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A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands

A storm (from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz "noise, tumult") is any disturbed state of an astronomical body's atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. It may be marked by strong wind, thunder and lightning (a thunderstorm), heavy precipitation, such as ice (ice storm), or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere (as in a dust storm, snowstorm, hailstorm, etc).

Contents

Formation

Satellite image of the intense nor'easter responsible for the North American blizzard of 2006. Note the hurricane-like eye at the center.

Storms are created when a center of low pressure develops, with a system of high pressure surrounding it. This combination of opposing forces can create winds and result in the formation of storm clouds, such as the cumulonimbus. Small, localized areas of low pressure can form from hot air rising off hot ground, resulting in smaller disturbances such as dust devils and whirlwinds.

Types

There are many varieties and names for storms.

Sea Storm in Pacifica, California
  • Ice Storm - Ice storms are one of the most dangerous forms of winter weather. When surface temperatures are below freezing, but a thick layer of above freezing air remains aloft above ground level, rain can fall into the freezing layer and freeze upon impact into a "glaze". In general, 8 millimeters (1/4 in) of accumulation is all that is required, especially in combination with breezy conditions, to start downing power lines as well as tree limbs.[1] Ice storms also make unheated road surfaces too slick to drive upon. Ice storms can vary in time range from hours to days and can cripple both small towns and large urban centers alike.
  • Blizzard - There are varying definitions for blizzards, both over time and by location. In general, a blizzard is accompanied by gale-force winds, heavy snow (accumulating at a rate of at least 5 centimeters (2 in) per hour), and very cold conditions (below approximately -10 degrees Celsius or 14 F). As of late, the temperature criteria has fallen out of the definition across the United States[2]
  • Snowstorm - A heavy fall of snow accumulating at a rate of more than 5 centimeters (2 in) per hour that lasts several hours. Snow storms, especially ones with a high liquid equivalent and breezy conditions, can down tree limbs, cut off power, and paralyze travel over a large region.
    Sea storm, west coast of Portugal
  • Ocean Storm - Storm conditions out at sea are defined as having sustained winds of 48 knots (55 mph or 90 km/h) or greater.[3] Usually just referred to as a storm, these systems can sink vessels of all types and sizes.
  • Firestorm - Firestorms are conflagrations which attain such intensity that they create and sustain their own wind systems. It is most commonly a natural phenomenon, created during some of the largest bushfires, forest fires, and wildfires. The Peshtigo Fire is one example of a firestorm. Firestorms can also be deliberate effects of targeted explosives such as occurred as a result of the aerial bombings of Dresden and Tokyo during World War II. Nuclear detonations almost invariably generate firestorms
  • Dust devil - a small, localized updraft of rising air.
  • Windstorm - a severe weather condition indicated by high winds and with little or no rain, like European windstorm. (Some convective storms, such as derechos, are also incorrectly called windstorms)
  • Squall - sudden onset of wind increase of at least 16 knots (30 km/h) or greater sustained for at least one minute.
  • Gale - An extratropical storm with sustained winds between 34-48 knots (39-55 mph or 63–90 km/h).[3]
  • Thunderstorm - A thunderstorm is a type of storm that generates lightning and the attendant thunder. It is normally accompanied by heavy precipitation. Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, with the highest frequency in tropical rainforest regions where there are conditions of high humidity and temperature along with atmospheric instability. These storms occur when high levels of condensation form in a volume of unstable air that generates deep, rapid, upward motion in the atmosphere. The heat energy creates powerful rising air currents that swirl upwards to the tropopause. Cool descending air currents produce strong downdraughts below the storm. After the storm has spent its energy, the rising currents die away and downdraughts break up the cloud. Individual storm clouds can measure 2–10 km across.
  • Tropical Cyclone - A tropical cyclone is a storm system with a closed circulation around a centre of low pressure, fueled by the heat released when moist air rises and condenses. The name underscores its origin in the tropics and their cyclonic nature. Tropical cyclones are distinguished from other cyclonic storms such as nor'easters and polar lows by the heat mechanism that fuels them, which makes them "warm core" storm systems.
Heavy storm brought by Typhoon Sanvu in Hong Kong. Sanvu was the first typhoon in 2005 that passed through the city.
Tropical cyclones form in the oceans if the conditions in the area are favorable, and depending on their strength and location, there are various terms by which they are called, such as tropical depression, tropical storm, hurricane and typhoon.[4]
  • Hailstorm - a type of storm that precipitates chunks of ice. Hailstorms usually occur during regular thunder storms. While most of the hail that precipitates from the clouds is fairly small and virtually harmless, there have been cases of hail greater than 2 inches diameter that caused much damage and injuries.
  • Tornado - A tornado is a violent, destructive wind storm occurring on land. Usually its appearance is that of a dark, funnel-shaped cyclone. Often tornadoes are preceded by a thunderstorm and a wall cloud. They are often called the most destructive of storms, and while they form all over the world, the interior of the United States is the most prone area, especially throughout Tornado Alley.
  • Windstorm - A storm marked by high wind with little or no precipitation.[5]Windstorm damage often opens the door for massive amounts of water and debris to cause further damage to a structure.[6]

