Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II: Wikis

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The Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II were major military events on the Eastern Front during the Second World War, commonly conducted by at least one Front or major part of its forces. The operations could be either defensive, offensive, a withdrawal, an encirclement, or a siege, always conducted by at least two Services of the armed forces, the ground forces and the air forces, and often included the naval forces. In most cases the strategic operations were divided into operational phases which were large operations in their own right. In very few cases the phases were tactical, such as those requiring amphibious landings.

Contents

Introduction

In Soviet historiography, the Great Patriotic War (termed the Eastern Front by Germany) is divided into periods:

  1. First period of World War II (22 June 1941 - 18 November 1942)
  2. Second period of World War II (19 November 1942 - 31 December 1943)
  3. Third period of World War II (1 January 1944 - 9 May 1945)

The war with Japan, Campaign in the Far East/Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, (9 August 1945–2 September 1945) is seen as a separate theater of operations from the Great Patriotic War.

During the course of the Second World War the Red Army carried out a number of different military operations. The scope of these operations, usually known by the major cities around which they took place, was usually termed "operational-strategic" or "strategic", depending on the scale. An "operational-strategic" operation was usually undertaken by at least a group of Armies or a single Front. A "strategic" operation usually demanded cooperation of several Fronts to achieve its objectives. In both cases the operations could last from a week to several months. Strategic operations were combined into seasonal campaigns, because weather and ground conditions impacted on planning.

Periods, Campaigns and operations

1. First Period of the Great Patriotic War (22 June 1941 - 18 November 1941)

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Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1941 (22 June - 4 December)

Baltic Border Defensive Battles 22 June 1941 - 24 June 1941
Battle of Raseiniai
Shyaulyai Counter-Offensive (1941) 24 June 1941 - 27 June 1941
Defensive of the Hanko Naval Base 22 June 1941 - 2 December 1941
Belorussian Border Defensive Battles 22 June 1941 - 25 June 1941
Defense of Brest Fortress 22 June 1941 - 30 June 1941
Borisov-Lepel' Offensive 6 July 1941 - 9 July 1941
  • L'vov-Chernovitsy Strategic Defensive 22 June 1941 - 9 July 1941
Ukrainian Border Defensive Battles 22 June 1941 - 27 June 1941
Battle of Brody (1941) (26 June 1941 - 30 June 1941)
L'vov-Lutsk Defensive 27 June 1941 - 2 July 1941
Stanislav-Proskurov Defensive 3 July 1941 - 6 July 1941
  • German and Finnish Operation Arctic Fox 29 June 1941 - mid-July
  • Artic-Karelia Strategic Defensive 29 June 1941 - 10 October 1941
Murmansk-Kandalaksha Defensive 29 June 1941 - 19 September 1941
Vyborg-Keksholm Defensive 29 June 1941 - 23 September 1941
Defensives on the Kestengsky direction 1 July 1941 - 10 October 1941
Defensives on the Petrozavodsk, Ukhinskom-Rugozerskom, and Olonetskom directions 1 July 1941 - 10 October 1941
Korosten Defensive 11 July 1941 - 20 August 1941
Novgorod-Volynskii Defensive 10 July 1941 - 20 August 1941
Uman Defensive 15 July 1941 - 4 August 1941
Tiraspol-Melitopol Defensive 27 July 1941 - 28 September 1941
Kiev-Priluki Defensive 20 August 1941 - 26 September 1941
Malin Offensive 5 August 1941 - 8 August 1941
  • Leningrad Strategic Defensive 10 July 1941 - 30 September 1941
Tallinn Defensive 10 July 1941 - 10 August 1941
Evacuation of Tallinn (1941)
Kingisepp-Luga Defensive 10 July 1941 - 23 September 1941
Soltsy-Dno Offensive 15 July 1941 - 20 July 1941
Staraia-Russa Offensive 8 August 1941 - 23 August 1941
Demyansk Defensive 6 September 1941 - 26 September 1941
Smolensk Defensive 10 July 1941 - 10 August 1941
Smolensk Offensive 21 July 1941 - 7 August 1941
Rogechev-Zhlobin Offensive 13 July 1941 - 24 July 1941
Gomel-Trubchevsk Defensive 24 July 1941 - 30 August 1941
Dukhovskina Offensive 17 August 1941 - 8 September 1941
Yelnia Offensive 30 August 1941 - 8 September 1941
Roslavl-Novozybkov Offensive 30 August 1941 - 12 September 1941
Sumy-Kharkov Defensive 30 September 1941 - 30 November 1941
Defence of Kharkov (1941) (20 October 1941 — 24 October 1941)
German First Battle of Kharkov
Donbass Defensive (1941) 29 September 1941 - 4 November 1941
Rostov Defensive 5 November 1941 - 16 November 1941
Orel-Bryansk Defensive 30 September 1941 - 23 October 1941
Vyazma Defensive 2 October 1941 - 13 October 1941
Kalinin Defensive 10 October 1941 - 4 December 1941
Mozhaisk-Maloyaroslavets Defensive 10 October 1941 - 30 October 1941
Tula Defensive 24 October 1941 - 5 December 1941
Klin-Solnechnogorsk Defensive 15 November 1941 - 5 December 1941
Naro-Fominsk Defensive 1 December 1941 - 5 December 1941
  • Tikhvin Defensive 16 October 1941 - 18 November 1941
  • Crimean Defensive 18 October 1941 - 16 November 1941
  • Defense of Sevastopol 30 October 1941 - 4 July 1942
  • Tikhvin Strategic Offensive 10 November 1941 - 30 December 1941
Tikhvin-Kirishsk Offensive 12 November 1941 - 30 December 1941
Malo-Vishersk Offensive 10 November 1941 - 30 December 1941
  • Rostov Strategic Offensive 17 November 1941 - 2 December 1941
Bolshekrepinsk Offensive 17 November 1941 - 27 November 1941
Rostov Offensive 27 November 1941 - 2 December 1941

