in the article an unflattering generalization aimed at “some black people.” .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Secretary of State John C. Calhoun arguing for the extension of slavery in 1844 said "Here [scientific confirmation] is proof of the necessity of slavery. The African is incapable of self-care and sinks into lunacy under the burden of freedom. It is a mercy to give him the guardianship and protection from mental death."
.Even after slavery ended the intellectual capacity of Black people was still frequently questioned.^ (Some names are stereotypically black, and get bigoted reactions even when white people have them.

^ That's right, black youth of America: even if you discover you have powers that transcend time and space, you'll still wind up serving the white man.
  • Hollywood's 6 Favorite Offensive Stereotypes | Cracked.com 19 September 2009 9:46 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also remember still often people speaking as if I not exist not understand people even telling each other “she doesn’t understand”.

Lewis Terman wrote in The Measurement of Intelligence in 1916:
."[Black and other ethnic minority children] are ineducable beyond the nearest rudiments of training.^ Are you saying that the sterotyping of racial or ethnic groups other than blacks is not racism.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ I’ve always thought that the day we as a nation stop infantilizing blacks and other minorities and excusing them for their actions is the day that we’ve really become a “post – racial” society.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.No amount of school instruction will ever make them intelligent voters or capable citizens in the sense of the world…their dullness seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stock from which they come…Children of this group should be segregated in special classes and be given instruction which is concrete and practical.^ Her family was stared at on the street, and Irish and German American children in their neighborhood mocked her family for eating leaves when they served grape leaves stuffed with spiced lamb and rice.
  • American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee: Arab Stereotypes and American Educators 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.adc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without him making the right reads, doing the things he’s capable, even guys like James and Jeff aren’t the players they are.
  • Shattering Glasser�s stereotype | Voices | eastvalleytribune.com 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.eastvalleytribune.com [Source type: News]

^ The racial segregation besetting most college campuses can block this experience, allowing mistrust to build where cross-group communication would discourage it.
  • McGraw-Hill/Dushkin: PowerWeb Article 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC 198.45.22.27 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They cannot master abstractions, but they can be made efficient workers…There is no possibility at present of convincing society that they should not be allowed to reproduce, although from a eugenic point of view they constitute a grave problem because of their unusual prolific breeding.^ What I am saying is that there can be no honest debate of the “situation” until more people start to look at “things” from the other guy’s point of view, and that any discussion should benefit from reasoned analysis as opposed to hysterical cries of “racism”.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Patterico – If they cannot distort your position, they have no argument.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ There were no assumptions made about black people, except by those that wish to impart meaning and motive that is not there.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

)"

Modern black stereotypes

.Since the 1960s the stereotypical image of black people has changed in some media.^ Oddly, however, many black people feel perfectly comfortable engaging in a similar form of stereotyping .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ The writer of this article is always wondering: who makes the decisions about what kind of portrayals appear in media, the kind of portrayals that stereotype people?

^ There’s a huge difference about a stereotype of police vs one of black people.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.More positive depictions appeared where black people and African Americans are portrayed as great athletes and superb singers and dancers.^ African-American: “When you look at me, you see a ‘black man’, but you see when I see you I don’t see a white man, I see a man.” .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ When the president called the cops stupid, he made an impact on a new generation of black kids and other Americans who disrespect cops more than they did.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.In many films and television series since the 1970s black people are depicted as good natured, kind, honest and intelligent persons.^ Oddly, however, many black people feel perfectly comfortable engaging in a similar form of stereotyping .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, many people will go out of their way to excuse the “attitudes” of black people (and certain other “groups”), but they automatically condemn any such “attitudes” expressed by white people.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Often they are the best friend of the white protagonist (examples: Miami Vice, Lethal Weapon, Magnum Force).
.Some critics believed this political correctness led to another stereotypical image where black people are often depicted too positively.^ Oddly, however, many black people feel perfectly comfortable engaging in a similar form of stereotyping .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ There’s a huge difference about a stereotype of police vs one of black people.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ The Henry Louis Gates arrest is yet another reminder of how quick some black people are to leap to unflattering conclusions about others based on scant evidence.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Spike Lee popularized the term magical negro, deriding the archetype of the "super-duper magical negro" in 2001 while discussing films with students at Washington State University and at Yale University.[16][17]
.One media survey in 1989 showed that blacks were more likely than whites to be described in demeaning intellectual terms.^ That is the bottom line most blacks have more predigest in their little finger than I do in my whole body however whites are the ones that are predigest.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ That would do more for racial harmony than any number of seminar classes or media interviews.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Who will set the white man free from this oppression from black intellectuals.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

