# Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Structure article)

### From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Structure is a fundamental and sometimes intangible notion covering the recognition, observation, nature, and stability of patterns and relationships of entities. .From a child's verbal description of a snowflake, to the detailed scientific analysis of the properties of magnetic fields, the concept of structure is an essential foundation of nearly every mode of inquiry and discovery in science, philosophy, and art.^ Lecture: 3.00 College: Arts & Sciences Department: Physics PHY 112 - Physical Science Survey Credits: 3.00 A broad descriptive course in Physical Science.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lecture: 3.00 College: Arts & Sciences Department: Physics PHY 115W - Physical Science:Energy Credits: 3.00 An introductory course in the scientific, technological and social aspects of Energy.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lecture: 3.00 College: Arts & Sciences Department: Psychology PSY 260 - Research Methods Credits: 4.00 This course will present the scientific method within the context of applied psychology.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1]
A structure defines what a system is made of. It is a configuration of items. It is a collection of inter-related components or services. .The structure may be a hierarchy (a cascade of one-to-many relationships) or a network featuring many-to-many relationships.^ One of the many subliminal messages suggested by the above exposition is that, just as the sanctuary structure resembles a human body, so the human body should become a sanctuary, treated and respected as such.
• The Human Body 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bacterial electron transport chains may contain as many as three proton pumps, like mitochondria, or they may contain only one or two.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

## Types of structure

### Biological structure

.In biology, structures exist at all levels of organization, ranging hierarchically from the atomic and molecular to the cellular, tissue, organ, organismic, population and ecosystem level.^ (Prereq: ABIO 370, statistics) Interactions between organisms and the environment; ecosystem structure and function; sampling techniques and data analysis.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Explores how molecular biology, structural biology, and modern enzymology have revolutionized understanding of selective drug action and development of new therapies.

^ It explores the comparative, experimental and evolutionary aspects of all vertebrate classes and surveys the impact of recent advances in cellular and molecular biology on this branch of the biological sciences.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

Usually, a higher-level structure is composed of multiple copies of a lower-level structure.

### Chemical structure

.Chemistry is the science treating matter at the atomic to macromolecular scale, the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying energy and entropy changes during these processes.^ Since this process consumes much energy, there are many well-developed mitochondria in the bouton, or terminal bulb.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During the process of cell division, this chromatin material aggregates so that it may be identified as one of the 46 individual chromosomes found in each human cell (diploid condition).
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At USCA, a student can complete these entrance requirements and at the same time receive a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in Biology or Chemistry.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

The chemical structure refers to both molecular geometry and to electronic structure. .The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphical representation of the molecular structure showing how the atoms are arranged.^ Explores how molecular biology, structural biology, and modern enzymology have revolutionized understanding of selective drug action and development of new therapies.

^ A few examples are: Organic reactions encompass several different kinds of reactions involving compounds which have carbon as the main element in their molecular structure.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

.A protein structure is the three dimensional coordinates of the atoms within (macro) molecules made of protein.^ Within the nucleus is the chromatin material, made up of the protein deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Proteins form the bulk of cell structure and most functional molecules.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The three-dimensional "fit" between the variable segments of the antibody molecule and the corresponding antigenic determinant site is referred to as the: Your Answer: antibody-antigen complex -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

### Built structure

.A structure usually refers to any large, man-made object permanently fixed to Earth's surface or in its orbit, as a result of construction.^ The technical subject matter will be concerned as much with natural processes as with their products-the minerals, rocks, fossils, structure and surface forms of the earth.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These are divided into buildings and nonbuilding structures, and make up the infrastructure of a human society.^ The technologists are making great strides in their area but what are the lawyers, politicians, philosophers, and psychologists doing to prepare humanity for these innovations?
• Human Body Version 2.0 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.kurzweilai.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small flaps of mucosa cover these openings and act as valves that allow urine to enter the bladder but prevent it from backing up from the bladder into the ureters.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This building up, tearing down, and rebuilding are continuous processes throughout the life of the individual human being.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

There are also animal-built structures, such as anthills and beaver dams.
Structures built by humans are broadly divided into categories because of their varying design approaches and standards:
• Residential buildings
• Commercial buildings and complexes
• Industrial buildings, sites and installations
• Civil constructions
• Network infrastructure constructions

