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Stomach
Stomach diagram.svg
The location of the stomach in the human body.
Illu stomach.jpg
Diagram from cancer.gov:
* 1. Body of stomach
* 2. Fundus
* 3. Anterior wall
* 4. Greater curvature
* 5. Lesser curvature
* 6. Cardia
* 9. Pyloric sphincter
* 10. Pyloric antrum
* 11. Pyloric canal
* 12. Angular notch
* 13. Gastric canal
* 14. Rugal folds

Work of the United States Government
Latin Ventriculup
Gray's subject #247 1161
Nerve celiac ganglia, vagus[1]
Lymph celiac preaortic lymph nodes[2]
MeSH Stomach
Dorlands/Elsevier Stomach
.The stomach is a hollow, muscular organ of the digestive tract.^ People with advanced stomach cancer may develop a tumor that blocks the passage of food through the digestive tract.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I tried almost every nutrient and “miracle supplement” advertised to handle the stomach, the digestive tract and the absorption.
  • Stomach Problems 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.drpepi.com [Source type: General]

^ The part of the digestive tract that is located between the stomach and the large intestine.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication (chewing). .The stomach is located between the esophagus and the small intestine.^ The stomach is an organ located between the esophagus and the small intestine.

^ The part of the digestive tract that is located between the stomach and the large intestine.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common in small intestine and stomach .

.It secretes protein-digesting enzymes and strong acids to aid in food digestion, and also churns food via peristalsis before sending partially-digested food to the small intestines.^ Hydrochloric acid helps digest food.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The inner stomach lining secretes acids and enzymes to break food down as the initial step in the digestive process.
  • Gastritis: Stomach Inflammation & Vomiting in Dogs 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consuming small amounts of milk products or combining them with other foods to slow digestion also may help.
  • Stomach cancer | New Health Book 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.homelifethailand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word stomach is derived from the Latin stomachus which is derived from the Greek word stomachos, ultimately from stoma (στόμα), "mouth". The words gastro- and gastric (meaning related to the stomach) are both derived from the Greek word gaster (γαστήρ).^ This test, in which a fiber optics tube is inserted through the mouth, down the throat, and into the stomach and then into the duodenum, tends to cause gastric and pyloric spasms.
  • ZUSANLI (Stomach-36) 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Stomach Conditions] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) appetite loss - blood after stool [Stomach Conditions] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) Are my stomach/mouth/fatigue symptoms related?
  • Stomach articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Role in Digestion

.Bolus (masticated food) enters the stomach through the esophagus via the esophageal sphincter.^ Food moves from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Food moves from the mouth through the esophagus to reach the stomach.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with advanced stomach cancer may develop a tumor that blocks the passage of food through the digestive tract.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stomach releases proteases( protein-digesting enzymes such as pepsin) and hydrochloric acid, which kills or inhibits bacteria and provides the acidic pH for the proteases to work.^ Hydrochloric acid helps digest food.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HY-dree-a): A lack of hydrochloric acid in the digestive juices in the stomach.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pepsin is released by the mucosa to help break down protein and hydrochloric acid , an acid released by the digestive system.
  • Active Manuka Honey is used for Acid Reflux, Heartburn, Stomach Ulcers, now available in the USA 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.manukahoneyusa.com [Source type: General]

.Food is churned by the stomach via peristalsis, looping around the fundus[3] and the body of stomach as the boluses are converted into chyme (partially-digested food).^ The stomach is muscular so it can churn and mix food to break it down for digestion.

^ By then the cancer cells had spread to the intestines and surrounding areas around the stomach, got ascites (fluid retention) or the tumour has grown swollen in the stomach and spread upwards into the oesophagus...........

^ Stomach acid serves to help break down food, but it also can be used to activate digestive enzymes, which are special proteins that help b...
  • Stomach | LIVESTRONG.COM 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Chyme slowly passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum, where the extraction of nutrients begins.^ This test, in which a fiber optics tube is inserted through the mouth, down the throat, and into the stomach and then into the duodenum, tends to cause gastric and pyloric spasms.
  • ZUSANLI (Stomach-36) 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An endoscope (a thin, lighted tube) is passed through the mouth and down the throat into the esophagus.

.Depending on the quantity and contents of the meal, the stomach will digest the food into chyme anywhere between 40 minutes and a few hours.^ Pylorus: muscular ring that controls flow of food content into proximal duodenum .

^ Stomach acid serves to help break down food, but it also can be used to activate digestive enzymes, which are special proteins that help b...
  • Stomach | LIVESTRONG.COM 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ People with advanced stomach cancer may develop a tumor that blocks the passage of food through the digestive tract.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anatomy of the Stomach

.The stomach lies between the esophagus and the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).^ The food then passes into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
  • Stomach cancer - symptoms, causes and treatment 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a subtotal gastrectomy, the doctor connects the remaining part of the stomach to the esophagus or the small intestine.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The esophagus is attached directly to the small intestine.
  • Stomach Cancer – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: Academic]

It is on the left upper part of the abdominal cavity. The top of the stomach lies against the diaphragm. Lying behind the stomach is the pancreas. The greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature.
.Two smooth muscle valves, or sphincters, keep the contents of the stomach contained.^ At the top of the stomach is the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) which prevents backsplash of stomach contents upward into the esophagus.
  • gastroparesis 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gihealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The submucosa is surrounded by the muscularis , a layer of muscle that moves and mixes the stomach contents.

^ Food enters the stomach from the esophagus, through a ring of muscles known as the cardiac sphincter that normally prevents food from passing back to the esophagus.
  • stomach Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about stomach 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are the esophageal sphincter (found in the cardiac region) dividing the tract above, and the Pyloric sphincter dividing the stomach from the small intestine.^ Common in small intestine and stomach .