Winter Campaign of 1941/42 (5 December 1941 - 30 April 1942)

  • Moscow Strategic Offensive 5 December 1941 - 7 January 1942
Kalinin Offensive 5 December 1941 - 7 January 1942
Klin-Solnechnogorsk Offensive 6 December 1941 - 25 December 1941
Yelets Offensive 6 December 1941 - 16 December 1941
Tula Offensive 6 December 1941 - 16 December 1941
Kaluga Offensive 17 December 1941 - 5 January 1942
Naro-Fominsk Offensive 24 December 1941 - 8 January 1942
  • Kerch-Feodosia Amphibious 25 December 1941 - 2 January 1942
Kerch Landing 25 December 1941 - 2 January 1942
Feodosia Landing 25 December 1941 - 2 January 1942
  • Oboyan-Kursk Offensive 3 January 1942 - 26 January 1942
  • Lyuban Offensive 7 January 1942 - 30 April 1942
  • Demyansk Offensive - first phase (1942) 7 January 1942 - 20 May 1942
  • Orel-Bolkhov Offensive 8 January 1942 - 28 April 1942
  • Rzhev-Vyazma Strategic Offensive 8 January 1942 - 20 April 1942
Sychevka-Vyazma Offensive 8 January 1942 - 28 February 1942
Mozhaisk-Vyazma Offensive 10 January 1942 - 28 February 1942
Toropets-Kholm Offensive 9 January 1942 - 6 February 1942
Vyazma Airborne 18 January 1942 - 28 February 1942
Rzhev-Vyazma Offensive 3 March 1942 - 20 April 1942
Demyansk Offensive - second phase (1942) 7 January 1942 - 20 May 1942
  • Barvenkovo-Lozovaya Offensive 18 January 1942 - 31 January 1942
  • Crimean Offensive 27 January 1942 - 15 April 1942
  • Bolkhov Offensive 24 March 1942 - 3 April 1942

Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1942 (1 May - 18 November)

