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Stuttgart
Stuttgart Schlossplatz (Castle square)
Stuttgart Schlossplatz (Castle square)
Coat of arms of Stuttgart
Stuttgart is located in Germany
Stuttgart
Coordinates 48°46′43″N 9°10′46″E / 48.77861°N 9.17944°E / 48.77861; 9.17944
Administration
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Stuttgart
District Urban district
City subdivisions 23 districts
Lord Mayor Wolfgang Schuster (CDU)
Basic statistics
Area 207.36 km2 (80.06 sq mi)
Elevation 245 m  (804 ft)
Population  600,038  (1 December 2008)[1]
 - Density 2,894 /km2 (7,495 /sq mi)
Founded 10th century
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate S
Postal codes 70173–70619
Area code 0711
Website stuttgart.de

Stuttgart (German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊtɡaɐ̯t]) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 (December 2008) while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million (2008).[2]

The city lies at the centre of a heavily populated area, circled by a ring of smaller towns. This inner urban area called Stuttgart Region has a population of 2.7 million[3] making 'greater Stuttgart' the third biggest agglomeration in Germany after the Ruhr Area and Berlin. The larger Stuttgart Metropolitan Region with over 5 million inhabitants is the fourth-biggest in Germany after the Rhine-Ruhr area, Berlin/Brandenburg and Frankfurt/Rhine-Main.

Stuttgart is spread across a variety of hills (some of them vineyards), valleys and parks - unusual for a German city[4] and often a source of surprise to visitors who primarily associate the city with its industrial reputation as the 'cradle of the automobile'.

Stuttgart has the status of Stadtkreis, a type of self-administrating urban county. It is also the seat of the state legislature, the regional parliament, local council and the Protestant State Church in Württemberg as well as one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart.

The city's motto is "Stuttgart is more" (to tourists; to business it describes itself as "Standort Zukunft", translated by town hall marketing as "Where business meets the future"). In 2007 the Bürgermeister marketed Stuttgart to foreign investors as "The creative power of Germany". Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure (as part of the Stuttgart 21 project), in March 2008 the city unveiled a new logo and slogan, describing itself as "Das neue Herz Europas" ("The new heart of Europe").[5]

Stuttgart is nicknamed the Schwabenmetropole (Swabian metropolis), a reference to the Swabian dialect spoken by the locals. In that dialect, the city's name is pronounced Schtuagerd.

Contents

Name and coat of arms

Stuttgart's coat of arms shows a black horse on its hind legs on a yellow background. It was first used in its current format in 1938; prior to this various designs and colours had been used, often with two horses. The canting seal pictured here reflects the origin of the name 'Stuttgart'. The name in Old High German was 'stuotgarten', with 'stuot' meaning mare, later cognate with the Old English term 'stod' (Modern English: 'stud', relating to the breeding of horses). The Old High German term 'garten' referred to the compound on the site of the original settlement.[6] The logo of the Porsche automobile company features a modified version of Stuttgart's coat of arms at its centre.[7]

Geography

Stuttgart lies about an hour from the Black Forest and a similar distance from the Swabian Jura. The city centre lies in a lush valley, nestling between vineyards and thick woodland close to, but not on the River Neckar. Thus, the city is often described as lying "zwischen Wald und Reben", between forest and vines. In the hot summer months local residents refer to this area as the Stuttgarter Kessel, or Stuttgart cauldron, for its hot and humid climate which is frequently warmer than the surrounding countryside of Württemberg.

Stuttgart covers an area of 207 km2 (80 sq mi). The elevation ranges from 207 m (679 ft) above sea level by the Neckar river to 549 m (1,801 ft) on Bernhartshöhe hill. As a result there are more than 400 flights of stairs around the city (called "Stäffele" in local dialect), equivalent to approximately 20 km (12 mi) of steps. Many originate from the time when vineyards lined the entire valley. Even today there are vineyards less than 500 m (1,640 ft) from the Main Station.

Panorama of Stuttgart looking South East. From the Neckar valley on the left the city rises to the city centre, backdropped by high woods to the south (television tower). Stuttgart South and Stuttgart West are to the right.
Stuttgart at night, looking north west

City districts

The city of Stuttgart is subdivided into a total of 23 city districts, 5 inner districts and 18 outer districts.

The inner districts are: Central Stuttgart, Stuttgart Stuttgart North, Stuttgart East, Stuttgart South, and Stuttgart West.

The outer districts are:

The city centre in winter

Stuttgart agglomeration and metropolitan region

Stuttgart's agglomeration (the political entity 'Stuttgart Region') consists of the nearby towns of Ludwigsburg with its enormous baroque palace, Böblingen, the old Free Imperial City of Esslingen, Waiblingen, Göppingen and their respective homonymous rural districts (Landkreise, the exception being the Waiblingen district, called Rems-Murr-Kreis).

The Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is a wider regional concept, that, in addition to the districts of the Stuttgart Region, encompasses most of North, Central, and East Württemberg, consisting of the cities of Heilbronn/Schwäbisch Hall, Reutlingen/Tübingen as well as Aalen/Schwäbisch Gmünd and their respective districts and regions, i.e. Heilbronn-Franken, Neckar-Alb and Ostwürttemberg.

Climate

Stuttgart experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb). In the summer months, the nearby Black Forest and Swabian Alb hills act as a shield from severe weather but the city can also be subject to thunderstorms in the summer months and periods of snow lasting several days in the winter. The centre of the city, referred to by locals as the "Kessel" (cauldron) experiences more severe heat in the summer and less snow in the winter than the suburbs. Lying as it does at the centre of the European continent, the temperature range between day and night or summer and winter can be extreme. On average Stuttgart enjoys 1693 hours of sunshine per year.[1]

Winters last from December to March. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of 0 °C (32 °F). Snow cover tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been known to last several weeks at a time as recently as 2008. The summers are warm with an average temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) in the hottest months of July and August. The summers last from May until September.

Climate data for Stuttgart
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3
(37)
4
(40)
9
(49)
12
(54)
17
(63)
20.5
(69)
24
(75)
23
(73)
19
(66)
14
(57)
8
(46)
4
(40)
13
(56)
Average low °C (°F) -3
(27)
-3
(27)
0.5
(33)
3
(37)
7
(45)
10.5
(51)
13
(56)
12
(54)
8
(49)
5
(41)
0.5
(33)
-2
(29)
4
(40)
Precipitation cm (inches) 4.8
(1.9)
4.6
(1.8)
4.3
(1.7)
6.1
(2.4)
8.6
(3.4)
8.6
(3.4)
7.4
(2.9)
8.6
(3.4)
5.8
(2.3)
4.6
(1.8)
4.6
(1.8)
5.1
(2.0)
73.4
(28.9)
Source: Weatherbase[8] Mar 2009

History

Pre 19th century

The first known settlement of Stuttgart was around the end of the 1st century AD with the establishment of a Roman fort in the modern district of Cannstatt on the banks of the river Neckar. Early in the third century the Romans were pushed by the Alamanni back past the Rhine and the Danube. Although nothing is known about Cannstatt during the period of Barbarian Invasion it is believed that the area remained inhabited as it is mentioned in Abbey of St. Gall archives dating back to 700 AD.[9]

The 'Old Castle' which dates back to 950

Stuttgart itself was probably founded around 950 AD shortly before the Battle of Lechfeld by Duke Liudolf of Swabia, one of the sons of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great. The town was used for breeding cavalry horses in fertile meadows at the very centre of today's city, although recent archaeological excavations indicate that this area was already home to Merovingian farmers.[10]

A gift registry from Hirsau Abbey dated around 1160 mentioned 'Hugo de Stuokarten', confirmation of the existence of the Stuttgart of today.

Between this time and the 14th century, the settlement was owned by the Margraves of Baden and the Württemberg towns of Backnang and Besigheim.

The 'New Castle' on Schlossplatz which was built between 1746 and 1807

Around 1300, Stuttgart became the residence of the Counts of Württemberg, who expanded the growing settlement into the capital of their territory (Territorialstaat). Stuttgart was elevated to the status of city in 1321 when it became the official royal residence. The territory around Stuttgart was known as the County of Württemberg before the counts were elevated to dukes by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1495, when Stuttgart became the Duchy capital and Ducal residence.

The name Württemberg originates from a steep hill in Stuttgart, formerly known as Wirtemberg.

In the 18th century, Stuttgart temporarily surrendered its residence status after Eberhard Ludwig founded Ludwigsburg to the north of the city. In 1775, Karl Eugen requested a return to Stuttgart, ordering the construction of the New Castle.

19th and 20th century

In 1803, Stuttgart was proclaimed capital of Württemberg Kurfürstentum (ruled by a Prince-elector) until Napoleon Bonaparte's breakup of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805 when Stuttgart became capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg. The royal residence was expanded under Frederick I of Württemberg although many of Stuttgart's most important buildings, including the Wilhelm Palace, Katharina Hospital, the State Gallery, the Villa Berg and the Königsbau were built under the reign of King Wilhelm I.[11]

The Wilhelm Palace of 1840, now the city library

Stuttgart's development as a city was impeded in the 19th century by its location. It was not until the opening of the Main Station in 1846 that the city underwent an economic revival. The population at the time was around 50,000.[12]

During the revolution of 1848/1849, a democratic pan-German national parliament (Frankfurt Parliament) was formed in Frankfurt to overcome the division of Germany. After long discussions, the parliament decided to offer the title of the German emperor to King Frederick William IV of Prussia. As the democratic movement became weaker, the German princes regained control of their independent states. Finally, the Prussian king declined the revolutionaries' offer. The members of parliament were driven out of Frankfurt and the most radical members (who wanted to establish a republic) fled to Stuttgart. A short while later, this rump parliament was dissolved by the Württemberg military.[13]

By 1871 Stuttgart boasted 91,000 inhabitants, and by the time Gottlieb Daimler invented the automobile in a small workshop in Cannstatt, the population had risen rapidly to 176,000.[14]

In 1871, as an autonomous kingdom, Württemberg joined the German Empire created by Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister of Prussia, during the unification of Germany.