^ The volume of the stomach increases at meal times and decreases as chyme leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine.

^ It is bacteria found in the mucous layer of the stomach lining or first part of the small intestine, which causes more than 90% of ulcers1.

.The stomach is surrounded by parasympathetic (stimulant) and orthosympathetic (inhibitor) plexuses (networks of blood vessels and nerves in the anterior gastric, posterior, superior and inferior, celiac and myenteric), which regulate both the secretions activity and the motor (motion) activity of its muscles.^ Anticancer drugs for stomach cancer are usually injected into a blood vessel.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When food enters the stomach, muscles in the stomach wall create a rippling motion that mixes and mashes the food.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Submucosa: a matrix of connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves; 3.

.In humans, the stomach has a relaxed, near empty volume of about 45 ml.^ The relaxed (empty) stomach has folds of lumen, which expands upon food arrival and almost disappears in a full stomach [11].

^ The procedure is done using sedation (a strong relaxing medication) given through an IV. The stomach has to be empty for several hours before the test.

It is a distensible organ. .It normally expands to hold about 1 litre of food,[4] but will hold as much as 2-3 litres(whereas a newborn baby will only be able to retain 30ml).^ My point about real foods is that the body is adjusted to eating what you normally eat.
  • UltRunR - Stomach Problems & Nausea 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ultrunr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sections

.The stomach is divided into 4 sections, each of which has different cells and functions.^ By then the cancer cells had spread to the intestines and surrounding areas around the stomach, got ascites (fluid retention) or the tumour has grown swollen in the stomach and spread upwards into the oesophagus...........

^ As might be expected, the relationship of zusanli to stomach function has been one of the main aims of research into the action of acupuncture stimulus applied at this point.
  • ZUSANLI (Stomach-36) 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

The sections are:
Cardia Where the contents of the esophagus empty into the stomach.
Fundus Formed by the upper curvature of the organ.
Body or Corpus The main, central region.
Pylorus The lower section of the organ that facilitates emptying the contents into the small intestine.

Blood supply

.
Blood supply to the stomach: left and right gastric artery, left and right gastro-omental artery and short gastric artery.
^ Rare due to richness of gastric blood supply .

[5]
.The lesser curvature of the stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly, and the left gastric artery superiorly, which also supplies the cardiac region.^ Lesser curvature: medial curvature of stomach .

The greater curvature is supplied by the right gastroepiploic artery inferiorly and the left gastroepiploic artery superiorly. .The fundus of the stomach, and also the upper portion of the greater curvature, are supplied by the short gastric artery.^ Usually greater curvature of stomach .

^ Greater curvature: lateral curvature of stomach .

^ Help [Stomach Conditions] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) gastric bypass [Stomach Conditions] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) gastric decompression for gastroparesis [Stomach Conditions] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) Gastric emptying [Stomach Conditions] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) gastric fundus/bleeding [Stomach Conditions] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) gastric ulcer , severe stomach problems [Misc.
  • Stomach articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

Like the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach walls are made of the following layers, from inside to outside:
mucosa The first main layer. This consists of an epithelium, the lamina propria composed of loose connective tissue and which has gastric glands in it underneath, and a thin layer of .smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae.^ This consists of an epithelium, the lamina propria underneath, and a thin bit of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosa.

^ Leiomyosarcoma (also called stromal cell tumor or spindle cell tumor) is cancer of the smooth muscle of the stomach.
  • Stomach Cancer: Tumors of the Digestive System: Merck Manual Home Edition 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The muscularis mucosae has two layers and extends into the intestinal villi, where the smooth muscle cells form a longitudinal bundle in the centre of the villi.
  • Blue Histology - Gastrointestinal Tract 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

submucosa This layer lies over the mucosa and consists of fibrous connective tissue, separating the mucosa from the next layer. The .Meissner's plexus is in this layer.^ The Meissner's plexus is in this layer.
  • What is Stomach? 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

muscularis externa
Over the submucosa, the muscularis externa in the stomach differs from that of other GI organs in that it has three layers of smooth muscle instead of two.
.
  • inner oblique layer: This layer is responsible for creating the motion that churns and physically breaks down the food.^ The enzymes digest (break down) the food.
    • Stomach (Gastric) Cancer | Health | Patient UK 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Muscle layer: Muscles in this layer create a rippling motion that mixes and mashes food.
    • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The stomach is muscular so it can churn and mix food to break it down for digestion.

    .It is the only layer of the three which is not seen in other parts of the digestive system.^ It's part of the digestive system .
    • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The stomach is part of the digestive system .
    • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An organ that is part of the digestive system.
    • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The antrum has thicker skin cells in its walls and performs more forceful contractions than the fundus.
  • middle circular layer: At this layer, the pylorus is surrounded by a thick circular muscular wall which is normally tonically constricted forming a functional (if not anatomically discrete) pyloric sphincter, which controls the movement of chyme into the duodenum.^ Pylorus: muscular ring that controls flow of food content into proximal duodenum .

    ^ It is bacteria found in the mucous layer of the stomach lining or first part of the small intestine, which causes more than 90% of ulcers1.

    ^ Over time, the cancer may invade more deeply into the stomach wall.
    • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This layer is concentric to the longitudinal axis of the stomach.
  • outer longitudinal layer: Auerbach's plexus is found between this layer and the middle circular layer.
serosa This layer is over the muscularis externa, consisting of layers of connective tissue continuous with the peritoneum.
Cross section of stomach wall.
Microscopic cross section of the pyloric part of the stomach wall.

