Street light: Wikis

  
  

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A Sylvania Roadster high pressure sodium vapor street lamp from Australia. The brown circular object under the light is a photocell.
High pressure sodium vapor lamp suspended on wire.
A surviving arc light column on Cheyne Walk, Chelsea Embankment, London, England, United Kingdom. (January 2006)
New and old style street lights
A fluorescent street light fixed to a utility pole in a residential area of Sydney, Australia.
Legii Bridge Prague
The internal components of a photoelectric control for a typical American streetlight

A street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Modern lamps may also have light-sensitive photocells to turn them on at dusk, off at dawn, or activate automatically in dark weather. In older lighting this function would have been performed with the aid of a solar dial. It is not uncommon for street lights to be on posts which have wires strung between them, such as on telephone poles or utility poles.

Contents

History

The earliest lamps were used by Greek and Roman civilizations, where light primarily served the purpose of security, both to protect the wanderer from tripping over something on the path as well as keeping the potential robbers at bay. At that time oil lamps were used predominantly as they provided a long-lasting and moderate flame. The Romans had a word 'laternarius', which was a term for a slave responsible for lighting up the oil lamps in front of their villas. This task continued to be kept for a special person as far as up to middle ages where the so-called 'link boys' escorted people from one place to another through the murky winding streets of medieval towns.

Before incandescent lamps, gas lighting was employed in cities. The earliest lamps required that a lamplighter tour the town at dusk, lighting each of the lamps, but later designs employed ignition devices that would automatically strike the flame when the gas supply was activated. The earliest of such street lamps were built in the Arab Empire,[1] especially in Córdoba, Spain.[2] The first modern street lamps, which used kerosene, were introduced in Lviv in what was then the Austrian Empire in 1853.

The first electric street lighting employed arc lamps, initially the 'Electric candle', 'Jablotchkoff candle' or 'Yablochkov candle' developed by the Russian Pavel Yablochkov in 1875. This was a carbon arc lamp employing alternating current, which ensured that both electrodes were consumed at equal rates. Yablochkov candles were first used to light the Grands Magasins du Louvre, Paris where 80 were deployed -- improvement which was one of the reasons why Paris earned its "City of Lights" nickname. Soon after, experimental arrays of arc lamps were used to light Holborn Viaduct and the Thames Embankment in London - the first electric street lighting in Britain. More than 4,000 were in use by 1881, though by then an improved differential arc lamp had been developed by Friederich von Hefner‑Alteneck of Siemens & Halske. The United States was swift in adopting arc lighting, and by 1890 over 130,000 were in operation in the US, commonly installed in exceptionally tall moonlight towers.

The first street in the UK to be lit by electric light was Mosley Street, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The street was lit by Joseph Swan's incandescent lamp in February, 1879.[3] The first in the United States, and second overall, was the Public Square road system in Cleveland, Ohio, on April 29, 1879.[4] Wabash, Indiana holds the title of being the third electrically-lit city in the world, which took place on February 2, 1880. Four 3,000 candlepower Brush arc lamps suspended over the courthouse rendered the town square "as light as midday."[5] Kimberley, South Africa, was the first city in Africa to have electric street lights - first lit on 1 September 1882. In Latin America, San Jose, Costa Rica was the first city, the system was launched on August 9, 1884, with 25 lamps powered by an hydroelectric plant [6]. Timişoara, in present-day Romania, was the first city in mainland Europe to have electric public lighting on the 12 of November 1884. 731 lamps were used. In 1888 Tamworth, New South Wales, Australia became the first location in the Southern Hemisphere to have electric street lighting, giving the city the title of "First City of Light".[7]

Arc lights had two major disadvantages. First, they emit an intense and harsh light which, although useful at industrial sites like dockyards, was discomforting in ordinary city streets. Second, they are maintenance-intensive, as carbon electrodes burn away swiftly. With the development of cheap, reliable and bright incandescent light bulbs at the end of the 19th century, arc lights passed out of use for street lighting, but remained in industrial use longer.

Incandescent lamps were primarily used for street lighting until the advent of high-intensity discharge lamps. They were often operated at high-voltage series circuits. Series circuits were popular since the higher voltage in these circuits produced more light per watt consumed. Furthermore, before the invention of photoelectric controls, a single switch or clock could control all the lights in an entire district.

