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Coal strip mine in Wyoming

Surface mining is a type of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed. It is the opposite of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral removed through shafts or tunnels.

Surface mining is used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rock are found near the surface; that is, where the overburden is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunneling (as would usually be the case for sand, cinder, and gravel). Where minerals occur deep below the surface—where the overburden is thick or the mineral occurs as veins in hard rock— underground mining methods are used to extract the valued material. Surface mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral deposit is exhausted, or the cost of removing larger volumes of overburden makes further mining uneconomic.

In most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment, such as earthmovers, first remove the overburden. Next, huge machines, such as dragline excavators or Bucket wheel excavators, extract the mineral.

Contents

Types of surface mining

There are five main forms of surface mining, detailed below.

Strip mining

"Strip mining" is the practice of mining a seam of mineral by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock (the overburden). It is most commonly used to mine coal or tar sand. Strip mining is only practical when the ore body to be excavated is relatively near the surface. This type of mining uses some of the largest machines on earth, including bucket-wheel excavators which can move as much as 12,000 cubic meters of earth per hour.

There are two forms of strip mining. The more common method is "area stripping", which is used on fairly flat terrain, to extract deposits over a large area. As each long strip is excavated, the overburden is placed in the excavation produced by the previous strip.

"Contour stripping" involves removing the overburden above the mineral seam near the outcrop in hilly terrain, where the mineral outcrop usually follows the contour of the land. Contour stripping is often followed by auger mining into the hillside, to remove more of the mineral. This method commonly leaves behind terraces in mountainsides.

Among others, strip mining is used to extract the oil-impregnated sand in the Athabasca Tar Sands in Alberta. It is also common in coal mining. Bucket-wheel excavators are widely used for this purpose, however, they are prone to damage and require many millions of dollars to repair.

Open-pit mining

The El Chino mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine.

"Open-pit mining" refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. Although open-pit mining is sometimes mistakenly referred to as "strip mining", the two methods are different (see above).

Mountaintop removal

"Mountaintop removal mining" (MTR) is a form of coal mining that uses explosives to blast "overburden" off the top of some Appalachian mountains. Excess mining waste or "overburden" is dumped by large trucks into fills in nearby holler or valley fills. MTR involves the mass restructuring of earth in order to reach the coal seam as deep as 400 feet (120 m) below the surface. Mountaintop removal replaces previously steep forested topography with government approved post mining reclamation land uses. Economic development attempts on reclaimed mine sites include prisons such the Big Sandy Federal Penitentiary in Martin County, Kentucky, small town airports, golf courses such as Twisted Gun in Mingo County, West Virginia and Stonecrest Golf Course in Floyd County, Kentucky, as well as industrial scrubber sludge disposal sites, solid waste landfills, trailer parks, explosive manufacturers, and storage rental lockers.[1]

The technique has been used increasingly in recent years in the Appalachian coal fields of West Virginia, Kentucky, Virginia and Tennessee in the United States. The profound changes in topography and disturbance of pre-existing ecosystems have made mountaintop removal highly controversial.

Advocates of mountaintop removal point out that once the areas are reclaimed as mandated by law, the technique provides premium flat land suitable for many uses in a region where flat land is at a premium. They also maintain that the new growth on reclaimed mountaintop mined areas is better able to support populations of game animals.[2]

Critics contend that mountaintop removal is a disastrous practice that benefits a small number of corporations at the expense of local communities and the environment. A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) environmental impact statement finds that streams near valley fills sometimes may contain higher levels of minerals in the water and decreased aquatic biodiversity.[3] The statement also estimates that 724 miles (1,165 km) of Appalachian streams were buried by valley fills from 1985 to 2001.[3]

Blasting at a mountaintop removal mine expels dust and fly-rock into the air, which can then disturb or settle onto private property nearby. This dust may contains sulfur compounds, which some claim corrode structures and tombstones and is a health hazard.[4]

Although MTR sites are required to be reclaimed after mining is complete, reclamation has traditionally focused on stabilizing rock and controlling erosion, but not always on reforesting the area.[5] Quick-growing, non-native grasses, planted to quickly provide vegetation on a site, compete with tree seedlings, and trees have difficulty establishing root systems in compacted backfill.[3] Consequently, biodiversity suffers in a region of the United States with numerous endemic species.[6] Erosion also increases, which can intensify flooding. In the Eastern United States, the Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative works to promote the use of trees in mining reclamation.[7]

Dredging

"Dredging" is a method often used to bring up underwater mineral deposits. Although dredging is usually employed to clear or enlarge waterways for boats, it can also recover significant amounts of underwater minerals relatively efficiently and cheaply.