Glands

The epithelium of the stomach forms deep pits. The glands at these locations are named for the corresponding part of the stomach:
Cardiac glands
(at cardia)
Pyloric glands
(at pylorus)
Fundic glands
(at fundus)
Gray1053.png Gray1054.png Gray1055.png
Different types of cells are found at the different layers of these glands:
Layer of stomach Name Secretion Region of stomach Staining
Isthmus of gland Mucous neck cells mucus gel layer Fundic, cardiac, pyloric Clear
Body of gland parietal (oxyntic) cells gastric acid and intrinsic factor Fundic, cardiac, pyloric Acidophilic
Base of gland chief (zymogenic) cells pepsinogen, rennin Fundic only Basophilic
Base of gland enteroendocrine (APUD) cells hormones gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin and somatostatin Fundic, cardiac, pyloric -

Control of secretion and motility

The movement and the flow of chemicals into the stomach are controlled by both the autonomic nervous system and by the various digestive system hormones:
Gastrin The hormone gastrin causes an increase in the secretion of .HCl from the parietal cells, and pepsinogen from chief cells in the stomach.^ The primary epithelial cell types in the stomach are mucous cells, parietal cells, peptic cells, and G-cells.
  • UltRunR - Stomach Problems & Nausea 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ultrunr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also causes increased motility in the stomach.^ It also causes increased motility in the stomach.
  • What is Stomach? 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having a type of anaemia called pernicious anaemia, which causes a lack of vitamin B12, can very slightly increase your risk of stomach cancer.
  • Stomach (Gastric) Cancer | Health | Patient UK 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can all cause the stomach's defense mechanisms to fail, resulting in an increased chance of developing stomach ulcers.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gastrin is released by G-cells in the stomach in response to distenstion of the antrum, and digestive products(especially large quantities of incompletely digested proteins).^ Stomach acid serves to help break down food, but it also can be used to activate digestive enzymes, which are special proteins that help b...
  • Stomach | LIVESTRONG.COM 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells: non-peptide secreting endocrine cell of gastric fundus/body mucosa; comprises 30% of endocrine cells; releases histamine in response to gastrin production by G cells; long term gastrin stimulation causes ECL hyperplasia .

^ Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells: non-peptide secreting endocrine cell of gastric fundus/body mucosa; represent 30% of endocrine cells; release histamine in response to gastrin produce by G cells; long term gastrin stimulation causes ECL hyperplasia .

.It is inhibited by a pH normally less than 4 (high acid), as well as the hormone somatostatin.^ H. pylori sits on surface or in lumen, needs acid to survive, otherwise urease causes pH to be too high .

^ Full feeling after meals, even when eating less than normal.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Information about Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It produces lactic acid when ruminants ingest high-starch diets and pH is low [16].

Cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin (CCK) has most effect on the gall bladder, causing gall bladder contractions, but it also decreases gastric emptying and increases release of pancreatic juice which is alkaline and neutralizes the chyme.
Secretin In a different and rare manner, secretin, produced in the .small intestine, has most effects on the pancreas, but will also diminish acid secretion in the stomach.^ Common in small intestine and stomach .

^ It is bacteria found in the mucous layer of the stomach lining or first part of the small intestine, which causes more than 90% of ulcers1.

^ A stomach tumor can grow through the stomach's outer layer into nearby organs, such as the liver, pancreas, esophagus, or intestine.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gastric inhibitory peptide Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) decreases both gastric acid release and motility.
Enteroglucagon enteroglucagon decreases both gastric acid and motility.
.Other than gastrin, these hormones all act to turn off the stomach action.^ Other than gastrin, these hormones all act to turn off the stomach action.
  • What is Stomach? 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In laboratory conditions these compounds kill the dangerous E. Coli bacteria, which among other things causes stomach problems, like ulcers.

^ Any of these symptoms may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious health problems, such as a stomach virus or an ulcer.
  • Stomach Cancer - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is in response to food products in the liver and gall bladder, which have not yet been absorbed.^ Is there any history of pancreas or liver disease, gall bladder disease or stones, kidney disease or stones, prior surgery involving the abdomen, ulcer disease, "heartburn", or intolerance of spicy foods, caffeine, or dairy products?
  • Drug InfoNet - Stomach Problems - [digestion] 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: General]

^ Gall bladder disease will usually be present with fatty food intolerance, occasional right upper quadrant pain, and difficulty with digesting foods such as apples and cabbages.
  • Drug InfoNet - Stomach Problems - [digestion] 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: General]

^ It increases digestion, helps the body to absorb food, increases the production of gastric acids, and stimulates hunger.
  • ZUSANLI (Stomach-36) 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.The stomach needs only to push food into the small intestine when the intestine is not busy.^ The stomach needs only to push food into the small intestine when the intestine is not busy.
  • What is Stomach? 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This obstruction can prevent food from leaving the stomach and entering the small intestine.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muscles in the stomach wall push the liquid into the small intestine.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the intestine is full and still digesting food, the stomach acts as storage for food.^ If the lining of the stomach (or duodenum) is damaged in one place or another, the acid and pepsin go to work on the lining as they would on food, breaking it down as though to digest it.
  • Ulcer - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on the quantity and contents of the meal, the stomach will digest the food into chyme anywhere between 40 minutes and a few hours.