[18] Political activist and one-time presidential candidate Jesse Jackson said in 1985 that the news media portray blacks as less intelligent than we are.[19] Film director Spike Lee explains that these images have negative impacts. ."In my neighborhood, we looked up to athletes, guys who got the ladies, and intelligent people", and the images widely portrayed black Americans as living in inner-city areas, very low-income and under-educated than whites.^ My mom worked in a white owned drug store in a black neighborhood.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ That is the bottom line most blacks have more predigest in their little finger than I do in my whole body however whites are the ones that are predigest.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Gates lives a professor’s life built on and around how black people and culture have been treated in America.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.Even so-called positive images of Black people can lead to stereotypes about intelligence.^ Oddly, however, many black people feel perfectly comfortable engaging in a similar form of stereotyping .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ A stereotype may be negative or positive, but even positive stereotypes present two problems: They are cliches, and they present a human being as far more simple and uniform than any human being actually is.
  • Writer’s Digest - Who''s a Stereotype? 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.writersdigest.com [Source type: General]

^ Lots of people think that the image we see on a tarot card is an archetype, and that a stereotype is something else that is insulting.
  • What is an Stereotype? 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.palmprints.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Darwin's Athletes: how sport has damaged Black America and preserved the myth of race, John Hoberman writes that the prominence of African American athletes encourages a de-emphasis on academic achievement in black communities.^ Gates lives a professor’s life built on and around how black people and culture have been treated in America.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ African-American: “When you look at me, you see a ‘black man’, but you see when I see you I don’t see a white man, I see a man.” .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ The comment is how terrible it is to be white in racists black America.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

[20]
.In a 1997 study on racial stereotypes in sports, participants were shown a photograph of a white or a black basketball player.^ Meta-stereotypes: Blacks' perceptions of whites' stereotypes of blacks.
  • Educational Leadership:Closing Achievement Gaps:The Threat of Stereotype 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.ascd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We came up--Josh Arenson, Steve Spencer, Joseph Brown, a number of students and I--came up with a study that looks at stereotypes in white males on math performance.
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It has to do with “power differential.” Thus, Professor Gates cannot possibly be racist when he stereotypes whites based on their ethnicity, because he himself is black, and has thus suffered from racism.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

They then listened to a recorded radio broadcast of a basketball game. .White photographs were rated as exhibiting significantly more intelligence in the way they played the game, even though the radio broadcast and target player represented by the photograph were the same throughout the trial.^ They want to ban hugs even though--to recall a Leonard Cohen lyric--"love's the only engine of survival."

^ By the way, Even though I know how strongly you feel about these (especially Manish), how do you know that your supervisors don't view your workspaces the same way as the psychologists in their interpretations of your desks.
  • Open Loops: Stereotyping Your Office 19 September 2009 9:47 UTC hwebbjr.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ You are in fact closer to intelligent design than you are to the way progressives, liberal, and even conservative scientists think about science.
  • Matthew Yglesias (September 05, 2007) - Stereotype-Confirming Science (Media) 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com [Source type: General]

[21] .Several other authors have said that sports coverage that highlights 'natural black athleticism' has the effect of suggesting white superiority in other areas, such as intelligence.^ Stereotype threat effects on Black and White athletic performance.
  • Distinctiveness and Stereotype Threat: How being in the Minority AffectsPerformance in Stereotyped Domains 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC bss.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ She also said "I feel I have more in common with whites than with other Asians".
  • Do you racially stereotype? | AfterEllen.com 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.afterellen.com [Source type: General]