### Musical composition

.Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time.^ This course will consider the development of drama as a popular art form reflecting gender issues of its time.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

The term musical form, a type of structure, refers to two related concepts:
.
• the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type)
• the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in binary form, sonata form, as a fugue, etc.^ In many glands the number of branches is limited, in others (salivary, pancreas) a very large structure is finally formed by repeated growth and sub-division.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Included will be the issues of syntax and semantics, data types, control structures, binding, etc.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The other type, heterochromatin, is the more compact form, and contains DNA that are infrequently transcribed.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

)

### Social structure

.A social structure is a pattern of relations.^ Subsistence patterns, social organization, economic structures, political systems, religion and creative behavior are the major areas we cover.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They are social organizations of individuals in various life situations.^ A system is an organization of varying numbers and kinds of organs so arranged that together they can perform complex functions for the body.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

.Structures are applicable to people in how a society is as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships.^ The course provides the student with an understanding and overview of how the American legal system functions including introducing students to the principles of law, the administration of the legal system, legal terminology, and the inter- relationship between politics, governmental structures, legal professionals and the functioning of the legal system.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The organizational structure and integration of human systems are stressed.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsistence patterns, social organization, economic structures, political systems, religion and creative behavior are the major areas we cover.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

This is known as the social organization of the group. .Sociologists have studied the changing structure of these groups.^ The PASCAL language will be used to support the study of these structures.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

Structure and agency is the two confronted theories about human behaviour. .The debate surrounding the influence of structure and agency on human thought and behaviour is one of the central issues in sociology.^ One of the many subliminal messages suggested by the above exposition is that, just as the sanctuary structure resembles a human body, so the human body should become a sanctuary, treated and respected as such.
• The Human Body 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

In this context "agency" refers to the capacity of individual humans to act independently and to make their own free choices. ."Structure" here refers to those factors such as social class, religion, gender, ethnicity, customs etc.^ Particular attention given to how gender, race, ethnicity, and class interaction affects the formation of the diverse cultural experience of the U.S. Latino.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lecture: 3.00 College: Arts & Sciences Department: Sociology/Anthropology SOC 228 - Society & Health Credits: 3.00 This course is a comparative and cross-cultural examination of the meaning and experience of health and illness and the ways in which social factors like age, gender, class and ethnicity affect health.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsistence patterns, social organization, economic structures, political systems, religion and creative behavior are the major areas we cover.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

which seem to limit or influence the opportunities that individuals have.

### Data structure

.In computer science, a data structure is a way of storing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently.^ Lecture: 3.00 College: Business Department: Mathematics Pre-requisites: CMP 125 Minimum Grade: D CMP 200 - Discrete Structures Credits: 3.00 A course dealing with data and mathematical structures commonly used in the organization and manipulation of information by computers.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Advanced Placement Advanced Placement Examinations may be used to gain credit and advanced placement in calculus and computer science.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rigorous development of algorithms and computer programs; elementary data structures.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Often a carefully chosen data structure will allow the most efficient algorithm to be used.^ ACSC 220 Data Structures and Algorithms.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A high-level structured programming language, such as C, using both static and dynamic storage concepts, will be used in exploring and developing these algorithms.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rigorous development of algorithms and computer programs; elementary data structures.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The choice of the data structure often begins from the choice of an abstract data type.^ Concepts of data typing, structured programming, procedural abstraction and program testing are presented in the context of a high-level programming language.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Abstract data types: lists, stacks, queues, sets, treed graphs.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS Synovial joints are often referred to by their geometric or mechanical structure.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