^ Once the food reaches your stomach, your stomach puts out acid and pepsin (a digestive enzyme) to digest the food.
  • Stomach Acid - Care2 News Network 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

EGF in gastric defence

Epidermal growth factor or EGF results in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival.[6] .EGF is a low-molecular-weight polypeptide first purified from the mouse submandibular gland, but since then found in many human tissues including submandibular gland, parotid gland.^ Working the abs is fine if you already have a low bodyfat, but you need to do big compound, full body workouts first to lose the weight.
  • How to Lose Belly Fat and Get a Flat Stomach | Get Fit and Lose Weight 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.motleyhealth.com [Source type: General]

Salivary EGF, which seems also regulated by dietary inorganic iodine, plays also an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro-esophageal and gastric tissue integrity. .The biological effects of salivary EGF include healing of oral and gastroesophageal ulcers, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids, pepsin, and trypsin and to physical, chemical and bacterial agents.^ Physiology: mucosal damage due to increased acid secretion, decreased bicarbonate buffer, reduced blood flow, disruption of mucous layer .

^ Type 4: very rare ( <10 cases), due to defective gastric acid secretion .

^ In the case of stomach cancer, the patient’s history may include information about other diseases, such as pernicious anemia, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer disease, polyps of the digestive tract, or previous stomach operations.

[7]

Diseases of the stomach

.Historically, it was widely believed that the highly acidic environment of the stomach would keep the stomach immune from infection.^ Dyspepsia Stomach ache Peptic ulcer Achlorhydria Hypochlorhydria Linitis plastica Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Gastroparesis GERD Borborygmus Historically, it was widely believed that the highly acidic environment of the stomach would keep the stomach immune from infection .
  • What is Stomach? 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stomach is a highly acidic environment due to gastric acid production and secretion which produces a luminal pH range usually between 1 and 4 depending on the species, food intake, time of the day, drug use, and other factors.
  • What is Stomach? 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Helicobacter pylori, and Clostridium botulinum are microbes that can survive the acidic environment of the stomach and induce deadly effects to the host.

.However, a large number of studies have indicated that most cases of peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection.^ Helicobacter pylori gastritis .

^ Most people with stomach cancer get chemotherapy.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peptic ulcer is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain.

In other animals

.Although the precise shape and size of the stomach varies widely between different vertebrates, the relative positions of the oesophageal and duodenal openings remain relatively constant.^ Positive stains: vimentin, S100 (strong), variable GFAP, often PAS+ needle shaped crystalloids .

.As a result, the organ always curves somewhat to the left before curving back to meet the pyloric sphincter.^ Back in the dark ages before all the sports foods and drinks flooded the market I always liked Cokes or Pepsi and never found them to be a problem.
  • UltRunR - Stomach Problems & Nausea 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ultrunr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, lampreys, hagfishes, chimaeras, lungfishes, and some teleost fish have no stomach at all, with the oesophagus opening directly into the intestine.^ However, not all stomach pain is the same.
  • Stomach | LIVESTRONG.COM 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ It does this by constricting flow from the stomach into the intestines (slowing the pyloric sphincter).
  • UltRunR - Stomach Problems & Nausea 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ultrunr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By then the cancer cells had spread to the intestines and surrounding areas around the stomach, got ascites (fluid retention) or the tumour has grown swollen in the stomach and spread upwards into the oesophagus...........

.These animals all consume diets that either require little storage of food, or no pre-digestion with gastric juices, or both.^ How these two hidden "fat storage triggering ingredients" in our food supply are sabotaging your efforts to lose fat!
  • Ladies, Get a Flat Sexy Stomach the Right Way - Lose Your Tummy Fat 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.truthaboutabs.com [Source type: General]

^ All of these when I am doing them, I feel nothing, No pain, No strain, no feeling that it is working.
  • How to Lose Belly Fat and Get a Flat Stomach | Get Fit and Lose Weight 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.motleyhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ It's just much harder over all to plan a proper diet that works for a long ultra using just sports foods.
  • UltRunR - Stomach Problems & Nausea 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ultrunr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.The gastric lining is usually divided into two regions, an anterior portion lined by fundic glands, and a posterior with pyloric glands.^ Micro: dilated glands / microcysts lined by fundic epithelium; shorted foveola, increased smooth muscle in lamina propria, no proliferation of foveolar epithelium .

^ Gross: minute mucosal bumps 1-5 mm, usually 1-20, may be part of diffuse fundic gland polyposis (100+ polyps) .

^ Cyst (unilocular, multilocular) lined by gastric mucosa within abdomen; usually does not communicate with normal stomach .

.Cardiac glands are unique to mammals, and even then are absent in a number of species.^ Manuka Honey adds a special, unique and non-descript flavor, that no one can really pin point (not even chef cooks!
  • Active Manuka Honey is used for Acid Reflux, Heartburn, Stomach Ulcers, now available in the USA 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.manukahoneyusa.com [Source type: General]

The distributions of these glands vary between species, and do not always correspond with the same regions as in man. .Furthermore, in many non-human mammals, a portion of the stomach anterior to the cardiac glands is lined with epithelium essentially identical to that of the oesophagus.^ Micro: dilated glands / microcysts lined by fundic epithelium; shorted foveola, increased smooth muscle in lamina propria, no proliferation of foveolar epithelium .

^ Cardia: narrow conical portion distal to gastroesophageal junction; many authors claim that cardiac mucosa is reflux-associated epithelia and not normally present .

.Ruminants, in particular, have a complex stomach, the first three chambers of which are all lined with oesophageal mucosa.^ It is bacteria found in the mucous layer of the stomach lining or first part of the small intestine, which causes more than 90% of ulcers1.

^ The stomach lining in particular has a very high turnover rate of tissue and needs to be feed just like the working muscles.
  • UltRunR - Stomach Problems & Nausea 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ultrunr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or duodenum (first part of your small intestines).

