From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
.^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ This is where string theory comes into the picture. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This was the earliest indication that string theory incorporated general relativity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^{[1]} .^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ String theory starts with the idea that fundamental particles are not pointlike but excitations of a onedimensional string. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ According to string theory, absolutely everything in the universeall of the particles that make up matter and forcesis comprised of tiny vibrating fundamental strings. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
.^ In string theory, we use the sigma model which describes test strings. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
.^ But both of these theories are (in principle) defined for all values of the coupling. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The combination of all these theories makes up a single large theory called the "Standard Model" of particle interactions, which is a quantum gauge theory. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Yet all these theories are fundamentally flawed because they still regard strings as moving in a fixed, background spacetime. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ This is where string theory comes into the picture. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Elegant mathematics of string theory . Universal Theory  Super String Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Neil Turok from the Perimeter institute announced that mathematical tools emerged from String theory suggest that in some situations space may be an illusion. Universal Theory  Super String Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Particles & Strings  an overview of the frontier of particle physics and string theory.
^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ There are other approaches to nonperturbative string theory such as string field theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Quantum field theory, then, is a mathematical framework to describe interactions among force carriers and matter particles. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The electromagnetic and weak forces interact with matter according to their hypercharge and weak charge, which make this pattern. Garrett Lisi on his theory of everything  Video on TED.com 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
.^ Many physicists think this is a weakness of the theory, but Leonard Susskind thinks it could actually help us understand why our universe is so well suited to life. String theory: A beginner's guide  physicsmath  15 April 2009  New Scientist 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In 1974 John Schwartz and Joel Schrek claimed that a massless spin2 particle that is predicted by string theory is the long sought and never found graviton. Universal Theory  Super String Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ String theory, also known by names such as "superstring theory" and sometimes "Mtheory", is an idea that has been around for a rather long time, over two decades. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[2]} .^ I would like to communicate with you directly. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ I would like to communicate with you directly." String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ This theory and others like it are long shots. Garrett Lisi on his theory of everything  Video on TED.com 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ And there's plenty of string theorists beavering away trying to come up with other ways to test string theory, so it's certainly recognized as a priority in that community. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There is another test one can perform with the gauge theory at finite temperature. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ In another two or three years it should be much clearer whether there is a detailed, consistent and tractable scenario to connect string theory to the real world. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ String Theory for news . KVR: Ugo String Theory  Virtual Instrument 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.kvraudio.com [Source type: General]
^ It was certainly an interesting new mathematical problem in a physical context. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
.^ Relativity added time as a fourth dimension to Newton's three dimensions. Classical Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, Super String Theory And Mediation 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ But again, time is different from the three spatial dimensions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Ergo, the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ According to string theory, absolutely everything in the universeall of the particles that make up matter and forcesis comprised of tiny vibrating fundamental strings. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ But most of what I DO know about string theory originally came from the NOVA series "The Elegant Universe". xkcd • View topic  "String Theory" Discussion 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]
.^ Finally, we are in the wrong number of spacetime dimensions  10 rather than 4. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Like the type I string, both the heterotic string theories are parityviolating in 10 dimensions. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This superstring is consistent in 10 spacetime dimensions. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Spacetime in string theory . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Oh and different parts of string theory have different numbers of dimensions. xkcd • View topic  "String Theory" Discussion 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]
^ So, for a string in flat spacetime, c is the spacetime dimension. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^{[5]}
.^ Likewise the D1brane is also called a Dstring. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is called the bosonic string theory . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ But this is SO much more than a string modeler. KVR: Ugo String Theory  Virtual Instrument 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.kvraudio.com [Source type: General]
.^ Furthermore, Mtheory indicates that the "true home" of the theory may actually be the eleventh dimension, where we find new, exotic objects, such as super membranes and 5branes. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ A pbrane expanding infinitely far in some spatial directions can act as black hole in the remaining dimensions, trapping objects that come too close. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ These Dbranes are also sources for the p form fields F p . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The answer turns out to be beautifully simple: objects carrying charge under secondrank tensor fields are strings . The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The most intriguing property of CSL1 is that the object is clearly extended and the isophotes of the two sources show no distortion at all. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Venn diagrams are used to represent classes of objects, and they can also assist us in reasoning about the relations between these classes.
^ So one would never see these objects in perturbation theory in g s . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Secondly, general relativity demonstrates that massive objects warp spacetime, meaning that as a massive object moves though spacetime, it stretches spacetime, showing again that spacetime in one area can move, or deform, relative to spacetime in another area. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Likewise the D1brane is also called a Dstring. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ According to string theorists we are most likely living in a D3brane with six dimensions tightly rolled up. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In remarks to an American Physical Society newsletter, physicist Frank Wilczek of MIT called the black hole study a sound way to test an unattractive idea.
.^ However, Tutte’s rich and beautiful theory and methods are important in mathematics and quite fundamental in quantum gravity. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Quantum field theory, then, is a mathematical framework to describe interactions among force carriers and matter particles. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In a fundamental theory with no deeper explanation, why should there be such a profusion of fundamental forces and matter particles? The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}
Overview
.^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ Although superstrings are formulated in a tendimensional spacetime, in another sense a string field is also a theory about twodimensional surfaces. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So the dynamics of the string is described by a twodimensional theory describing how this worldsheet moves in spacetime. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ According to string theory, absolutely everything in the universeall of the particles that make up matter and forcesis comprised of tiny vibrating fundamental strings. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ There are fermionic matter particles, but in the absence of force carriers of the usual type, these cannot carry charges. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ By changing a sign (of a left moving U (1) charge) in the sigma model, one changes its interpretation from a string moving on K to a string moving on a geometrically and topologically different space, called the mirror of K . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ There are also closed strings away from the brane. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ According to string theory, absolutely everything in the universeall of the particles that make up matter and forcesis comprised of tiny vibrating fundamental strings. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
.^ These open strings move freely along the brane but cannot leave the brane unless the endpoints join and form a closed string. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The Dirichlet branes are special precisely because they are defined through fundamental strings that end on them. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Note that among other things, Dbranes provide an explanation of the role of the exotic tensor gauge fields in type II string theories: they endow the branes with stability. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Levels of magnification:
1. Macroscopic level  Matter
2. Molecular level
3. Atomic level  Protons, neutrons, and electrons
4. Subatomic level  Electron
5. Subatomic level  Quarks
6. String level
.^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ It concerns string theory, the universe and God. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Now it is interpreted as a natural incorporation of gravity with the quantum theory of string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ There are fermionic matter particles, but in the absence of force carriers of the usual type, these cannot carry charges. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Quantum field theory, then, is a mathematical framework to describe interactions among force carriers and matter particles. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ These new boundary conditions require that the matter fields are nonzero, so AdS is no longer a solution. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^{[10]} .^ We do this as we have lived with this person so long that we automatically reproduce certain things that were said to us, or treat others as we might have been treated.
^ In superstring theory, as long as supersymmetry is unbroken, the cosmological constant is identically zero due to cancelling contributions from bosons and fermions. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There may be other layers of "information" which differ between different genes, but you can't measure them without an equation. Recursivity: Stephen Meyer's Bogus Information Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC recursed.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ We punch in the probability of this reference of quantum perception with cosmological data and if 13.7 billions years could be contained in the model, then what says the limit of this universe could not be contained in what this universe might have become?
^ In the case of positive cosmological constant one gets a purely quantum mechanical derivation of the N bound conjectured by Fishler and Banks, see hepth/0209079. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I have always intuitively believed that our perspective of space (spacetime) is only one of many, that our universe could be subatomic in someone else’s reality and vice versa. Year help: Could string theory validate many things currently deemed “supernatural”?  Help.com 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC help.com [Source type: General]
.^ It is not known whether this is a complete set of solutions. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ String theory, also known by names such as "superstring theory" and sometimes "Mtheory", is an idea that has been around for a rather long time, over two decades. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So the dynamics of the string is described by a twodimensional theory describing how this worldsheet moves in spacetime. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ One thus has the confusing situation that a twodimensional CFT describes perturbative string excitations about this space, and a different twodimensional CFT describes the entire theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ I like your standards Claus, but since they're all of the double variety, I always have to address them twice, hence my repeat of the question of 'Is there actual evidence for string theory?' Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So let me put this question to the experts: does either string theory or LQG suggest what the connection should be between entropy and the nonexpansion of light rays? ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ It has been shown that when this happens, string theory remains completely well defined. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ Instead, if you try to define string theory in the wrong dimension, the resulting disease is called “the conformal anomaly”. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Spacetime in string theory . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Thus we see that string theories are not just theories of strings. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It concerns string theory, the universe and God. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
Basic properties
.^ So the dynamics of the string is described by a twodimensional theory describing how this worldsheet moves in spacetime. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ How could an ordinary field theory describe all of string theory? Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Riemann surface theory is relevant to describing the behavior of strings as they move through spacetime.
.^ To if distanciar of the elementary school, the secondary one goes to produce its proper dynamics, goes to give to beginning the tertiary ones that its energy and maser will initiate its in agreement translation. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Instead of a coupling constant, all string theories have a scalar particle which governs the strength of the interactions. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ With this, the displayed one is confirmed until, of that astros small they possess little irregular dynamics and orbits, for produces little energy, and this here independe of the distancia of the Sun. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ I don't claim to understand either String Theory or quantum mechanics well enough to speak authoritatively, but my impression is that the "extra" dimensions are necessary because the vibrational patterns in systems of lower dimensions aren't complex enough to model the forces of the physical world. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ According to string theory, absolutely everything in the universeall of the particles that make up matter and forcesis comprised of tiny vibrating fundamental strings. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
.^ The oscillations of the string imbue it with characteristics such as mass and charge. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The proposed "strings" are of an order of magnitude so much smaller than individual atoms or even subatomic particles that we'd need an entirely new toolset to do so. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ By changing a sign (of a left moving U (1) charge) in the sigma model, one changes its interpretation from a string moving on K to a string moving on a geometrically and topologically different space, called the mirror of K . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Instead of a coupling constant, all string theories have a scalar particle which governs the strength of the interactions. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Nonperturbation Theory  Interactions in superstring theory are expressed in terms of the splitting and joining of strings (see Figure 14 and 15). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ While the diagrams describing the scattering of point particles have definite points where a particle splits into two particles, the corresponding diagrams for string scattering are completely smooth (Figure 3). The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Note 2 If one quantizes a free relativistic (super)string in flat spacetime, one finds an infinite tower of modes of increasing mass. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The various modes of vibration of these minimal surfaces are then quantized to produce string wave function. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
In the analogy, different notes correspond to different particles.
.^ Of course, they hope that they aren't building up an edifice which is all going to be knocked down; but right now you, and everyone else, is right to be sceptical. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ We can move up and down, back and forth, in space; but only ever forwards in time. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Of course, you are entitled to count only the different ways the spin networks cross the boundary of a region, but that strikes me as answer analysis… . ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Following the development of quantum theory, the next step would be to generate, out of the wave functions for individual string vibrations, a super wave function for the string field. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, almost all the code I've ever seen that indexes into strings is actually iterating through strings (or using APIs that return indexes into strings, which could just as easily use iterators).