^ About half of white Americans endorse common stereotypes about blacks and Latinos, which, among other images, portray them as unintelligent (Smith, 1990).
  • Educational Leadership:Closing Achievement Gaps:The Threat of Stereotype 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.ascd.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]
Patricia J. Williams, writer for The Nation, said this of Jar Jar Binks, a character from the 1999 and 2002 Star Wars films The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones, respectively: "...intentionally or not, Jar Jar's pratfalls and high jinks borrow heavily from the genre of minstrelsy. Despite the amphibian get-up, his manchild-like idiocy is imported directly from the days of Amos 'n' Andy." Many aspects of Jar Jar's character are believed to be highly reminiscent of the archetypes portrayed in blackface minstrelsy.[23])

Middle Eastern and Muslim stereotypes

Stereotypes of Muslims often involve themes associated with violence. Such negative examples include Muslims being heavily associated with bomb-making and terroists plots. .Also some see Muslims as poor though this is not expressed in the media often; alternatively, they are also sometimes portrayed as being extremely wealthy as a result of oil industry profits.^ The fact that the Industrial Revolution caused great poverty among the poor in England (See Oliver Goldsmith, for example) tends to balance the moral virtue of the ban.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Despite how they are portrayed in the media or envisioned in people's minds, all Muslims are not Middle Eastern.

Also related is the concept of Islamophobia, about the fear, hatred and dislike of Muslims.

White American stereotypes

A classic, negative example is Homer Simpson, the obese, lazy and dim-witted middle American from the animated television series The Simpsons.[24] The show itself parodies many aspects of American life, culture and society.[25] .Some social stereotypes of white people include being judgemental towards other races and highly materialistic.^ Some white people” are racists.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, many people will go out of their way to excuse the “attitudes” of black people (and certain other “groups”), but they automatically condemn any such “attitudes” expressed by white people.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ What some call stereotyping, others call the ability to learn from experience.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Others include physical features such as not aging well, evidenced by wrinkles at an early age. White males are sometimes stereotypically depicted as being attracted to Asian females.

British stereotypes

The Scottish are often stereotyped as being tightfisted, argumentative, drunk and highly strung, or as having bad teeth. The potrayal of "Groundskeeper Willy" in The Simpsons is a classic example.
The English are sometimes steroetyped as being insular, suspicious of foreigners and anything not British, prudish and having a 'stiff upper lip' and with a 'little Englander' attitude.

Irish stereotypes

The cartoon above (New Physiognomy, New York, 1866), contrasts Florence Nightingale, the Crimean War nurse, with "Bridget McBruiser", the stereotypical Irish woman.
Scientific racism from an American magazine, Harper's Weekly, says that the Irish are similar to 'Negroes.'
An analysis of nineteenth-century British attitudes by Mary J. Hickman and Bronwen Walter wrote that the 'Irish Catholic' was one viewed as an "other", or a different race in the construction of the English nationalist myth. Likewise, the Irish considered the English "other" and fought hard to break away.[26]
.Benign in comparison to some of the more vulgar generalizations against other ethnicities but nonetheless incorrect are those accusing the Irish as quick-tempered brawlers and alcoholics.^ When the president called the cops stupid, he made an impact on a new generation of black kids and other Americans who disrespect cops more than they did.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

One 19th century British cartoonist even depicted Irish immigrants as simian and racially different from Anglo-Saxons. One American doctor in the 1850s, James Redfield, argued that "facial angle" was a sign of intelligence and character; likening the physiognomies of human ethnic groups to animals. Thus Irishmen resembled dogs, Yankees were like bears, Germans like lions, blacks like elephants and Englishmen like bulls.[27] .In the 20th century physical stereotypes survived in the comic books until the 1950s, with Irish characters like Mutt and Jeff, and Jiggs and Maggie appearing daily in hundreds of newspapers.^ Let's pretend that our goal is to tell a story that kids will like, with simply drawn characters that they can easily understand, are they all insulting stereotypes...
  • What is an Stereotype? 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.palmprints.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the hundred or so "Mormon" novels produced in this period, only two have survived the twentieth century in print.
  • Mormon Stereotypes in Popular Fiction 19 September 2009 9:46 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Male and female characters were equally likely to perform rescue behaviors in our book sample, as was true for Williams et al.
  • Centre College: Gender Stereotyping 19 September 2009 9:47 UTC www.centre.edu [Source type: Academic]