At the end of the First World War the Württemberg monarchy broke down: William II of Württemberg refused the crown - but also refused to abdicate - under pressure from revolutionaries who stormed the Wilhelm Palace.[15] The Free State of Württemberg was established, as a part of the Weimar Republic. Stuttgart was proclaimed the capital.

In 1920 Stuttgart became the seat of the German National Government (after the administration fled from Berlin, see Kapp Putsch).

Under the Nazi regime, Stuttgart began deportation of its Jewish inhabitants in 1939. Around sixty percent of the German Jewish population had fled by the time restrictions on their movement were imposed on 1 October 1941, at which point Jews living in Württemberg were forced to live in 'Jewish apartments' before being 'concentrated' on the former Trade Fair grounds in Killesberg. On 1 December 1941 the first deportation trains were organised to Riga. Only 180 Jews from Württemberg held in concentration camps survived.[9]

During the period of Nazi rule, Stuttgart held the "honorary title" Stadt der Auslandsdeutschen (City of the the Germans living outside of the Reich).[16]

Stuttgart Rathaus (city hall) in 1907. All but the rear of the building was destroyed by allied bombing in the Second World War.

During World War II, the centre of Stuttgart was nearly completely destroyed in Allied air raids. Some of the most severe bombing took place in 1944 at the hands of Anglo-American bombers. The heaviest raid took place on 12 September 1944 when the Royal Air Force bombed the old town of Stuttgart dropping over 184,000 bombs including 75 blockbusters. More than 1000 people perished in the resulting firestorm. In total Stuttgart was subjected to 53 bombing raids, resulting in the destruction of 68% of all buildings and the death of 4477 people.

In 1945 the Allied Forces took control of Germany, spearheaded by the French army which occupied Stuttgart until the city fell into the American military occupation zone. An early concept of the Marshall Plan aimed at supporting reconstruction and economic/political recovery across Europe was presented during a speech given by US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes at the Stuttgart Opera House. His speech led directly to the unification of the British and American occupation zones, resulting in the 'bi-zone' (later the 'tri-zone' including the French). When the Federal Republic of Germany was founded on 23 May 1949, Stuttgart, like Frankfurt, was a serious contender to become the federal capital, but finally Bonn succeeded.

Parts of the former German States of Baden and Württemberg were merged in 1952 leading to the founding of the new state of Baden-Württemberg, now Germany's third largest state.

Recent

During the Cold War, Stuttgart became home to the joint command centre of all United States military forces in Europe, Africa and the Atlantic (US European Command, EUCOM). EUCOM is still headquartered there today. U.S. Army bases in and around Stuttgart include or included the following: Patch Barracks (HQ EUCOM), Robinson Barracks, Panzer Kaserne, Kelley Barracks (HQ AFRICOM)[17]

First Stuttgart coat of arms in 1286

In the late 1970s, the district of Stammheim was centre stage of one of the most controversial periods of German post-war history during the trial of Red Army Faction members at Stammheim high-security court. After the trial, Ulrike Meinhof, Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe committed suicide in Stammheim. Several attempts were made to free the terrorists by force or blackmail during the 'German Autumn' of 1977, culminating in the abduction and murder of the German industrialist and President of the German Employers' Association Hanns Martin Schleyer as well as the hijacking of Lufthansa flight LH181.

In 1978 Stuttgart's suburban railway came into operation.

Landmarks, sights and culture

The inner city

The Stiftskirche, seen from the west (Stiftstraße)

At the centre of Stuttgart lies its main square, Schlossplatz. As well as being the largest square in Stuttgart, it stands at the crossover point between the city's shopping area, Schlossgarten park which runs down to the river Neckar, Stuttgart's two central castles and major museums and residential areas to the south west. Königstraße, Stuttgart's most important shopping street which runs along the northwestern edge of Schlossplatz, claims to be the longest pedestrianised street in Germany.[18]

Although the city centre was heavily damaged during World War II,[18] many historic buildings have been reconstructed[18] and the city boasts some fine pieces of modern post-war architecture. Buildings and squares of note in the inner city include:

The Alte Kanzlei on Schillerplatz square
  • The Stiftskirche (the Collegiate Church), dates back to the 12th century, but was changed to the Late Gothic style in the 15th century and is a Protestant church since 1534.[18] Exterior: Romanesque/Gothic; interior: Romanesque/Gothic/Modern. Reconstructed with simplified interior after WWII.
  • Altes Schloss (the Old Castle), mostly dating from the late 15th century, some parts date back to 1320.[18] Renaissance style;[18] reconstructed
  • Alte Kanzlei (the Old Chancellery) on Schillerplatz square which backs onto the 1598 Mercury Pillar
  • Neues Schloss (the New Castle), completed in 1807.[18] Baroque/Classicism); reconstructed with modern interior, currently houses government offices.[18] The cellars with a collection of stone fragments from the Roman times are open to visitors[19]
  • Wilhelmpalais (the King Wilhelm Palais), 1840
  • Königsbau (the King's Building), 1850. Classicism; reconstructed
  • The Großes Haus of Stuttgart National Theatre, 1909–1912
  • Markthalle Market Hall, 1910. (Art Nouveau)
  • The Hauptbahnhof (Main Railway Station) was designed in 1920;[18] its stark, functional lines are typical of the artistic trend 'Neue Sachlichkeit' (New Objectivity)[18]
  • The Württembergische Landesbibliothek state library, rebuilt in 1970.
  • Friedrichsbau Varieté (Friedrich Building), rebuilt in 1994 on the site of the former art nouveau building
The Haus der Wirtschaft (House of Commerce)

Architecture in other districts

A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart's suburbs and beyond as reminders of the city's royal past. These include:

Other landmarks in and around Stuttgart include (see also museums below):

Parks, lakes, cemeteries and other places of interest

Killesbergpark with fountains and vineyards in the background.

At the centre of Stuttgart lies a series of gardens which are popular with families and cyclists. Because of its shape on a map, the locals refer to it as the Green U. The Green U starts with the old Schlossgarten, castle gardens first mentioned in records in 1350. The modern park stretches down to the river Neckar and is divided into the upper garden (bordering the Old Castle, the Main Station, the State Theater and the State Parliament building), and the middle and lower gardens - a total of 61 hectares. The park also houses Stuttgart planetarium.

At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second Green U park, the larger Rosensteinpark which borders Stuttgart's Wilhelma zoo and botanical gardens. Planted by King William I of Württemberg, it contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest English-style garden in southern Germany. In the grounds of the park stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum.

Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final Green U park, Killesbergpark or 'Höhenpark' which is a former quarry that was converted for the Third Reich garden show of 1939 (and was used as a collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration camps). The park has been used to stage many gardening shows since the 1950s, including the Bundesgartenschau and 1993 International Gardening Show, and runs miniatures trains all around the park in the summer months for children and adults. The viewing tower (Killesbergturm) offers unique views across to the north east of Stuttgart.

Wilhelma Zoo and Botanical Garden, around 1900

On the northern edge of the Rosensteinpark is the famous 'Wilhelma', Germany's only combined zoological and botanical garden. The whole compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and gardens was built around 1850 as a summer palace in moorish style for King Wilhelm I of Württemberg. It currently houses around 8000 animals and some 5000 plant species and contains the biggest magnolia grove in Europe.

Other parks in Stuttgart include the historic Botanischer Garten der Universität Hohenheim and Landesarboretum Baden-Württemberg at Castle Hohenheim (which date back to 1776 and are still used to catalogue and research plant species), Uhlandshöhe hill (between the city centre, Bad Cannstatt and Frauenkopf, and home to Stuttgart observatory), the Weißenburgpark (a five hectare park in the Bopser area of Stuttgart South which dates back to 1834 and is now home to a 'tea house' and the 'marble room' and offers a relaxing view across the city centre), the Birkenkopf (at 511 metres (1,677 ft) the highest point in central Stuttgart, where many ruins were laid to commemorate the Second World War), the Eichenhain park in Sillenbuch (declared a nature reserve in 1958 and home to 200 oak trees, many 300–400 years old).

There are a number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in Stuttgart. The largest is the Max-Eyth-See which was created in 1935 by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve. It is surrounded by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on the banks of the river Neckar near Mühlhausen.

Feuersee, in the area of the same name in Stuttgart West.

There are expansive areas of woodland to the west and south west of Stuttgart which are popular with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The most frequented lakes form a 3 km (1.9 mi) trio made up of the Bärensee, Neuer See and Pfaffensee. The lakes are also used for local water supplies.

In the Feuersee area in the west of Stuttgart lies one of two 'Feuersee's (literally fire lakes), striking for its views of the church across the lake, surrounded by nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in Vaihingen.

Cemeteries in Stuttgart include:

  • The Hoppenlaufriedhof in Central Stuttgart, the oldest remaining cemetery which dates back to 1626, an infirmary graveyard last used in 1951
  • The Waldfriedhof, the 1913 forest cemetery that is connected to Südheimer Platz by funicular railway
  • The Uff-Kirchhof cemetery in Bad Cannstatt which stands at the crossroads of two ancient Roman roads and Cannstatter Hauptfriedhof, the largest graveyard in Stuttgart which has been used as a Muslim burial ground since 1985.

The city boasts the largest mineral water deposits in Europe after Budapest,[18][20] with over 250 springs within the urban area.[20]

Culture and events

Stuttgart is known for its rich cultural heritage, in particular its State Theatre (Staatstheater) and State Gallery (Staatsgalerie). The Staatstheater is home to the State opera and three smaller theatres and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well as concerts. The Staatstheater was named Germany/Austria/Switzerland 'Theatre of the year' in 2006; the Stuttgart Opera has won the 'Opera of the year' award six times.[21] Stuttgart Ballet is connected to names like John Cranko and Marcia Haydée.

