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Wines stored in a rack.

Storage is an important consideration for any wine that is being kept for long-term aging. While most wine produced today is meant for near-term consumption (with much being consumed within 24 hours of purchase), there are certain situations in which it may be set aside for long-term storage.[1] Wine is one of the few commodities that can improve with age but it can also rapidly deteriorate if kept in inadequate conditions. The three factors that have the most direct impact on a wine's condition are light, humidity and temperature. A fourth consideration can be security, since wine can be considered a luxury good with value on the after-market. Historically the long-term storage of wine was handled by wine merchants but since the mid 20th century the task of handling and storing wine has increasingly fallen to consumers. Industries relating to specialty wine storage facilities and the construction of home-based wine cellars have emerged to cater to the storage needs of consumers.[2]

Contents

Conditions affecting wine

Underground wine caves can often keep wine in ambient temperature, humidity and light conditions.

In wine storage conditions, there are three factors that have the most pronounced affect on the wine: light, humidity and temperature. Direct light, whether it be sunlight or incandescent, can adversely react with phenolic compounds in the wine and create potential wine faults. Delicate, light-bodied white wines run the greatest risk from light exposure and are often packaged in darkly tinted wine bottles that offer some protection from the light. Wines packaged in clear, light green and blue colored bottles are the most vulnerable to light and may need extra precautions for storage. For example, the Champagne house of Louis Roederer uses cellophane wrap to protect its premium cuvee Cristal from light, the wine being packaged in a clear bottle. In the cellar, wines are stored in cardboard cartons or wooden crates to protect the wines from direct light.[1]

Some degree of humidity is required in order to keep wines with cork enclosures from drying out. Even when wine bottles are stored on their sides, one side of the cork is still exposed to air. If the cork begins to dry out, it can allow oxygen to enter the bottle, filling the ullage space and possibly causing the wine to spoil or oxidize. Excessive humidity can also pose the risk of damaging wine labels, which may hinder identification or hurt potential resale value. Wine experts such as Jancis Robinson note that 75% humidity is often cited as ideal but there is very little significant research to definitively establish an optimal range.[2] Concern about humidity is one of the primary reasons why wine experts such as Tom Stevenson recommends that wine should not be kept in a refrigerator since the refrigeration process often includes dehumidifying, which can quickly dry out corks.[1]

Some wine experts debate the importance of humidity for proper wine storage. In the Wine Spectator, writer Matt Kramer cites a French study which claimed that the relative humidity within a bottle is maintained at 100% regardless of the closure used or the orientation of the bottle.[3] However, Alexis Lichine contends that low humidity can still be detrimental to premium wine quality due to the risk of the cork drying out. As a way of maintaining optimal humidity, Lichine recommends spreading half an inch of gravel on the floor of a wine cellar and periodically sprinkling it with some water.[4]

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Temperature and other factors

Madeira is exposed to high temperatures during its winemaking process and is thereby able to sustain exposure to higher temperatures more easily than other wines.

Wine is very susceptible to changes in temperature, with temperature control being an important consideration in wine storage. If the wine is exposed to too high a temperature (in excess of 77 °F (25 °C)) for long periods of time, it may become spoilt or "cooked" and develop off flavors that taste raisiny or stewed. The exact length of time that a wine is at risk of exposure to high temperatures will vary depending on the wine, with some wines (such as Madeira which is exposed to high temperatures during its winemaking) being able to sustain exposure to high temperatures more easily than other, more delicate wines (such as Riesling). If the wine is exposed to temperatures that are too cold, the wine can freeze and expand, causing the cork to be pushed out; this will allow more oxygen to be exposed to the wine. Dramatic temperature swings (such as repeated transferring a wine from a warm room to a cool refrigerator) can also cause adverse chemical reactions in the wine that may lead to a variety of wine faults. Most experts, such as Jancis Robinson, recommend that wine be kept at constant temperatures between 50 and 59 °F (10 and 15 °C).[2] Tom Stevenson speculates that 52 °F (11 °C) may be the most ideal temperature for storage and aging.[1]