[28]
Irish are also stereotypically viewed as stupid and the butt of many jokes. .An example of this would be the "an Englishman, an Irishman and a Scotsman" joke, which usually ends in the Irishman doing something stupid.^ But the entire discussion of how Prof. Gates should have known better strikes me as saying that Prof. Gates behavior in doing something stupid is comparatively worse than Sgt.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Italian stereotypes

.See also Anti-Italianism about stereotypes and prejudice towards Italian people.^ There’s a huge difference about a stereotype of police vs one of black people.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Gates’ behavior leads to the reasonable conclusion that he stereotyped the officer, not “ because of your past experiences with black people, as well as things you have heard about black people?
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Polish stereotypes

See also Anti-Polish sentiment about stereotypes and prejudice towards Poles.

Jewish stereotypes

Antisemitic caricature based on racial stereotypes, 1873
Jewish people have been stereotyped throughout the centuries as scapegoats for a multitude of societal problems. Jews are still stereotyped as greedy, nit-picky, stingy misers. They have often been shown counting money or collecting diamonds. Antisemitism continued throughout the centuries and reached a climax in Nazi Germany during World War II.
Early films such as Cohen's Advertising Scheme (1904, silent) stereotyped Jews as "scheming merchants."[29]. In caricatures and cartoons they're often depicted having curly hair, large hook-noses, thick lips, and wearing kippahs. Common objects, phrases and traditions used to emphasize or ridicule Jewishness include bagels, playing violin, klezmer, circumcision, haggling and phrases like "mazal tov", "shalom" and "oy vey".
Other Jewish stereotypes are the rabbi, the complaining and guilt-inflicting Jewish mother stereotype, the spoiled and materialistic Jewish-American princess and the often meek nice Jewish boy.
Jews are often stereotyped as well-educated such as doctors, lawyers and academics, or as having a sense of humor; see Jewish humor.
In the United Kingdom many of the stereotypes normally associated with Jews are instead associated with the Scots including their tight-fistedness and the over-representation of Scots in academia, medicine politics and banking.

East Asian and South Asian stereotypes

.See also Stereotypes of East Asians in the Western world such as Chinese people and Stereotypes of South Asians such as East Indians.^ In an age where people count entertainment as a source of their information about the world, the stereotype-laden program, from the creators of the Sopranos, is very detrimental.

Hispanic/Latino stereotypes

See also Hispanophobia on fear, hatred and dislike of Latinos.

Sexual stereotypes

.The British biologist, Angus John Bateman was the one who first talked about sexual stereotypes in the late 1940s.^ There’s a huge difference about a stereotype of police vs one of black people.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ He is very clear who he is talking about, firebrands and those that use this to score political points.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ The writer of this article is always wondering: who makes the decisions about what kind of portrayals appear in media, the kind of portrayals that stereotype people?

His theory would say that males are promiscuous and females tend to be more selective when choosing their sexual partners.[30] Although Bateman's principle was based on experiments made of fruitflies, later on he concluded that the theory applies also in the case of humans. His ideas were based on the fact that males presented an "undiscriminating eagerness" to mate while females displayed "discriminated passivity."
Depending on their social and educational background, people tend to have different views of sexuality and they define themselves in terms of sexuality in different manners. This is where sexual stereotypes arise from. The size of the penis is one of the most popular and ardent issues amongst men. Men define their sexual capabilities compared to what they think a great size is. In fact, studies show that a man's sexual capability has nothing to do with their organ's size.[31]
A typical stereoptype in women is the size of their breasts. Sexual stereotypes related to this concern are establishing as a fact that the perfect size is a B cup brassiere[citation needed] whereas this particular issue is a matter of personal perception.

Impact of sexual stereotypes

Living up to stereotypes can have damaging effects. .Intending to live up to sexual stereotypes may lead to frustration.^ Stereotype Women Perceived as Sexually Aggressive when Drinking Despite Facts While the promiscuous drunk coed may be a college stereotype, new research suggests it has little basis in fact.

