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Steve Ditko

Self portrait of Steve Ditko, dating to 1964.
Born Stephen Ditko
November 2, 1927 (1927-11-02) (age 82)
Johnstown, Pennsylvania
Nationality American
Area(s) Penciller, inker, writer
Notable works The Amazing Spider-Man
Doctor Strange
The Question
Mr. A
The Hawk and the Dove

Stephen J. "Steve" Ditko[1] (born November 2, 1927)[2] is an American comic book artist and writer best known as the co-creator of the Marvel Comics heroes Spider-Man and Doctor Strange.

He was inducted into the comics industry's Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1990, and into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 1994.

Contents

Early life and career

The Thing #12 (Feb. 1954), Ditko's first published comic-book cover

Stephen J. Ditko was born in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, the son of first-generation Americans of Czechoslovakian[3] descent: Stephen Ditko, an artistically talented master carpenter at a steel mill, and Anna, a homemaker. The second-eldest child in a working-class family, he was preceded by sister Anna Marie[3] and followed in uncertain order by sister Betty and brother Patrick.[1] Inspired by his father's love of newspaper comic strips, particularly Hal Foster's Prince Valiant, Ditko found his interest in comics accelerated by the introduction of superhero Batman in 1940, and by Will Eisner's The Spirit, which appeared in a tabloid-sized comic-book insert in Sunday newspapers.[4]

Good with his hands, Ditko in junior high school was part of a group of students who crafted wooden models of German airplanes to aid civilian World War II aircraft-spotters.[4] Upon graduating from Johnstown High School in 1945,[4] he enlisted in the U.S. Army on October 26, 1945,[3] and did military service in postwar Germany, where he drew comics for an Army newspaper.[4]

Following his discharge, Ditko learned that his idol, Batman artist Jerry Robinson, was teaching at the Cartoonists and Illustrators School (later the School of Visual Arts) in New York City. Moving there in 1950, he enrolled in the art school under the G.I. Bill.[5] Robinson found the young student "a very hard worker who really focused on his drawing"[6] and someone who "could work well with other writers as well as write his own stories and create his own characters",[6] and he helped Ditko acquire a scholarship for the following year.[7]

Ditko began professionally illustrating comic books in early 1953, illustrating writer Bruce Hamilton's science-fiction story "Stretching Things" for Stanmor Publications, which in turn sold the story to Ajax/Farrell, which published it in Fantastic Fears #5 (Feb. 1954).[8][9] Ditko's first published work was his second professional story, the six-page story "Paper Romance" in Daring Love #1 (Oct. 1953),[8] published by the Key Publications imprint Gillmor Magazines.[10]

Shortly afterward, Ditko found work at the studio of celebrated writer-artists Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, who had created Captain America and other characters and had instituted numerous industry innovations. Beginning as an inker on backgrounds, Ditko was soon working with and learning from Mort Meskin, an artist whose work he had long admired. "Meskin was fabulous," Ditko once recalled. "I couldn't believe the ease with which he drew: strong compositions, loose pencils, yet complete; detail without clutter. I loved his stuff".[11] Ditko's known assistant work includes aiding inker Meskin on the Jack Kirby pencil work of Harvey Comics' Captain 3-D #1 (Dec. 1953).[12] For his own third published story, Ditko penciled and inked the six-page "A Hole in His Head" in Black Magic vol. 4, #3 (Dec. 1953), published by Simon & Kirby's Crestwood Publications imprint Prize Comics.[13]

Ditko then began a long association with the Derby, Connecticut publisher Charlton Comics, a low-budget division of a company best known for song-lyric magazines. Beginning with the cover of The Thing #12 (Feb. 1954) and the eight-page vampire story "Cinderella" in that issue, Ditko would continue to work intermittently for Charlton until the company's demise in 1986, producing science fiction, horror and mystery stories, as well as co-creating Captain Atom, with writer Joe Gill, in 1960. He first went on hiatus from the company, and comics altogether, in mid-1954, when he contracted tuberculosis and returned to his parents' home in Johnstown to recuperate.[14]