To avoid having the entire system go dark if a single lamp burned out, each street lamp was equipped with a device that ensured that the circuit would remain intact. Early series street lights were equipped with isolation transformers [8] that would allow current to pass across the transformer whether the bulb worked or not. Later the film cutout was invented. The film cutout was a small disk of insulating film that separated two contacts connected to the two wires leading to the lamp. If the lamp failed (an open circuit), the current through the string became zero, causing the voltage of the circuit (thousands of volts) to be imposed across the insulating film, penetrating it (see Ohm's law). In this way, the failed lamp was bypassed and power restored to the rest of the district. The street light circuit contained an automatic voltage regulator, preventing the current from increasing as lamps burned out, preserving the life of the remaining lamps. When the failed lamp was replaced, a new piece of film was installed, once again separating the contacts in the cutout. This system was recognizable by the large porcelain insulator separating the lamp and reflector from the mounting arm. This was necessary because the two contacts in the lamp's base may have operated at several thousand volts above ground/earth.

Today, street lighting commonly uses high-intensity discharge lamps, often HPS high pressure sodium lamps. Such lamps provide the greatest amount of photopic illumination for the least consumption of electricity. However when scotopic/photopic light calculations are used, it can been seen how inappropriate HPS lamps are for night lighting. White light sources have been shown to double driver peripheral vision and increase driver brake reaction time at least 25%. When S/P light calculations are used, HPS lamp performance needs to be reduced by a minimum value of 75%. This is now a standard design criteria for Australian roads.

A study comparing metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps showed that at equal photopic light levels, a street scene illuminated at night by a metal halide lighting system was reliably seen as brighter and safer than the same scene illuminated by a high pressure sodium system.[9]

New street lighting technologies, such as LED or inductionlights, emit a white light that provides high levels of scotopic lumens allowing street lights with lower wattages and lower photopic lumens to replace existing street lights. However, there have been no formal specifications written around Photopic/Scotopic adjustments for different types of light sources, causing many municipalities and street departments to hold back on implementation of these new technologies until the standards are updated.

Photovoltaic-powered LED luminaires are gaining wider acceptance. Preliminary field tests show that some LED luminaires are energy-efficient and perform well in testing environments.[10]

Measurement

Two very similar measurement systems were created to bridge the scotopic and photopic luminous efficiency functions[11][12][13], creating a Unified System of Photometry[14][15]. This new measurement has been well-received because the reliance on V(λ) alone for characterizing night-time light illuminations requires more electric energy. The cost-savings potential of using a new way to measure mesopic lighting scenarios is tremendous.[16]

Outdoor Site-Lighting Performance (OSP) is a method for predicting and measuring three different aspects of light pollution: glow, trespass and glare[17]. Using this method, lighting specifiers can quantify the performance of existing and planned lighting designs and applications to minimize excessive or obtrusive light leaving the boundaries of a property.

Advantages

Major advantages of street lighting includes: prevention of accidents and increase in safety[18]. Studies have shown that darkness results in a large number of crashes and fatalities, especially those involving pedestrians; pedestrian fatalities are 3 to 6.75 times more vulnerable in the dark than in daylight[19]. Street lighting has been found to reduce pedestrian crashes by approximately 50%[20][21][22].

Furthermore, lighted intersections and highway interchanges tend to have fewer crashes than unlighted intersections and interchanges[23].

Disadvantages

The major criticisms of street lighting are that it can actually cause accidents if misused, and cause light pollution.

Dangers

There are two optical phenomena that need to be recognized in street light installations.

  • The loss of night vision because of the accommodation reflex of drivers' eyes is the greatest danger. As drivers emerge from an unlighted area into a pool of light from a street light their pupils quickly constrict to adjust to the brighter light, but as they leave the pool of light the dilation of their pupils to adjust to the dimmer light is much slower, so they are driving with impaired vision. As a person gets older the eye's recovery speed gets slower, so driving time and distance under impaired vision increases.
  • Oncoming headlights are more visible against a black background than a grey one. The contrast creates greater awareness of the oncoming vehicle.
  • Stray voltage is also a concern in many cities. Stray voltage can accidentally electrify light poles and has the potential to injure or kill anyone who comes into contact with the pole.[24] Some cities have employed the Electrified Cover Safeguard technology which sounds an alarm and flashes a light, to warn the public, when a pole becomes dangerously electrified.