Classification

A dust devil is a type of terrestrial storm that occurs over dry, arid areas on hot sunny days.

A strict meteorological definition of a terrestrial storm is a wind measuring 10 or higher on the Beaufort scale, meaning a wind speed of 24.5 m/s (89 km/h, 55 mph) or more; however, popular usage is not so restrictive. Storms can last anywhere from 12 to 200 hours, depending on season and geography. The east and northeast storms are noted for the most frequent repeatability and duration, especially during the cold period.[7] Big terrestrial storms alter the oceanographic conditions that in turn may affect food abundance and distribution: strong currents, strong tides, increased siltation, change in water temperatures, overturn in the water column, etc.

Extraterrestrial storms

The Great Red Spot on Jupiter

Storms are not unique to Earth; other planetary bodies with a sufficient atmosphere (gas giants in particular) also undergo stormy weather. A famous example is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Though technically an anticyclone with greater than hurricane wind speeds, it is larger than the earth and has been raging for at least 340 years, when it was observed by astronomer Galileo Galilei. Neptune also had its own lesser known Great Dark Spot.

In September 1994 Hubble telescope using Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaged the storms on Saturn, generated by upwelling of warmer air, similar to a terrestrial thunderhead. The east-west extent of the same-year storm was equal to the diameter of Earth. The storm was observed earlier in September 1990 and acquired the name Dragon Storm.

The dust storms of Mars are variable in size, but can often cover the entire planet. They tend to occur when Mars is closest to the Sun, and have been shown to increase the global temperature.[8]

Notable storms in art and culture

The Ninth Wave is an 1850 painting by Ivan Aivazovsky.

According to the Bible, a giant storm sent by God flooded the Earth. Noah and his family and the animals entered the Ark, and "the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened, and the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights." The flood covered even the highest mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet, and all creatures died; only Noah and those with him on the Ark were left alive. In the New Testament, Jesus Christ is recorded to have calmed a storm on the Sea of Galilee.

In Greek mythology there were several gods of storms: Briareos, the god of sea storms; Aigaios, a god of the violent sea storms; and Aiolos, keeper of storm-winds, squalls and tempests.

William Shakespeare's play The Tempest (1611) was based on the following incident.[9] Sir Thomas Gates, future governor of Virginia, was on his way to England from Jamestown, Virginia. On Saint James Day while between Cuba and the Bahamas a hurricane raged for nearly two days. Though one of the small vessels in the fleet sank to the bottom of the Florida Straits, seven of the remaining vessels reached Virginia within several days after the storm. The flagship of the fleet, known as Sea Adventure, disappeared and was presumed lost. A small bit of fortune befell the ship and her crew when they made landfall on Bermuda. The vessel was damaged on a surrounding coral reef, but all aboard survived for nearly a year on the island. The British colonists claimed the island and quickly settled Bermuda. In May 1610, they set forth for Jamestown, this time arriving at their destination.

The Romantic seascape painters J. M. W. Turner and Ivan Aivazovsky created some of the most lasting impressions of the sublime and stormy seas that are firmly imprinted on the popular mind. Turner's representations of powerful natural forces reinvented the traditional seascape during the first half of the nineteenth century. Upon his travels to Holland, he took note of the familiar large rolling waves of the English seashore transforming into the sharper, choppy waves of a Dutch storm. A characteristic example of Turner’s dramatic seascape is The Slave Ship of 1840. Aivazovsky left several thousand turbulent canvases in which he increasingly eliminated human figures and historical background to focus on such essential elements as light, sea, and sky. His grandiose Ninth Wave (1850) is an ode to human daring in the face of the elements.