[8]
In birds and crocodilians, the stomach is divided into two regions. .Anteriorly is a narrow tubular region, the proventriculus, lined by fundic glands, and connecting the true stomach to the crop.^ True: The stomach lining and intestines have a high turnover rate.
  • UltRunR - Stomach Problems & Nausea 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ultrunr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Micro: dilated glands / microcysts lined by fundic epithelium; shorted foveola, increased smooth muscle in lamina propria, no proliferation of foveolar epithelium .

.Beyond lies the powerful muscular gizzard, lined by pyloric glands, and, in some species, containing stones that the animal swallows to help grind up food.^ Stomach acid serves to help break down food, but it also can be used to activate digestive enzymes, which are special proteins that help b...
  • Stomach | LIVESTRONG.COM 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ There are also some drugs that help keep the pyloric sphincter open, retalin (banned by the USATF) amongst them.
  • UltRunR - Stomach Problems & Nausea 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ultrunr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I rly need some help to loose this fat I want to be skinny again can you please come up with some good exercises and food help?
  • How to Lose Belly Fat and Get a Flat Stomach | Get Fit and Lose Weight 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.motleyhealth.com [Source type: General]

[8]

Pictures

An endoscopy of a normal stomach of a healthy 65-year old woman.

See also

References

  1. ^ Physiology at MCG 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30
  2. ^ stomach at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University)
  3. ^ Richard M. Gore; Marc S. Levine. (2007). Textbook of Gastrointestinal Radiology. Philadelphia, PA.: Saunders. ISBN 1416023321. 
  4. ^ Sherwood, Lauralee (1997). Human physiology: from cells to systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co. ISBN 0314092455. OCLC 35270048. 
  5. ^ Anne M. R. Agur; Moore, Keith L. (2007). Essential Clinical Anatomy (Point (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 078176274X. OCLC 172964542. ; p. 150
  6. ^ Herbst RS (2004). "Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology". International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 59 (2 Suppl): 21–6. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2003.11.041. PMID 15142631. 
  7. ^ Venturi S.; Venturi M. (2009). "Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health". Nutrition and Health 20: 119–134. 
  8. ^ a b c Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 345-349. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

STOMACH (Gr. .UTeµaxos from UT6pa, a mouth), the bag-like digestive organ which in man is situated in the upper left part of the abdomen.^ An organ that is part of the digestive system.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen .

^ GI series : A series of x-rays of the upper digestive system that are taken after a person drinks a barium solution, which outlines the digestive organs on the x-rays.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

See, for anatomical details, Alimentary Canal. .For the diseases of the stomach in general see Digestive Organs; and for special forms Gastritis, Gastric Ulcer, Dyspepsia, &C.; also Abdomen (Abdominal Surgery).^ Gastric cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach.

^ Ulcers in the stomach are called gastric or stomach ulcers.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stomach , Stomach - Anatomy of the human stomach , Stomach - Control of secretion and motility , Stomach - Diseases , Stomach - Histology of the human stomach , cardia , gastric acid , gastric distention , monogastric , nasogastric tube , peptic ulcer , stomach ache , stomach cancer , borborygmi , GERD , Yoga , Health and Yoga .

.Cancer of the Stomach
is a common disease.^ This is the most common treatment for stomach cancer.
  • Stomach cancer | New Health Book 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.homelifethailand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Gastroenterology - General] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) chronic vomiting; taking Baclofen for hiccups following partial gastrectomy [Stomach Cancer] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) Chronically sensitive stomach--Why and what can be done?
  • Stomach articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People who have stomach cancer rarely have symptoms in the early stages of the disease.
  • Stomach Cancer Test Dubai, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt & Lebanon 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.easternbiotech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It occurs for the most part in persons at or after middle life, and in both sexes equally. Its favourite situation is the outlet (pyloric cancer), where a hard, fibrous growth forms a contracting ring of the scirrhous variety. .But when cancer attacks the inlet of the stomach, the tumour is of the scaly epitheliomatous variety.^ By then the cancer cells had spread to the intestines and surrounding areas around the stomach, got ascites (fluid retention) or the tumour has grown swollen in the stomach and spread upwards into the oesophagus...........

.It often begins in the tissues of the end of the gullet, spreading downwards to the stomach.^ In this case, it can help tell how far the cancer has spread within the stomach or into nearby tissues and lymph nodes.
  • Stomach Cancer Test Dubai, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt & Lebanon 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.easternbiotech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This test helps determine whether cancer has spread into the walls of your stomach or to nearby tissues and lymph nodes.
  • Stomach cancer | New Health Book 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.homelifethailand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stromal tumors of the stomach begin in supporting connective tissue and are treated differently from gastric cancer.

.Chronic gastric ulcer is not unfrequently the starting point of cancer.^ Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) starts in the stomach.
  • Stomach Cancer Test Dubai, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt & Lebanon 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.easternbiotech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cancer that starts in the stomach is called stomach or gastric cancer.

^ Infection with H. pylori, the bacterium that causes most cases of gastric ulcers, is one of the leading causes of stomach cancer.
  • Stomach cancer | New Health Book 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.homelifethailand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The symptoms of cancer of the stomach are apt to be indefinite (for many weeks or months).^ I realize that each individual has different symptoms of stomach-cancer.