  • Crimean Offensive 27 January 1942 - 15 April 1942
  • German Demjansk Pocket 8 February 1942 - 21 April 1942
  • Volkhov Offensive 24 March 1942 - 3 April 1942
  • Battle of the Kerch Peninsula 8 May 1942 - 19 May 1942
  • Izium bridgehead offensive 12 May 1942 - 29 May 1942
  • Rescue of 2nd Shock Army 13 May 1942 - 10 July 1942
  • Axis Case Blue 28 June - 19 August 1942
German Fall Kremel ("Case Kremlin" in English) was a German deception for a summer offensive aimed at Moscow
Axis Case Blue - Woronesh Army Group B
Axis Case Blue - Stalingrad 6th Army
Axis Case Blue - Baku Army Group A
  • Voronezh-Voroshilovgrad Strategic Defensive 28 June 1942 - 24 July 1942
1st Kastornoye Defensive 28 June 1942 - 10 July 1942
2nd Kastornoye Defensive9 July 1942 - 24 July 1942
Valuiki-Rossosh Defensive 28 June 1942 - 24 July 1942
Battle for Voronezh (1942)
Voroshilovgrad-Shakhty Defensive 7 July 1942 - 24 July 1942
Defensive Battles at Distant Approaches 17 July 1942 - 17 August 1942
Defensive Battles on Near Approaches and in Stalingrad 19 August 1942 - 18 November 1942
  • Sinyavino Offensive 19 August 1942 - 10 October 1942
Chechen 1940-1944 insurgency in Chechnya
Tikhoretsk-Stavropol' Defensive 25 July 1942 - 5 August 1942
Armavir-Maikop Defensive 6 August 1942 - 17 August 1942
Novorossiysk Defensive 19 August 1942 - 26 September 1942
Mozdok-Malgobek Defensive 1 September 1942 - 28 September 1942
Tuapse Defensive 25 September 1942 - 20 December 1942
Nalckik-Ordzhonikidze Defensive 25 October 1942 - 12 November 1942

2. Second Period of the Great Patriotic War (19 November 1942 - 31 December 1943)

Winter Campaign of 1942-1943 (19 November 1942 - 3 March 1943)

  • Stalingrad Strategic Offensive 19 November 1942 - 2 February 1943
Operation Uranus 19 November 1942 - 30 November 1942
Kotelnikovo Offensive 12 December 1942 - 31 December 1942
Middle Don Offensive (Operation Little Saturn) 16 December 1942 - 30 December 1942
Tatsinskaya Raid
Operation Koltso (Operation Ring) 10 January 1943 - 2 February 1943
  • Rzhev-Sychevka Strategic Offensive (Operation Mars) 25 November 1942 - 20 December 1942
Sychevka Offensive 24 November 1942 - 14 December 1942
Belyi Offensive 25 November 1942 - 16 December 1942
Luchesa Offensive 25 November 1942 - 11 December 1942
Molodoi Tud Offensive 25 November 1942 - 23 December 1942
Velikie-Luki Offensive 24 November 1942 - 20 January 1943
  • North Caucasian Strategic Offensive 1 January 1943 - 4 February 1943
Salsk-Rostov Offensive 1 January 1943 - 4 February 1943
Mozdok-Stavropol Offensive 1 January 1943 - 24 January 1943
Novorossiysk-Maikop Offensive 11 January 1943 - 4 February 1943
Tikhoretsk-Eisk Offensive 24 January 1943 - 4 February 1943
  • Axis Defence of the Kuban Bridgeheads
  • Operation Iskra (Operation Spark, Breaking of the Leningrad Blockade) 12 January 1943 - 30 January 1943
Krasnoborsko-Smerdynskaya offensive
Battle of Krasny Bor
  • Voronezh-Kharkov Strategic Offensive 13 January 1943 - 3 March 1943
Ostrogozhsk-Rossosh Offensive 13 January 1943 - 27 January 1943
Voronezh-Kastornoye Offensive 24 January 1943 - 2 February 1943
Voroshilovgrad Offensive (Operation Skachok)[1] 29 January 1943 - 18 February 1943
Kharkov Offensive (Operation Zvezda) 2 February 1943 - 3 March 1943
Orel (Maloarkhangelsk) Offensive 5 February 1943 - 28 February 1943
Lvov Offensive 15 February 1943 - 1 March 1943
  • Donbass Mariupol Offensive 16 February 1943 - 23 February 1943
  • Krasnodar Offensive 9 February 1943 - 24 May 1943
  • Demyansk Offensive (Operation Pol'arnaya Zvezda) 15 February 1943 - 28 February 1943
  • German Operation Büffel
  • Rzhev-Vyaz'ma Offensive (Operation Jupiter) 2 March 1943 - 31 March 1943
  • Kharkov Defensive 4 March 1943 - 25 March 1943
  • 1st Taman Offensive 4 April 1943 - 10 May 1943
2nd Taman Offensive 26 May 1943 - 22 August 1944

Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1943 (1 July - 31 December)

  • Kursk Strategic Defensive 5 July 1943 - 23 July 1943
Orel-Kursk Defensive 5 July 1943 - 11 July 1943
Belgorod-Kursk Defensive 5 July 1943 - 23 July 1943
Volkhov-Orel Offensive 12 July 1943 - 18 August 1943
Kromyv-Orel Offensive 15 July 1943 - 18 August 1943
  • Donbass Strategic Offensive (July 1943) 17 July 1943 - 2 August 1943
Izyum-Barvenkovo Offensive 17 July 1943 - 27 July 1943
Mius Offensive 17 July 1943 - 2 August 1943
Belgorod-Bogodukhov Offensive 3 August 1943 - 23 August 1943
Belgorod-Kharkov Offensive 3 August 1943 - 23 August 1943
Zmiez Offensive 12 August 1943 - 23 August 1943
Spas-Demensk Offensive 7 August 1943 - 20 August 1943
Dukhovshchina-Demidov Offensive 1 Stage 13 August 1943 - 18 August 1943
Yelnia-Dorogobuzh Offensive 28 August 1943 - 6 September 1943
Dukhovshchina-Demidov Offensive 2 Stage 14 September 1943 - 2 October 1943
Smolensk-Roslavl Offensive 15 September 1943 - 2 October 1943
Bryansk Offensive 17 August 1943 - 3 October 1943
  • Donbass Strategic Offensive (August 1943) 13 August 1943 - 22 September 1943
Barvenkovo-Pavlograd Offensive 13 August 1943 - 22 September 1943
Mius-Mariupol Offensive 18 August 1943 - 22 September 1943
  • Chernigov-Poltava Strategic Offensive 26 August 1943 - 30 September 1943
Chernigov-Pripyet Offensive 26 August 1943 - 30 September 1943
Sumy-Priluki Offensive 26 August 1943 - 30 September 1943
Poltava-Kremenchug Offensive 26 August 1943 - 30 September 1943
  • Novorossiysk-Taman Strategic Offensive 10 September 1943 - 9 October 1943
Novorossiysk Amphibious 10 September 1943 - 16 September 1943
Taman Offensive (1943) 10 September 1943 - 9 October 1943
Axis Defence of the Panther-Wotan Line
Kremenchug Offensive 26 September 1943 - 10 October 1943
Melitopol Offensive 26 September 1943 - 5 November 1943
Zaporizhia Offensive 10 October 1943 - 14 October 1943
Kremenchug-Pyatikhatki Offensive 15 October 1943 - 3 November 1943
Dnepropetrovsk Offensive 23 October 1943 - 23 December 1943
Krivoi Rog Offensive 14 November 1943 - 21 November 1943
Apostolovo Offensive 14 November 1943 - 23 December 1943
Nikopol Offensive 14 November 1943 - 31 December 1943
Aleksandriia-Znamenka Offensive 22 November 1943 - 9 December 1943
Krivoi Rog Offensive 10 December 1943 - 19 December 1943
  • Kiev Strategic Offensive (October 1943) 1 October 1943 - 24 October 1943
Chernobyl-Radomysl Offensive 1 October 1943 - 4 October 1943
Chernobyl-Gornostaipol Defensive 3 October 1943 - 8 October 1943
Lyutezh Offensive 11 October 1943 - 24 October 1943
1st Bukrin Offensive 12 October 1943 - 15 October 1943
2nd Bukrin Offensive 21 October 1943 - 24 October 1943
  • Byelorussian Strategic Offensive (1943) 3 October 1943 - 31 December 1943
Gomelsko-Rechitskaia Offensive 30 September 1943 - 30 October 1943
Nevel Offensive 3 October 1943 - 12 October 1943
1st Orsha Offensive 3 October 1943 - 26 October 1943
Vitebsk (Riga) Offensive 18 October 1943 - 30 October 1943
Idritsa Offensive 18 October 1943 - 30 October 1943
Pskov Offensive 18 October 1943 - 30 October 1943
Pololsk-Vitebsk Offensive 2 November 1943 - 21 November 1943
Pustoshka-Idritsa Offensive 2 November 1943 - 21 November 1943
Gomelsko-Rechitskaia Offensive 10 November 1943 - 30 November 1943
2nd Orsha Offensive 14 November 1943 - 5 December 1943
Novyi Bykhov-Propoisk Offensive 22 November 1943 - 30 November 1943
Kalinkovichi Offensive 8 December 1943 - 11 December 1943
Gorodok Offensive 13 December 1943 - 31 December 1943
Idritsa-Opochka Offensive 16 December 1943 - 15 January 1944
Kalinkovichi Defensive 20 December 1943 - 27 December 1943
  • Kerch-Eltigen 31 October 1943 - 11 December 1943
  • Kiev Strategic Offensive (November 1943) 3 November 1943 - 13 November 1943
  • Kiev Strategic Defensive (1943) 13 November 1943 - 22 December 1943

