Struve family: Wikis


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The Struve family were a dynasty of five generations of astronomers from the 18th to 20th centuries. Members of the family were also prominent in chemistry, government and diplomacy.



The first branch of the family that produced five generations of astronomers originated in Altona, then part of both Denmark and Germany [1] The first astronomer member of the family was Jacob Struve (1755-1841); his forebears included Johann Struve (1700-1778) and Abel Struve (1719-1762). In 1783 Jacob Struve married Maria Emerentia Wiese (1764-1847). Their children were:

  • Carl Struve (1785-1838)
  • Ernst Struve (1786-1822)
  • Gustav Struve (1788-1829)
  • Christina Struve (1791-1853)
  • Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (von) Struve (1793-1864)
  • Ludwig Struve (1795-1828)
  • Johanna Struve (1797-1871)

In 1808 Jacob Struve brought the family to Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia) in the Russian Empire to avoid conscription in the Napoleonic armies. His fourth son, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm, taught at the University of Dorpat from 1813 and full professor and director of Dorpat Observatory from 1820. Ennobled by Tsar Nicholas I, at whose request he supervised construction of Pulkovo Observatory, he served as director of the new observatory from 1839 to 1862.[2]

Friedrich Georg Wilhelm married Emilie Wall (1796-1834) in 1815. They had 12 children, including the following:

Following the death of his first wife, he married Johanna Henrietta Francisca Barthels (1807-1867). They had six children, including Karl von Struve (1835-1907), diplomat.

Jacob Struve's cousin, Anton Sebastian von Struve, was President of the German Imperial Diet at Regensburg and later a Russian Imperial Provy Councillor. He and his wife, née Johanne Dorothea Werner, were the parents of:

  • Catherina Elisabetha von Struve (1759-1838)
  • Johann Christoph Gustav von Struve (1763-1828)[3]
  • Johann Georg von Struve (1766-1831)
  • Johann Christian von Struve (1768-1812)
  • August Wilhelm von Struve (1770-1838)
  • Heinrich Christoph Gottfried von Struve (1772-1851)
  • Albrecht von Struve (1774-1794)
  • Philippine Rosina Elisabetha von Struve (1775-1819)

Otto Wilhelm von Struve line (3rd Gen)

Otto Wilhelm von Struve

Otto Wilhelm von Struve (1819-1905) was director of Pulkovo Observatory from 1862 to 1889; he moved to Germany in 1889.[4] He married 1) Emilie Dyrssen (1823-1868); 2) Emma Jankowsky (1839-1902). The children from his two marriages were:

Karl Hermann Struve had a son, Georg Otto Hermann Struve (1886-1933), who was also an astronomer. Georg Otto Hermann had two sons, Wilfried Struve (1914-1992) and Rheinhard Struve (1919-1943).

Gustav Ludiwig Struve (1858-1920) and his wife, Elizaveta, had a son Otto Struve (1897-1963), who became a prominent astronomer in the United States following fighting in World War I and for White Russians in the Russian Revolution. His other son, Warner was a officer for the White Russians but died from tuberculosis. His daughter, the youngest, drowned in the same period. Gustav had to leave Russia and went with his surviving son Otto Struve into exile in Turkey, where he died in 1920 at age 62.

Otto Struve (1897-1963) then got job in the United States through his Uncle Hermann Struve, who lived and worked at Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory. After moving to the United States, Otto Struve married Mary Martha Lanning in 1925, but there were no children.[7][8][9]

Bernhard Vasilyevich Struve line (3rd gen)

Berhard Vasilyevich Struve (1827-1889) was a government official in Siberia before serving in turn as governor of Perm and Astrakhan. He was the father of:

  • Vasily Berngardovich Struve (1854-1912)
  • Peter Berngardovich Struve (1870-1944), political economist, philosopher and editor
  • Alexander Berngardovich Struve, confidential secretary

Vasily Berngardovich Struve married Borisa Alexandrovna Turaeva (1868-1920). They were the parents of:

Peter Berngardovich Struve emigrated to France following the Russian Revolution. He was the father of:

  • Gleb Petrovich Struve (1898-1985), poet and literary historian
  • Aleksey Petrovich Struve
  • Konstantin Petrovich Struve (1903-1948)
  • Arkady Petrovich Struve (1905-1951)

Aleksey Petrovich Struve married Ekaterina Andreevna Katuar. Their children were:

  • Peter Struve (1925-1968)
  • Nikita Struve (b. 1931), professor and editor of several Russian-language periodicals in Europe.

