Stinger: Wikis

  
  

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Microscope magnified image of a Yellowjacket queen wasp's stinger (Vespula vulgaris).

A stinger (a colloquialism from the term "sting") is a common term for a sharp organ or body part found in various animals (typically arthropods) or plants that usually delivers some kind of venom (usually piercing the skin of another animal). A poisonous sting differs from other piercing bees and birds. in that it pierces by its own action, as opposed to teeth, which pierce by the force of jaws, or thorns, which pierce by the action of the victim.

"Sting" also refers to the wound caused by a sting. It is also used as a verb: "to sting" is to inflict such a wound.

Contents

Zoology

Wasp sting, with droplet of venom

The main type of construction of stings is a sharp organ of offense or defense, especially when connected with a venom gland, and adapted to inflict a wound by piercing; as the caudal sting of a scorpion. The wasp has a very painful sting, and they will deliberately sting if they feel threatened.

The sting is typically located at the rear of the animal, near the tail (if any). Animals with stings include bees, wasps, hornets, and scorpions - although the scorpion's sting is not homologous to that of the other three, but is rather an example of convergent evolution.

Uniquely in honey bees amongst bees and wasps, the workers' stings (a modified ovipositor as in other stinging Hymenoptera) are barbed, and lodge in the flesh of mammals upon use and tear free from the honey bee's body, leading to the bee's death within minutes. The sting has its own ganglion and it continues to saw into the target's flesh and release venom for several minutes.[citation needed] The question of how such a trait could have evolved, when it is of such an obvious disadvantage to the individual, is resolved when one realizes that mammalian predators can easily destroy the entire colony if not repelled; if the colony is destroyed, a worker, being sterile, will die without offspring, so only through defense of the colony can she see to it that her genes are passed on. The barbs ensure that a honey bee's attack is only suicidal if the attacker is a mammal;[citation needed] they can sting other bees (in inter-colony raids) repeatedly. Thus, under natural conditions, the suicidal aspect of the honey bee sting's barbs only come into play in the event of an attack which threatens to wipe out the entire colony. The sting of nearly all other bees and wasps is not barbed, and so can be used to sting mammals repeatedly; the only exceptions (yellowjacket wasps and the Mexican honey wasp) have barbs so small that they do not cause the sting apparatus to pull free, so they may sting more than once.

Non-arthropods with stings

Organs that perform similar functions in non-arthropods are often referred to as "stingers", although they are all technically considered to be something else (e.g., a poisonous barb). These include the modified dermal denticle of the stingray, the venomous spurs on the hind legs of the male duck-billed platypus,and even the cnidocyte tentacles of the jellyfish.

As well, the term is sometimes applied to the fang (a modified tooth) of a snake. One species of snake, Psammophylax rhombeatus, is even known as skaapsteker (Afrikaans for sheep stinger). It is extremely common in South Africa, and far north along the east and west coast.

Botany

A sharp-pointed hollow hair seated on a gland which secretes an acrid fluid, as in nettles. The points of these hairs usually break off in the wound, and the acrid fluid is pressed into it.

See also

Sources and references

  • the 1913 edition of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also stinger

Contents

English

Noun

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Wikipedia

Singular
Stinger

Plural
Stingers

Stinger (plural Stingers)

  1. a portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile

Translations

Anagrams


Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Stinger
Box artwork for Stinger.
Developer(s) Konami
Publisher(s) Konami
Japanese title もえろツインビー シナモン博士を救え! (Moero TwinBee: Cinamon Hakasei wo Sukue!)
Release date(s)
Genre(s) Shooter
System(s) NES, Famicom Disk System
Players 1-3 co-operative
Preceded by TwinBee
Followed by TwinBee 3: Poko Poko Daimaou
Series TwinBee

Stinger is a game published and developed by Konami, a console-only sequel to the original TwinBee and the second in the series. It is known in Japan as Moero TwinBee: Cinamon Hakasei wo Sukue! which translates to "Burn TwinBee: the Rescue of Dr. Cinamon". This is the first game in the TwinBee series that was released in the United States and Canada, released under the name Stinger, although the origins of this name are unknown. This game was originally released for the Famicom Disk System in 1986. It was ported to cartridge form with some elements removed for the North American NES one year later. At the end of the Famicom's life cycle (1993), a cartridge conversion of the original disk version was released in Japan.

The Japanese version of the game (FDS or Famicom) allows up to three players to play simultaneously (with the third controller plugged using the Famicom Four-way Adaptor, the Famicom variant of the NES Four Score). In the American version this option was reduced to just two, with Winbee omitted. However, if you connect the Famicom cartridge version to a NES using a 60-to-72 pin adapter, you can use the NES Four Score to get a third player. Additionally, the original version contained two difficulty levels: Normal and Hard. In the NES version, this option is disabled, and the default difficult is Normal (though Hard can be accessed by finishing the game once). The Famicom cartridge version adds an Easy difficulty.

Story

In the original version, an enemy force kidnaps Dr. Cinnamon (creator of TwinBee and its siblings), and TwinBee, Winbee and Gwinbee, along with Skatch, Hoip and Merou, must rescue him.

In the North American version, the story is basically the same, but Cinnamon's name was never mentioned and he is portrayed as a generic scientist. None of the three pilots are mentioned either.

Table of Contents

editTwinBee series

TwinBee · Moero TwinBee · TwinBee 3 · TwinBee DA! · Detana!! TwinBee · Pop'n TwinBee · TwinBee: Rainbow Bell Adventures · TwinBee Yahho! · TwinBee RPG








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