There are also physical dangers. Street light stanchions (poles) pose a collision risk to motorists. This can be reduced by designing them to break away when hit (frangible or collapsible supports), protecting them by guardrails, or marking the lower portions to increase their visibility. High winds or accumulated metal fatigue also occasionally topple street lights.

Light pollution

In urban areas light pollution can hide the stars and interfere with astronomy. In settings near astronomical telescopes and observatories, low pressure sodium lamps may be used. These lamps are advantageous over other lamps such as mercury and metal halide lamps because low pressure sodium lamps emit lower intensity, monochromatic light. Observatories can filter the sodium wavelength out of their observations and virtually eliminate the interference from nearby urban lighting.

The light pollution also disrupts the natural growing cycle of plants.[citation needed]

Purpose

There are three distinct main uses of street lights, each requiring different types of lights and placement. Misuse of the different types of lights can make the situation worse by compromising visibility or safety.

Beacon lights

A modest steady light at the intersection of two roads is an aid to navigation because it helps a driver see the location of a side road as they come closer to it and they can adjust their braking and know exactly where to turn if they intend to leave the main road or see vehicles or pedestrians. A beacon light's function is to say "here I am" and even a dim light provides enough contrast against the dark night to serve the purpose. To prevent the dangers caused by a car driving through a pool of light, a beacon light must never shine onto the main road, and not brightly onto the side road. In residential areas, this is usually the only appropriate lighting, and it has the bonus side effect of providing spill lighting onto any sidewalk there for the benefit of pedestrians. On Interstate highways this purpose is commonly served by placing reflectors at the sides of the road.

Roadway lights

Street lights are not normally intended to illuminate the driving route (headlights are preferred), but to reveal signs and hazards outside of the headlights' beam[citation needed]. Because of the dangers discussed above, roadway lights are properly used sparingly and only when a particular situation justifies increasing the risk. This usually involves an intersection with several turning movements and much signage, situations where drivers must take in much information quickly that is not in the headlights' beam. In these situations (A freeway junction or exit ramp) the intersection may be lit so that drivers can quickly see all hazards, and a well designed plan will have gradually increasing lighting for approximately a quarter of a minute before the intersection and gradually decreasing lighting after it. The main stretches of highways remain unlighted to preserve the driver's night vision and increase the visibility of oncoming headlights. If there is a sharp curve where headlights will not illuminate the road, a light on the outside of the curve is often justified.

If it is desired to light a roadway (perhaps due to heavy and fast multilane traffic), to avoid the dangers of casual placement of street lights it should not be lit intermittently, as this requires repeated eye readjustment which implies eyestrain and temporary blindness when entering and leaving light pools. In this case the system is designed to eliminate the need for headlights. This is usually achieved with bright lights placed on high poles at close regular intervals so that there is consistent light along the route. The lighting goes from curb to curb.

Research a few years ago suggested that by comparison to other countries, more pedestrians are hit by motor vehicles at night in Britain.[citation needed] The theory behind this was that Britain almost exclusively, used low pressure sodium street lighting, (LPS); unlike the rest of the world that use mercury vapour gas discharge lighting[citation needed]. This was most noticeable when flying in from Europe at night and seeing a warm orange glow when approaching Britain. LPS lighting, being monochromatic, shows pedestrians as shadowy forms, unlike other forms of street lighting. In recognition of this, pedestrian crossings are now lit by additional "white" lighting,[citation needed] and sodium lighting is being replaced by modern types.[citation needed]

For more information, see the lighting section of "Pedestrian Crossings" article.

Security lighting

A sodium vapour light. This type is often used as security lighting.

Security lighting is similar to high-intensity lighting on a busy major street, with no pools of light and dark, but with the lighted area extending onto people's property, at least to their front door. This requires a different type of fixture and lens. The increased glare experienced by drivers going through the area might be considered a trade-off for increased security. This is what would normally be used along sidewalks in dense areas of cities. Often unappreciated is that the light from a full moon is brighter than most security lighting.