^ Large Dimensions  Since the Planck length is the natural scale of strings, the most probable universe would be the one in which all of the dimensions are comparable to the Planck length. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ All particles will have a probability of being caught in the fourth expanding dimension in proportion to their energy, and thus there is a probability that the particles will move in a manner that approximates the expanding surfaces of the fourth dimension. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In other words, all the observed particles (quarks, leptons, gauge bosons, etc) are confined to move on the brane and only gravity exists in the bulk since the graviton comes from closed strings. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ I have the feeling that nonrenormalizability is not the only way to describe the diseases of string theory in dimensions other than 10 or 26. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ This type contains both open and closed strings. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The string could be closed, like a loop, or open, with two end points (Figure 2). The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ A string can be either open, with two endpoints, or closed, like a loop. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ One thus has the confusing situation that a twodimensional CFT describes perturbative string excitations about this space, and a different twodimensional CFT describes the entire theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The beauty of the theory is that one type of thing—namely a string—can vibrate in different ways and give you different types of particles. The Complete Idiot's Guide to String Theory: Scientific American Podcast 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: Original source]
^ These two theories certainly look different at weak coupling, but a crucial aspect of this correspondence is that when the string theory is weakly coupled, the gauge theory is strongly coupled and vice versa. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ SO(32) Heterotic  This is a theory of closed string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Thus there can be theories with only closed strings and no open strings. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
.^ For a closed string it takes the form: . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ But because of supersymmetry, there is no tachyon. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ That's because the graviton is a closed string  a string with no ends would not be stuck to the brane at all. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Another consequence of the fact that strings see the spacetime only through the sigma model is that spacetimes which are singular in general relativity can be completely nonsingular in string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ This was the earliest indication that string theory incorporated general relativity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Since the string only senses the spacetime through this sigma model, two metrics that yield the same sigma model are indistinguishable in string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ There are other approaches to nonperturbative string theory such as string field theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ There are open strings on the brane whose lowenergy modes are described by a U ( N ) gauge theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
However, this model has problems.
.^ I want to focus on the more fundamental changes in spacetime that arise from string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ S Duality  Sduality can be examined most easily in Type II string theory, because this theory happens to be Sdual to itself. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So whoever said that evidently believes that, since an infinite universe leads to nonsensical conclusions, a good fundamental theory must *not* allow such a thing. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ This contrasts unfavourably with reality  the only exactly massless particles in the world, so far as we know, are the photon and the graviton. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The essence of any theory of quantum gravityis that there exists a particle called the graviton which is a quantum of gravity, just like the photon which is a quantum of light. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Its spectrum of particlelike excitations includes one particle whose mass is an imaginary number  a "tachyon", generally believed to be an unphysical object. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ As we have seen above, bosons tend to be the mediators of fundamental forces, while fermions make up the "matter" which experiences these forces. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Supersymmetry is usually described as a symmetry between bosons and fermions, but it is much more than just another symmetry of matter. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ It is called the bosonic string theory . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ How could an ordinary field theory describe all of string theory? Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Note2 By now, there are several excellent textbooks on string theory, e.g. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ According to string theory, absolutely everything in the universeall of the particles that make up matter and forcesis comprised of tiny vibrating fundamental strings. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
.^ This is a beautiful property because it suggests that the strength of string interactions could in some way be selfconsistently determined by the theory instead of being an experimental input. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Because B is present in all string theories, one may suspect that it too endows some suitable charged dynamical object with this property of stability. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ A string field theory is therefore about the quantum properties of twodimensional surfaces. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ According to string theory, absolutely everything in the universeall of the particles that make up matter and forcesis comprised of tiny vibrating fundamental strings. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ This is a condition we would like to ask of a truly fundamental theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ A closely related problem in relating string theory to nature is the problem of the "cosmological constant". The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The other possibilities are an open universe ( ) in which space will expand forever, and a closed universe ( ) in which gravity will halt the expansion and force the universe to contract, eventually leading to a "big crunch".
^ Considering the simple example of a bosonic string with one dimension (for both right and left movers) compactified on a circle, say X 25 in a form similar to Eq. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ By changing a sign (of a left moving U (1) charge) in the sigma model, one changes its interpretation from a string moving on K to a string moving on a geometrically and topologically different space, called the mirror of K . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
Its tension will tend to contract it into a smaller and smaller loop. Classical intuition suggests that it might shrink to a single point, but this would violate
Heisenberg's
uncertainty principle.
.^ Hubble: cosmic string verdict by February I just wanted to keep this for inspection, and relate Lubos's current statement in this regard, together, for refreshing look at this topic.
^ It is found that inflation can stretch the tiny string to astronomical size (lengthwise) and very high density (see cosmic string ). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I think it is hard sometimes to keep a global view about all the things that are included in this process, yet at some level, such geometries would have to be explained in relation, between the very small, and the every large.
Worldsheet
.^ It becomes necessary to assume that this field is not just a number at every point of space and time, but a "quantum operator", having definite but somewhat complicated mathematical properties. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Although superstrings are formulated in a tendimensional spacetime, in another sense a string field is also a theory about twodimensional surfaces. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ When the calculation is done, the critical dimensionality is not four as one may expect (three axes of space and one of time). Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
The resulting picture depicts the
worldline of the particle (its 'history') in
spacetime.
.^ The string sweeps out a worldsheet as varies from one instant to another. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The string is an onedimensional object, which can move in various ways. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ A onedimensional string traces out a twodimensional worldsheet. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ This contrasts unfavourably with reality  the only exactly massless particles in the world, so far as we know, are the photon and the graviton. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ How can photons display both wave and particle properties? ALL TIED UP & STRUNG ALONG: HOLLYWOOD STRING THEORY MOVIE!!! LOOKING FOR EXTRAS!!!  Physics Forums: Physics, Astronomy, Math, & Philosophy Forums! 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC physicsmathforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This gravitonlike particle was a great embarrassement when the string was first being developed as a model of hadrons. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
A
closed string looks like a small loop, so its worldsheet will look like a pipe or, more generally, a
Riemann surface (a twodimensional
oriented manifold) with no boundaries (i.e. no edge). An open string looks like a short line, so its worldsheet will look like a strip or, more generally, a
Riemann surface with a boundary.
Strings can split and connect. This is reflected by the form of their worldsheet (more accurately, by its
topology).
.^ A pair of closed strings can join when any pair of points coincides, to make a single closed string. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Considering the simple example of a bosonic string with one dimension (for both right and left movers) compactified on a circle, say X 25 in a form similar to Eq. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It turns out that the most natural prescription leads to a single possible open string theory, called type I superstring theory, and two distinct closed string theories, called type IIA and type IIB string theory. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ A onedimensional string traces out a twodimensional worldsheet. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ For the others, the ratio between the diâmetros diminishes for less of the one than two, then the ratio also enters the removal beats for less of the one than two. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So the dynamics of the string is described by a twodimensional theory describing how this worldsheet moves in spacetime. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Clearly string theory does not address the same content as theology (i.e., God), so Horgan must be suggesting that the methods of string theorists are like those of theologians. String Theory → Theology : Gene Expression 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, if the two endpoints of a single open string touch, they can join together and make a closed string. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The two examples in the followings serve to visualize the geometry of the closed and open strings. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ Finally, one would have to devise a "quantum mechanics" of strings in analogy with that for point particles. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, if the two endpoints of a single open string touch, they can join together and make a closed string. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Stan: "The subject was string theory (of which I know nothing)" Eric screwed up mentioning god in the same post." String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ In the Type IIA and IIB theory, these Weyl spinors have opposite and same chiralities respectively. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So the dynamics of the string is described by a twodimensional theory describing how this worldsheet moves in spacetime. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ It is called the bosonic string theory . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ SO(32) Heterotic  This is a theory of closed string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since Type IIA string starts out with opposite chirality for the movers, now both movers would have the same chirality, i.e., it changes to a Type IIB string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The combination of all these theories makes up a single large theory called the "Standard Model" of particle interactions, which is a quantum gauge theory. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ (Together, all these theories are sometimes called "gauge theories"). The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, there is a theory that has unified these four forces (Gravitation, Strong Nuclear force, Weak Nuclear force, Electromagnetism) back in 2003 called ECE THEORY. . String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
Formally, the worldsheet in these theories is a
nonorientable surface.
Dualities
.^ It turns out that the most natural prescription leads to a single possible open string theory, called type I superstring theory, and two distinct closed string theories, called type IIA and type IIB string theory. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This was also true of the type IIB string. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This type contains both open and closed strings. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In this version of the theory, it is noted that solutions to the equation RAB = 0 with RAB the fivedimensional Ricci curvature, may be reexpressed so that in four dimensions, these solutions satisfy Einstein's equations Gμν = 8πTμν with the precise form of the Tμν following from the Ricciflat condition on the fivedimensional space.
^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Thus, the most straightforward way to connect string theory to the real world is to postulate that 6 spatial dimensions form a compact manifold, whose size is so small that we are unable to detect its existence directly with the probes available to us. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The Strings of string theory are onedimensional oscillating lines, but they are no longer considered fundamental to the theory, which can be formulated in terms of points or surfaces too. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ Although superstrings are formulated in a tendimensional spacetime, in another sense a string field is also a theory about twodimensional surfaces. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ (Together, all these theories are sometimes called "gauge theories"). The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, there is a theory that has unified these four forces (Gravitation, Strong Nuclear force, Weak Nuclear force, Electromagnetism) back in 2003 called ECE THEORY. . String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ This approach has uncovered the role of new symmetries called "dualities" in string theory. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In later life he worked very hard to come up with ever more convoluted ways to make the Steady State theory explain the growing evidence. The Big Bang Theory  talk.origins  Google Groups 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In quantum theory, a field is not just something associated with waves, but is also related to particles by virtue of the wellknown waveparticle duality. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Although superstrings are formulated in a tendimensional spacetime, in another sense a string field is also a theory about twodimensional surfaces. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ One thus has the confusing situation that a twodimensional CFT describes perturbative string excitations about this space, and a different twodimensional CFT describes the entire theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Professor Eugene Herrin, a member of the team, said that two strangelets just onetenth the breadth of a hair would account for the observations.
.^ The two theories are mathematically different and cannot be applied simultaneously. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ One thus has the confusing situation that a twodimensional CFT describes perturbative string excitations about this space, and a different twodimensional CFT describes the entire theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ These two theories certainly look different at weak coupling, but a crucial aspect of this correspondence is that when the string theory is weakly coupled, the gauge theory is strongly coupled and vice versa. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
These dualities link quantities that were also thought to be separate.
.^ Consider an ordinary quantum field theory of pointlike particles. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Type I string theory is identical to the weak coupling limit of the HeteroticO theory. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The classical field theory of electromagnetism breaks down at very short distances, or in the presence of very strong fields. The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Thus we get a connection between a gauge theory at weak coupling, and strings in AdS 5 × S 5 at strong coupling. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ According to string theory, absolutely everything in the universeall of the particles that make up matter and forcesis comprised of tiny vibrating fundamental strings. SFCCO  FREE FOR ALL, (but for you $15) 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.sfcco.org [Source type: General]
^ No, it just means that it's a hypothesis, which is interesting in that it's consistent with the present Standard Model and ties up some loose ends theoretically, but still needs to be tested (in this regard, string theory is a misnomer). Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ U Duality and 11 Dimensions  Uduality is essentially a combination of Sduality and Tduality, e.g., Uduality implies that a theory A which is compactified to small size with weak coupling constant is dual to a theory B which is compactified to large size with strong coupling constant. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Type I string theory is identical to the weak coupling limit of the HeteroticO theory. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Thus we get a connection between a gauge theory at weak coupling, and strings in AdS 5 × S 5 at strong coupling. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
Uduality links Tduality and Sduality.