The city also offers two broadway-style musical theatres, the Apollo and the Palladium Theater (each approx. 1800 seats). Ludwigsburg Palace in the nearby town of Ludwigsburg is also used throughout the year as a venue for concerts and cultural events.

The Schleyerhalle sports arena is regularly used to stage rock and pop concerts with major international stars on European tour.

Stuttgart's Swabian cuisine, beer and wine have been produced in the area since the 1600s and are now famous throughout Germany and beyond.[22] For example, Gaisburger Marsch is a stew that was invented in Stuttgart's Gaisburg area of Stuttgart South.

In October 2009 the Stuttgart Ministry of Agriculture announced that the European Union was to officially recognise the pasta dish Maultaschen as a "regional speciality", thus marking its significance to the cultural heritage of Baden-Württemberg.[23]

The Cannstatter Volksfest in the district of 'Bad Cannstatt'

In 1993 Stuttgart hosted the International Garden Show in the suburb of Killesberg. In 2006 it was also one of the host cities of the Football World Cup. In 2007, Stuttgart hosted the 2007 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships. In 2008 it was host to the World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championships.

Regular events that take place in Stuttgart:

  • The world-famous annual 'Volksfest', originally a traditional agricultural fair which now also hosts beer tents and a French village and is second in size only to the Oktoberfest in Munich. Unlike Munich, however, there is also a Spring festival on the same grounds in April of each year.
  • With more than 3.6 million visitors in 2007[24] and more than 200 stands, Stuttgart's Christmas Market is the largest and one of the oldest and most beautiful traditional Christmas markets in Europe. It is especially renowned for its abundant decorations and takes place in the four weeks leading up to Christmas.[25]
  • The Fish Market (Hamburger Fischmarkt, late July) with fresh fish, other food and beer from Hamburg.
  • The Summer Festival (Stuttgart Sommerfest, usually in early August) with shows, music, children's entertainment and local cuisine in Schlossplatz, Stuttgart[26] and adjacent parks
  • The Lantern Festival (Lichterfest, early July) in Killesberg park with its famous firework display and fairground attractions
  • The Wine Village (Weindorf, late August/early September) - vintages are sold at this event held at Schlossplatz and Upper Palace Garden[26]

Museums

Entrance to the Old State Gallery

Stuttgart is home to five of the eleven state museums in Baden-Württemberg. The foremost of these is the old State Gallery (opened in 1843, extended in 1984) which holds art dating from the 14th to 19th century including works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Monet, Renoir, Cézanne and Beuys. Next door to the Old State Gallery is the New State Gallery (1980) with its controversial modern architecture. Among others, this gallery houses works from Max Beckmann, Dalí, Matisse, Miró, Picasso, Klee, Chagall and Kandinsky.

The Württemberg crown jewels on display in the State Museum of Württemberg (Old Castle)

The Old Castle is also home to the State Museum of Württemberg which was founded in 1862 by William I of Württemberg. The museum traces the rich history of Württemberg with many artefacts from the its dukes, counts and kings, as well as earlier remants dating back to the stone age. On the Karlsplatz side of the Old Castle is a museum dedicated to the memory of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, former resident of Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler on 20 July 1944.

Other leading museums in Stuttgart include:

  • The History Museum (Haus der Geschichte, 1987), examining local history, finds, the conflict between modern society and its cultural history
  • State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart (SMNS) in Park Rosenstein housed in Castle Rosenstein (with an emphasis on biology and natural history) and Löwentor Museum (paleontology and geology, home of the Steinheim Skull and many unique fossils from the triassic , jurassic and tertiary periods
  • The Mercedes-Benz Museum (1923, moved in 2006), now the most visited museum in Stuttgart (440,000 visits per year.[27] The museum traces the 120 year history of the automobile from the legendary silver arrow to the Mercedes-Benz brand of today
  • Stuttgart Art Museum (Kunstmuseum Stuttgart, 2005), the number two museum in Stuttgart in terms of visitors with a strong leaning towards modern art (the foremost exhibition of Otto Dix works. The museum stands on the corner of Schlossplatz, Stuttgart in a huge glass cube, in strong contrast to the surrounding traditional architecture.
  • The Porsche Museum (1976, reopened in 2008 on new premises).
  • Hegel House (Hegelhaus), birthplace of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which documents his life works
  • The Linden Museum, established in 1911, a leading international ethnological museum [28]
  • Stuttgart Tram Museum in Zuffenhausen, a display of historical vehicles dating back to 1868
  • Theodor Heuss House (Theodor-Heuss-Haus, 2002) in Killesbergpark, a tribute to the life and times of the former German president
  • The North Station Memorial (Gedenkstätte am Nordbahnhof Stuttgart) in memory of the 2000 or so Jewish holocaust victims deported by the Nazis from the now disused North Station
The Protestant Stiftskirche (originally built in 1170) pictured around 1900. In the foreground: the memorial on Schillerplatz square.