.A well-designed data structure allows a variety of critical operations to be performed, using as few resources, both execution time and memory space, as possible.^ (Prereq: ACSC 220) The study of concepts and techniques used in designing and implementing data communications systems.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Topics covered will include planning, analysis, designing, and developing well-organized Web sites that combine effective navigation with the use of graphics, text, and color.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Included are complex aircraft operations, flight at critically slow airspeeds, maximum performance maneuvers, emergency operations and other maneuvers required for the commercial certificate.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Data structures are implemented in a programming language as data types and the references (eg.^ ACSC 330 Programming Language Structures.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Concepts of data typing, structured programming, procedural abstraction and program testing are presented in the context of a high-level programming language.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lecture: 3.00 College: Arts & Sciences Department: Mathematics Pre-requisites: MTH 252 Minimum Grade: D and MTH 245 Minimum Grade: D CMP 227 - Data Structures Credits: 3.00 The representation and implementation of complex data program types and their applications to programming problems and program design.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

relationships, links and pointers) and operations that are possible with them.
Structures are not only represented in the memory space allocated to a program. They are also embedded in relational database designs. .These are referred to as Structure Tables.^ These structures are known as the integumentary derivatives, sometimes referred to as "appendages."
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These structures are referred to as the integumentary derivatives or "appendages."
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are a generic way of storing the data of tree information, often found in modern commercial planning and On-line Analytical Processing software products.^ State of-the-art computers and software will be used to generate and analyze process control charts and histograms, plus continuous variables, and attribute control charts.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Overview of engineering and business processes, concepts in enterprise resource planning and integration, and software applications for such functions as manufacturing, product life cycle management, and supply chain management will form the key topics.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Functions in cells ATP is generated in the cell by energy-releasing processes and is broken down by energy-consuming processes, in this way ATP transfers energy between spatially-separate metabolic reactions.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

(eg. Arthur planning system, the Merchandise Planning System from I2, Pyramid, and Cubes from Microsoft and Oracle.) .In the structure of these products, Variable Measures are stored at the intersections of Member objects found in the Levels of tree Hierarchies of multiple Dimensions.^ This course will examine the various levels and types of software and information systems required by an organization to integrate these functions.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A high-level structured programming language, such as C, using both static and dynamic storage concepts, will be used in exploring and developing these algorithms.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These notions include: structured programming, procedures, recursion, linked lists and dynamic variables as applied to the PASCAL data structures.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

User Defined Attributes can be associated with the members in a dimension. This allows dynamic analysis and aggregation at desired level of the data. These meta data structure tables could be named as follows:
Table Name Key Columns Data Columns Comment
DIMENSION DIM_NO DESCRIPTION A single Dimension has Members in Levels arranged into Hierarchies
MEMBER DIM_NO, MEM_NO DESCRIPTION Has User Defined Attributes and belongs to a Dimension; has (Parent, Ancestor, Child, Descendant) Members unless it is the single top Member or a bottom Level Member. Members are unique in a dimension.
LEVEL DIM_NO, LEV_NO DESCRIPTION Belongs to one Hierarchy or more; has (Parent, Ancestor, Child, Descendant) Levels in a Dimension. Levels are unique in a dimension.
HIERARCHY ( Hierarchy ) DIM_NO, HIER_NO DESCRIPTION Multiple Hierarchies belong to a single Dimension and can have Convergent Levels (ie. that are the same in each Hierarchy) of one Dimension.Hierarchies are unique in a dimension.
LEVEL_RELATIONSHIP DIM_NO, HIER_NO, PARENT_LEV, CHILD_LEV ~ A pair of adjacent Levels in a Hierarchy of a Dimension. No level may have more than one child in the same Hierarchy of a Dimension. Relationships are unique in a Hierarchy of a Dimension.
MEMBER_RELATIONSHIP DIM_NO, HIER_NO, PARENT_MEM, CHILD_MEM ~ Relationship is a pair of adjacent Members from adjacent Levels in a Hierarchy of a Dimension. No Member may share a Child with another Member in the same Hierarchy of a Dimension. Relationships are unique in a Hierarchy of a Dimension.
ATTRIBUTE DIM_NO, LEV_NO, ATTRIBUTE DESCRIPTION An Attribute is attached to a Level of a Dimension. Attributes are unique in a Level of a Dimension.
ATTRIBUTE_VALUES DIM_NO, MEM_NO, ATTRIBUTE ATTRIBUTE_VALUE Attribute-values are attached to a Member of a Dimension.
MEASURE MEASURE DESCRIPTION Measures are unique and represent empirical data which can be used as input to derive other data via functions.
CUBE_DEFINITION DIM_1, ... ..., DIM_n, DIM_1_TOP_MEM, ... ..., DIM_n_TOP_MEM, DIM_1_BOT_LEV, ... ..., DIM_n_BOT_LEV DESCRIPTION Cubes may represent any sub-section of intersections between any Dimensions
CUBE_1, ... DIM_1,... ...DIM_n, DIM_1_MEMBER, ... ..., DIM_n_MEMBER MEASURE_1, ... ..., MEASURE_n A cube is a collection of Variable-Measure-Values stored on the Key of the intersection of the Dimensions it represents.
..., CUBE_n DIM_1, ... ..., DIM_n, MEMBER_1, ... ..., MEMBER_n MEASURE_1, ... ..., MEASURE_n A cube is a collection of Variable-Measure-Values stored on the Key of the intersection of the Dimensions it represents.
.A great advantage of storing the structures and measures data in a relational database, is that it can quickly and easily be maintained by writing programs in the native SQL and SQL extension protocol/language of the native database by maintenance programmers.^ Concepts of data typing, structured programming, procedural abstraction and program testing are presented in the context of a high-level programming language.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These notions include: structured programming, procedures, recursion, linked lists and dynamic variables as applied to the PASCAL data structures.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rigorous development of algorithms and computer programs; elementary data structures.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Since these tools are easy to use and there is an ANSI standard for the SQL, database portability can also be facilitated.^ These topics will then be explored through laboratory assignements using a RDBMS such as Oracle or SQL server.
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^ Students will be introduced to a browser, such as Netscape navigator and be given the opportunity to explore the World Wide Web, use E-Mail and search for Information using these tools.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of cost data and procedures under job order, process cost, and standard cost accounting systems as a tool of management.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