String theories 
Type 
Spacetime dimensions

Details 
Bosonic 
26 
.^ This type contains both open and closed strings. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ SO(32) Heterotic  This is a theory of closed string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Tachyon also occurs in the superstring theory. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I 
10 
Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with both open and closed strings; no tachyon; group symmetry is SO(32) 
IIA 
10 
Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with closed strings and open strings bound to Dbranes; no tachyon; massless fermions are nonchiral 
IIB 
10 
Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with closed strings and open strings bound to Dbranes; no tachyon; massless fermions are chiral 
HO 
10 
Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with closed strings only; no tachyon; heterotic, meaning right moving and left moving strings differ; group symmetry is SO(32) 
HE 
10 
Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with closed strings only; no tachyon; heterotic, meaning right moving and left moving strings differ; group symmetry is E_{8}×E_{8} 
.^ Dbranes for the Type IIA string, and odd dimensional Dbranes for the Type IIB string (see Figure 08 ). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is called the bosonic string theory . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This type contains both open and closed strings. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Number of dimensions
.^ Wikipeida reports: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Why_10_dimensions%3F#Number_of_dimensions Number of dimensions One intriguing feature of string theory is that it involves the prediction of extra dimensions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The extra 16 left mover dimensions provide the gauge group for the resulting 10dimensional theory. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The string degrees of freedom X ( , ) trace out a curve as varies at fixed . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The number of dimensions is not fixed by any consistency criterion, but flat spacetime solutions do exist in the socalled "critical dimension." Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Cosmological solutions exist in a wider variety of dimensionalities, and these different dimensions?more precisely different values of the "effective central charge," a count of degrees of freedom which reduces to dimensionality in weakly curved regimes?are related by dynamical transitions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[12]}
.^ Nothing in Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism or Einstein's theory of relativity makes this kind of prediction; these theories require physicists to insert the number of dimensions "by hand," and this number is fixed and independent of potential energy. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ String theory allows one to relate the number of dimensions to scalar potential energy. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Their proposal only provided a classical framework in which Einstein's gravity and Maxwell's electromagnetism had a common origin (this was hardly their fault, as quantum field theory had not yet been invented at the time! The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction: Sunil Mukhi 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC theory.tifr.res.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ String theory allows one to relate the number of dimensions to scalar potential energy. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Considering the simple example of a bosonic string with one dimension (for both right and left movers) compactified on a circle, say X 25 in a form similar to Eq. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Technically, this happens because a gauge anomaly exists for every separate number of predicted dimensions, and the gauge anomaly can be counteracted by including nontrivial potential energy into equations to solve motion. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The field equations are simply d F = 0 and There exists a large class of stationary solutions to ( 3.2 ) which have an SO (4) × SO (4) symmetry, and can be obtained by solving a linear equation. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ There are some theories that are attempting to find ways to make predictions based on multiple dimensions existing. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Furthermore, the absence of potential energy in the "critical dimension" explains why flat spacetime solutions are possible. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So, for a string in flat spacetime, c is the spacetime dimension. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ So one can construct a solution in which the four large dimensions stay approximately flat and the geometry of the CalabiYau manifold changes slowly from one Ricci flat metric to another. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ This can be better understood by noting that a photon included in a consistent theory (technically, a particle carrying a force related to an unbroken gauge symmetry) must be massless. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since it is via compactification, which yields local nonAbelian gauge symmetries, and other symmetry groups (to describe all the known particles and forces, plus some unknow ones), the mathematical treatment will be presented in the followings for a better understanding of the subject. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The superstring theory is based on the introduction of a world sheet supersymmetry that relates the spacetime coordinates X ( , ) to a fermionic partners ( , ), which are twocomponent world sheet spinors. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The mass of the photon which is predicted by string theory depends on the energy of the string mode which represents the photon. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ MDT predicts the equivalence of mass and energy. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is suggested that string theory has already been tested by the RHIC , which produced liquid quarkgluon plasma as predicted by the string theory. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ This energy includes a contribution from the Casimir effect, namely from quantum fluctuations in the string. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Yet this prediction rests on two dubious assumptions: that ordinary physics may be applied to vacuum fluctuations at energy scales increasing exponentially without bound; and that quantumgravitational effects may be neglected.
^ Now, t’Hooft is a smart guy who has contributed to string theory, contributed massively to quantum field theory, and so forth. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The size of this contribution depends on the number of dimensions since for a larger number of dimensions, there are more possible fluctuations in the string position. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Is it possible to revise General Relativity in a way to describe the universe just as well as String Theory, but without all those extraneous spatial dimensions? Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Large Dimensions  Since the Planck length is the natural scale of strings, the most probable universe would be the one in which all of the dimensions are comparable to the Planck length. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ This superstring is consistent in 10 spacetime dimensions. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Therefore, the photon in flat spacetime will be massless?and the theory consistent?only for a particular number of dimensions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So, for a string in flat spacetime, c is the spacetime dimension. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^{[13]}
.^ When the calculation is done, the critical dimensionality is not four as one may expect (three axes of space and one of time). Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Events are therefore specified by four pieces of information: three in space and one in time. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ SpaceTime Duality: Spacetime duality would be more properly described as the duality between the three spatial and the fourth expanding dimension. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ All points on that sphere will represent a single point in the fourth dimension, and the photon has an equal chance of being found at any point on the surface of the sphere. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In bosonic string theories, the 26 dimensions come from the Polyakov equation. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In the heterotic string, the left mover is a bosonic string in 26 dimensions; while the right mover is a superstring in 10 dimensions: . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is called the bosonic string theory . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In bosonic string theories, the 26 dimensions come from the Polyakov equation. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[14]} .^ Starting from any dimension greater than four, it is necessary to consider how these are reduced to four dimensional spacetime. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Cosmological solutions exist in a wider variety of dimensionalities, and these different dimensions?more precisely different values of the "effective central charge," a count of degrees of freedom which reduces to dimensionality in weakly curved regimes?are related by dynamical transitions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Rather than imagine that the extra dimensions are very small, one can imagine that they are much larger and we live on a (3 + 1)dimensional brane in this higher dimensional space. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
Compact dimensions
Two different ways have been proposed to resolve this apparent contradiction.
.^ Rather than imagine that the extra dimensions are very small, one can imagine that they are much larger and we live on a (3 + 1)dimensional brane in this higher dimensional space. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Spacetime is considered to be flat in our perception, Son said, and five of the extra dimensions are compacted into a small, finite sphere.
^ The result is then generalized to compactify the extra 16 dimensions and finally to curl up six of the remaining ten dimensions. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
To retain a high degree of supersymmetry, these compactification spaces must be very special, as reflected in their
holonomy.
.^ CalabiYau portion of space. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The problem with determining a correct CalabiYau space is related to the perturbative method used to perform the calculation. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Once again, though, carrying through with such calculations requires that we know which CalabiYau space to take for the extra dimensions. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ No, it just means that it's a hypothesis, which is interesting in that it's consistent with the present Standard Model and ties up some loose ends theoretically, but still needs to be tested (in this regard, string theory is a misnomer). Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Although superstrings are formulated in a tendimensional spacetime, in another sense a string field is also a theory about twodimensional surfaces. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In addition, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider, to be operational in April, 2008) will provide evidence or the lack of it for higher dimensions (in string theory ) and superpartners (in the theory of supersymmetry ). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ CalabiYau Manifolds  As mentioned earlier there is a lot of difficulties to figure out the CalabiYau shape that agrees with the observed physical properties. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, considerable progress has been made recently for a class of states with large angular momentum on the S 5 or AdS 5 [ 31 , 32 ]. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ A realist would say that this progression is a more accurate approximation of truth. Theory  Philosophy, Sociology & Psychology  Shroomery Message Board 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
A standard analogy for this is to consider multidimensional space as a garden hose.
.^ Large Dimensions  Since the Planck length is the natural scale of strings, the most probable universe would be the one in which all of the dimensions are comparable to the Planck length. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions in units of the Planck length, and thus distances smaller than the Planck length cannot be measured nor defined. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The fourth dimension expands in units of the Planck length at the rate of c, so in a sense the fourth dimension is only ever Planck's length deep to all macroscopic objects. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Indeed, think of a ball just small enough to enter the hose.
.^ One important consequence is that the fundamental higher dimensional Planck scale could be of the order of 1 TeV, and we might see quantum gravity or string theory effects at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. This would be tremendously exciting, but it is important to remember that this is only one of many possible scenarios and it is not a unique prediction of string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Rather than imagine that the extra dimensions are very small, one can imagine that they are much larger and we live on a (3 + 1)dimensional brane in this higher dimensional space. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
However, as one approaches the hose, one discovers that it contains a second dimension, its circumference.
.^ Re: Moving Dimensions Theory's simplicity: The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimension: dx4/dt =ic . Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Thus there exist neither philosophical nor physical barriers to the concept of moving dimensions, but for artificial ones within lazy minds. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ All particles will have a probability of being caught in the fourth expanding dimension in proportion to their energy, and thus there is a probability that the particles will move in a manner that approximates the expanding surfaces of the fourth dimension. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Thus there exist neither philosophical nor physical barriers to the concept of moving dimensions, but for artificial ones within lazy minds. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Spacetime is considered to be flat in our perception, Son said, and five of the extra dimensions are compacted into a small, finite sphere.
^ But because time is a dimension, physicists were seduced into believing one could travel anywhere within it. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ MDT predicts waveparticle duality. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Quantum mechanics, relativity, and entropyinterference, wave particle duality, quantized energy, time dialation, Lorentzian contractions, the equivalence of mass and energy, and times arrow all derive from the physical model moving dimensions theory presents. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Quantum Mechanics treats the fourth dimension as a dynamical element. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Braneworld scenario
Another possibility is that we are "stuck" in a 3+1 dimensional (i.e. three spatial dimensions plus the time dimension) subspace of the full universe. If such subspacetimes are exceptional sets within a largerdimensional one, there typically exist properly localized matter and YangMills gauge fields
^{[15]}.
.^ There are a few entries in the CalabiYau catalog that are closely akin to the particles of the standard model. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since the CalabiYau shape can be deformed in many ways (see Figure 07), there are literally an infinite variety of them. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Then we’ve got this other proposal, loop quantum gravity, which has had fewer successes, but which does attempt such a local description at the Planck scale. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ He stressed that his opposition was not to the idea of describing spacetime in terms of local interactions of qubits, but rather to the specific technical program of loop quantum gravity, and to the exaggerated claims often made on that program’s behalf. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Once again, though, carrying through with such calculations requires that we know which CalabiYau space to take for the extra dimensions. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Some may blame Josephson for what had not occurred, yet, this quest for understanding is quite strong as to how such processes work, not only, in a computer manufactured processes, but in a human capacity as well.
^ The problem is that at present no one knows how to deduce from the equations of string which of the CalabiYau shapes constitutes the extra spatial dimensions. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Next one would like to count “physical states” of the theory, which induce a metric on spacetime such that that boundary has a certain surface area. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Brane World  an introduction to the latest ideas from string theory Quarks & Strings  an introduction to the duality between quarks and string theory Understanding Nothing  the physics of the vacuum.
^ So it is seen that Moving Dimensions Theory offers a simple model upon which all known phenomena of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics may rest. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Effect of the hidden dimensions
.^ This lead to the equivalence of acceleration by an external force and the acceleration felt in the gravitational field, which lead to gravity being conceived as of the curvature of spacetime. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ You can't expand around the point where gravity is the strongest force because a quantum theory of gravity in which gravity is stronger than other forces is inconsistent .