^ People who have stomach cancer rarely have symptoms in the early stages of the disease.
  • Stomach Cancer Test Dubai, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt & Lebanon 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.easternbiotech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discomfort in the stomach area Feeling full or bloated after a small meal Nausea and vomiting Weight loss Most often, these symptoms are not due to cancer.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There may be long-standing complaints of "indigestion," which is sometimes made better, sometimes worse, by taking food.^ We all have to make little sacrifices to get a better body, and sometimes that may involve losing out on other areas.
  • How to Lose Belly Fat and Get a Flat Stomach | Get Fit and Lose Weight 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.motleyhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ This will help the digestion to take place in a much better manner and will prove as a preventive method for possible stomach aches due to indigestion.
  • Stomach disorders Home Remedies - Stomach disorders Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Stomach disorders 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A patient who needs a biopsy may want to ask the doctor some of these questions: How long will the procedure take?
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Then comes a feeling of discomfort which can be often localized, the individual pointing with his finger to a spot somewhere behind the end of the breastbone.^ Discomfort in the stomach area Feeling full or bloated after a small meal Nausea and vomiting Weight loss Most often, these symptoms are not due to cancer.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Difficulty and pain in swallowing may be complained of when the cancer is beginning to block the inlet, but if it is situated at the pylorus the discomfort comes on an hour or two after a meal - at the time that the partially digested food is trying to make its way into the small intestine.^ Cancer begins in cells , the building blocks that make up tissues .
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After about 3 hours, the food becomes a liquid and moves into the small intestine, where digestion continues.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cancer may grow along the stomach wall into the esophagus or small intestine.
  • Stomach Cancer - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

.Much of the food remains in the stomach and, undergoing fermentation, causes the evolution of gas which distends the stomach and gives rise to unavoidable belching.^ High fat foods will remain in the stomach longer, thus causing the need for more stomach acid in order to digest them.
  • Stomach Acid - Care2 News Network 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But these foods often contain large amounts of nitrites and nitrates, which can be converted in your stomach into cancer-causing compounds.
  • Stomach cancer | New Health Book 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.homelifethailand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people find that dairy foods such as milk, cheese and even yogurt cause gas, bloating and abdominal pain.
  • Stomach cancer | New Health Book 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.homelifethailand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Later on vomiting occurs. .The vomiting may take place every two or three days, enormous quantities of undigested food mixed with frothy, yeast-like mucous being thrown up.^ She would fall asleep fairly readily but would wake up upon being placed down on her back.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Baby Sleeping on Stomach 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With low acidity and the presence of undigested food, harmful bacteria are more likely to colonize the stomach and interfere with digestion.
  • Stomach Acid - Care2 News Network 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms may appear as early as two days from exposure up to two weeks.

.And whilst the stomach is slowly filling up again after one of these uncontrollable emptyings, sudden and violent movements of the individual may cause the fluid to give rise to audible "splashings."^ It may also be the main cause of stomach cancer.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Information about Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ H. pylori then attacks these cells causing further tissue damage and inflammation, which may result in an ulcer.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I give you a checklist of the drugs you may need either singly or in combination to prevent vomiting: metoclopramide, dexamethasone, ondansetron/granisetron/tropisetron (one of these three will do) and aprepitant.

.But even at this stage the disease may be unrecognizable, though the symptoms are extremely suggestive.^ Blood tests may help rule out other diseases that can cause signs and symptoms similar to those of nonulcer stomach pain.
  • Nonulcer stomach pain 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ People who have stomach cancer rarely have symptoms in the early stages of the disease.
  • Stomach Cancer Test Dubai, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt & Lebanon 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.easternbiotech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, your health care team may suggest medicine to control the symptoms.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But later the vomited matter is blackened by blood which has escaped into the stomach from the ulcerated growth.^ Bleeding: As an ulcer eats into the muscles of the stomach or duodenal wall, blood vessels may also be damaged, which causes bleeding.
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anticancer drugs for stomach cancer are usually injected into a blood vessel.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bleeding As an ulcer eats into the muscles of the stomach or duodenal wall, blood vessels may also be damaged, which causes bleeding.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]

.The patient then rapidly loses flesh and strength, and a hard lump may be felt in the upper part of the abdomen.^ Discomfort in the upper or middle region of your abdomen that may not be relieved by food or antacids.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Information about Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ 'The most common sympton patients get when they have problems with their stomach is a discomfort on the upper abdomen, which they often call gastric.'

^ When talking about treatment choices, the patient may want to ask about taking part in a research study.
  • Stomach Cancer - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

.A characteristic feature of cancer is the carrying of the epithelial cells (which are the essential element of the growth) to the nearest lymphatic glands, and in cancer of the stomach the secondary implication of the glands may cause the formation of large masses between the stomach and the liver, which may press upon the large veins and give rise to dropsy.^ What causes stomach cancer (adenocarcinoma of the stomach)?
  • Stomach (Gastric) Cancer | Health | Patient UK 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For that reason, it is treated as stomach cancer, not liver cancer.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if stomach cancer spreads to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are actually stomach cancer cells.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Secondary deposits are apt to form also in the liver and they may cause the appearance of a bulging below the ribs on the right side.^ [Gastroenterology - General] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) Upper right side abdominal pain.
  • Stomach articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are also looking at how gene changes (mutations) can cause normal stomach cells to grow abnormally and form cancers.
  • Stomach Cancer Test Dubai, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt & Lebanon 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.easternbiotech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Stomach Cancer] (Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum) Upper Abdominal Pain Middle/Right side radiating to the back!
  • Stomach articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Another characteristic of cancer is that it spreads far and wide, drawing other tissues to itself by contracting fibrous bands.^ If the cancer spreads to other parts of the body, various other symptoms can develop.
  • Stomach (Gastric) Cancer | Health | Patient UK 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LIG-nant): Cancerous; a growth with a tendency to invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is vital and urgent to cut out the cancerous part of the stomach immediately, as the cancer cells are very aggressive and can spread fast to the other organs if surgery is delayed.