.Stereotypes have the ability to create an idea that some are better than others based on their sexual abilities and sexual organs.^ What some call stereotyping, others call the ability to learn from experience.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Racism is an inherent idea that one race is genetically superior to another; not based on stereotypes or history.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

[32]
.According to a study made in 2000, 47% of girls surveyed said that girls and boys have the same sexual abilities and strengths while only 29% of boys agreed with the same statement.^ And often the only thing we have left is the ability and power to choose how we will respond to said circumstances.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

The subjects were girls from grades three to 12. The survey concluded that girls are constrained by outmoded sexual stereotypes that reduce their quality of life and lower expectations for their futures.[33]

Sexual orientation stereotypes

.People with negative views of gay, lesbian, and transgender people often use stereotypes about them to justify their attacks.^ Imagine that during a lecture about the catastrophic impact of AIDS on the Black community, an openly Gay/ Lesbian/ or Transgender student begins shouting at him that he is just another homophobic, gay-bashing Black male.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ There’s a huge difference about a stereotype of police vs one of black people.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ And because these people believe they already know the outcome of that person they’ve stereotyped, they can treat them as poorly as they want and feel justified in it.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Sometimes, it has also fueled violence against LGBT people. .According to ABC News, "Gay activists often criticize media coverage of gay pride parades, saying, correctly, that the media focus on the extreme, the more flamboyantly feminine men and very masculine women.^ The national stage is where things get real, and the President will have to deal with genuine criticism, which I suspect he has not done very often in the past.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ And if you decide to mace him and he files charges, it isn’t a defense to say women are legitimately suspicious of creepy looking men in elevators.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

But that's not us, they say. .Most of us are just like everyone else."^ And he has to deal with consequences just like any of us.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of us largely ignore Jackson, just like after this, I’ll be ignoring you.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

[34]

Gay

.Gay individuals are often stereotyped as being sexually promiscuous, alcoholics, as having substance abuse problems, using cliche vocabulary, and as being wealthy.^ Stereotype Women Perceived as Sexually Aggressive when Drinking Despite Facts While the promiscuous drunk coed may be a college stereotype, new research suggests it has little basis in fact.

^ I disagree with the stereotype of glasses being unattractive, and these are the characters I use to disprove that conception By Angela Tircuit .

They are also stereotyped as having feminine characteristics. .They are known to be interested in more sensitive things that men generally don't like such as having a love for Broadway musicals, liking pop music and dance music, having an affinity for interior decorating and fashion, having a interest in Disney, and the like.^ Bush would have never commented on a case like this, because he had more important things to worry about……winning a war in Iraq .
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ Northern white loved blacks in general but could not stomach the idea of having a relationship with them in any way.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

^ When the president called the cops stupid, he made an impact on a new generation of black kids and other Americans who disrespect cops more than they did.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Lesbian

Often characterized as either butch "dykes", or lipstick lesbians. Relationships are portrayed often as one acting male and one acting female.

Bisexual

Bisexual individuals are stereotyped as being sexually promiscuous and not wanting commitment. Male bisexuals are stereotyped as acting zealously homophobic but with secret homosexual tendencies which often surface when under the influence of alcohol or other controlled substance. Female bisexuals are depicted as nymphomaniacs with low standards regarding sexual partners or as being "attention starved".

Gender stereotypes

Masculine gender

Feminine gender

Transgender

Labels such as transgender serve both to challenge normative gender and at the same time are self stigmatizing. .Individuals who do not fit the gendered binary are often stereotyped as being sexually promiscuous, sex workers, and as having drinking problems and drug addictions.^ For the most part, people of various races, genders, sexual orientations, etc., form their beliefs and opinions based on their individual life experiences.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Socioeconomic stereotypes

Homeless stereotypes
Homeless individuals are stereotyped as having behavior problems, substance abuse problems, being lazy, and being dirty and/or smelly.
Working class stereotypes
Members of the working class or blue collars are stereotyped as being poorly educated or being neglectful of their education either out of laziness or because they perceive the more educated members of society as "naive" and lacking "street smarts"(See reverse snobbery). Working class males are stereotyped as placing more value on strength and athletic ability over intellect as intellectuals are perceived as being physically weak in the eyes of working class males. This is related to the "dumb jock" stereotype as jocks are often stereotyped as only being able to work blue-collar jobs later in life.
Spousal abuse and other violent crimes are also elements related to the stereotype as well as excessive alcohol consumption.
Middle and upper class