Marvel Comics

The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1 (1964). Cover art by Ditko, featuring a rogue's gallery of supervillains he co-created

After he recovered and moved back to New York City in late 1955,[14] Ditko began drawing for Atlas Comics, the 1950s precursor of Marvel Comics, beginning with the four-page "There'll Be Some Changes Made" in Journey into Mystery #33 (April 1956); this debut tale would be reprinted in Marvel's Curse of the Weird #4 (March 1994). Ditko would go on to contribute a large number of stories, many considered classic, to Atlas/Marvel's Strange Tales and the newly launched Amazing Adventures, Strange Worlds, Tales of Suspense and Tales to Astonish, issues of which would typically open with a Kirby-drawn monster story, followed by one or two twist-ending thrillers or sci-fi tales drawn by Don Heck, Paul Reinman, or Joe Sinnott, all capped by an often-surreal, sometimes self-reflexive short by Ditko and writer-editor Stan Lee. These bagatelles proved so popular that Amazing Adventures was reformatted to feature such stories exclusively beginning with issue #7 (Dec. 1961), when the comic was rechristened Amazing Adult Fantasy — a name intended to reflect its more "sophisticated" nature, as likewise the new tagline "The magazine that respects your intelligence".

Creation of Spider-Man

After Marvel Comics editor-in-chief Stan Lee obtained permission from publisher Martin Goodman to create a new "ordinary teen" superhero named "Spider-Man",[15] Lee originally approached his leading artist, Jack Kirby. Kirby told Lee about his own 1950s character conception, variously called the Silver Spider and Spiderman, in which an orphaned boy finds a magic ring that gives him superpowers. Comics historian Greg Theakston says Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference" and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages. "A day or two later", Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, and, as Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it. Not that he did it badly — it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[16]

Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual motif Lee found satisfactory, although Lee would later replace Ditko's original cover with one penciled by Kirby. Ditko said, "The Spider-Man pages Stan showed me were nothing like the (eventually) published character. In fact, the only drawings of Spider-Man were on the splash [i.e., page 1] and at the end [where] Kirby had the guy leaping at you with a web gun... Anyway, the first five pages took place in the home, and the kid finds a ring and turns into Spider-Man."[17]

Ditko also recalled that, "One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character...."[18]

Much earlier, in a rare contemporaneous account, Ditko described his and Lee's contributions in a mail interview with Gary Martin published in Comic Fan #2 (Summer 1965): "Stan Lee thought the name up. I did costume, web gimmick on wrist & spider signal". He added he would continued drawing Spider-Man "[i]f nothing better comes along."[19] That same year, he expressed to the fanzine Voice of Comicdom, regarding a poll of "Best Liked" fan-created comics, "It seems a shame, since comics themselves have so little variety of stories and styles that you would deliberately restrict your own creative efforts to professional comics shallow range. What is 'Best Liked' by most readers is what they are most familiar in seeing and any policy based on readers likes has to end up with a lot of look-a-like strips. You have a great opportunity to show everyone a whole new range of ideas, unlimited types of stories and styles---why FLUB it!"[20]

From 1958 to either 1966 or 1968 (accounts differ), Ditko shared a Manhattan studio at 43rd Street and Eighth Avenue with noted fetish artist Eric Stanton, an art-school classmate. When either artist was under deadline pressure, it was not uncommon for them to pitch in and help the other with his assignment,[21][22] and the introduction to one book of Stanton's work says, "Eric Stanton drew his pictures in India ink, and they were then hand-coloured by Ditko".[23] In a 1988 interview with Theakston, Stanton recalled that although his contribution to Spider-Man was "almost nil", he and Ditko had "worked on storyboards together and I added a few ideas. But the whole thing was created by Steve on his own... I think I added the business about the webs coming out of his hands".[24]

Doctor Strange and other characters

Dormammu attacks Eternity in a Ditko "Dr. Strange" panel from Strange Tales #146 (July 1966).