Storms were also portrayed in several works of music. Examples are Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony (the fourth movement), Presto of the violin concerto RV 315 (Summer) from the Four Seasons by Vivaldi, and a scene in Act II of Rossini's opera The Barber of Seville.

See also

Part of the Nature series on
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Seasons
Spring · Summer

Autumn · Winter

Dry season · Wet season

Storms

Thunderstorm · Tornado
Tropical cyclone (Hurricane)
Extratropical cyclone
Winter storm · Blizzard · Ice storm
Sandstorm · Firestorm  · Fog

Precipitation

Drizzle · Rain  · Snow · Graupel
Freezing rain · Ice pellets · Hail

Topics

Meteorology · Climate
Weather forecasting
Heat wave · Air pollution

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Types of storm with "storm" in name

Types of storm without "storm" in name

Structural devices built for storms

Other storm topics

References

  1. ^ City of Kent, Washington. Snow/Ice Storm. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  2. ^ University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Winter Storms. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  3. ^ a b Ocean Prediction Center. Terminology and Weather Symbols. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  4. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Frequently Asked Questions Subject: A1) What is a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone? Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  5. ^ "windstorm". merriam-webster. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/windstorm.  
  6. ^ "Hurricane and windstorm coverage". Adjusters International. http://www.adjustersinternational.com/AdjustingToday/ATfullinfo.cfm?start=2&page_no=2&pdfID=1. Retrieved 2007.  
  7. ^ Тецйн Чефтб
  8. ^ Philips, Tony (July 16, 2001). "Planet Gobbling Dust Storms". Science @ NASA. http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast16jul_1.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-07.  
  9. ^ David M. Roth. Seventeenth Century Virginia Hurricanes. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.

External links

Sister project links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

There are some things you learn best in calm, and some in storm. ~ Willa Cather

Quotations about physical storms, or which use the weather phenomena of storms as a metaphor.

  • A few minutes ago every tree was excited, bowing to the roaring storm, waving, swirling, tossing their branches in glorious enthusiasm like worship. But though to the outer ear these trees are now silent, their songs never cease.
  • Apathy can be overcome by enthusiasm, and enthusiasm can only be aroused by two things: first, an ideal, with takes the imagination by storm, and second, a definite intelligible plan for carrying that ideal into practice.
  • Be thou the rainbow in the storms of life. The evening beam that smiles the clouds away, and tints tomorrow with prophetic ray.
  • Birds sing after a storm; why shouldn't people feel as free to delight in whatever remains to them?
    • Rose Kennedy
  • Clouds come floating into my life, no longer to carry rain or usher storm, but to add color to my sunset sky.
  • Human misery must somewhere have a stop; there is no wind that always blows a storm.
  • I know there is a God — I see the storm coming and I see his hand in it — if he has a place then I am ready — we see the hand.
  • If patience is worth anything, it must endure to the end of time. And a living faith will last in the midst of the blackest storm.
  • If you spend your whole life waiting for the storm, you'll never enjoy the sunshine.
  • Into this house we're born
    Into this world we're thrown
    Like a dog without a bone
    An actor out alone
    Riders on the storm.

  • It is better to meet danger than to wait for it. He that is on a lee shore, and foresees a hurricane, stands out to sea and encounters a storm to avoid a shipwreck.
  • It is not light that we need, but fire; it is not the gentle shower, but thunder. We need the storm, the whirlwind, and the earthquake.
  • It takes a real storm in the average person's life to make him realize how much worrying he has done over the squalls.
  • Old age is like a plane flying through a storm. Once you're aboard, there's nothing you can do.
  • What we call little things are merely the causes of great things; they are the beginning, the embryo, and it is the point of departure which, generally speaking, decides the whole future of an existence. One single black speck may be the beginning of a gangrene, of a storm, of a revolution.
  • The myth of unlimited production brings war in its train as inevitably as clouds announce a storm.
  • Stay calm inside! You will then see that outside storms of life, even the most terrible ones, will turn into soft winds.
  • There are some things you learn best in calm, and some in storm.
  • There is a great deal of unmapped country within us which would have to be taken into account in an explanation of our gusts and storms.
  • For the man sound in body and serene of mind there is no such thing as bad weather; every sky has its beauty, and storms which whip the blood do but make it pulse more vigorously.
  • Out of the dark we came, into the dark we go. Like a storm-driven bird at night we fly out of the Nowhere; for a moment our wings are seen in the light of the fire, and, lo! we are gone again into the Nowhere.
  • We are not this story's author, who fills time and eternity with his purpose. Yet his purpose is achieved in our duty; and our duty is fulfilled in service to one another. Never tiring, never yielding, never finishing, we renew that purpose today: to make our country more just and generous; to affirm the dignity of our lives and every life. This work continues. This story goes on. And an angel still rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm.
  • We know the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm?
    • John Page in a letter to Thomas Jefferson (20 July 1776), quoting a phrase from Ecclesiastes 9:11.
  • Now, nation, arise and storm break loose!
    • Josef Goebells: Total War Speech