An API can be developed to support navigation of the Structures and Cubes. Structure functions probably required are as follows: First_dimension() Next_dimension() Dimension_name() First_hierarchy() Next_hierarchy() Hierarchy_name() Top_level() Next_level() Bottom_level() Parent_level() Child_level() Top_member() Parent_member() First_child_member() Next_child_member() Ancestor_member_in_level() Descendant_member_in_level() First_peer_member() Next_peer_member() First_attribute_of_member() Next_attribute_of_member() etc. Cube functions probably required are as follows: Value_of_member_at() Sum_of_children_of_member() Sum_of_children_of_member_in_dimension() Contribution_of_member() Portion_of_parent_member() etc.

## References

1. ^ Pullan, Wendy (2000). Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521782589.

# Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

## Lecture

.Structural engineering relies heavily on the strengths of materials and their ability to withstand forces of tension, compression & shear.^ Lecture: 2.00 Lab: 2.00 College: Engineering Technologies Department: Mechanical Engineering Tech MET 206 - Strength of Materials Credits: .00 or 4.00 This is a basic course in Strength of Materials.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Topics include classifications, structure, properties, phase transformation and heat treatment of metals, inspection and testing techniques of automotive engineering materials.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The course material builds on the student's previous experience in computer graphics and strength of materials and introduces them to the modern concepts of concurrent engineering and design for manufacturability.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When used in conjunction with each other, as in the case of a truss, individual load bearing members both share and transmit loads, enabling the structure to accomplish much more than any individual member could alone.^ There is much more that could be done.
• PLoS Medicine: Worldmapper: The Human Anatomy of a Small Planet 11 January 2010 6:13 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E-mail has traditionally been a plain-text medium, ever since it was introduced on the ARPAnet in the 1970s (and possibly even earlier than that on individual time-sharing mainframe computers).
• Dan's Mail Format Site | Body | HTML Mail 11 September 2009 11:31 UTC mailformat.dan.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many research studies have shown that abdominal fat deposition is much more dangerous than fat in the leg and butt area.
• Determining the Best Workout for Your Body Type - For Dummies 11 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: General]

### Plane Trusses

.One way of distributing the force across a large distance is by building a Plane Truss, which takes advantage of the principle of Equilibrium to translate forces along a system of interconnecting members.^ If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.
• File:Human anatomy planes-HR.svg - Wikimedia Commons 11 January 2010 6:13 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Topics such as resultant of a force, equilibrium of forces, moments, couples, analysis of simple trusses, centroids, center of gravity, moments of inertia and friction are covered in this course.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How to Increase Blood Circulation with Systemic Enzymes Taking Systemic enzymes is one of the alternative ways to increase blood circulation.
• Human Body Systems 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