Specialised use in ethology

.In ethology, stereotyped behavior or fixed action pattern is an innate, pre-programmed response that is repeated when an animal is exposed to an environmental innate releasing mechanism.^ It then neatly removes the responsibility for one’s actions from the one doing the stereotyping.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

Criminal profiling

Offender profiling is a criminal investigative tool which uses details relating to a criminal's modus operandi in order to develop a detailed set of psychological characteristics of the offender.

See also

Other stereotypes

References

  1. ^ Ewen and Ewen, Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of Human Inequality, 2006, 3-10.
  2. ^ <Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage.> Springfield, Illinois: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1994. p. 250.
  3. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  4. ^ Stereos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  5. ^ Tupos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  6. ^ Milton Kleg (August 1993). Hate Prejudice and Racism. State University of New York Press. ISBN 079141535X. 
  7. ^ a b c Hurst, Charles E. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences. 6. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc, 2007
  8. ^ Brewer, M (1979). "In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitive-motivational analysis". Psychological Bulletin 86: 307–324. doi:10.1037/.86.2.307. 
  9. ^ McAndrew, FT; Akande, A (1995). "African perceptions of Americans of African and European descent". Journal of Social Psychology 135 (5): 649–655. 
  10. ^ Steele CM, Aronson J (November 1995). "Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans". J Pers Soc Psychol 69 (5): 797–811. doi:10.1037/.69.5.797. http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/69/5/797. 
  11. ^ a b Aronson J, Steele CM. (2005). Chapter 24:Stereotypes and the Fragility of Academic Competence, Motivation, and Self-Concept. In Handbook of Competence, [ p. 436].
  12. ^ Greenwald and Banaji from Psychological Review
  13. ^ Anthony Pagden, The Fall of the Natural Man: the American Indian and the origins of comparative ethnology. Cambridge Iberian and Latin American Studies.(Cambridge University Press, 1982)
  14. ^ See Paul Hazard, The European Mind ) (Cleveland, Ohio: Meridian Books [1937], [1969]): 13-14, and passim.
  15. ^ Malcolm D. Holmes and Judith A. Antell
  16. ^ Okorafor-Mbachu, Nnedi. "Stephen King's Super-Duper Magical Negroes". Strange Horizons. http://www.strangehorizons.com/2004//kinga.shtml. 
  17. ^ Gonzalez, Susan. "Director Spike Lee slams 'same old' black stereotypes in today's films". Yale Bulletin & Calendar (Yale University). http://www.yale.edu/opa/arc-ybc/v29.n21/story3.html. 
  18. ^ The Portrayal of Race, Ethnicity and Nationality in Televised International Athletic Events
  19. ^ Jackson Assails Press On Portrayal of Blacks (NYT)
  20. ^ Darwin's Athletes: how sport has damaged Black America and preserved the myth of race By John Milton Hoberman ISBN
  21. ^ "White Men Can't Jump": Evidence for the Perceptual Confirmation of Racial Stereotypes Following a Basketball Game Jeff Stone, W. Perry, John M. Darley. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 1997, Vol. 19, No. 3, Pages 291-306
  22. ^ The Ball Curve: Calculated Racism and the Stereotype of African American Men Ronald E. Hall Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Sep., 2001), pp. 104-119
  23. ^ Patricia J. Williams: "Racial Ventriloquism". The Nation. June 17, 1999. http://www.thenation.com/doc//williams. Retrieved June 11, 2006. 
  24. ^ Kelly Whiteside; Andy Gardiner. "USA needs to find the net". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/soccer/worldcup/-us-ghana-preview_x.htm. 
  25. ^ Turner, p. 78
  26. ^ Deconstructing Whiteness: Irish Women in Britain Mary J. Hickman, Bronwen Walter Feminist Review, No. 50, The Irish Issue: The British Question (Summer, 1995), pp. 5-19 doi:10.2307/
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ Kerry Soper, "Performing 'Jiggs': Irish Caricature and Comedic Ambivalence toward Asøsimilation and the American Dream in George McManus's Bringing Up Father." Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 4.2 (2005): 72 pars. 30 Mar. 2007 online.
  29. ^ The Movies, Race, and Ethnicity: Jews
  30. ^ Sexual stereotypes International weekly journal of science. Retrieved on
  31. ^ Stereotypes about penis size Retrieved on February 25, 2010
  32. ^ The Impact of Gender Role Stereotypes Media Awareness Network.
  33. ^ Girls Resisting Sexual Stereotyping CBS Interactive. Retrieved on
  34. ^ "Gay Stereotypes: Are They True?". ABC News. September 15, 2006. http://i.abcnews.com/2020/Story?id=&page=3. 