^ From the perspective of branebound particles, if it weren't for gravity or other bulk particles with which they might interact, the world might as well have only the dimensions of the branes. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ MDT predicts entropythe fundamental motion of the universe is the sphericallysymmetric wavefront defiend by the fourth dimenion expanding relative to the three spatial dimensionshence entropy. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Another consequence of the fact that strings see the spacetime only through the sigma model is that spacetimes which are singular in general relativity can be completely nonsingular in string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ I. Time as an Emergent Phenomenon Nowhere does Einstein?s relativity actually state that time is the fourth dimension, and MDT agrees that time is not the fourth dimension. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Then finding a small number of CalabiYau shapes appear to be an extremely encouraging outcome. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Once again, though, carrying through with such calculations requires that we know which CalabiYau space to take for the extra dimensions. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ And it is testable in principle, not just in practice (yet). Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Once again, though, carrying through with such calculations requires that we know which CalabiYau space to take for the extra dimensions. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Is it possible to revise General Relativity in a way to describe the universe just as well as String Theory, but without all those extraneous spatial dimensions? Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ From the perspective of branebound particles, if it weren't for gravity or other bulk particles with which they might interact, the world might as well have only the dimensions of the branes. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ These lead to the suggestion that there is a weaker form of the holographic conjecture that applies only to the information measurable on the surface. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So, I'll go out on a limb and say multiple dimensions is a ridiculous concept, but only because my limited knowledge is all I have to fall back on. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Dbranes
.^ Although superstrings are formulated in a tendimensional spacetime, in another sense a string field is also a theory about twodimensional surfaces. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Type I string theory contains Dbranes with 1, 5, and 9 spatial dimensions. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Scientists in 2006 offer another explanation for the paired images of CSL1 via the reformulated theory of cosmic strings, which emerged from the cosmic inflation in a spaghettilike tangle. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Thus, all the five string theories involve twodimensional membranes, which become apparent in the strong coupling limit and show up in the 11th dimension. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The name comes from membranes that are twodimensional, but branes exist in any dimension: 0branes are point particles, 1branes are strings, etc. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ In terms of branes, what we usually call a membrane would be a twobrane, a string is called a onebrane and a point is called a zerobrane. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Dbranes are defined by the fact that
worldsheet boundaries are attached to them.
.^ It is called the bosonic string theory . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ SO(32) Heterotic  This is a theory of closed string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since the gauge bosons are also open strings, they would communicate a force that would act on the other branebound open strings with charge (at the endpoint). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Since the gauge bosons are also open strings, they would communicate a force that would act on the other branebound open strings with charge (at the endpoint). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ That's because the graviton is a closed string  a string with no ends would not be stuck to the brane at all. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Dbranes  A Dbrane is a submanifold of spacetime with the property that open strings can end or begin on it. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ It is called the bosonic string theory . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since the gauge bosons are also open strings, they would communicate a force that would act on the other branebound open strings with charge (at the endpoint). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ One of the important tasks is to rewrite string theory so that it is free from any particular choice of gauge or frame of reference. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Just as in gauge field theory or general relativity, there are fewer independent dynamical degrees of freedom than appear explicitly in the action. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There might or might not be a singularity behind the event horizon — one can ask the question in either case. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Just as in gauge field theory or general relativity, there are fewer independent dynamical degrees of freedom than appear explicitly in the action. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There are some theories that are attempting to find ways to make predictions based on multiple dimensions existing. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ You can either look at it as perhaps there are multiple parallel universes. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The two theories are mathematically different and cannot be applied simultaneously. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In any other case, including black hole horizons, the boundary metric still fluctuates and the boundary theory itself ought to be gravitational (if this notion even makes sense) and thus equally mysterious as the bulk theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It would act as gravitational lens to produce two identical images of a light source from behind. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Gaugegravity duality
.^ I won’t feel like I have any handle on this quantumgravity business until I understand why the 2+1dimensional case is so different from the case of 3+1 and higher dimensions. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The extra 16 left mover dimensions provide the gauge group for the resulting 10dimensional theory. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
^ But it is like any other theory , it is the predictions that it makes which will decide it's usefullness. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Description of the duality
.^ Gauge invariance can be added into the theory by attaching charges at the end of open strings (the charges are distributed on closed strings). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ SO(32) Heterotic  This is a theory of closed string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ One of the important tasks is to rewrite string theory so that it is free from any particular choice of gauge or frame of reference. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Such a situation is termed a
decoupling limit.
In those cases, the Dbranes have two independent alternative descriptions.
.^ SO(32) Heterotic  This is a theory of closed string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ There are open strings on the brane whose lowenergy modes are described by a U ( N ) gauge theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ If the gauge theory is on S 3 × R with the radius of the threesphere also given by , then the global time translation in the bulk agrees with time translation in the field theory and hence the energies of states in the field theory and string theory should agree. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Therefore in such cases it is often conjectured that the gravitational theory on spacetime with the appropriate background fields is dual (i.e. physically equivalent) to the gauge theory on the boundary of this spacetime (since the subspace filled by the Dbranes is the boundary of this spacetime).
.^ There isn't much; string theorists are the first to admit that. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ And there's plenty of string theorists beavering away trying to come up with other ways to test string theory, so it's certainly recognized as a priority in that community. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This would presumably be the case in something like string theory, or in a model like the one you developed with Sundance and Fotini where matter content is derived from spin networks. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Examples and intuition
.^ Events are therefore specified by four pieces of information: three in space and one in time. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ When the calculation is done, the critical dimensionality is not four as one may expect (three axes of space and one of time). Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In this version of the theory, it is noted that solutions to the equation RAB = 0 with RAB the fivedimensional Ricci curvature, may be reexpressed so that in four dimensions, these solutions satisfy Einstein's equations Gμν = 8πTμν with the precise form of the Tμν following from the Ricciflat condition on the fivedimensional space.
^{[18]} .^ Berenstein et al [ 31 ] showed what this Penrose limit corresponds to the dual gauge theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ In this way, one can extend the AdS/CFT correspondence to strings in a plane wave background. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ However, the AdS/CFT correspondence provides a natural solution. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Second, if the event horizon is not that of a black hole, there doesn’t have to be a singularity behind it. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ If it is then it means that the information must leak out after the black hole evaporates to the point that there is no longer an apparent horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Suppose that, as there is increasing theoretical evidence for from calculations, the spacelike singularity of the black hole is eliminated. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[19]} When particles are far away from this source, they are described by closed strings (i.e. a gravitational theory, or usually
supergravity).
.^ SO(32) Heterotic  This is a theory of closed string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The degree of freedom X is independent of each others. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The left mover is described by the bosonic degrees of freedom in Eqs. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[23]} .^ There are also closed strings away from the brane. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ For the others, the ratio between the diâmetros diminishes for less of the one than two, then the ratio also enters the removal beats for less of the one than two. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Berenstein et al [ 31 ] showed what this Penrose limit corresponds to the dual gauge theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ There might or might not be a singularity behind the event horizon — one can ask the question in either case. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Let me repeat a point that seems to have been glossed over in much of this discussion: Black holes are not the only source of event horizons and Hawking radiation! ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There is so far no difficulty because one has a pure state overall with the state in the new region entangled with the state external to the horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In the simplest case of flat spacetime with one direction compactified on a circle, this shows that a circle of radius R is equivalent to one with radius s 2 / R . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
^ But it might be one way of testing one set of theories that points toward multiple dimensions. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Some boundary condtion is imposed on something that ensures that this boundary really does behave like a horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The extra 16 left mover dimensions provide the gauge group for the resulting 10dimensional theory. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Let us understand how the two theories are still equivalent:
.^ Although superstrings are formulated in a tendimensional spacetime, in another sense a string field is also a theory about twodimensional surfaces. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Namely the only known good invariant at this time is say the SMatrix, or in other words physics at infinity (usually with nice asymptotic far fields). ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Another consequence of the fact that strings see the spacetime only through the sigma model is that spacetimes which are singular in general relativity can be completely nonsingular in string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In any other case, including black hole horizons, the boundary metric still fluctuates and the boundary theory itself ought to be gravitational (if this notion even makes sense) and thus equally mysterious as the bulk theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I have the feeling that nonrenormalizability is not the only way to describe the diseases of string theory in dimensions other than 10 or 26. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In the Type IIA and IIB theory, these Weyl spinors have opposite and same chiralities respectively. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In any other case, including black hole horizons, the boundary metric still fluctuates and the boundary theory itself ought to be gravitational (if this notion even makes sense) and thus equally mysterious as the bulk theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ One thus has the confusing situation that a twodimensional CFT describes perturbative string excitations about this space, and a different twodimensional CFT describes the entire theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In any other case, including black hole horizons, the boundary metric still fluctuates and the boundary theory itself ought to be gravitational (if this notion even makes sense) and thus equally mysterious as the bulk theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ (I once spent a lot of time on them: On the nature of quantum fluctuations and their relation to gravitation and the principle of inertia} Classical and Quantum Gravity, 3 (1986) 347359. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ But even in quantum field theory in nonlinear coordinates, particle number is observerdependent, because the coordinate change alters the dividing line between virtual and nonvirtual particles. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The coefficients are nothing other than the cosines of the angle between the original and new axes. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ From the perspective of branebound particles, if it weren't for gravity or other bulk particles with which they might interact, the world might as well have only the dimensions of the branes. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ During the past 30 years, considerable progress has been made in giving a mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ String theory allows one to relate the number of dimensions to scalar potential energy. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
So small radius in the gravitational theory translates to low energy scale in the gauge theory (i.e. the IR regime of the
field theory) while large radius in the gravitational theory translates to high energy scale in the
gauge theory (i.e. the UV regime of the field theory).
A simple example to this principle is that if in the gravitational theory there is a setup in which the
dilaton field (which determines the strength of the
coupling) is decreasing with the radius, then its dual field theory will be
asymptotically free, i.e. its coupling will grow weaker in high energies.
Contact with experiment
.^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ However, Tutte’s rich and beautiful theory and methods are important in mathematics and quite fundamental in quantum gravity. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ If the gauge theory is on S 3 × R with the radius of the threesphere also given by , then the global time translation in the bulk agrees with time translation in the field theory and hence the energies of states in the field theory and string theory should agree. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ If this hypothesis is true, then we have two separate worlds, the classical world of gravitation and the quantum world of atoms, described by separate theories. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is not yet clear how many quantum field theories have dual descriptions in terms of string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ If so, will the dual description again be given in terms of a local quantum field theory? Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^{[24]}
.^ A quarkgluon plasma, in three spatial dimensions  behaves as if it has a viscosity near zero, the lowest yet measured."
^ This fact hints that conditions may be favorable for the production of a QuarkGluon Plasma.
^ Also, there are almost as many antiprotons as protons, which is another indication that conditions are favorable for the production of a QuarkGluon Plasma.
.^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ There are other approaches to nonperturbative string theory such as string field theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Is it possible to revise General Relativity in a way to describe the universe just as well as String Theory, but without all those extraneous spatial dimensions? Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Considering the simple example of a bosonic string with one dimension (for both right and left movers) compactified on a circle, say X 25 in a form similar to Eq. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In this form of calculation to meet the translation of the secondary one for the equatorial speed of the elementary school, it is Express that in agreement the diameter also diminishes the energy is lesser, decreases the maser. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Consequently, the high energy particle is detected indirectly, as cosmic ray primaries entering the Earth's atmosphere interact with atmospheric nuclei to produce large cascades of relativistic secondary particles known as extensive air showers.
.^ I'm looking for evidence for string theory. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ One important consequence is that the fundamental higher dimensional Planck scale could be of the order of 1 TeV, and we might see quantum gravity or string theory effects at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. This would be tremendously exciting, but it is important to remember that this is only one of many possible scenarios and it is not a unique prediction of string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ In addition, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider, to be operational in April, 2008) will provide evidence or the lack of it for higher dimensions (in string theory ) and superpartners (in the theory of supersymmetry ). Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The tension of the string can be estimated from the strength of the force transmitted by the graviton. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There are also closed strings away from the brane. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Closed strings in lower dimensions can be viewed as compactifications of these membranes. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ I'm looking for evidence for string theory. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The familiar extended dimensions, therefore, may very well also be in the shape of circles and hence subject to the R and 1/R physical identification of string theory.