After drawing the final issue of The Incredible Hulk (#6, March 1963), Ditko co-created with Lee the supernatural hero Doctor Strange, in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963). Ditko and Lee shortly thereafter relaunched a Hulk series as a short feature in the anthology Tales to Astonish, (which introduced the classic concept of Banner's transformations being caused by extreme emotional stress like anger) beginning with issue #60 (Oct. 1964). Ditko, inked by George Roussos, penciled the feature through #67 (May 1965). Ditko designed the Hulk's primary antagonist, the Leader, in #62 (Dec. 1964).

Ditko also penciled the Iron Man feature in Tales of Suspense #47–49 (Nov. 1963 – Jan. 1964), with various inkers. The first of these debuted the initial version of Iron Man's modern red-and-golden armor, though whether Ditko or cover-penciler and principal character designer Jack Kirby designed the costume is uncertain.

Though often overshadowed by his Amazing Spider-Man work, Ditko's "Doctor Strange" stories have been equally acclaimed, for their surrealistic mystical landscapes and increasingly head-trippy visuals that helped make the feature a favorite of college students. "People who read 'Doctor Strange' thought people at Marvel must be heads [e.g. drug users]," recalled then-associate editor and former Doctor Strange writer Roy Thomas in 1971, "because they had had similar experiences high on mushrooms. But ... I don't use hallucinogens, nor do I think any artists do."[25]

Eventually, as co-plotter and later sole plotter, in the "Marvel Method", Ditko would take Strange into ever-more-abstract realms. In an epic 17-issue story arc in Strange Tales #130-146 (July 1965 - July 1966), Ditko introduced the cosmic character Eternity, who personified the universe and was depicted as a silhouette whose outlines are filled with the cosmos.[26] As historian Bradford W. Wright describes,

"Steve Ditko contributed some of his most surrealistic work to the comic book and gave it a disorienting, hallucinogenic quality. Dr. Strange's adventures take place in bizarre worlds and twisting dimensions that resembled Salvador Dali paintings. ... Inspired by the pulp-fiction magicians of Stan Lee's childhood as well as by contemporary Beat culture. Dr. Strange remarkably predicted the youth counterculture's fascination with Eastern mysticism and psychedelia. Never among Marvel's more popular or accessible characters, Dr. Strange still found a niche among an audience seeking a challenging alternative to more conventional superhero fare."[27]

Whichever feature he drew, Ditko's idiosyncratic, cleanly detailed, instantly recognizable art style, emphasizing mood and anxiety, found great favor with readers. The character of Spider-Man and his troubled personal life meshed well with Ditko's own interests, which Lee eventually acknowledged by giving the artist plotting credits on the latter part of their 38-issue run. But after four years on the title, Ditko left Marvel; he and Lee had not been on speaking terms for some time, though the details remain uncertain. Lee recalled that, "Little by little, he became more unfriendly. Instead of bringing his artwork in, he sent it by messenger".[citation needed] Ditko later claimed it was Lee who broke off contact and disputed the long-held belief[28] the disagreement was over the true identity of the Green Goblin: "Stan never knew what he was getting in my Spider-Man stories and covers until after [production manager] Sol Brodsky took the material from me ... so there couldn't have been any disagreement or agreement, no exchanges ... no problems between us concerning the Green Goblin or anything else from before issue #25 to my final issues".[29]

Comics historian Greg Theakston, who visited Ditko on occasion, theorized Ditko saw The Amazing Spider-Man as semi-autobiographical: "Spider-Man was the culmination of everything Ditko was up until that moment. Ditko had personal ties to the character. When people started to 'manipulate him' into bringing in more romance into the strip and changing the direction, Ditko felt slighted, crushed ... they were telling him how to do it. He wouldn't be told".[29]