.These are sometimes erroneously spoken of as the "roots" of cancer, and in the case of cancer of the stomach they may fix it to the pancreas, the liver, the bowels or the spine.^ These are the stages of stomach cancer: .
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For that reason, it is treated as stomach cancer, not liver cancer.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may also be the main cause of stomach cancer.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Information about Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

.The invasion of the lymphatic glands and the spreading of the growth into neighbouring organs, render the successful operative treatment of gastric cancer hazardous and disappointing.^ In stage II gastric cancer , cancer has spread: .

^ By then the cancer cells had spread to the intestines and surrounding areas around the stomach, got ascites (fluid retention) or the tumour has grown swollen in the stomach and spread upwards into the oesophagus...........

^ Stomach (gastric) cancer is a cancer that starts in the stomach and is the growth of abnormal cells in the lining and wall of the stomach.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Information about Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

.By the time that a tumour has made itself recognisable the probability is that it is too late for the attempt to be made for its removal.^ If you have stage 0, I, II, or IIII cancer, and if you are healthy enough, an attempt should be made to treat the cancer by completely removing it.
  • Stomach Cancer Test Dubai, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt & Lebanon 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.easternbiotech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the truth be told, a fat belly is probably one of the hardest areas to successfully remove because it's made up what is known as 'stubborn' fat.

.But in many cases the patient prefers that the abdomen should be opened for exploration for a possible operation than that he should hopelessly give himself over to the disease.^ I noticed from the patients'symptoms that if they suffer the abdomen pain or discomfort for less than 6 months, the stomach cancer is usually at 1st stage.

^ Case reports in patients with celiac disease, Archives 2001;125:1579 , Mod Path 2000;13:591 .

^ Even though many patients recover completely, doctors use this term because the disease can return.
  • The Cancer Infomation Network - Stomach Cancer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

.And sometimes the surgeon is enabled by operation to give great relief, though the removal of the growth itself is impracticable.^ Sometimes a surgeon may also remove an adjacent part of the stomach that secretes pepsin and acid.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the growth is at the cardiac end of the stomach, blocking the gullet and causing slow starvation, the abdomen may advisedly be opened, and, the stomach having been fixed to the surface-wound, a permanent opening may be arranged for the introduction of an adequate amount of food.^ Radiation therapy to the abdomen may cause pain in the stomach or the intestine.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bleeding: As an ulcer eats into the muscles of the stomach or duodenal wall, blood vessels may also be damaged, which causes bleeding.
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The esophagus enters the stomach at the gastro-esophageal opening, and the immediately adjacent portion of the stomach is termed its cardiac part.
  • Chapter 27: The esophagus, stomach and intestines 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This operation is called gastrostomy and may be the means of giving many weeks of comfort to the unhappy patient - provided that its performance is not too long postponed.^ This condition has been called watermelon stomach because the streaky long red areas may (but not always) resemble the markings on watermelon.
  • Watermelon Stomach Endoscopy 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctors may choose to prescribe antibiotics to their ulcer patients as "off label" prescriptions as they do for many conditions.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’ve included 44 of them in my program to provide you with enough variety to keep you engaged and interested for a long time, without giving so many that you feel overwhelmed.
  • Stomach Exercise | Abdominal Workout | Lose belly fat | Flat Six Pack Abs | Ab Exercise by David Grisaffi | 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.flattenyourabs.net [Source type: General]

.In the case of pyloric obstruction a permanent opening may be established between the stomach and a neighbouring piece of intestine, so that the food may find its way along the alimentary canal greatly to the relief of the symptoms of gastric dilatation.^ This obstruction can prevent food from leaving the stomach and entering the small intestine.
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pyloric opening, or pylorus, between the stomach and duodenum, is surrounded by the pyloric sphincter.
  • Chapter 27: The esophagus, stomach and intestines 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The alimentary canal comprises the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestine.
  • Chapter 27: The esophagus, stomach and intestines 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

This is called "short-circuiting." .In some early cases of pyloric cancer resection of the disease may be performed, the upper end of the intestine being afterwards joined to the middle of the stomach by a kind of short-circuiting operation.^ Stomach cancer is treatable if caught early.
  • Stomach cancer | New Health Book 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.homelifethailand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disease is metastatic stomach cancer, not liver cancer.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over time, the cancer may invade more deeply into the stomach wall.
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In certain rare cases the whole of the stomach has been removed, the bowel being brought up and spliced to the end of the gullet.^ Sometimes the whole of the stomach is removed.
  • Stomach (Gastric) Cancer | Health | Patient UK 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rarely, the new connections between the ends of the stomach and esophagus or small intestine may not hold together completely and leak.
  • Stomach Cancer Test Dubai, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt & Lebanon 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.easternbiotech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiatal herniae are either sliding (in which case the cardiac end of the stomach slides up into the thorax) or para-esophageal (in which case the front wall of the stomach may roll up beside the esophagus).
  • Chapter 27: The esophagus, stomach and intestines 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the case of gastric dilatation from pyloric obstruction great relief may be afforded by washing out the viscus by means of a long rubber tube, a funnel, and a jug of hot water, as originally suggested by Adolf Kussmaul.^ In addition to a great work out program you really need to eat right if you want to keep your results for the long term.

^ This test, in which a fiber optics tube is inserted through the mouth, down the throat, and into the stomach and then into the duodenum, tends to cause gastric and pyloric spasms.
  • ZUSANLI (Stomach-36) 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Linitis plastica: broad region of gastric wall or entire stomach is extensively infiltrated by malignancy, creating a thickened, rigid, leather bottle-like stomach; may cause pyloric obstruction .