^ One of the new approaches to nonperturbative string theory involves Mtheory and duality, which in fact force us to reconsider the central role played by strings in supersymmetry. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ If anyone could manage to reconcile General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, they would immediately win just about all of the major science awards that exist and be hailed as the greatest genius since Newton and Einstein. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since Type IIA string starts out with opposite chirality for the movers, now both movers would have the same chirality, i.e., it changes to a Type IIB string. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since the theory was supposed to account for, among other things, the quantized force of gravity, the strings could not be longer than the length scale where the granular structure of spacetime becomes important, i.e., 10 33 cm  the Planck length. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Unsolved problems in physics
.^ It concerns string theory, the universe and God. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I watched that twopart PBS series on string theory, and it was the consensus of physicists that there was no observable evidence at this time. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Is it uniquely determined by low energy data? 

Problems and controversy
.^ However, that's not say that the theory is untestable. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ No, it just means that it's a hypothesis, which is interesting in that it's consistent with the present Standard Model and ties up some loose ends theoretically, but still needs to be tested (in this regard, string theory is a misnomer). Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There are a lot of different versions of string theory that all build off of one another in slightly different ways and come up with slightly different predictions and the things that they're predicting aren't unique to just string theory, there are other theories based on the more standard model of particle physics that make similar predictions. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[26]} .^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ (Or I should say string theories, since as they say, there are five sensible ones, in addition to the problematic purely bosonic string theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Nonetheless, as I understand it, t’Hooft has been saying that he would like humanity to replace not only string theory, but even quantum probability by something better. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[27]}^{[28]} This led to a public debate in 2007,
^{[29]}^{[30]} with one commentator expressing this opinion:
.^ It is called the bosonic string theory . Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Another consequence of the fact that strings see the spacetime only through the sigma model is that spacetimes which are singular in general relativity can be completely nonsingular in string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
The beginning of this chase marked the end of what had been threequarters of a century of progress.
.^ One of the new approaches to nonperturbative string theory involves Mtheory and duality, which in fact force us to reconsider the central role played by strings in supersymmetry. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Someday, perhaps, a dramatic new experimental finding or theoretical breakthrough will change the situation visàvis string theory and its competitors. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ These strings have a tension which defines a new fundamental length scale in the theory s . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Since then, new techniques were found to compute them directly and they all agree with the predictions of mirror symmetry [ 17 ]. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ There's just no evidence. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ How would you justify Einstein working on relativity or past research in black holes if you dismiss them just because there was no evidence backing them. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Just as in gauge field theory or general relativity, there are fewer independent dynamical degrees of freedom than appear explicitly in the action. Superstring Theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC universereview.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ But even in quantum field theory in nonlinear coordinates, particle number is observerdependent, because the coordinate change alters the dividing line between virtual and nonvirtual particles. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ A large number of physicists think that string theory is not even testable enough to be considered "wrong". String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ It is not rigorously proven, but it’s understood fairly well at a “physics level of rigor.” Also, what does “If particle number is observerdependent, then everything is” even mean ? ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
 Jim Holt.
^{[31]}
Is string theory predictive?
.^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I've contacted (because I went to them) the universities I was a student at, and looked at their physics books when I first heard of string theory. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ And there's plenty of string theorists beavering away trying to come up with other ways to test string theory, so it's certainly recognized as a priority in that community. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
The controversy concerns two properties:
 It is widely believed that any theory of quantum gravity would require extremely high energies to probe directly, higher by orders of magnitude than those that current experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider^{[32]} can reach.
 String theory as it is currently understood has a huge number of equally possible solutions, called string vacua^{[33]}, and these vacua might be sufficiently diverse to explain almost any phenomena we might observe at lower energies.
.^ Particles & Strings  an overview of the frontier of particle physics and string theory.
^ String Theory is a model for generating predictions about the way energy particles behave. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ No one yet knows what this matter is made of, but it is considered cold because its purported particles exist at low energies and they don't interact in ordinary matter in ways that yield light. The Big Bang Theory  talk.origins  Google Groups 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[34]}^{[35]} .^ No, it just means that it's a hypothesis, which is interesting in that it's consistent with the present Standard Model and ties up some loose ends theoretically, but still needs to be tested (in this regard, string theory is a misnomer). Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ But even in quantum field theory in nonlinear coordinates, particle number is observerdependent, because the coordinate change alters the dividing line between virtual and nonvirtual particles. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Krauss and Susskind versus Horgan Peter Woit : I don’t see Horgan here criticizing the attempt to quantize gravity as “frivolous”.
^ On the antistring side, I read Peter Woit’s Not Even Wrong and Lee Smolin’s The Trouble With Physics . ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[39]}
.^ This was the earliest indication that string theory incorporated general relativity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ String Theory is a model for generating predictions about the way energy particles behave. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ If anyone could manage to reconcile General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, they would immediately win just about all of the major science awards that exist and be hailed as the greatest genius since Newton and Einstein. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[40]} .^ This was the earliest indication that string theory incorporated general relativity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The familiar extended dimensions, therefore, may very well also be in the shape of circles and hence subject to the R and 1/R physical identification of string theory.
^{[41]} .^ In fact, since the gauge theory is defined nonperturbatively, one can view this as a nonperturbative and (mostly) backgroundindependent definition of string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ If the gauge theory is on S 3 × R with the radius of the threesphere also given by , then the global time translation in the bulk agrees with time translation in the field theory and hence the energies of states in the field theory and string theory should agree. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The familiar extended dimensions, therefore, may very well also be in the shape of circles and hence subject to the R and 1/R physical identification of string theory.
.^ Is it more important for a quantum gravity theory to connect to the Standard Model, or to build in backgroundindependence from the outset? ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Again, we’re talking about quantum gravity, so we presumably want our model to generate a simplicial representation of the causal structure of spacetime. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This would presumably be the case in something like string theory, or in a model like the one you developed with Sundance and Fotini where matter content is derived from spin networks. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Hence the quantum nature of all energy. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Such a particle is necessary in quantum gravity, because energy is carried in discrete little packets called quanta, and a quantum of gravitational energy would behave like a particle. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Nowhere does String Theory nor Loop Quantum Gravity resolve the paradox of Godel's Block Universe which troubled Einstein. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ All particles will have a probability of being caught in the fourth expanding dimension in proportion to their energy, and thus there is a probability that the particles will move in a manner that approximates the expanding surfaces of the fourth dimension. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ (Or I should say string theories, since as they say, there are five sensible ones, in addition to the problematic purely bosonic string theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is estimated that the final burst should radiate a large number of particles in all directions with very high energies.
But it is not clear how high these energies are.
.^ This would presumably be the case in something like string theory, or in a model like the one you developed with Sundance and Fotini where matter content is derived from spin networks. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Rather than imagine that the extra dimensions are very small, one can imagine that they are much larger and we live on a (3 + 1)dimensional brane in this higher dimensional space. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ I won’t feel like I have any handle on this quantumgravity business until I understand why the 2+1dimensional case is so different from the case of 3+1 and higher dimensions. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Swampland
.^ It is true that string theory is, among other things, a cure for the nonrenormalizability of gravity as a quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I have the feeling that nonrenormalizability is not the only way to describe the diseases of string theory in dimensions other than 10 or 26. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ When I reminded him that other people complain about exaggerated claims made on string theory’s behalf, he replied that the two cases were not even remotely comparable. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ No matter what you call it, though, that substance and others similar to it could be the mostperfect fluids in existence because they have ultralow viscosity, or resistance to flow, said Dam Thanh Son, an associate physics professor in the Institute for Nuclear Theory at the University of Washington.
^ In quantum field theory, there is a standard procedure for integrating out high energy degrees of freedom and obtaining an effective theory at low energy. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ But whether an infinite universe is even possible is something we need a physical theory to tell us. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is true that string theory is, among other things, a cure for the nonrenormalizability of gravity as a quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Given that causal structures of spacetimes are dynamically determined in the classical limit, I don’t see how one could ask for more in a quantum theory of gravity. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since this post about string theory, the message is that highdimensional quantum gravity is a very different problem. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since quantum theory deals with the very small and general relativity with the very large, many physicists feel that, for all practical purposes, there is no need to attempt such an ultimate unification.
.^ Renormalizability plays a fundamental role in perturbative quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ We punch in the probability of this reference of quantum perception with cosmological data and if 13.7 billions years could be contained in the model, then what says the limit of this universe could not be contained in what this universe might have become?
^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ We give a brief overview of the nature of spacetime emerging from string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ I have the feeling that nonrenormalizability is not the only way to describe the diseases of string theory in dimensions other than 10 or 26. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ You can't expand around the point where gravity is the strongest force because a quantum theory of gravity in which gravity is stronger than other forces is inconsistent .
.^ What could be more interesting than that? String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ We could cover the earth with rock dust and start to absorb carbon in a more natural fashion which, along with reducing emissions and using a combination of other initiatives, will have a better and faster response."
^ For the others, the ratio between the diâmetros diminishes for less of the one than two, then the ratio also enters the removal beats for less of the one than two. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ There is also a field theory interpretation of black hole quasinormal modes. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ If it is then it means that the information must leak out after the black hole evaporates to the point that there is no longer an apparent horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Suppose that, as there is increasing theoretical evidence for from calculations, the spacelike singularity of the black hole is eliminated. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ This can be so even if the black hole evaporates in a finite amount of it. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There is also a field theory interpretation of black hole quasinormal modes. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ If it is then it means that the information must leak out after the black hole evaporates to the point that there is no longer an apparent horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ There are other approaches to nonperturbative string theory such as string field theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ There is also a field theory interpretation of black hole quasinormal modes. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ One important consequence is that the fundamental higher dimensional Planck scale could be of the order of 1 TeV, and we might see quantum gravity or string theory effects at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. This would be tremendously exciting, but it is important to remember that this is only one of many possible scenarios and it is not a unique prediction of string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ The proposed "strings" are of an order of magnitude so much smaller than individual atoms or even subatomic particles that we'd need an entirely new toolset to do so. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
Since this argument is very general—relying only on blackhole evaporation and the
holographic principle, it has been suggested that this prediction would be true of any consistent holographic theory of quantum gravity, although the phrase "consistent holographic theory of quantum gravity" might very well be synonymous with "string theory".
.^ No, it just means that it's a hypothesis, which is interesting in that it's consistent with the present Standard Model and ties up some loose ends theoretically, but still needs to be tested (in this regard, string theory is a misnomer). Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Another consequence of the fact that strings see the spacetime only through the sigma model is that spacetimes which are singular in general relativity can be completely nonsingular in string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ In all the debates about string theory, he finally decided, From this day forward, my allegiances in the String Wars will be open for sale to t…… . ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ However, Tutte’s rich and beautiful theory and methods are important in mathematics and quite fundamental in quantum gravity. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[citation needed]}
Background independence
.^ Spacetime in string theory . Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ But string theory is certainly not restricted to perturbing about flat spacetime. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ So let's start with string theory. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ So there are theories that work mathematically, but beyond things that they can predict that we'll find in the cosmic microwave background, these theories don't make testable predictions. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Renormalizability plays a fundamental role in perturbative quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Many string theorists believe that string theory is the only possible renormalizable, perturbative theory of quantum gravity. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ One important consequence is that the fundamental higher dimensional Planck scale could be of the order of 1 TeV, and we might see quantum gravity or string theory effects at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. This would be tremendously exciting, but it is important to remember that this is only one of many possible scenarios and it is not a unique prediction of string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ Other CFTs with (typically) different spacetime dimensions are believed to provide a complete nonperturbative description of string theory with asymptotically AdS boundary conditions. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ We are thus led to the following general definition of perturbative string theory: perturbative string theory is equivalent to twodimensional CFT with c = 26. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ String Theory and LQG lack definitive equations, whereas MDT presents a simple equation: It will be shown that relativity can be derived from this simple equation, as we return to Einstein?s original work. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ One important consequence is that the fundamental higher dimensional Planck scale could be of the order of 1 TeV, and we might see quantum gravity or string theory effects at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. This would be tremendously exciting, but it is important to remember that this is only one of many possible scenarios and it is not a unique prediction of string theory. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ String theory is a promising approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
.^ We have focused on the metric, but classical backgrounds for string theory can also include some matter fields. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Thus string theory incorporates two major changes to the spacetime of general relativity that were proposed long before string theory became popular in the mid1980s. Spacetime in string theory 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.iop.org [Source type: Academic]
^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Supersymmetry breaking
Main article:
Supersymmetry
.^ MDT: The BestTested Theory of All Time MDT is the besttested theory of all time. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Modern financial theory as applied ranks with string theory in physics as one of the greatest intellectual frauds of our time. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This is where string theory gets itself into trouble: it's currently not testable. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
However, several models have been proposed to explain supersymmetry breaking, most notably the KKLT model
^{[33]}, which incorporates branes and fluxes to make a metastable compactification.