A Warren Truss
A Pratt Truss
A Simple Triangle Truss

A simplest truss is a triangle made of three points: A, B and C, and three members: AB, BC and CA. .The method of distributing forces amongst many members relies on the engineer's ability to place a tensile or compressive force at any particular location.^ The search engine at its website can locate information about clinical trials and fact sheets about many of the diseases and conditions described in this encyclopedia.
• The Human Body: Systems Working Together - What Is a System?, Health and Wellness, How One Cell Makes Five Trillion, From Cells to Organ Systems, The Body in Balance 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyaluronic acid in the extracellular space confers upon tissues the ability to resist compression by providing a counteracting turgor (swelling) force by absorbing alot of water.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

.To properly sum forces at a particular point, one must be able to sum forces into that point and also away from it.^ If all the muscles in an average body were made into one muscle , it could produce about 2,000 tons force.
• The Bible UFO Connection - The Incredible Human Body Part 2 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.bibleufo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Fahrenheit divided each degree into four parts, so that the upper point became 90 degrees and the lower one 30 degrees.
• Temperature of a Healthy Human (Body Temperature) 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC hypertextbook.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At this point, the atrium contracts, causing an additional volume of blood to be forced into the ventricle, increasing the pressure in the ventricle, which "helps" close the valve between the atrium and ventricle, just before the ventricle contracts.

Thus, AB and AC are in compression while BC is in tension.

### Method of Joints

.The principle of equilibrium may be used to solve the loads impinging upon a massless truss by analyzing the effect of each load at a single point on the truss.^ Demonstrated critical thinking skills in gathering, analyzing, interpreting facts, and problem solving using scientific inquiry.

^ Physical and biological aspects of the use of ionizing radiation in industrial and academic institutions; physical principles underlying shielding and instrumentation; waste disposal; and biological effects of low levels of ionizing radiation.

^ Computer assisted oral presentation using software such as Microsoft Power Point may be included.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Each load is broken down into its $\ x$ and $\ y$ component vectors and these are summed to equal zero at a particular point on the truss (e.g.^ By wavelike contractions, these muscles force the bolus down into the beginning of the esophagus.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In protein catabolism, proteins are broken down by protease enzymes into their constituent amino acids.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MASTICATION During the process known as mastication (chewing), the food particles are gradually broken down into smaller and smaller pieces.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

A). .Similarly, each load creates a moment rotating about that same point A and these may also be summed together to equal zero.^ Audience members may rotate around the room together to see and hear a variety of student-produced books.
• Daily Lesson Plan 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is why the golden Altar that burned the incense was at the central point in the Temple ; it is the same reason that the nose is the predominant feature of the face and the face is the stamp of the Creator.
• The Human Body 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ May I add one additional word about these four support ministries, these specialized gifts?
• What is your Gift? 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.raystedman.org [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore, given enough information about the loads applied, any of the other loads may be calculated.^ It is therefore apt to wear out early—in some people at age 45; in others it may last until the age of 90.

^ It should contain loads of information about your topic - i.e.

^ Students are strongly encouraged to apply to more than one pharmacy school and therefore may want to bring the list of required courses from those other schools with them to their first meeting with their advisor.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, the Method of Joints may also be applied to a truss joint to determine the force (compressive or tensile) in each member of the truss.^ The method goes through the whole chain from the end-effector to the base and sets the corresponding joint values based on the force vector.
• Simulation of Human Body Kinematics 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.cescg.org [Source type: Academic]

.A place where the forces and members meet may become the joint to be examined (A), and the principle of equilibrium is applied, thus solving the question of where the forces are transmitted in that truss around that joint.^ Audience members may rotate around the room together to see and hear a variety of student-produced books.
• Daily Lesson Plan 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Topics such as resultant of a force, equilibrium of forces, moments, couples, analysis of simple trusses, centroids, center of gravity, moments of inertia and friction are covered in this course.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It henceforward becomes the meeting place ( ohel moed ) of heaven and earth.
• The Human Body 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

Example:
Consider a truss bridge under loads $\vec F_1$, $\vec F_2$ and $\vec F_L$. What are the forces in each of the members of the loaded truss, under the loads applied?
Assume that $\vec F_1 = 3N$, $\vec F_2 = 7N$ and $\vec F_L = 11N$. Also assume that each member AB, CE etc. is $\ 5$ meters long and that $\vec F_L$ is $\frac{2}{3}L$ from $\vec R_1$.