3. Third Period of the Great Patriotic War (1 January 1944 - 9 May 1945)

Winter Spring Campaign of 1944 (1 January - 31 May)

Zhitomir–Berdichev Offensive 24 December 1943 - 14 January 1944
Kirograd Offensive 5 January 1944 - 16 January 1944
Korsun–Shevchenkovsky Offensive 24 January 1944 - 17 February 1944
German Korsun-Cherkassy Pocket
Rovno-Lutsk Offensive 1 Stage 27 January 1944 - 11 February 1944
Nikopol-Krivoi Rog Offensive 2 Stage 30 January 1944 - 29 February 1944
Proskurov-Chernovtsy Offensive 4 March 1944 - 17 April 1944
Uman-Botoshany Offensive 5 March 1944 - 17 April 1944
Bereznegovatoye-Snigirevka Offensive 6 March 1944 - 18 March 1944
Polesskoe Offensive 15 March 1944 - 5 April 1944
Odessa Offensive 26 March 1944 - 14 April 1944
Krasnoye Selo–Ropsha Offensive 14 January 1944 - 30 January 1944
Novgorod-Luga Offensive 14 January 1944 - 15 February 1944
Kingisepp–Gdov Offensive 1 February 1944 - 1 March 1944
Staraia Russa-Novorzhev Offensive 18 February 1944 - 1 March 1944
Battle for Narva Bridgehead 2 February - 26 July 1944
Perekop-Sevastopol Offensive 8 April 1944 - 12 May 1944
Kerch-Sevastopol Offensive 11 April 1944 - 12 May 1944

Summer Autumn Campaign of 1944 (1 June - 31 December)

Vyborg Offensive 10 June 1944 - 15 July 1944
Svir–Petrozavodsk Offensive 21 June 1944 - 9 August 1944
Tuloksinskaia Landing Offensive 23 June 1944 - 27 June 1944
Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive 23 June 1944 - 28 June 1944
Mogilev Offensive 23 June 1944 - 28 June 1944
Bobruysk Offensive 24 June 1944 - 29 June 1944
Polotsk Offensive 29 June 1944 - 4 July 1944
Minsk Offensive 29 June 1944 - 4 July 1944
Vilnius Offensive 5 July 1944 - 20 July 1944
Shyaulyay Offensive 5 July 1944 - 31 July 1944
Belostock Offensive 5 July 1944 - 27 July 1944
Lublin–Brest Offensive 18 July 1944 - 2 August 1944
Battle of Radzymin (1944)
Kaunas Offensive 28 July 1944 - 28 August 1944
Osovets Offensive 6 August 1944 - 14 August 1944
Lvov Offensive 13 July 1944 - 27 July 1944
Stanislav Offensive 13 July 1944 - 27 July 1944
Sandomierz Offensive 28 July 1944 - 29 August 1944
Yassi-Focsani Offensive 20 August 1944 - 29 August 1944
Kishinev-Izmail Offensive 20 August 1944 - 29 August 1944
  • East Carpathian Strategic Offensive 8 September 1944 - 28 September 1944
Carpathian-Dukla Offensive 8 September 1944 - 28 September 1944
Carpathian-Uzhgorod Offensive 9 September 1944 - 28 September 1944
Riga Offensive 14 September 1944 - 24 October 1944
Tallinn Offensive 17 September 1944 - 26 September 1944
Moonsund Landing 5 October 1944 - 22 October 1944
Memel Offensive 27 September 1944 - 24 November 1944
Kechkemet-Budapest Offensive 29 October 1944 - 10 December 1944
Szolnok-Budapest Offensive 29 October 1944 - 10 December 1944
Nyiregyhaza-Miskolc Offensive 1 November 1944 - 31 December 1944
Esztergom-Komarno Offensive 20 December 1944 - 15 January 1945
Szekesfehervar-Esztergom Offensive 20 December 1944 - 13 February 1945
Assualt on Budapest 27 December 1944 - 13 February 1945