Karl von Struve line (3rd gen)

Karl von Struve (1835-1907) was Russian minister to the United States (1882-1892) and the Netherlands (1892-1904). In line with German practice, he was entitled to use the title of Baron von Struve while abroad, though this was denied him while resident in Germany or Russia. The American press generally rendered his title as Baron de Struve.[10][11]

He and his wife, Maria Nikolaevna Annenkova (1844-1889) were the parents of:

  • Boris de Struve (d. 1912)
  • Vera de Struve (1876-1949)
  • Olga de Struve
  • Helene de Struve
  • Maria de Struve

Owing to ill health, Maria von Struve returned to Russia in 1885, dying at Kielmarky, near St. Petersburg in 1889.[12]

Other lines

Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve's cousin, Johann Christoph Gustav von Struve, son of Anton Sebastian Von Struve, became a diplomat in the Russian service primarily in Regensburg, Bavaria. Johann Christoph and his wife, née Sibilla Christiana Friedrike von Hochstetter, were the parents of 11 children, among them:

  • Gustav von Struve (1805-1870), a publicist, political agitator and soldier who emigrated the United States following the collapse of the Baden Revolution of 1848.[13][14]
  • Johann Ludwig Karl Heinrich von Struve (1812-1898), who emigrated to Fayette County, Texas after the failure of the Revolution of 1848, but eventually returned to Rothenberg in der Odenwald, near Darmstadt, Germany where he died. His two eldest sons with his first wife Stephanie von Borowski; Friedrich Wilhelm Amand Struve (1838-1902) and Louis Joseph Struve (1839-1921), remained in Texas even though the remainder of Heinrich's family returned to Germany with him.

Another line was represented by Henry G. Struve (1836-1905), a native of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg who emigrated to the United States in 1852. An attorney, he was elected mayor of Seattle, Washington, in 1882 and 1883. Struve and his wife, the former Lascelle Knighton, were the parents of:

  • Harry K. Struve
  • Helen (Mrs. Harry F. Meserve)
  • Frederick Karl Struve
  • Mary Struve

His younger son, Frederick Karl Struve, was elected president of the Seattle National Bank in 1914.[15][16]


  1. ^ "Altona was chartered in 1664 as a free port in the Duchy of Holstein which, while a German state, was in personal union with the Danish crown until 1864, and a Danish royal mint was located there. After an interim administration in 1864-66, it passed to Prussia in 1866 and was incorporated into the city-state of Hamburg in 1937." see William D. Craig, Coins of the World 1750-1850, 3rd edition, pp. 91, 92, 162, 214. Racine, Wisconsin: Western Publishing Company, Inc., 1976.
  2. ^ David Abbott (gen. ed.), The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, [Vol.:] Astronomers, p. 149. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1984.
  3. ^ In such compound German names, the name closest the surname was commonly used. Thus, Johann Christoph Gustav von Struve was known as Gustav von Struve, and Johann Georg von Struve was known as Georg von Struve.
  4. ^ Abbott, p. 151.
  5. ^ Abbott, p. 150.
  6. ^ Abbott, pp. 149-150.
  7. ^ Who Was Who in America, Vol. IV, p. 915. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, Inc., 1968.
  8. ^ Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 7, pp. 726-727. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1981.
  9. ^ Abbott, pp. 150-151.
  10. ^ "Titles at the Capital. Comparatively Few Foreign Diplomats Have Any", The New York Times, September 14, 1890.
  11. ^ "The Russian Embassy", The New York Times, June 18, 1899.
  12. ^ "Death of Mme. de Struve", The New York Times, August 14, 1889.
  13. ^ Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XVIII, pp. 158-159. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936.
  14. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume 1607-1896, p. 585. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, Inc., 1967.
  15. ^ The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. IX, pp. 247-248. New York: James T. White & Company, 1909. Reprint of 1901 edition.
  16. ^ Henry Hunt and F.C. Kaylor, Washington, West of the Cascades, Vol. II, pp. 245-249. Seattle: The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1917.

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