.^ Instead, if you try to define string theory in the wrong dimension, the resulting disease is called “the conformal anomaly”. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Brane World  an introduction to the latest ideas from string theory Quarks & Strings  an introduction to the duality between quarks and string theory Understanding Nothing  the physics of the vacuum.
^ String theory leads to a stupendously large "landscape" of possibilities for the local laws of nature in a given pocket. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
.^ It concerns string theory, the universe and God. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ It is indeed interesting that M Theory and String Theory have 10 or 11 dimensions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Comments Erol Gokcedag Says: December 30th, 2007 at 2:17 am According to documentaries and articles I have read recently, the idea of an infinitely large universe is becoming more accepted by many scientists, and my own theories correspond with such an idea. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Pamela: That's one possible way, or it could just be that the Universe was created so that gravity is a significantly weaker force. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Where with the uncertainty, every moment particles can do different things and then in one Universe the particle goes one way and then in an alternate reality the particle goes another way. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ That's no different than saying Newton shouldn't have been "allowed" to consider the concept of universal forces or laws of motion. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^{[33]} What principle, if any, can be used to select among these vacua is an open issue.
.^ Maybe there is no universe... String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ If the state is semiclassical there is a macroscopic notion of locality defined by the metric it is semiclassical to, but this may differ from microlocality in any of the basis states in the superposition that makes the semiclassical state. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ If we find microscopic black holes that may be proof that we live in a Universe with more than 5 dimensions, but no one's found a microscopic black hole yet. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ But because time is a dimension, physicists were seduced into believing one could travel anywhere within it. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I've seen some explanations that attempt to find reasons why the physical constant values might group into a much smaller range, thereby making the combinantion we see more likely. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ You may argue the dark matter has not been directly observed, which is true, but many things that exist have never been directly observed. The Big Bang Theory  talk.origins  Google Groups 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[42]}^{[43]} .^ Whether or not the real universe in which we live is somehow fivedimensional is a topic that is debated and explored in several branches of physics, including astrophysics and particle physics.
^ So many people throughout the ages can't accept the probability that humanity is simply another organism in the universe (one of many universes, most logically). String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ We live in a universe whose physical reality is that the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Is it possible to revise General Relativity in a way to describe the universe just as well as String Theory, but without all those extraneous spatial dimensions? Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ For that after the pass next to the sun the moon leaves with the closed orbit, that goes opening passing for the full one and in the declining room already if it finds well open, and enters open with 39,5 degrees of shift arc in longitude. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The size of this contribution depends on the number of dimensions since for a larger number of dimensions, there are more possible fluctuations in the string position. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Critics say the anthropic principle is not science because it cannot be tested, or falsified. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Re: Critics say the anthropic principle is not science because it cannot be tested, or falsified. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Can one use the Anthropic Principle to make falsifiable predictions? ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Other testability criteria
Many physicists strongly oppose the idea that string theory is not falsifiable, among them
Sylvester James Gates: "So, the next time someone tells you that string theory is not testable, remind them of the
AdS/CFT connection ..."
^{[44]} AdS/CFT relates string theory to gauge theory, and allows contact with low energy experiments in
quantum chromodynamics.
.^ I have the feeling that nonrenormalizability is not the only way to describe the diseases of string theory in dimensions other than 10 or 26. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The proposed "strings" are of an order of magnitude so much smaller than individual atoms or even subatomic particles that we'd need an entirely new toolset to do so. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ For the others, the ratio between the diâmetros diminishes for less of the one than two, then the ratio also enters the removal beats for less of the one than two. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Modern financial theory as applied ranks with string theory in physics as one of the greatest intellectual frauds of our time. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ However, what really intrigues me is that the path string theory has led physicists down has led some of them to see the hand of a grand designer. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Pamela: String theory is a mathematical attempt to unify all the different forces. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I doubt many of us here can make any authoritative statement about the correctness of "String" or "M" theory. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[45]} .^ But no inconsistency can arise from using both theories, because any differences between their predictions are physically undetectable. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^{[46]}
History
.^ So let's start with string theory. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ There isn't much; string theorists are the first to admit that. Evidence for String Theory!!  JREF Forum 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC forums.randi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The theory was first published in 1921 and was discovered by the mathematician Theodor Kaluza who extended general relativity to a fivedimensional spacetime. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It was discovered by the mathematician Theodor Kaluza that if general relativity is extended to a fivedimensional spacetime, the equations can be separated out into ordinary fourdimensional gravitation plus an extra set, which is equivalent to Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field, plus an extra scalar field known as the "dilaton".
^ So it is that quantum phenomena on the photonic level, as well as relativistic phenomena on the photonic level, are both accounted for with simple elegance via MDT: the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ MDT would underly all apsects of String Theory, and MDT does explain an interpretation of higher, numerous dimensions, if needed by Kaluza Klein et al. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Oskar Klein proposed that the fourth spatial dimension is curled up with a very small radius, i.e.
^ Spacetime is considered to be flat in our perception, Son said, and five of the extra dimensions are compacted into a small, finite sphere.
Einstein introduced a
nonsymmetric geometric tensor, while much later Brans and Dicke added a scalar component to gravity.
.^ So there are theories that work mathematically, but beyond things that they can predict that we'll find in the cosmic microwave background, these theories don't make testable predictions. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ (Or I should say string theories, since as they say, there are five sensible ones, in addition to the problematic purely bosonic string theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Nonetheless, as I understand it, t’Hooft has been saying that he would like humanity to replace not only string theory, but even quantum probability by something better. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ With string theory you can throw in a bazillion different inputs and get an infinite number of outputs, it seems like. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Schramm’s SLE model, that was originated in the study of critical planar lattice models like looperasedrandom walks and percolation, is closely related also to conformal field theory which is quite prominent in string theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In later life he worked very hard to come up with ever more convoluted ways to make the Steady State theory explain the growing evidence. The Big Bang Theory  talk.origins  Google Groups 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ (I am borrowing heavily from noted string theorist Leonard Susskind ): . String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
.^ This is a condition we would like to ask of a truly fundamental theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Mark UK: "My points regarding Einstein and Newton is that they came up with a theory that explained their observations and that could be used to make predictions. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Thus there is a probability the particles will move about in random directions and undergo brownian motion, as they interact with other particles and energy. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The theory therefore breaks down at all scales.
^ Starting from any dimension greater than four, it is necessary to consider how these are reduced to four dimensional spacetime. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
.^ Is it more important for a quantum gravity theory to connect to the Standard Model, or to build in backgroundindependence from the outset? ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Nowhere does String Theory nor Loop Quantum Gravity resolve the paradox of Godel's Block Universe which troubled Einstein. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Given that causal structures of spacetimes are dynamically determined in the classical limit, I don’t see how one could ask for more in a quantum theory of gravity. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Working with experimental data, R. Dolen, D. Horn and C. Schmid
^{[47]} developed some
sum rules for hadron exchange. When a particle and antiparticle scatter, virtual particles can be exchanged in two qualitatively different ways.
.^ The LHC will have two such tubes placed side by side so that the same kind of particles  protons  can be accelerated in opposite directions and then smashed into each other.
^ Two particles at a similar origin have a probability to move apart. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Any two observers that drift apart (say they are parked in different galaxies) will see each other recede into each other’s backdrop event horizons. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
In the tchannel, the particles exchange intermediate states by emission and absorption.
.^ Students forget that the use of (almost) every one of those fallacies emerges because of the great successes that the fallacy gives the reasoner in certain situations. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
^ It is true that string theory is, among other things, a cure for the nonrenormalizability of gravity as a quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Or rather, when I say “the statement”, I am referring to one interpretation of Hawking radiation. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
The result was widely advertised by
Murray GellMann, leading
Gabriele Veneziano to construct a scattering amplitude which had the property of DolenHornSchmid duality, later renamed worldsheet duality.
.^ Ramanujan Modular Forms Modular functions are used in the mathematical analysis of Riemann surfaces.
^ So there are theories that work mathematically, but beyond things that they can predict that we'll find in the cosmic microwave background, these theories don't make testable predictions. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ But even in quantum field theory in nonlinear coordinates, particle number is observerdependent, because the coordinate change alters the dividing line between virtual and nonvirtual particles. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ GammaRay Bursts can be seen to high redshift, and this uniquely allows for tests as to whether the Dark Energy changes with time.
^ (I.e., the theory posits that you integrate a constant function on its domain, which is the same as finding the volume of the domain. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The result also highlights the GammaRay Burst Hubble Diagram as a new frontline technique to measure Dark Energy and the highredshift Universe.
.^ Ashoke Sen has suggested that more general theory could go by the name Utheory, which might stand for Ur, or Uber , or Ultimate, or Underlying, or perhaps Unified.
Over the next years, hundreds of physicists worked to complete the bootstrap program for this model, with many surprises.
.^ Right now however the BB theory appears to describe what we see in our universe the best. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ This can be better understood by noting that a photon included in a consistent theory (technically, a particle carrying a force related to an unbroken gauge symmetry) must be massless. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Mark UK: "Right now however the BB theory appears to describe what we see in our universe the best." String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
Miguel Virasoro and Joel Shapiro found a different amplitude now understood to be that of closed strings, while Ziro Koba and
Holger Nielsen generalized Veneziano's integral representation to multiparticle scattering.
.^ Instead, if you try to define string theory in the wrong dimension, the resulting disease is called “the conformal anomaly”. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ First, since the entanglement in Hawking radiation is hopelessly scrambled by the unitary operator of the black hole, it is hard to say how it has any computational value. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ What I understood is that when an observer A falls through the event horizon of an observer B, then reality is twinned, sortof in the style of “manyworlds” theories. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Claud Lovelace calculated a loop amplitude, and noted that there is an inconsistency unless the dimension of the theory is 26.
Charles Thorn,
Peter Goddard and Richard Brower went on to prove that there are no wrongsign propagating states in dimensions less than or equal to 26.
.^ Susskind agreed that such a convergence — between the “topdown” picture of string theory, which grew out of conventional highenergy physics, and a “bottomup” picture in terms of qubits at the Planck scale — was possible or even likely. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Fraser: But isn't that a sign of all of the different thinkings going into string theory â€“ isn't that a sign of its health, of the possibilities that could exist there? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Given that causal structures of spacetimes are dynamically determined in the classical limit, I don’t see how one could ask for more in a quantum theory of gravity. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
The scattering amplitudes were derived systematically from the action principle by
Peter Goddard,
Jeffrey Goldstone, Claudio Rebbi and
Charles Thorn, giving a spacetime picture to the vertex operators introduced by Veneziano and Fubini and a geometrical interpretation to the
Virasoro conditions.
In 1970,
Pierre Ramond added fermions to the model, which led him to formulate a twodimensional supersymmetry to cancel the wrongsign states.