Writer and future Marvel editor Roy Thomas said in a 1998 interview, "I'll never forget the day I walked into one Marvel office not long after Ditko quit, and here's John Romita [Sr.] drawing Amazing Spider-Man and Larry [Lieber] drawing the Spider-Man Annual and Marie Severin drawing 'Dr. Strange', and I joked, 'This is the Steve Ditko Room; it takes three of you to do what Steve Ditko used to do'".[30]

Charlton and DC Comics

Back at Charlton — where the page rate was low but creators were allowed greater freedom — Ditko worked on such characters as Blue Beetle (1967–1968), The Question (1967–1968), Captain Atom (1965–1967), returning to the character he'd co-created in 1960. In addition, in 1966–1967, he drew 16 stories, most of them written by Archie Goodwin for Warren Publishing's horror comic magazines Creepy and Eerie, most of which were done using ink-wash.

In 1967, Ditko gave his conservative ideas ultimate expression in the form of Mr. A, published in Wally Wood's independent title witzend #3. Ditko's hard line against criminals was controversial and he continued to produce Mr. A stories and one-pagers until the end of the 1970s. Ditko returned to Mr. A in 2000 and in 2009.

Ditko moved to DC Comics in 1968, where he created the Creeper in Showcase #73 (April 1968) with scripter Don Segall, under editor Murray Boltinoff. Ditko also created the quirky team The Hawk and the Dove, in Showcase #75 (June, 1968), with writer Steve Skeates.

Ditko's stay at DC was short — he would work on all six issues of the Creeper's own title, Beware the Creeper (June 1968–April 1969), though leaving midway through the final one — the reasons for his departure uncertain. But while at DC, Ditko recommended Charlton staffer Dick Giordano to the company,[31], who would go on to become a top DC penciller, inker, editor, and ultimately the managing editor, in 1981.

From this time up through the mid-1970s, Ditko worked exclusively for Charlton and various small press/independent publishers. Frank McLaughlin, Charlton's art director during this period, describes Ditko as living "in a local hotel in Derby for a while. He was a very happy-go-lucky guy with a great sense of humor at that time, and always supplied the [female] color separators with candy and other little gifts".[32]

For Charlton in 1974 he did Liberty Belle backup stories in E-Man and also conceived Killjoy. Ditko also produced much work for Charlton's science-fiction and horror titles, as well as for former Marvel publisher Martin Goodman's start-up line Atlas/Seaboard Comics, where he co-created the superhero the Destructor with writer Archie Goodwin, and penciled all four issues of the namesake series (Feb.–Aug. 1975), the first two of which were inked by fellow comics legend Wally Wood. Ditko also worked on the second and third issues of Tiger-Man and the third issue of Morlock 2001, with Bernie Wrightson inking.

Latter-day Ditko

Ditko returned to DC Comics in 1975, creating a short-lived title, Shade, the Changing Man (1977–1978). Shade was later revived, without Ditko's involvement, in the DC's mature-audience imprint Vertigo Comics. With Paul Levitz (writer) and Wally Wood (inker), he co-created Stalker (1975–1976) which ran for four issues. He also revived the Creeper and did such various other jobs as a short Demon backup series in 1979, work on Legion of Superheroes in 1980–1981, and stories in DC's horror and science-fiction anthologies. He also drew the Prince Gavyn version of Starman in Adventure Comics #467–478 (1980). He then decamped to do work for a variety of publishers, briefly contributing to DC again in 1986, with four pinups of his characters for Who's Who in the DC Universe and a pinup for Superman #400 and its companion portfolio.

Ditko returned to Marvel in 1979, taking over Jack Kirby's Machine Man, drawing The Micronauts, co-creating Captain Universe, and continuing to freelance for the company into the late 1990s. In 1982, he also began freelancing for the early independent comics label Pacific Comics, beginning with Captain Victory and the Galactic Rangers #6 (Sept. 1982), in which he introduced the superhero Missing Man, with Mark Evanier scripting to Ditko's plot and art. Subsequent Missing Man stories appeared in Pacific Presents #1–3 (Oct. 1982–March 1984), with Ditko scripting the former and collaborating with Robin Snyder on the script for the latter two. Ditko also created the Mocker for Pacific, in Silver Star #2 (April 1983).