Campaign in Europe 1945 (1 January - 9 May)

Warsaw-Poznan Offensive 14 January 1945 - 3 February 1945
Sandomierz-Silesian Offensive 12 January 1945 - 3 February 1945
  • Western Carpathian Strategic Offensive 12 January 1945 - 18 February 1945
Kosice-Poprad Offensive 12 January 1945 - 28 January 1945
Bel'sk Offensive 29 January 1945 -18 February 1945
Pleshevets-Breznovsk Offensive 12 January 1945 - 18 February 1945
Insterburg-Königsberg Offensive 14 January 1945 - 26 January 1945
Mlawo-Elbing Offensive 14 January 1945 - 26 January 1945
Rastenburg-Heilsberg Offensive 27 January 1945 - 12 February 1945
Braunsberg Offensive 13 March 1945 - 22 March 1945
German Heiligenbeil Pocket
Königsberg Offensive 6 April 1945 - 9 April 1945
Zemland Offensive 13 April 1945 - 25 April 1945
German Siege of Breslau (From 13 February to 6 May 1945)
Chojnice-Koeslin Offensive 10 February 1945 - 6 March 1945
Danzig Offensive 7 March 1945 - 31 March 1945
Arnswalde-Kolberg Offensive 1 March 1945 - 18 March 1945
Altdamm Offensive 18 March 1945 - 4 April 1945
Bulgarian Battle of Drava
  • Moravian-Ostrava Offensive 10 March 1945 - 5 May 1945
  • Vienna Offensive 13 March 1945 - 15 April 1945
D'ersk Offensive 13 March 1945 - 4 April 1945
Veszprem Offensive 16 March 1945 - 25 March 1945
Sopron-Baden Offensive 26 March 1945 - 4 April 1945
Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive 26 March 1945 - 15 April 1945
Assault on Vienna 4 April 1945 - 13 April 1945
German Defence of the Oder-Neisse Line
Settin-Rostock Offensive 16 April 1945 - 8 May 1945
German Defense of Schwedt Bridgehead 1 February 1945 - 3 March 1945
Seelow-Berlin Offensive 16 April 1945 - 2 May 1945
Battle of Halbe (Russian: Хальбский "котел", Halbe cauldron) 24 April to 1 May 1945
Cottbus-Potsdam Offensive
Spremberg-Torgau Offensive 16 April 1945 - 5 May 1945
Battle of Bautzen
Brandenberg-Ratenow Offensive 3 May 1945 - 8 May 1945
Dresden-Prague Offensive 6 May 1945 - 11 May 1945
Sudeten Offensive 6 May 1945 - 11 May 1945
Olomout Offensive 6 May 1945 - 9 May 1945
Jihlavo-Benesov Offensive 6 May 1945 - 11 May 1945

Sources and references

  1. ^ Although often given in Western sources as gallop (e.g. Glantz in When Titans Clashed), the correct translation is hurdle jump as the word for gallop in Russian is gallop
  • Feskov V.I., Kalashnikov K.A., Golikov V.I. The Red Army in the victories and defeats: years 1941-1945 - Tomsk: Tomsk university publishing, 2001. pp. 24–29.

See also

External links


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