Churches

Stuttgart is the seat of a Protestant bishop (Protestant State Church in Württemberg) and one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart. The Stuttgart-based Pentecostal Biblische Glaubens-Gemeinde is the largest place of worship (megachurch) in Germany.[29]

Demographics

The population of Stuttgart declined steadily between 1960 (637,539) and 2000 (586,978). Then low levels of unemployment and attractive secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth, fuelled especially by young adults from the former East Germany.[30] For the first time in decades, in 2006 there were also more births in the city than deaths. In April 2008 there were 590,720 inhabitants in the city.[31]

In 2000, 22.8% of the population did not hold German citizenship, in 2006 this had reduced to 21.7%. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (22,025), Greeks (14,341), Italians (13,978), Croats (12,985), Serbs (11,547) followed by immigrants from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Portugal, Poland, Austria and France. 39% of foreign nationals come from the European Union.

Religion

The religious landscape in Stuttgart changed in 1534 as a direct result of the Reformation.[32] Since this time Baden-Württemberg has been predominantly Protestant. However since 1975 the number of Protestants in Stuttgart has dropped from around 300,000 to 200,000. In 2000, 33.7% of inhabitants were Protestant and 27.4% were Roman Catholic. 39% of the population fall into 'other' categories: Muslims, Jews and those who either follow no religion or follow a religion not accounted for in official statistics.

Stuttgart Town Hall (Rathaus)

Unemployment

Unemployment in the Stuttgart Region is low compared to other metropolitan areas in Germany. In November 2008, before the annual winter rise, unemployment in the Stuttgart Region stood at 3.8%, 0.1% lower than the rate for Baden-Württemberg, in February 2009 it was 4.7%. Unemployment in the actual city of Stuttgart during the same periods stood at 5.2% and 6.0% (Nov 08 and Feb 09 respectively). By comparison: unemployment for the whole of Germany stood at 7.1% (Nov 08) and 8.5% (Feb 09).[33][34]

Crime rates

Stuttgart ranks as one of the safest cities in Germany. In 2003, 8535 crimes were committed in Stuttgart for every 100,000 inhabitants (versus the average for all German cities of 12,751).[35] Figures for 2006 indicate that Stuttgart ranked second behind Munich.[36] 60% of Stuttgart crimes were solved in 2003, ranking second behind Nuremberg.

Politics

Stuttgart's current Bürgermeister (mayor) is Wolfgang Schuster of the conservative CDU party (Christian Democratic Union of Germany).

City government past and present

When Stuttgart was run as a county (or within the Duchy of Württemberg), it was governed by a type of protectorate called a Vogt appointed by the Duke. After 1811 this role was fulfilled by a City Director or 'Stadtdirektor'. After 1819 the community elected its own community mayor or 'Schultheiß'. Since 1930 the title of Oberbürgermeister (the nearest equivalent of which would be an executive form of Lord Mayor in English) has applied to Stuttgart and all other Württemberg towns of more than 20,000 inhabitants.

At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed the independent politician Arnulf Klett as Burgomaster, a role he fulfilled without interruption until his death in 1974. Since this time Stuttgart has been governed by the CDU. The previous mayor was Manfred Rommel (son of perhaps the most famous German field marshal of World War II, Erwin Rommel).

As the capital of Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the State Parliament, or Landtag as well as all Baden-Württemberg state departments.

In June 2009, for the first time the Greens gained the most seats in a German city with more than 500,000 inhabitants, effectively changing the balance of power in the city council. For the first time since 1972 the CDU no longer held the most seats, toppling its absolute majority shared with the Independent Party and the FDP. According to the German newspaper Die Welt, the main reason for the Greens' victory was disgruntlement with the controversial Stuttgart 21 rail project.[37]

Recent election results

Party
Year
Regional
1999
European
1999
State
2001
National German parliament
2002
Regional
2004
European
2004
City Council
2009 (seats)
National German parliament
2005
European
2009
CDU 42.5 % 42.9 % 37.1 % 35.1 % 35.6 % 37.4 % 24.2 % (15) 32.7 % 29,1%
SPD 24.5 % 27.6 % 36.3 % 35.7 % 24.4 % 21.2 % 17.0 % (10) 32.0 % 18,0%
FDP 5.5 % 6.2 % 9.2 % 8.5 % 5.3 % 7.7 % 10.9 % (7) 12.8 % 14,5%
Green Party 14.1 % 14.3 % 11.5 % 16.2 % 17.2 % 22.1 % 25.3 % (16) 15.0 % 25,0%
Independent 5.6 % - - - 8.5 % - 10.3 % (6) - 1,2%
Republicans 3.6 % 3.6 % 4.7 % 1.0 % 4.0 % 3.3 % 2.5 % (1) 0.8 % 2,0%
PDS - - - 1.4 % 1.7 % 1.9 % 4.5 % (2) 4.4 % 4,5%
SÖS - - - - - - 4.6 % (3) - -
Others 1.5 % 5.4 % 1.2% 2.1 % 3.4 % 6.5 % 0.7 % (0) 2.3 % 6,7 %
Election turnout 59.1 % 46.6 % 65.5 % 81.0 % 54.0 % 51.9 % 48.7 % 79.1 % 52,3%

Source =Stuttgart election results[38]

Economy

The Stuttgart area is known for its high-tech industry. Some of its most prominent companies include Daimler AG, Porsche, Bosch, Celesio, Hewlett-Packard and IBM -- all of whom have their world or German headquarters here.