The storage condition of the bottled wine will influence a wine's aging. Vibrations and heat fluctuations can hasten a wine's deterioration and cause adverse effect to it. In general, a wine has a greater potential to develop complexity and a more aromatic bouquet if it is allowed to age slowly in a relatively cool environment. The lower the temperature, the more slowly a wine develops.[5] On average, the rate of chemical reactions in wine doubles with each 18 °F (8 °C) increase in temperature. Wine expert Karen MacNeil, recommend keeping wine intended for aging in a cool area with a constant temperature around 55 °F (13 °C). Wine can be stored at temperatures as high as 69 °F (21 °C) without long-term negative effect. Professor Cornelius Ough of the University of California, Davis believes that wine can be exposed to temperatures as high as 120 °F (49 °C) for a few hours and not be damaged.[6]

Orientation of the bottle

Most wine racks are designed to allow a wine to be stored on its side. The thinking behind this orientation is that the cork is more likely to stay moist and not dry out if it is kept in constant contact with the wine. Some wineries package their wines upside down in the box for much the same reason. Research in the late 1990s suggested that the ideal orientation for wine bottles is at a slight angle, rather than completely horizontal. This allows the cork to maintain partial contact with the wine in order to stay damp but also keeps the air bubble formed by a wine's ullage at the top rather than in the middle of the bottle if the wine is lying on its side. Keeping the ullage near the top, it has been argued, allows for a slower and more gradual oxidation and maturation process. This is because the air bubble that is the ullage space expands and contracts depending on temperature fluctuation. When exposed to higher temperatures the bubble expands, and if the wine is tilted at an angle, this expansion will diffuse through the cork and not harm the wine. If the wine is completely on its side then this expansion will cause the bubble located in the middle of the bottle to push toward the cork, ejecting some wine in the process. When temperatures drop, the bubble contracts and forms a vacuum that brings more oxygen into the wine, speeding up the oxidation process.[7]

Champagne is often recommended to be stored upright rather than lying on its side.

While most wines can benefit from lying on their side, Champagne and other sparkling wines tend to age better if they are kept upright.[2][1] This is because the internal pressure caused by the trapped carbonic gas provides enough humidity and protection from oxygen.[1] The preference for upright storage of Champagne is shared by the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC) who conducted an extensive study of Champagnes that were stored in various conditions and orientations. This study found that Champagne stored on its side aged more quickly because oxygen was allowed to seep in after the Champagne corks lost their elasticity due to contact with the moist wine.[8]

Alternative wine closures

Storing wine that is bottled with alternative wine closures other than cork have many of the same considerations in regards to temperature and light sensitivity. While humidity and concerns about oxidation are not as pronounced, the relative recent popularity and increased usage of these closures have not given much opportunity for much research into the storage and aging potential of wines that use these closures.[2]

Places to store wine

Since the end of the 20th century, there has been growth in industries relating to wine storage. Some of these industries focus on the construction of home wine cellars and wine caves, while others produce smaller wine accessories, such as racks and wine refrigerators. Some wine connoisseurs may elect to store their wine at home in a dedicated room or closet. Other options involve purchases and rentals at off-site wine storage facilities that are specifically designed for the task.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia" pg 46 Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0756613248
  2. ^ a b c d e J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 664 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906
  3. ^ M. Kramer "Seeking Closure" The Wine Spectator pg 36 October 31st, 2007
  4. ^ Lichine, Alexis (1967). Alexis Lichine's Encyclopedia of Wines and Spirits. London: Cassell & Company Ltd.. Chp 6, p.22–24.  
  5. ^ J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 5-7 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906
  6. ^ K. MacNeil The Wine Bible pg 79-82 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345
  7. ^ a b J. Robinson Jancis Robinson's Wine Course Third Edition pg 42-44 Abbeville Press 2003 ISBN 0789208830
  8. ^ Caterer Magazine "The lay down on storage" July 26th, 2001

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