John Schwarz and
André Neveu added another sector to the fermi theory a short time later.
.^ I won’t feel like I have any handle on this quantumgravity business until I understand why the 2+1dimensional case is so different from the case of 3+1 and higher dimensions. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Schramm’s SLE model, that was originated in the study of critical planar lattice models like looperasedrandom walks and percolation, is closely related also to conformal field theory which is quite prominent in string theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I have the feeling that nonrenormalizability is not the only way to describe the diseases of string theory in dimensions other than 10 or 26. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ With string theory you can throw in a bazillion different inputs and get an infinite number of outputs, it seems like. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In bosonic string theories, the 26 dimensions come from the Polyakov equation. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In all the debates about string theory, he finally decided, From this day forward, my allegiances in the String Wars will be open for sale to t…… . ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ When I reminded him that other people complain about exaggerated claims made on string theory’s behalf, he replied that the two cases were not even remotely comparable. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Thus MDT underlies all string theories. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So let me put this question to the experts: does either string theory or LQG suggest what the connection should be between entropy and the nonexpansion of light rays? ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is true that string theory is, among other things, a cure for the nonrenormalizability of gravity as a quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ This is the only way that I can make sense of these stories. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ So there are theories that work mathematically, but beyond things that they can predict that we'll find in the cosmic microwave background, these theories don't make testable predictions. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ At RHIC we don't make a "real" black hole, in the sense envisioned by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.
.^ The point being, we’re all climbing the same mountain: mathematicians, physicists, and yes, quantum chemists and quantum system engineers too. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
^ Einstein recognized Godel's paper as "an important contribution to the general theory of relativity," and since then physicists have not been able to find any logical shortcomings in Godel's work, and nobody has been able to account for the existence of time. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In all the debates about string theory, he finally decided, From this day forward, my allegiances in the String Wars will be open for sale to t…… . ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ When I reminded him that other people complain about exaggerated claims made on string theory’s behalf, he replied that the two cases were not even remotely comparable. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Thus MDT underlies all string theories. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In later life he worked very hard to come up with ever more convoluted ways to make the Steady State theory explain the growing evidence. The Big Bang Theory  talk.origins  Google Groups 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Ferdinando Gliozzi, Joel Scherk, and
David Olive realized in 1976 that the original Ramond and Neveu Schwarzstrings were separately inconsistent and needed to be combined.
.^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ This lead to the equivalence of acceleration by an external force and the acceleration felt in the gravitational field, which lead to gravity being conceived as of the curvature of spacetime. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
.^ It is how Einstein discovered his field equations. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In bosonic string theories, the 26 dimensions come from the Polyakov equation. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The two theories are mathematically different and cannot be applied simultaneously. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ In all the debates about string theory, he finally decided, From this day forward, my allegiances in the String Wars will be open for sale to t…… . ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
The consistency conditions had been so strong, that the entire theory was nearly uniquely determined, with only a few discrete choices.
.^ I won’t feel like I have any handle on this quantumgravity business until I understand why the 2+1dimensional case is so different from the case of 3+1 and higher dimensions. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, Tutte’s rich and beautiful theory and methods are important in mathematics and quite fundamental in quantum gravity. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
.^ It is true that string theory is, among other things, a cure for the nonrenormalizability of gravity as a quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, what really intrigues me is that the path string theory has led physicists down has led some of them to see the hand of a grand designer. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ When I reminded him that other people complain about exaggerated claims made on string theory’s behalf, he replied that the two cases were not even remotely comparable. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Instead, if you try to define string theory in the wrong dimension, the resulting disease is called “the conformal anomaly”. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Now, t’Hooft is a smart guy who has contributed to string theory, contributed massively to quantum field theory, and so forth. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In bosonic string theories, the 26 dimensions come from the Polyakov equation. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ A direct response may just add fuel to controversies.’  Dr Edward Witten, Mtheory originator, Nature, Vol 444, 16 November 2006. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is true that string theory is, among other things, a cure for the nonrenormalizability of gravity as a quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Following Witten's lead, between 1984 and 1986, hundreds of physicists started to work in this field, and this is sometimes called the
first superstring revolution.
During this period,
David Gross,
Jeffrey Harvey,
Emil Martinec, and Ryan Rohm discovered
heterotic strings.
.^ That the connectiveness, would have ever acknowledged equative relations that these two photons under the squared earthbound views, would include all probabilites being still held to view.
^ High Resolution 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Accretion Disks in Close Binaries Michael P. Owen Theoretical Astrophysics Group Department of Physics North Carolina State University So we look at the LHC model for comparison here in accretions disk energy formations, as we projectile these protons in either direction?
^ So how do you include such "weak field "manifestation in your global perspective(standard model).
.^ String theory has the remarkable property of predicting gravity.’  Dr Edward Witten, Mtheory originator, Physics Today, April 1996. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ A direct response may just add fuel to controversies.’  Dr Edward Witten, Mtheory originator, Nature, Vol 444, 16 November 2006. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Modern financial theory as applied ranks with string theory in physics as one of the greatest intellectual frauds of our time. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Cumrun Vafa generalized Tduality from circles to arbitrary manifolds, creating the mathematical field of
mirror symmetry.
.^ So let me put this question to the experts: does either string theory or LQG suggest what the connection should be between entropy and the nonexpansion of light rays? ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It is true that string theory is, among other things, a cure for the nonrenormalizability of gravity as a quantum field theory. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ I have the feeling that nonrenormalizability is not the only way to describe the diseases of string theory in dimensions other than 10 or 26. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ In remarks to an American Physical Society newsletter, physicist Frank Wilczek of MIT called the black hole study a sound way to test an unattractive idea.
^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Besides this, as far as I know, nobody has ever computed the Hawking radiation for a black hole with an infalling object. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Venn diagrams are used to represent classes of objects, and they can also assist us in reasoning about the relations between these classes.
^ It was important to keep these two lines of investigation in perspective, as they diverged.
^ Gamma ray bursts had to be used for the analysis  and they are sufficiently poorly understood  and independent experimental astrophysical sources at Harvard also recommend you to ignore the news.
.^ But in the 10 dimensions of string theory, the fluid of a black hole isn't like other fluids.
^ No matter what you call it, though, that substance and others similar to it could be the mostperfect fluids in existence because they have ultralow viscosity, or resistance to flow, said Dam Thanh Son, an associate physics professor in the Institute for Nuclear Theory at the University of Washington.
^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
^ At RHIC we don't make a "real" black hole, in the sense envisioned by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.
.^ If it is then it means that the information must leak out after the black hole evaporates to the point that there is no longer an apparent horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Besides this, as far as I know, nobody has ever computed the Hawking radiation for a black hole with an infalling object. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ It concerns string theory, the universe and God. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Nowhere does String Theory nor Loop Quantum Gravity resolve the paradox of Godel's Block Universe which troubled Einstein. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since this post about string theory, the message is that highdimensional quantum gravity is a very different problem. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Mtheory was also foreshadowed in the work of
Paul Townsend at approximately the same time. The flurry of activity which began at this time is sometimes called the
second superstring revolution.
.^ DO realize the big bang has zip to do with string theory, right? The Big Bang Theory  talk.origins  Google Groups 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, what really intrigues me is that the path string theory has led physicists down has led some of them to see the hand of a grand designer. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ First off, String theory is not the only or even leading theory attempting to explain the universe. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
.^ Suppose that, as there is increasing theoretical evidence for from calculations, the spacelike singularity of the black hole is eliminated. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ If we find microscopic black holes that may be proof that we live in a Universe with more than 5 dimensions, but no one's found a microscopic black hole yet. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ But if you don’t take semiclassical GR seriously, at least to the point of believing it gives a good approximation for large black holes and/or small Lambda, you shouldn’t believe in any of the calculations that lead to the conclusions that black holes and horizons have entropy and radiate. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ A direct response may just add fuel to controversies.’  Dr Edward Witten, Mtheory originator, Nature, Vol 444, 16 November 2006. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Fraser Cain: So here's the problem: we get questions sent in every week about the topics in the title of the show, especially string theory. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Since this post about string theory, the message is that highdimensional quantum gravity is a very different problem. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Susskind agreed that such a convergence — between the “topdown” picture of string theory, which grew out of conventional highenergy physics, and a “bottomup” picture in terms of qubits at the Planck scale — was possible or even likely. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Therefore the energy is in agreement that astro acquired during the formation that the same will develop all its dynamics, orbit, phenomena and physical and chemical structure. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Brane World  an introduction to the latest ideas from string theory Quarks & Strings  an introduction to the duality between quarks and string theory Understanding Nothing  the physics of the vacuum.
.^ If it is then it means that the information must leak out after the black hole evaporates to the point that there is no longer an apparent horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Astrobiology Questions Show: Black black holes, Unbalancing the Earth, and Space Pollution Ep. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ The former is a likely consequence of string theory — maybe even confirmed for some kinds of black holes, although I am not sure — while the latter always seemed inelegant to me. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ It can be used to refer to both the particular elevendimensional theory which Witten first proposed, or it can be used to refer to a kind of Uber theory which looks in various limits like the various string theories.
^ Riemann surface theory is relevant to describing the behavior of strings as they move through spacetime.
^ I have the feeling that nonrenormalizability is not the only way to describe the diseases of string theory in dimensions other than 10 or 26. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ If it is then it means that the information must leak out after the black hole evaporates to the point that there is no longer an apparent horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Astrobiology Questions Show: Black black holes, Unbalancing the Earth, and Space Pollution Ep. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ MDT predicts the null vector for photons, as well as the  (minus) sign in the spacetime metric. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ And that information comes out of a black hole is generally accepted to be quite wellestablished now. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ If individual gravitons cannot be observed in any conceivable experiment, then they have no physical reality and we might as well consider them sonexistent. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ If it is then it means that the information must leak out after the black hole evaporates to the point that there is no longer an apparent horizon. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Besides this, as far as I know, nobody has ever computed the Hawking radiation for a black hole with an infalling object. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ I won’t feel like I have any handle on this quantumgravity business until I understand why the 2+1dimensional case is so different from the case of 3+1 and higher dimensions. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ With string theory you can throw in a bazillion different inputs and get an infinite number of outputs, it seems like. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
See also
References
 ^ Sunil Mukhi(1999)"The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction"
 ^ "NOVA  The elegant Universe"
 ^ Jim Holt, "Unstrung", The New Yorker, October 2, 2006
 ^ M. J. Duff, James T. Liu and R. Minasian Eleven Dimensional Origin of String/String Duality: A One Loop Test Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Texas A&M University
 ^ Polchinski, Joseph (1998). String Theory, Cambridge University Press.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} H. Nastase, The RHIC fireball as a dual black hole, BROWNHET1439, arXiv:hepth/0501068, January 2005,
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} H. Nastase, More on the RHIC fireball and dual black holes, BROWNHET1466, arXiv:hepth/0603176, March 2006,
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} H. Liu, K. Rajagopal, U. A. Wiedemann, An AdS/CFT Calculation of Screening in a Hot Wind, MITCTP3757, arXiv:hepph/0607062 July 2006,
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} H. Liu, K. Rajagopal, U. A. Wiedemann, Calculating the Jet Quenching Parameter from AdS/CFT, Phys.Rev.Lett.97:182301,2006 arXiv:hepph/0605178
 ^ Burt A. Ovrut (2006). "A Heterotic Standard Model". Fortschritte der Physik 54(23): 160–164.
 ^ S. James Gates, Jr., Ph.D., Superstring Theory: The DNA of Reality "Lecture 23  Can I Have that Extra Dimension in the Window?", 0:04:54, 0:21:00.