The Mercedes-Benz Museum in the Stuttgart district of Bad Cannstatt

Stuttgart is home to Germany's ninth biggest exhibition centre, Stuttgart Trade Fair which lies on the city outskirts next to Stuttgart Airport. Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart (the so-called 'Mittelstand'), many still in family ownership with strong ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech industry.

Stuttgart has the highest general standard of prosperity of any city in Germany.[39] Contact Air, a regional airline and Lufthansa subsidiary, is headquartered in Stuttgart.[40]

Its nominal GDP per capita is €57,100 and GDP purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is €55,400. Total GDP of Stuttgart is €33.9 billion, of which service sector contributes around 65.3%, industry 34.5%, and agriculture 0.2%.[citation needed]

The cradle of the automobile

The motorbike and four-wheel automobile were invented in Stuttgart (by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz and subsequently industrialised in 1887 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft). As a result it is considered by many to be the starting point of the worldwide automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as "The cradle of the automobile". Mercedes-Benz, Porsche and Maybach are all produced in Stuttgart and nearby towns.[7] The very first prototypes of the VW Beetle were manufactured in Stuttgart based on a design by Ferdinand Porsche. Also automotive parts giants Bosch and Mahle are based in the city.[7] A number of auto-enthusiast magazines are published in Stuttgart.[7]

Science and R&D

The region currently has Germany's highest density of scientific, academic and research organisations. No other region in Germany registers so many patents and designs as Stuttgart.[41] Almost 45% of Baden-Württemberg scientists involved in R&D are based directly in the Swabian capital. More than 11% of all German R&D costs are invested in the Stuttgart Region (approximately 4.3 billion euros per year). In addition to several universities and colleges (e.g. University of Stuttgart, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Institute of Management and Technology[42] and several Stuttgart Universities of Applied Sciences), the area is home to six Fraunhofer institutes, four institutes of collaborative industrial research at local universities, two Max-Planck institutes and a major establishment of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR).

The 'Königsbau' on Schlossplatz, former home to the Stuttgart Stock Exchange

Financial services

The Stuttgart Stock Exchange is the second largest in Germany (after Frankfurt). Many leading companies in the financial services sector are headquartered in Stuttgart with around 100 credit institutes in total (e.g. LBBW Bank, Wüstenrot & Württembergische, Allianz Life Assurance).

Vineyards on the Neckar river in the Mühlhausen area of Stuttgart

A history of wine and beer

Wine-growing in the area dates back to 1108 when, according to State archives, Blaubeuren Abbey was given vineyards in Stuttgart as a gift from 'Monk Ulrich'. In the 17th century the city was the third largest German wine-growing community in the Holy Roman Empire. Wine remained Stuttgart's leading source of income well into the 19th century.

Stuttgart is still one of Germany's largest wine-growing cities with more than 400 hectares of vine area, thanks in main to its location at the centre of Germany's fourth largest wine region, the Württemberg wine growing area which covers 11,522 hectares (28,470 acres) and is one of only 13 official areas captured under German Wine law. The continuing importance of wine to the local economy is marked every year at the annual wine festival ('Weindorf').

Stuttgart also has several famous breweries such as Stuttgarter Hofbräu, Dinkelacker, and Schwaben Bräu.

Education and research

The new building of the State University of Music and Performing Arts, designed by James Stirling

Stuttgart and its region have been home to some significant figures of German thought and literature, the most important ones being Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Hölderlin.

The city, in its engineering tradition as the cradle of the automobile, has also always been a fruitful place of research and innovation. Stuttgart has Germany's second-highest number of institutions (six) of applied research of the Fraunhofer Society (after Dresden).