Solution:
First we must solve the external forces on the truss completely. We do so by analyzing the free body diagram. Equilibrium dictates that $\sum \vec F = 0$ and $\sum \vec M = 0$.
First we sum the moments about a particular point. In this case, let's use A:
$\sum \vec M_A \ = \vec F_1*2L + \vec F_2*3L + \vec F_L*\frac{8L}{3} - \vec R_2*4L = 0$
Or...
$\sum \vec M_A \ = 3N*10m + 7N*15m + 11N*\frac{8*5m}{3} - \vec R_2*20 = 0$
$\vec R_2 = 14.1 N$.

We may sum the forces around an arbitrary point A. .There are no $\ x$ components of the force vectors, so $\sum \vec F_x \ = 0$.^ Where there is no hair (glabrous condition), the outer dead squamous cells rub off to reduce frictional forces.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During telophase, when the two daughter nuclei are formed, there is no RNA Pol II transcription so the protein components instead form a perinucleolar cap.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

$\sum \vec F_{yA} \ = \vec R_1 + \vec R_2 - \vec F_1 - \vec F_2 - \vec F_L = 0$.
Or...
$\sum \vec F_{yA} \ = \vec R_1 + 14.1N - 3N - 7N - 11N = 0$ and...
$\vec R_1 = 6.9N$

.Secondly, we may begin to solve for the internal forces within each member by summing the forces around point A at the location of $\vec R_1$.^ Located at this point within the tendon is the patella.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, within the upper and lower members, the deep veins are generally located adjacent to the major arteries.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, selected faculty located within area hospitals and institutions are members of BBS. Graduate Courses of Reading and Research .

$\sum \vec F_{yA} \ = \vec R_1 - \vec F_{AB} * cos{30} = 0$
Or...
$\vec F_{AB} = \frac{\vec R_1}{cos{30}} = \frac{6.9N}{cos{30}} = 7.97N$ (in Compression)


$\sum \vec F_{xA} \ = \vec F_{AC} - \vec F_{AB} * sin{30} = 0$
Or...
$\vec F_{AC} = \vec F_{AB} * sin{30} = 7.97N * sin{30} = 3.99N$ (in Tension)

.Each successive member may be analyzed for its internal forces, be they compressive or tensile in a similar manner.^ Others may have similar gifts but they cannot do what you can do.
• What is your Gift? 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.raystedman.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may appear that the trabeculae are arranged in a haphazard manner, but they are organized to provide maximum strength similar to braces that are used to support a building.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ongoing discoveries in biology will be analyzed according to their contributions to the advancement of knowledge, their possible commericial medical, or agricultural applications, and ethical issues that they may arise.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For a successful analysis of every member of the truss, it is imperative that every external force be included.^ Topics such as resultant of a force, equilibrium of forces, moments, couples, analysis of simple trusses, centroids, center of gravity, moments of inertia and friction are covered in this course.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Concepts of stress and strain; stress analysis of basic structural members, consideration of combined stress, including Mohr’s Circle; introductory analysis of deflection; buckling of columns.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore it is advised that the engineer begin analysis by the method of joints at each joint where external forces have been resolved and work his or her way inward towards the center.^ Therefore, in representing the human body in art, the meaning of humanity is in a way entrusted to both the artist and “to every recipient of the work.” [43] .
•  NFP Outreach - NFP  Library - Theology of the Body 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.nfpoutreach.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The method goes through the whole chain from the end-effector to the base and sets the corresponding joint values based on the force vector.
• Simulation of Human Body Kinematics 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.cescg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Analysis of the technical methods of detection and control of work place crimes.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