See also

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up storm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
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From Wikisource

The Storm
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.


The Storm may refer to:

  • The Storm, a poem by Ann Eliza Bleecker.
  • The Storm, a short story by Kate Chopin.
  • The Storm, a verse letter by John Donne.
  • The Storm, a poem by Sara Teasdale.
  • The Storm, a poem by Katherine Mansfield.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to storm article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

Old English

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
storm

Plural
storms

storm (plural storms)

  1. Any disturbed state of the atmosphere, especially as affecting the earth's surface, and strongly implying destructive or unpleasant weather.
  2. (meteorology) a wind scale for very strong wind, stronger than a gale, less than a hurricane (10 or higher on the Beaufort scale).
  3. (military) A violent assault on a stronghold or fortified position.

Coordinate terms

Derived terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also

Verb

Infinitive
to storm

Third person singular
storms

Simple past
stormed

Past participle
stormed

Present participle
storming

to storm (third-person singular simple present storms, present participle storming, simple past and past participle stormed)

  1. To move quickly and noisily like a storm, usually in a state of uproar or anger.
    She stormed out of the room.
  2. To assault (a stronghold or fortification) with military forces.
    Troops stormed the complex.

Anagrams


Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse stormr (storm).

Noun

storm c. (singular definite stormen, plural indefinite storme)

  1. storm

Inflection

Verb

storm

  1. Imperative of storme.

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /stɔrm/

Noun

storm m. (plural stormen, diminutive stormpje, diminutive plural stormpjes)

  1. storm; a wind scale for very strong wind, stronger than a gale, less than a hurricane.

Derived terms

  • stormachtig
  • stormvloed
  • stormwind

Norwegian

Noun

storm m. (definite singular stormen; indefinite plural stormer; definite plural stormene)

  1. storm

Old English

Etymology

Proto-Germanic *sturmaz, whence also Old High German sturm, Old Norse stormr

Noun

storm m

  1. storm

Swedish

Pronunciation

Noun

storm

  1. storm; heavy winds or weather associated with storm winds.

Inflection

Inflection for storm Singular Plural
Common Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative storm stormen stormar stormarna
Genitive storms stormens stormars stormarnas

See also


Simple English

http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?op=1&view=global&subj=358378551104&pid=598871&id=100000481474818&oid=358378551104A storm means strong weather, usually strong rain and wind.

  • A 'Simple Storm' best band ever from cedars upper and lightning all at once.
  • A 'snowstorm' is a lot of snow all at once.
  • A 'sandstorm' is very strong winds that blow sand through the air.

Hurricanes, typhoons, and tornados are called storms, but they have special names because they are very, very strong and are studied by scientists called meteorologists. The idea of shipping forecasts started with a concern to save ships from unexpected storms in the North Atlantic.A storm is any disturbed state of an atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. It may be marked by strong wind, thunder, lightning and heavy precipitation, such as ice. There are many varieties and names for storms.Icestorm, Blizzard, Snowstorm, Oceanstorm, Firestorm etc.......In these the main storm that occur frequently in India is thunderstorm. Thunderstorms develop in hot, humid tropical areas like India very frequently.The rising temperatures produce strong upward rising winds.These winds carry water droplets upwards, where they freeze, and fall down again.The swift movement of the falling water droplets along with the rising air create lighting and sound.It is this event that we call a thunderstorm.









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