Highwall mining

Highwall mining is another form of surface mining that evolved from auger mining. In highwall mining, the coal seam is penetrated by a continuous miner propelled by a hydraulic Pushbeam Transfer Mechanism (PTM). A typical cycle includes sumping (pushing forward) and shearing (raising or lowering the cutterhead boom to cut the entire height of the coal seam). As the coal recovery cycle continues, the cutterhead is progressively pushed into the coal seam for 20 feet (6.1 m). Then, the Pushbeam Transfer Mechanism (PTM) automatically inserts a 20-foot (6.1 m) long rectangular pushbeam into the center section of the machine between the powerhead and the cutterhead. The pushbeams system can penetrate nearly 1,000 feet (300 m) into the coal seam. Some highwall mining systems use augers enclosed inside the pushbeams that prevent the mined coal from being contaminated by rock debris during the conveyance process. Using a video imaging and/or a gamma detector, the operator can see and guide the continuous miner's progress. Highwall mining can produce thousands of tons of coal in contour-strip operations with narrow benches, previously mined areas, or trench mine applications.

Recovery is much better than augering, but the mapping of areas that have been developed by a highwall miner are not mapped as rigorously as deep mined areas. Very little spoil is displaced in contrast with mountain top removal, however a large amount of capital is required to operate and own a highwall miner.

Mapping of the outcrop as well as core hole data and samples taken during the bench making process are taken into account to best project the panels that the highwall miner will cut. Obstacles that could be potentially damaged by subsidence and the natural contour of the Highwall are taken into account, and a surveyor points the Highwall miner in a line mostly perpendicular to the highwall. Parallel lines represent the panels cut into the mountain (up to 1,000 feet (300 m) deep), because changing the azimuth during mining results in missing a portion of the coal seam. Recently highwall miners have penetrated more than 1050 feet into the coal seam, and today's models are capable of going farther, limited only by the amount of cable on the machine. The maximum depth would be determined by the stress of further penetration and associated power draw.

Environmental and health issues

The large impact of surface mining on the topography, vegetation, and water resources has made it highly controversial.

Surface mining is subject to state and federal reclamation requirements, but adequacy of the requirements is a constant source of contention. Unless reclaimed, surface mining can leave behind large areas of infertile waste rock, as 70% of material excavated is waste.[citation needed]

In the United States, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 mandates reclamation of surface coal mines. Reclamation for non-coal mines is regulated by state and local laws, which may vary widely.

Human health

The United Mine Workers of America has spoken against the use of human sewage sludge to reclaim surface mining sites in Appalachia. The UMWA launched its campaign against the use of sludge on mine sites in 1999 after eight UMWA workers became ill from exposure to Class B sludge spread near their workplace.[8]

On August 20, 2004 at 2:30 a.m. a boulder accidentally pushed off an A&G Coal surface mine above the town of Inman, Virginia rolled 649 feet (198 m) down the mountain and into a home. Three-year-old Jeremy Davidson was crushed in his bed while he slept. The Davidson family settled with A&G Coal for $3 million in 2006, and left the region.[9]

Environmental impact

According to a 2010 report in the journal Science, mountaintop mining has caused numerous environmental problems which mitigation practices have not successfully addressed. For example, valley fills frequently bury headwater streams causing permanent loss of ecosystems. In addition, the destruction of large tracts of deciduous forests has threatened several endangered species and led to a loss of biodiversity.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.kentuckycoal.org/index.cfm?pageToken=gallery
  2. ^ J.S. Gardner and P Sainato, Mountaintop mining and sustainable development in Appalachia, Mining Engineering, March 2007, p.48-55.
  3. ^ a b c U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2005-10-25). "Mountaintop Mining/Valley Fills in Appalachia: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement". http://www.epa.gov/region03/mtntop/index.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  4. ^ Jessica Tzerman (2006-08-03). "Blast Rites". Grist. http://www.grist.org/news/maindish/2006/08/03/tzerman/. Retrieved 2006-09-04. 
  5. ^ "Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Forest Reclamation Advisory" (PDF). Office of Surface Mining and Reclamation. http://arri.osmre.gov/PDFs/Pubs/FRA_No.1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  6. ^ "Biology: Plants, Animals, & Habitats - We live in a hot spot of biodiversity". Apalachicola Region Resources on the Web. http://www.fnai.org/ARROW/almanac/biology/biology_index.cfm. Retrieved 2006-09-18. 
  7. ^ "Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative". http://arri.osmre.gov/. Retrieved 2006-09-05. 
  8. ^ http://www.unitedmountaindefense.org/2006Defender.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.roanoke.com/news/nrv/wb/81731
  10. ^ M.A. Palmer et al. Mountaintop Mining Consequences, Science, 8 January 2010, Vol. 327, p. 148.

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