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Sterol: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sterols are an important class of organic molecules. They occur naturally in plants, animals and fungi, with the most familiar type of animal sterol being cholesterol. Cholesterol is vital to cellular function, and a precursor to fat-soluble vitamins and steroid hormones.

Sterol Chemical Structure.


Types of sterols

Sterols of plants are called phytosterols and sterols of animals are called zoosterols. Important zoosterols are cholesterol and some steroid hormones; notable phytosterols include campesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Ergosterol is a sterol present in the cell membrane of fungi, where it serves a role similar to cholesterol in animal cells.

Role in biochemistry

Sterols and related compounds play essential roles in the physiology of eukaryotic organisms. For example, cholesterol forms part of the cellular membrane in animals, where it affects the cell membrane's fluidity and serves as secondary messenger in developmental signaling. In humans and other animals, corticosteroids, such as cortisol act as signaling compounds in cellular communication and general metabolism.

As a nutritional supplement

Phytosterols, more commonly known as plant sterols, have been shown in clinical trials to block cholesterol absorption sites in the human intestine, thus helping to reduce cholesterol in humans.[1] They are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as a food additive, however, there is some concern that they may block absorption, not only of cholesterol, but of other important nutrients as well. At present the American Heart Association has recommended that supplemental plant sterols be taken only by those diagnosed with elevated cholesterol, and has particularly recommended that they not be taken by pregnant women or nursing mothers.[2]

Chemical classification and structure

Sterols are also known as steroid alcohols. They are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group at the 3-position of the A-ring.[3] They are amphipathic lipids synthesized from acetyl-coenzyme A via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. The overall molecule is quite flat. The hydroxyl group on the A ring is polar. The rest of the aliphatic chain is non-polar.

See also


External links

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