For Eclipse Comics, he contributed a story featuring his character Static (no relation to the later Milestone Comics character) in Eclipse Monthly #1–3 (Aug.–Oct. 1983), introducing supervillain the Exploder in #2. With writer Jack C. Harris, Ditko drew the backup feature "The Faceless Ones" in First Comics' Warp #2–4 (April–June 1983). Working with that same writer and others, Ditko drew a handful of the Fly, Fly-Girl and Jaguar stories for The Fly #2–8 (July 1983 – Aug. 1984), for Archie Comics' short-lived 1980s superhero line; in a rare latter-day instance of Ditko inking another artist, he inked penciler Dick Ayers on the Jaguar story in The Fly #9 (Oct. 1984)

In 1993, he did the Dark Horse Comics one-shot The Safest Place in the World. For the Defiant Comics series Dark Dominion, he drew issue #0, which was released as a set of trading cards. In 1995, he pencilled a four-issue series for Marvel based on the Phantom 2040 animated TV series. This included a poster that was inked by John Romita Sr. Steve Ditko's Strange Avenging Tales was announced at a quarterly series from Fantagraphics Books, although it only ran one issue (Feb. 1997) due to publicly unspecified disagreements between Ditko and the publisher.[citation needed]

Ditko retired from mainstream comics in 1998.[33] His later work for Marvel and DC included established superheroes as the Sub-Mariner (in Marvel Comics Presents) and newer, licensed characters such as the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers. The last mainstream character he created was Marvel's Longarm in Shadows & Light #1 (Feb. 1998), in a self-inked, 12-page Iron Man story "A Man's Reach....", scripted by Len Wein. His final mainstream work was a five-page New Gods story for DC, "Infinitely Gentle Infinitely Suffering", inked by Mick Gray and believed to be intended for the 2000–2002 Orion series[34] but not published until the 2008 trade paperback Tales of the New Gods.[34]

Since then, Ditko's solo work has been published intermittently by independent publisher and longtime friend Robin Snyder, his editor at Charlton, Archie Comics, and Renegade Press in the 1980s. The Snyder publications have included a number of original books as well as reprints such as Static, The Missing Man, The Mocker and, in 2002, Avenging World, a collection of stories and essays spanning 30 years.

In 2008, Ditko and Snyder released The Avenging Mind, a 32-page essay publication featuring several pages of new artwork;[35] and Ditko, etc...., a 32-page comic book composed of brief vignettes and editorial cartoons, introducing such new characters as the Hero.[35] In January 2009 Ditko Continued was released, featuring, amongst other material, the first part of a new Mr. A story, followed by Oh, No! Not Again, Ditko!, Ditko Once More, Ditko Presents and A Ditko Act Two in the same format.[citation needed]

In late 2009, Ditko and Snyder published a reprint of the 1973 Mr. A comic.[citation needed]

Personal life

Ditko resides in New York City as of 2008. He has refused to give interviews or make public appearances since the 1960s, explaining in 1969 that, "When I do a job, it’s not my personality that I’m offering the readers but my artwork. It’s not what I'm like that counts; it’s what I did and how well it was done.... I produce a product, a comic art story. Steve Ditko is the brand name".[36] He has, however, contributed numerous essays to Snyder's fanzine The Comics.