Bibliography

  • Stuart Ewen, Elizabeth Ewen, Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of Human Inequality. New York (Seven Stories Press) 2006
  • Stereotype & Society A Major Resource: Constantly updated and archived
  • Social Psychology Network Stereotyping
  • Media Awareness Network. .What is a stereotype? Definition, role of stereotyping in the media, more links
  • Regenberg, Nina (2007), "Are Blonds Really Dumb?", in mind (magazine) (3), http://www.in-mind.org/issue-3/are-blonds-really-dumb.html 
  • Are Stereotypes True?
  • Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance, Margaret Shih, Todd L. Pittinsky, Nalini Ambady Research about the effects of 'positive' and negative stereotypes on encouraging/discouraging performance.
  • Turner, Chris (2004).^ To those praising stereotyping as a survival skill: I understand your point and will probably write more addressing the issue.
    • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That’s not always the case: one may stereotype to establish a starting position which they modify upon gaining information about the specifics of the situation.
    • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Barack Obama’s Connections to Socialism, Communism and Racial Divisiveness http://www.articlesbase.com/politics-articles/barack-obamas-connections-to-socialism-communism-and-racial-divisiveness-591732.html .
    • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

    Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Toronto: Random House Canada. 
  • Crawford, M. & Unger, R. (2004). Women and Gender: A Feminist Psychology. McGraw Hill New York. New York. 45-49.*
  • Spitzer, B.L., Henderson, K, A., & Zavian, M. T. (1999). Gender differences in population versus media body sizes: A comparison over four decades. Sex Roles, 40, 545-565.*
  • Terracciano A, Abdel-Khalek AM, Adám N, et al. (Oct 2005). "National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures". Science 310 (5745): 96–100. doi:10.1126/science.. 

External links

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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ How can I help you?
  • We Stand Behind Our Stereotype - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ If you study statistics, you might be surprised about how large a sample size needs to be to accurately measure the tendencies of a much larger population.
  • Matthew Yglesias (September 05, 2007) - Stereotype-Confirming Science (Media) 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com [Source type: General]

^ Besides, there is some French movie you need to see to understand racism.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ The other is that: Frank Lucas's help lead to the arrest of 75% of the NY DEA! I started laughing when I saw that.
  • "American Gangster" Reinforces American Stereotype | Media and Technology | AlterNet 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Stereotype" as an educational resource.^ At the time, they were dealing with such stereotypes as "Girls do poorly in math" and "African Americans are challenged in higher education."

^ If you think a friend or fellow artist may find value in this material please feel free to forward it.

^ While it is a stereotype it is based on the actions of a group for which you typically join if you agree with their actions.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » The Officer Didn’t Stereotype Henry Louis Gates — Henry Louis Gates Stereotyped the Officer 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC patterico.com [Source type: General]

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ You have to use statistical techniques to classify the kinds of performances that they're measuring and work backwards to "Well, if it measures this cluster of performances, maybe it measures this kind of capacity."
  • frontline: secrets of the sat: interviews: claude steele 14 January 2010 14:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sororities Busting the Stereotypes Regarding Autism What autism actually is, and the best way you can help to educate others.

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Simple English

A stereotype is an idea or belief (often inaccurate) about what another person is like, based on what group that person belongs to. Stereotypes are a type of prejudice. Stereotypes might be used as reasons to discriminate against another person.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Stereotype, which are similar to those in the above article.








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