Pyloroplasty

.Simple fibrous narrowing of the gateway of the stomach or of the intestine is dealt with by dividing it longitudinally and then suturing the edges of the wound transversely.^ Narrowing and obstruction: Ulcers located at the end of the stomach where the duodenum is attached, can cause swelling and scarring, which can narrow or close the intestinal opening.
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid (or pelvic) colon Questions Figure legends Chapter 27: The esophagus, stomach and intestines .
  • Chapter 27: The esophagus, stomach and intestines 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Narrowing and obstruction Ulcers located at the end of the stomach where the duodenum is attached, can cause swelling and scarring, which can narrow or close the intestinal opening.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]

This ingenious operation widens the track at the expense of an unimportant fraction of its length. .In cases of great dilatation of the stomach with no obstruction to the outlet the slack of the walls may be gathered up by pleating and so permanently secured by suturing.^ Bleeding: As an ulcer eats into the muscles of the stomach or duodenal wall, blood vessels may also be damaged, which causes bleeding.
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No discomfort, no curling up in the bed from stomach pains and no more hesitation of drinking a glass of water in the morning.
  • Stomach Ache and Stomach Pain Remedies from the Earth Clinic Library of Cures. 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ In the case of a stomach ulcer, the doctor may wish to document healing with repeat x-rays or endoscopy.
  • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ulcers 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gastro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Loreta's operation for dilatation of the outlet of the stomach is now rarely performed. (E. O.*)


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Human Digestive System/Stomach article)

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< Human Digestive System
.The stomach is the place where food and liquids that pass from the esophagus are stored and prepared for digestion.^ The stomach stores up to 2 liters of food.

^ In the stomach, the food becomes liquid.
  • Stomach Cancer Basics | Cancer Forums and News 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC cancerfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Stomach Cancer Symptoms, Causes, Stages and Gastric Cancer Treatment on MedicineNet.com 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • What You Need To Know About™ Stomach Cancer - National Cancer Institute 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stomach is the organ where food is digested.
  • What Should I Know About Stomach Cancer? - March 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The upper part of the stomach is called the fundus.^ The stomach varies considerably in size, shape and position but lies in the upper central part of the abdomen behind the lower ribs.
  • Stomach and Duodenum| MUSC Digestive Disease Center 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ddc.musc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the stomach, the partially digested food passes into the duodenum , the upper part of the small intestine.
  • Understanding Stomach Disorders 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gitract.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stomach, an organ located in the upper abdomen, is part of the digestive system and connects the esophagus to the small intestine.

.This part of the stomach stretches to make room for large meals.^ It gives the stomach room to expand after a meal.
  • Dissector Answers - Stomach and Spleen 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC anatomy.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lack of stomach acid can be assisted by drinking lemon juice with hot water 20 minutes before a large protein meal (i.e., meat or fish).
  • Sound nutritional advice for excess stomach acid, excess gas and acid reflux. 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.shokos.com [Source type: General]

^ Pathway: The Stomach Meridian starts from the end of the Large Intestine Meridian at the side of the nose, and passes through the inner corner of the eye to emerge from the lower part of the eye.
  • Leg Yang Ming Stomach Meridian 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.shen-nong.com [Source type: Reference]

.The food and liquid is then ground up by the lower part of stomach, call the antrum.^ The stomach stores up to 2 liters of food.

^ In the stomach, the food becomes liquid.
  • Stomach Cancer Symptoms, Causes, Stages and Gastric Cancer Treatment on MedicineNet.com 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The food leaves the stomach as a semi liquid material called chyme.
  • Information on the Stomach 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the food is broken down to tiny particles, stomach juices, including acid and pepsin, begin to break down the food further.^ Wouldn't they be broken down by stomach acid into amino acids?
  • Stomach Acid - Care2 News Network 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surviving the stomach Not all proteins (enzymes are proteins) are broken down by stomach acid.
  • Stomach Acid - Care2 News Network 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down protein.
  • What Is Stomach Cancer? 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Liquids tend to leave the stomach first.^ By the time food is ready to leave the stomach, it has been processed into a thick liquid.
  • The Digestive System: Stomach 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gesa.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Inflammations, which is another cause of stomach pains, tends to develop in the stomach in response to the presence of too much food and liquids, usually because of overeating or too much drinking.
  • Stomach Pain Problems: How to Solve Them 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC stomachgastric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The food leaves the stomach as a semi liquid material called chyme.
  • Information on the Stomach 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the food is small enough, it passes through the pyloric valve, into the small bowel.^ Also called small bowel follow-through .

^ The food then passes into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
  • Stomach cancer - symptoms, causes and treatment 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Release of food into small intestine .
  • BBC Science & Nature - Human Body and Mind - Organ Layer 21 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]


Simple English

File:Stomach diagram.gif
The stomach in the gastrointestinal system

The stomach is part of the digestive system. It is a big sack between the esophagus and the small intestines. The stomach is the second stage in the digestive process. It holds food after ingestion. Food in the stomach then passes through to the small intestine where most of the food's nutrition is absorbed.

The stomach contains acid made by stomach cells. This acid kills bacteria in the food. Acid in the stomach may cause problems. It can worsen peptic ulcer disease. It can also cause gastroesophageal reflux (or heartburn) — pain in the chest when acid from the stomach refluxes (backs up into) the esophagus.

Vomiting occurs when food goes back up the esophagus and out the mouth. Vomiting can be a symptom of disease.

Stomachs of other animals work differently than human stomachs. Cows, for example, have a stomach with multiple compartments.

Other words for stomach include belly and tummy.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

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