Ditko is an ardent supporter and advocate of the philosophy of Objectivism.[37] [38]

Awards and honors

  • 1962 Alley Award for Best Short Story - "Origin of Spider-Man" by Stan Lee & Steve Ditko, Amazing Fantasy #15 (Marvel Comics).
  • 1963 Alley Award for Best Adventure Hero Comic Book: The Amazing Spider-Man
  • 1963 Alley Award for Top Hero: Spider-Man
  • 1964 Alley Award for Best Adventure Hero Comic Book: The Amazing Spider-Man
  • 1964 Alley Award for Best Giant Comic: The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1
  • 1964 Alley Award for Best Hero: Spider-Man
  • 1965 Alley Award for Best Adventure Hero Comic Book: The Amazing Spider-Man
  • 1965 Alley Award for Best Hero: Spider-Man
  • In 1987, Ditko was presented a Comic-Con International Inkpot Award in absentia, accepted on his behalf by Renegade Press publisher Deni Loubert, who had published Ditko's World the previous year. Ditko refused the award, and returned it to Loubert after having phoned her to say, "Awards bleed the artist and make us compete against each other. They are the most horrible things in the world. How dare you accept this on my behalf". At his behest, Loubert returned the award to the convention organizers.[40]

Selected bibliography

Strange Suspense Stories #75 (June 1965), reprinting Captain Atom stories from Space Adventures #33, 34 & 36. Cover art by Ditko.

As penciler (generally but not exclusively self-inked), unless otherwise noted

Marvel

Amazing Adult Fantasy #7–14; becomes
Amazing Fantasy #15

DC

Charlton

Warren

  • Eerie #3–10 (1966–1967)
  • Creepy #9–16 (1966–1967)

Atlas

  • The Destructor #1–4 (1975)

Independent

  • Avenging World (1973) (written, pencilled, inked, and lettered by Ditko. Note that the 2002 Avenging World is a collection of Ditko works including the 1973 comic of that name)

Legacy

In September 2007, Jonathan Ross hosted a one-hour documentary, In Search of Steve Ditko for the arts channel BBC Four. Ross in his documentary noted that only "four or five" public photographs of Ditko are known to exist, and one voice recording, and that Ditko, whom he met in the course of production, declined to be interviewed on camera or photographed.