### Method of Sections

.If every joint in a structure does not need to be analyzed, yet the internal forces of some members need to be resolved, a potential shortcut method is the method of sections.^ N = Not yet meeting outcome (does not grasp fundamentals, needs constant direction) .
• CRSP Startup Kit: Learner Guides 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.cva-acfp.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The method goes through the whole chain from the end-effector to the base and sets the corresponding joint values based on the force vector.
• Simulation of Human Body Kinematics 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.cescg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One senior police officer reported that at least 15 Iraqi children were sold every month, some overseas, some internally, some for adoption, some for sexual abuse.
• t r u t h o u t | Human Body Parts 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.The method of sections involves cutting a truss into a smaller part, thus changing the internal forces in the members in question to external forces, which may easily be solved by the method of Equilibrium.^ An internal environment that changes as the external environment changes e.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main job of the stomach is to break down large food molecules into smaller ones, so that they can be absorbed into the blood more easily.

^ The statue may have opened, thus showing the relative positions of the organs, bones, muscles, nerves, and other parts.
• Secret Teachings of All Ages: The Human Body in Symbolism 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Example:
If the truss shown here were to need analysis for the internal forces on one particular member, EF, the method of sections could be used.
^ Topics such as resultant of a force, equilibrium of forces, moments, couples, analysis of simple trusses, centroids, center of gravity, moments of inertia and friction are covered in this course.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Here is a simple example for a graphical navigational toolbar: The MAP element has one attribute NAME which is used to associate a name with a map.
• HTML 3.2 Reference Specification 11 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (Prereq: ENGR 210, AMTH 242) Theoretical and experimental analysis of systems involving one degree of freedom, including measurement methods.
• USCA Bulletin 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.usca.edu [Source type: Academic]

Here we use the previous values for $\vec F_1 = 3N$ and $\vec R_2 = 14N$. Also assume that each member is $\ 5$ meters long.
Solution:
We solve the external forces on the truss completely. Equilibrium dictates that $\sum \vec F = 0$ and $\sum \vec M = 0$.
Once again, we first sum the moments about a particular point. In this case, let's use I:
$\sum \vec M_I \ = -\vec F_1*L + \vec F_{EH}*cos{30} = 0$
Or...
$\sum \vec M_I \ = -3N*5m + \vec F_{EH}*cos{30} = 0$
$\vec F_{EH} = 17.3 N$ (in tension).


### Space Trusses

A Triangle Space Truss
A Space Truss is a 3D plane truss. .Made up of similar structural forms, the space truss is a much more realistic form of truss thatn the Plane Truss.^ Which, let's be realistic, will do a lot more for you than Quatum-Cell-Coding ever will -- provided you wrap it up.
• Geekologie - Gadgets, Gizmos, and Awesome 11 January 2010 13:54 UTC www.geekologie.com [Source type: General]

^ Projects are made up of preliminary sketches and final presentations in plan, elevation and perspective forms.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I used to dance around to your music all the time, it was so much fun , his music was just to energetic and fun and just made you want to get up and dance.
• Photo of Michael Jackson’s Dead Body? | Showbiz Spy - celebrity news, rumors & gossip 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.showbizspy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Calculation and resolution of loads, external and internal forces is performed the same way, however, care must be made to ensure that all three dimensions are correctly examined and properly resolved.^ However, as Cannon emphasized, homeostasis does not mean something set and immobile that stays exactly the same all the time.
• Bob's Anatomy and Physiology Study Page - a reusable non-linear personal web notebook 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC anp.tiddlyspot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it can be a valuable experience for virtually all students, regardless of their career plans.
• http://www.farmingdale.edu/courseofferings/AZ_cat.html 18 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.farmingdale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Understanding that there are different body types allows the reader to understand that we are all different and therefore must workout differently, even if it is the same result we are after.
• Determining the Best Workout for Your Body Type - For Dummies 11 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: General]

Once again $\sum \vec F = 0$ and $\sum \vec M = 0$.

## Assignments

Activities:
• Create an activity
Readings:
Study guide:
1. Wikipedia article:Plane Truss
2. Wikipedia article:Tension
3. Wikipedia article:Compression
4. Wikipedia article:Method of Joints
5. Wikipedia article:Method of Sections
6. Wikipedia article:Space Truss

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