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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England.

Stocks are devices used since medieval times for torture, public humiliation, and corporal punishment. The stocks partially immobilized its victims and they were often exposed in a public place such as the site of a market to the scorn of those who passed by. Since the purpose was to punish offenders against the standards of conduct of the time anybody could assault, revile or aim filth at the victim.

Contents

Form and application

The stocks are similar to the pillory and the pranger, as each consists of large, hinged, wooden boards; the difference, however, is that when a person is placed in the stocks, their feet are locked in place, and sometimes as well their hands or head, or these may be chained.

With stocks, boards are placed around the legs or the wrists, whereas in the pillory they are placed around the arms and neck and fixed to a pole, and the victim stands. However, the terms can be confused, and many people refer to the pillory as the stocks.

Since stocks served an outdoor public form of punishment its victims were subjected to the daily and nightly weather. As a consequence it was not uncommon for people kept in stocks over several days to die from heat exhaustion or hypothermia.

The practice of using stocks continues to be cited as an example of torture, cruel and unusual punishment. Insulting, kicking, spitting and in some cases urinating and defecating on its victims could be applied at the free will of any of those present.

Historical uses

Black slaves in stocks in Brazil circa 1830

The stocks were popular in medieval times with the authorities because they were greatly feared by the people. They were also used as punishment for military deserters or for dereliction of military duty. In the stocks, an offender's hands and head, or sometimes their ankles would be placed and locked through two or three holes in the center of a board. Either before or after this the wrongdoer might have his or her footwear removed, exposing their bare feet. Exhibiting an offender's bare feet was considered a form of humiliation. Offenders were forced to carry out their punishments in the rain, during the heat of summer, or in freezing weather, and generally would receive only bread and water, plus anything brought by their friends. Finger pillories often went by the name of "finger stocks". Public stocks were typically positioned in the most public place available, as public humiliation was a critical aspect of such punishment. Typically, a person condemned to the stocks was subjected to a variety of abuses, ranging from having refuse thrown at them, paddling, and tickling, to whipping of the unprotected feet - bastinado.

The stocks were used in Elizabethan England, and by the Puritans in the colonial period of American history. Their last recorded use in the United Kingdom was in 1872 at Adpar, Newcastle Emlyn, west Wales.[1]

The Spanish conquistadores introduced stocks as a popular form of punishment and humiliation against those that impeded the consolidation of their settlements in the new world. They were still used in the 19th century in Latin America to punish indigenous miners in many countries for rebelling against their bosses.

Examples

An excellent example of stocks can be seen in Dromore, County Down, in Northern Ireland. They are occasionally preserved in churches though as wooden devices they are naturally subject to the perils of rotting and decay.

Locations of examples in England and Wales include:

See also

References

  1. ^ John May, Reference Wales (1994)

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to John Ellerton Stocks article)

From Wikispecies

(1822-1854)


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

This is a list of stocks of game developers and publishers.

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Retailers

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Logo Company Products Symbol Dividends Status Quote
Atari, Inc. Public, Producer of Dragon Ball Z series, Game Publisher NASDAQ:ATAR No Active Google Finance
Yahoo Finance
MSN Money

Market Watch
CNN Money

Activision, Inc. Public, Game Developer and Publisher, Published: Total War series, Tony Hawk series, and Call of Duty series NASDAQ:ATVI No Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
MSN Money
Market Watch
CNN Money

Capcom Public, Game Developer and Publisher, Street Fighter series, Devil May Cry series, Resident Evil series and Megaman series TYO: 9697 No Active Bloomberg
Electronic Arts Game Publisher, Command and Conquer series, Battlefield series, FIFA series, Madden series NASDAQ:ERTS No Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
MSN Money
Market Watch
CNN Money

Infogrames Public, Game Publisher, Alone in the Dark EPA:IFG No Active IFG Google Finance
Yahoo Finance
MSN Money

Market Watch
CNN Money

Koei Company, Limited Public, Game Developer and Publisher, Dynasty Warriors series TYO:9654 No Active Bloomberg TYO:9654
Konami Game Publisher and Developer, Dance Dance Revolution, Metal Gear series, Castlevania series NYSE:KNM
TYO:9766 (JP)
SGX:K20 (Singapore)
No Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
MSN Money
Market Watch
CNN Money
Bloomberg TYO

Microsoft Corporation Game Publisher, Hardware and Software developer, Xbox, Zune, Windows OS, MSNBC NASDAQ:MSFT yes Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
MSN Money
Market Watch
CNN Money

Midway Games Inc. Public, Game Publisher and Developer, Mortal Kombat series, Ms. Pac-Man NYSE:MWY No Active Google Finance
Yahoo Finance
MSN Money

Market Watch
CNN Money

Nintendo Co., Ltd Game Publisher, Hardware and Software developer, Wii, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, Mario series, Pokémon, Metroid series, Starfox series OTC: NTDOY,
TYO: 7974 (Japan),
FWB: NTO (Germany)
yes Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
MSN Money
Market Watch
CNN Money
BloomBerg TYO: 7974

Sega Sammy Holdings Public, Game Developer and Publisher, Sonic series, Guilty Gear series TYO: 6460 No Active Bloomberg TYO: 6460
Sony Game Publisher, Hardware and Software developer, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Protable, Game development subsidiary: SCE, electronics, HD TVs, semi conductors NYSE:SNE
TYO: 6758
yes Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
MSN Money
Market Watch
CNN Money
Bloomberg TYO:6758

Take-Two Interactive Game Publisher and Developer, Grand Theft Auto series, Subsidiaries: Rockstar Games, 2K Games, 2K Sports NASDAQ:TTWO No Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
MSN Money
Market Watch
CNN Money

THQ Inc. Game Publisher and Developer NASDAQ:THQI No Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
MSN Money
Market Watch
CNN Money

Ubisoft Entertainment Game Publisher, Tom Clancy games, Prince of Persia series, Far Cry series EPA:UBI
OTC:UBSFF.PK (France)
No Active Google Finance

Yahoo Finance
Reuters


This article uses material from the "Stocks" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.







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