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Bell, Blake. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko (Fantagraphics Books, Seattle, Washington, 2008), p.14. ISBN 9781560979310
  2. ^ Comics Buyers Guide #1636 (December 2007) p. 135
  3. ^ a b c Bell, Strange and Stranger, Endnotes, p.1, citing 1920 and 1930 U.S. Census data. The family lists itself as Czechoslovakian in the latter census, following the dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Empire and the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. The surname Ditko itself is of Slavic origin.
  4. ^ a b c d Bell, Strange and Stranger, p. 15
  5. ^ Bell, Strange and Stranger, p. 16
  6. ^ a b Jerry Robinson interview, Alter Ego #38 (Aug. 2004), p. 9
  7. ^ Bell, Strange and Stranger, p. 19
  8. ^ a b Bell, Strange and Stranger, p. 20
  9. ^ Fantastic Fears #5 at the Grand Comics Database
  10. ^ Daring Love #1 at the Grand Comics Database
  11. ^ Theakston, Steve Ditko Reader, p. 3 (unnumbered)
  12. ^ Captain 3-D #1 (Dec. 1953) at the Grand Comics Database
  13. ^ Black Magic vol. 4, #3 [27] (Dec. 1953) at the Grand Comics Database
  14. ^ a b Bell, Blake, ed. Strange Suspense: The Steve Ditko Archives Vol. 1 (Fantagraphics Books, 2009), p. 10. ISBN 1606992899, ISBN 978-1606992890
  15. ^ Lee, Stan, and Mair, George. Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee (Fireside, 2002), p.130. ISBN 0-684-87305-2
  16. ^ Theakston, Greg. The Steve Ditko Reader (Pure Imagination, Brooklyn, NY, 2002; ISBN 1-56685-011-8), p. 12 (unnumbered)
  17. ^ Theakston, Steve Ditko Reader, p. 13
  18. ^ Ditko, Steve. "Jack Kirby's Spider-Man", Robin Snyder's History of Comics #5 (May 1990). Reprinted in Thomas, Roy, ed., Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection (TwoMorrows Publishing, 2001), p. 56. ISBN 1893905063; ISBN 9781893905061
  19. ^ "Steve Ditko - A Portrait of the Master." Comic Fan #2, Summer 1965. Published by Larry Herndon. Via Ditko Looked Up. (dead link as of at least January 3, 2010)
  20. ^ Voice of Comicdom #4 (April 1965): Letter-to-the-editor]. Punctuation verbatim.
  21. ^ Ditko Looked Up: "Ditko & Stanton" (dead link as of at least January 3, 2010)
  22. ^ Theakston, The Steve Ditko Reader, pp. 13–15 (unnumbered, pp. 14–15 misordered as pp. 16 & 14)
  23. ^ Riemschneider, Burkhard. Eric Stanton: For the Man Who Knows His Place (Benedikt Taschen Verlag "Amuse-Guele", 1997), p.4 (unnumbered) ISBN 3822881694, ISBN 978-3822881699
  24. ^ Theakston, Steve Ditko Reader, p. 14 (unnumbered, misordered as page 16)
  25. ^ Green, Robin. "Face Front! Clap Your Hands, You're on the Winning Team!", Rolling Stone #91, September 16, 1971, p. 31
  26. ^ Strange Tales #134 at the Grand Comics Database: "Indexer Notes: Part 5 of 17. First mention of Eternity. Strange would finally find it in Strange Tales #138 (November 1965)".
  27. ^ Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation: Transformation of a Youth Culture, Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5. p. 213
  28. ^ Jonathon Ross, In Search of Steve Ditko BBC Four
  29. ^ a b Lawrence, Christopher, "Who Is Steve Ditko?", Wizard #124 (Jan. 2002)
  30. ^ "Stan the Man & Roy the Boy: A Conversation Between Stan Lee and Roy Thomas", Comic Book Artist #2 (Summer 1998)
  31. ^ Evanier, Mark. "News from Me" (column): "Ditko Doc", September 11, 2007. Retrieved 19-09-2007
  32. ^ Comic Book Artist #9 (Aug. 2000): "The Charlton Empire: A Brief History of the Derby, Connecticut Publisher", by Jon B. Cooke & Christopher Irving
  33. ^ Ditko Looked Up: Ditko News, December 6, 1998. Entry refers to Ditko's final mainstream comics work, a New Gods story that would remain unpublished for 10 years. (dead link as of at least January 3, 2010)
  34. ^ a b Ditko-Fever.com: New Gods
  35. ^ a b Ditko Looked Up: "Ditko News: New Steve Ditko Work in 2008". (dead link as of at least January 3, 2010)
  36. ^ Ditko interview in Masters of Imagination: The Comic Book Artists Hall of Fame by Mike Benton (Taylor Publishing, 1994) ISBN 0878338594, ISBN 978-0878338597), quoting from fanzine Marvel Main #4 (1969), published by Mike Howell and Richard Howell
  37. ^ "The Amazing Steve Ditko" by Douglas Wolk, Salon.com, June 3, 2005, p. 2
  38. ^ Ditko Shrugged. A four part essay on Rand's influence on Ditko: Part 1: Ayn Rand’s Influence on Steve Ditko’s Craft, Commerce, and Creeper, Part 2: Apollonian and Dionysian Conflicts in The Hawk and the Dove and Beware the Creeper, Part 3: Did Neal Adams Work on Beware the Creeper #5? and Part 4: After Ditko, the Drought, Silver Bullet Comic Books, September 11–22, 2007
  39. ^ Ditko profile, Who's Who of American Comics Books, 1928–1999.
  40. ^ Bell, Strange and Stranger, pp. 165–166

References

Further reading

Yoe, Craig, ed. The Art of Steve Ditko (Idea & Design Works/IDW, 2010), ISBN-10 1600105424, ISBN-13 978-1600105425

External links

Preceded by
None
Amazing Spider-Man artist
1962–1966
Succeeded by
John Romita, Sr.
Preceded by
None
Doctor Strange artist
1963–1968
Succeeded by
Bill Everett







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