 ^ Simeon Hellerman and Ian Swanson(2006): "Dimensionchanging exact solutions of string theory".; Ofer Aharony and Eva Silverstein(2006):"[Supercritical stability, transitions and (pseudo)tachyons http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/hepth/pdf/0612/0612031v2.pdf]".
 ^ The calculation of the number of dimensions can be circumvented by adding a degree of freedom which compensates for the "missing" quantum fluctuations. However, this degree of freedom behaves similar to spacetime dimensions only in some aspects, and the produced theory is not Lorentz invariant, and has other characteristics which don't appear in nature. This is known as the linear dilaton or noncritical string.
 ^ "Quantum Geometry of Bosonic Strings – Revisited"
 ^ See, for example, T. Hübsch, "A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Superstring Jump Gates and Other Worlds", in Proc. SUSY 96 Conference, R. Mohapatra and A. Rasin (eds.), Nucl. Phys. (Proc. Supl.) 52A (1997) 347351
 ^ L. Randall and R. Sundrum, "An Alternative to compactification" Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 46904693
 ^ P. Aspinwall, D. Morrison and B. Greene, "CalabiYau moduli space, mirror manifolds and spacetime topology change in string theory", Nucl. Phys. B416 (1994) 414480
 ^ Aharony, O.; S.S. Gubser, J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri, Y. Oz (2000). "Large N Field Theories, String Theory and Gravity" (subscription required). Phys. Rept. 323: 183–386. doi:10.1016/S03701573(99)000836. http://arxiv.org/abs/hepth/9905111. . For other examples see: arXiv:hepth/9802042
 ^ Robbert Dijkgraaf,Erik Verlinde and Herman Verlinde(1997)"5D Black Holes and Matrix Strings"
 ^ Minoru Eto,Koji Hashimoto and Seiji Terashima(2007)"QCD String as Vortex String in SeibergDual Theory"
 ^ Harvey B.Meyer(2005)"Vortices on the worldsheet of the QCD string"
 ^ Koji Hashimoto(2007)"Cosmic Strings, ＱＣＤ Strings and Dbranes"
 ^ Piljin Yi(2007)"Story of baryons in a gravity dual of QCD"
 ^ For example: T. Sakai and S. Sugimoto, Low energy hadron physics in holographic QCD, Prog.Theor.Phys.113:843882,2005, arXiv:hepth/0412141, December 2004
 ^ See for example Recent Results of the MILC research program, taken from the MILC Collaboration homepage
 ^ David Gross, Perspectives, String Theory: Achievements and Perspectives  A conference
 ^ Peter Woit's Not Even Wrong weblog
 ^ Lee Smolin's The Trouble With Physics webpage
 ^ e.g. John Baez and responses on the group weblog The nCategory Cafe
 ^ John Baez weblog
 ^ Unstrung: The New Yorker
 ^ Elias Kiritsis(2007)"String Theory in a Nutshell"
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} S. Kachru, R. Kallosh, A. Linde and S. P. Trivedi, de Sitter Vacua in String Theory, Phys.Rev.D68:046005,2003, arXiv:hepth/0301240
 ^ P. Woit (Columbia University), String theory: An Evaluation,February 2001, arXiv:physics/0102051
 ^ P. Woit, Is String Theory Testable? INFN Rome March 2007
 ^ "string theory is the first science in hundreds of years to be pursued in preBaconian fashion, without any adequate experimental guidance", New York Times, 4 January 2005
 ^ "there ain't no experiment that could be done nor is there any observation that could be made that would say, `You guys are wrong.' The theory is safe, permanently safe" NOVA interview)
 ^ "String theory [is] yet to have any real successes in explaining or predicting anything measurable" New York Times, 8 November 2005)
 ^ see his Dialog on Quantum Gravity, arXiv:hepth/0310077)
 ^ J. Polchinski, String Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1998)
 ^ N. Comins, W. Kaufmann, Discovering the Universe: From the Stars to the Planets, W.H. Freeman & Co., p. 357 (2008)
 ^ N. ArkaniHamed, S. Dimopoulos and S. Kachru, Predictive Landscapes and New Physics at a TeV, arXiv:hepth/0501082, SLACPUB10928, HUTP05A0001, SUITP0444, January 2005
 ^ L. Susskind The Anthropic Landscape of String Theory, arXiv:hepth/0302219, February 2003
 ^ S. James Gates, Jr., Ph.D., Superstring Theory: The DNA of Reality "Lecture 21  Can 4D Forces (without Gravity) Love Strings?", 0:26:060:26:21, cf. 0:24:050:2624.
 ^ Idem, "Lecture 19  DoSeeDo and Swing your Superpartner Part II" 0:16:050:24:29.
 ^ Idem, Lecture 21, 0:20:100:21:20.
 ^ Dolen, Horn, Schmid "FiniteEnergy Sum Rules and Their Application to πN Charge Exchange" http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v166/i5/p1768_1
 ^ Banks, Fischler, Shenker and Susskind "M Theory As A Matrix Model: A Conjecture" http://arxiv.org/abs/hepth/9610043v3
Further reading
Popular books and articles
 Davies, Paul; Julian R. Brown (Eds.) (July 31 1992). Superstrings: A Theory of Everything? (Reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 244. ISBN 052143775X.
 Gefter, Amanda (December 2005). .^ Nowhere does String Theory nor Loop Quantum Gravity resolve the paradox of Godel's Block Universe which troubled Einstein.
 Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
New Scientist. ..^ Nowhere does String Theory nor Loop Quantum Gravity resolve the paradox of Godel's Block Universe which troubled Einstein. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It's entitled "The Universe on a String" and be found here: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/20/opinion/20greenehed.html?ex=1162008000&en=d9502612fdbdf34a&ei=5065&partner=MYWAY I've read a couple of Dr. Greens' books on string theory and have found it a very fascinating (if terribly complex) subject. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ ECE Theory: http://www.aias.us and http://www.atomicprecision.com Prove Cartan Geometry wrong! String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
.. – An interview with Leonard Susskind, the theoretical physicist who discovered that string theory is based on onedimensional objects and now is promoting the idea of multiple universes.
 Green, Michael (September 1986).^ It concerns string theory, the universe and God.
 String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Now, one of the things that I think goes along with string theory, is talk about multiple dimensions . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Fraser: Isn't that one of the thoughts that (it goes back to string theory), that gravity is so weak because it is moving between multiple dimensions? Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
"Superstrings". Scientific American. http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/mbg15/superstrings/superstrings.html. ..
 Greene, Brian (October 20 2003).^ Posted by: ttyler5 at October 20, 2006 01:19 AM .
 String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Einstein Was Right (Again): ► 2005 (270) ► December (31) ► November (24) ► October (31) ► September (22) ► August (19) ► July (14) ► June (21) ► May (20) ► April (17) ► March (21) ► February (20) ► January (30) ► 2004 (84) ► December (30) ► November (54) .
.^ String theory and its 11 dimensions predict that something on the order of 10 (to the 500th power) "pocket universes" exist. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
^ Flat space string theories are 26dimensional in the bosonic case, while superstring and Mtheories turn out to involve 10 or 11 dimensions for flat solutions. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ MDT & Brian Greene?s Elegant Universe In An Elegant Universe, Brian Greene almost characterizes the reality of Moving Dimensions Theory, but falls just short. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
). New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 464. ISBN 0393058581.
 Greene, Brian (2004). .^ This property gives rise to the concept of mass, as to exist in the spatial dimension curves the fabric of spacetime about the existence.
 Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Page 123 , The Fabric of the Cosmo , by Brian Greene Does gravity vary over time ?
^ Like it or not Stan, reality is just as relative as time, space and probably everything else. String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 569. ISBN 0375412883.
 Gribbin, John (1998). .^ The Search for the Theory of Everything Student Questions Show: Leelanau School Ep.
 Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
London: Little Brown and Company. pp. 224. ISBN 0316329754.
 Halpern, Paul (2004). .^ But pursuers of this "theory of everything" have wandered into fantasy realms of higher dimensions with little or no empirical connection to our reality.
^ Multiple dimensions gets you into a slightly different picture though, where everything is chewing forward in the same universe. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ MDT would underly all apsects of String Theory, and MDT does explain an interpretation of higher, numerous dimensions, if needed by Kaluza Klein et al. Math Forum Discussions 20 September 2009 22:36 UTC mathforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 326. ISBN 047146595X.
 Hooper, Dan (2006). .^ While I had thought these relevant to Dark energy creation in our Cosmo, I did not point directly to the nature of these strangelets gathering at the center of our planet.
^ If held to current technologies and pre producable themes held in context of our cosmo, can we take such levels of dark energy production to be from the cause of strange quark productions?
^ This number tells you how quickly the dark energy density changes as the universe expands; if w=1, the density is strictly constant, if w> 1, the density decreases, and if w <1, the density actually increases with time.
New York: HarperCollins. pp. 240. ISBN 9780061130328.
 Kaku, Michio (April 1994). .^ Transcript: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang .
 Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ It starts off with the premise that our Universe doesn't exist just in the three spatial dimensions we experience, and time, but rather it has other dimensions as well. Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang . Astronomy Cast  Ep. 31: String Theory, Time Travel, White Holes, Warp Speed, Multiple Dimensions, and Before the Big Bang 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 384. ISBN 0195085140.
 Klebanov, Igor and Maldacena, Juan (January 2009). .^ In our view, the connection between quantum system engineering and string theory conceptually resembles the connection between Green functions and field theory (see, e.g.
 ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ But even in quantum field theory in nonlinear coordinates, particle number is observerdependent, because the coordinate change alters the dividing line between virtual and nonvirtual particles. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Do Blackholes Radiate The prediction that black holes radiate due to quantum effects is often considered one of the most secure in quantum field theory in curved spacetime.
Physics Today.
 Musser, George (2008). .^ The Complete Idiot's Guide to Christianity .
 String Theory, the Universe and God. Bear with me.  SciGuy  Chron.com  Houston Chronicle 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]
Indianapolis: Alpha. pp. 368. ISBN 9781592577026.
 Randall, Lisa (September 1 2005). Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe's Hidden Dimensions. New York: Ecco Press. pp. 512. .
 Susskind, Leonard (December 2006).^ This entry was posted on Thursday, December 21st, 2006 at 8:06 am and is filed under Adventures in Meatspace , Complexity , Quantum .
 ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Lee Smolin Says: Comment #54 December 23rd, 2006 at 10:06 pm Dear Moshe, . ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ John Preskill Says: Comment #4 December 21st, 2006 at 3:20 pm I know from experience that arguing with Lenny Susskind can be extraordinarily enlightening. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Posted by Plato at Sunday, January 29, 2006 0 Dialogos of Eide Labels: Cosmic Strings , Gravity , Nothing , Particles , Quantum Gravity , Quarks , String Theory Links to this post .
New York: Hachette Book Group/Back Bay Books. pp. 403. ISBN 0316013331.
 Taubes, Gary (November 1986). "Everything's Now Tied to Strings" Discover Magazine vol 7, #11. (Popular article, probably the first ever written, on the first superstring revolution.)
 Vilenkin, Alex (2006). .^ But like anything, there are so many maths in which to talk about the world in such an abstract way, one wonders if they are actually talking about reality?
^ One model leads to a finite universe, the other leads to an infinite universe. ShtetlOptimized » Blog Archive » Mercenary in the String Wars 28 January 2010 0:56 UTC scottaaronson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
New York: Hill and Wang. pp. 235. ISBN 0809095238.
 Witten, Edward (June 2002). "The Universe on a String" (PDF). Astronomy Magazine. http://www.sns.ias.edu/~witten/papers/string.pdf. Retrieved December 19, 2005. – An easy nontechnical article on the very basics of the theory.
Two nontechnical books that are critical of string theory:
.