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Streptococcus mutans
stain of S. mutans in thioglycollate broth culture.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Streptococcaceae
Genus: Streptococcus
Species: mutans
Binomial name
Streptococcus mutans
Clarke 1924

Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterium commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.[1][2] The microbe was first described by Clarke in 1924.[3]

Contents

Role in tooth decay

Early colonizers of the tooth surface are mainly Neisseria spp. and streptococci, including S. mutans. The growth and metabolism of these pioneer species changes local environmental conditions (e.g. Eh, pH, coaggregation, substrate availability), thereby enabling more fastidious organisms to further colonize after them, forming dental plaque.[4] Along with S. sobrinus, S. mutans plays a major role in tooth decay, metabolizing sucrose to lactic acid.[2] The acidic environment created in the mouth by this process is what causes the highly mineralized tooth enamel to be vulnerable to decay. S. mutans is one of a few specialized organisms equipped with receptors that help for better adhesion to the surface of teeth. Sucrose is utilized by S. mutans to produce a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide that allows them to cohere to each other forming plaque. S. mutans produces dextran via the enzyme dextransucrase (a hexosyltransferase) using sucrose as a substrate in the following reaction:

n sucrose → (glucose)n + n fructose

Sucrose is the only sugar that S. mutans can use to form this sticky polysaccharide.[1]

Conversely, many other sugars—glucose, fructose, lactose—can be digested by S. mutans, but they produce lactic acid as an end product. It is the combination of plaque and acid that leads to dental decay.[5] Due to the role the S. mutans plays in tooth decay, there have been many attempts to make a vaccine for the organism. So far, such vaccines have not been successful in humans.[6] Recently, proteins involved in the colonization of teeth by S. mutans have been shown to produce antibodies that inhibit the cariogenic process.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.  
  2. ^ a b Loesche WJ (1996). Microbiology of Dental Decay and Periodontal Disease. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.chapter.5326.  
  3. ^ Clarke, JK (1924). "On the bacterial factor in the etiology of dental caries". Brit J Exp Pathol 5: 141–7.  
  4. ^ Vinogradov AM, Winston M, Rupp CJ, Stoodley P (2004). "Rheology of biofilms formed from the dental plaque pathogen Streptococcus mutans". Biofilms 1: 49–56. doi:10.1017/S1479050503001078.  
  5. ^ Madigan M, Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1.  
  6. ^ Klein, J.P.; Scholler, M. (December 1998). "Recent Advances in the Development of a Streptococcus mutans Vaccine". European Journal of Epidemiology 4 (4): 419–425. doi:10.1007/BF00146392. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0393-2990%28198812%294%3A4%3C419%3ARAITDO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A. Retrieved 2007-05-15.  
  7. ^ Hajishengallis G, Russell MW (2008). "Molecular Approaches to Vaccination against Oral Infections". Molecular Oral Microbiology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-1-904455-24-0]|978-1-904455-24-0]]]. http://www.horizonpress.com/oral2.  

External links

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Classis: Bacilli
Ordo: Lactobacillales
Familia: Streptococcaceae
Genus: Streptococcus
Species: Streptococcus mutans
Strain: Streptococcus mutans UA159 -

References


Simple English

Streptococcus mutans
File:Streptococcus mutans
Stain of S. mutans in thioglycollate broth culture.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Streptococcaceae
Genus: Streptococcus
Species: S. mutans
Binomial name
Streptococcus mutans
Clarke 1924

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive bacteria that lives in the mouth. This bacteria grows optimally in the range of 18-40 degrees Celsius. The microbe was first described by Clarke in 1924.


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