NEMA wattage labels

Many Street lights have a NEMA wattage label, these labels are for work crews to identify the wattage of the lamp, the labels are in three different colours Red, Blue and Yellow to represent different types of lamps.

Main manufacturers

Australia
America
A historical Slovakian lamppost.
German streetlight at night.
United Kingdom
Asia

See also

References

  1. ^ Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine:
    "The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc..."
  2. ^ S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, 3 vols, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and London.
    F. B. Artz (1980), The Mind of the Middle Ages, Third edition revised, University of Chicago Press, pp 148-50.
    (cf. References, 1001 Inventions)
  3. ^ http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/jwswan.html
  4. ^ "Cleveland+ Public Art" (brochure). Positively Cleveland. 2008. p. 3. http://www.positivelycleveland.com/pdf/ClevPubArt08_f.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  5. ^ Brush Arc Lighting
  6. ^ CENTENARIO DE LA ELECTRICIDAD EN COSTA RICA, Guillermo Rohrmoser
  7. ^ "Marvellous Museums Award". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ABC Radio National. 2008-11-23. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/museums/award/museums/TamworthPowerstation/#aboutus. Retrieved 2009-04-12. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Rea, M. S., J. D. Bullough and Y. Akashi. 2009. Several views of metal halide and high pressure sodium lighting for outdoor applications. Lighting Research and Technology 41(4): 297-320. http://lrt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/4/297
  10. ^ http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/DELTA/pdf/DELTA-Post-topPhotovoltaic.pdf
  11. ^ Rea M, Bullough J, Freyssinier-Nova J, Bierman A. A proposed unified system of photometry. Lighting Research & Technology 2004; 36(2):85.
  12. ^ Goodman T, Forbes A, Walkey H, Eloholma M, Halonen L, Alferdinck J, Freiding A, Bodrogi P, Varady G, Szalmas A. Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications. Lighting Research & Technology 2007; 39(4):365.
  13. ^ www.lrc.rpi.edu/researchAreas/pdf/GrotonFinalReport.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/newsroom/pdf/2006/DriverResponseProject.pdf.
  15. ^ Akashi, Y., M. S. Rea and J. D. Bullough. 2007. Driver decision making in response to peripheral moving targets under mesopic light levels. Lighting Research and Technology 39(1): 53-67.
  16. ^ Rea MS, Radetsky LC, Bullough JD. Toward a Model of Outdoor Lighting Scene Brightness. Lighting Research & Technology 2010; in press.
  17. ^ Brons, J. A., J. D. Bullough and M. S. Rea. 2008. Outdoor site-lighting performance: A comprehensive and quantitative framework for assessing light pollution. Lighting Research and Technology 40(3): 201-224. http://lrt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/40/3/225
  18. ^ Rea, M. S., J. D. Bullough, C. R. Fay, J. A. Brons, J. Van Derlofske and E. T. Donnell. 2009. Review of the Safety Benefits and Other Effects of Roadway Lighting [report to the National Cooperative Highway Research Program]. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.
  19. ^ Sullivan, J.M., and Flannigan, M.J. (1999) Assessing the Potential Benefit of Adaptive Headlighting Using Crash Databases, Report No. UMTRI-99-21. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.
  20. ^ Schwab, R.N., Walton, N.E., Mounce, J.M., and Rosenbaum, M.J. (1982) Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Traffic Control and Roadway Elements-Volume 2, Chapter 12: Highway Lighting. Report No. FHWA-TS-82-233. Federal Highway Administration.
  21. ^ Elvik, R. (1995) “Meta-Analysis of Evaluations of Public Lighting as Accident Countermeasure.” Transportation Research Record 1485, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 112-123.
  22. ^ Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage. (1992) Road Lighting as an Accident Countermeasure. CIE No. 93. Vienna, Austria: Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage.
  23. ^ Box, P.C. (1970) Relationship Between Illumination and Freeway Accidents. IERI Project 85-67 Illuminating Research Institute, New York April, pp. 1-83.
  24. ^ "Stray Voltage Still on the Loose". Scienceline. 2006-08-04. http://scienceline.org/2006/08/04/physics-grant-manholes/. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 

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