The city is not considered a traditional university city, but nevertheless has a variety of institutions of higher education. The most significant of them are:

  • the University of Stuttgart, it is the fourth biggest university in Baden-Württemberg after Heidelberg, Tübingen and Freiburg. Founded in 1829, it was a Technische Hochschule ("Technical University") until 1967, when it was renamed to "university". Its campus for social sciences and architecture is located in the city centre, near the main train station, while the natural science campus is in the southwestern city district of Vaihingen. Historically, its been especially renowned for its faculty of architecture (Stuttgarter Schule). Today, its main focus is on engineering and other technical subjects.
  • the University of Hohenheim, founded in 1818 as an academy for agricultural science and forestry. While these subjects are still taught there today, its other focus today is on business administration. It is located in Hohenheim quarter of the southern city district of Plieningen.
  • the State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart, founded in 1857, located in the city centre, next to the Neue Staatsgalerie.
  • the State Academy of Visual Arts Stuttgart, one of the biggest art colleges in Germany, founded in 1761, located in the Killesberg quarter of the northern city district Stuttgart-Nord.
  • the College of Media, founded in 2001, a merger of the former College of Printing and Publishing and the College of Librarianship, located in Vaihingen.
  • the University of Applied Science Stuttgart, founded in 1832 as a college for craftsmanship, university of applied science since 1971, located in the city centre, near the University of Stuttgart's city-centre campus.
  • the University of Cooperative Education Baden-Württemberg, founded in 1974, with a focus on practical experience, subjects are business, technology and social work.

Media and publishing

One of the headquarters of the public Südwestrundfunk (SWR; Southwest Broadcasting) channels (several radio and one TV channel; regional focus on the southwestern German States of Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate) is located in Stuttgart (the other ones being Baden-Baden and Mainz). It also has a Landesmedienzentrum, a State media centre.

Furthermore, the city is a significant centre of publishing and specialist printing, with renowned houses such as Klett Verlag (schoolbooks), Kohlhammer Verlag, Metzler Verlag and Motor Presse having their head offices there. The Reclam Verlag is located in nearby Ditzingen.

The newspapers Stuttgarter Zeitung (StZ; regional, with significant supra-regional, national and international sections) and Stuttgarter Nachrichten (StN; regional) are published here as well as a number of smaller, local papers such as Cannstatter Zeitung.

Transport

Following the suit of other German cities such as Berlin, Cologne and Hanover, on 1 March 2008 a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) came into effect in Stuttgart with the aim of improving air quality. This affects all vehicles entering the Stuttgart 'Environmental zone' (Umweltzone), including vehicles from abroad.[43][44]

Local transport

The Stadtbahn underground

Stuttgart has a light rail system known as the Stuttgart Stadtbahn. In the city centre and densely built-up areas, the Stadtbahn runs underground. Stations are signposted with a 'U' symbol, which stands for Unabhängig (independent).[45] Until 2007, Stuttgart also operated regular trams. Stuttgart also has a large bus network. Stadtbahn lines and buses are operated by the Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen AG (SSB).

The Zahnradbahn in 1917

The outlying suburbs of Stuttgart and nearby towns are served by a suburban railway system called the Stuttgart S-Bahn, using tracks supplied by the national Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG).

A peculiarity of Stuttgart is the Zahnradbahn, a rack railway that is powered by electricity and operates between Marienplatz in the southern inner-city district of the city and the district of Degerloch. It is the only urban rack railway in Germany. Stuttgart also has a Standseilbahn, a funicular railway that operates in the Heslach area and the forest cemetery (Waldfriedhof). In Killesberg Park, on a prominent hill overlooking the city, there is the miniature railway run by diesel (and on weekends with steam).

Rail links

Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof (main train station)

Stuttgart is a hub in the InterCityExpress and InterCity networks of Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG), with through services to most other major German cities. It also operates international services to Strasbourg, Vienna, Zürich and Paris (four times a day, journey time 3 hours 40 minutes[9]).

Long distance trains stop at Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, the city's main line terminus which is also used by regional DBAG RegionalExpress and RegionalBahn for services to stations in the Stuttgart metropolitan area. The local rail networks (see above) operate underneath the terminus.[9]

Stuttgart also has its own rail freight centre with marshalling yards and a container terminal in the Obertürkheim area of Hedelfingen.[9]

Rail: The Stuttgart 21 project

After years of political debate and controversy, plans were approved in October 2007 to convert the existing above-ground main train station to an underground through station. The Stuttgart 21 project will include the rebuilding of surface and underground lines connecting the station in Stuttgart’s enclosed central valley with existing railway and underground lines. Building work is scheduled to start in 2010 and should be completed in 2020.

Stuttgart Airport
The A8 motorway running under the car park next to Stuttgart Airport and Stuttgart Trade Fair

Air, road and waterway links

Stuttgart is served by Stuttgart Airport (German: Flughafen Stuttgart, airport code STR), an international airport approximately 13 km (8 mi) south of the city centre on land belonging mainly to neighbouring towns. It takes 30 minutes to reach the airport from the city centre using S-Bahn lines S2 or S3. Stuttgart airport is Germany's only city airport with one runway. Despite protests and local initiatives, surveys are currently underway to assess the impact of a second runway.[46]

The airport is adjacent to the A8 Autobahn, a major motorway which forms the southern boundary of Stuttgart and is part of european route E52 from Strasbourg to Salzburg. The other Autobahn leading to Stuttgart is the A81, part of european route E41 from Zürich to Dortmund.

Stuttgart has an inland port in Hedelfingen on the River Neckar.[9]

Sport

Football

VfB Stuttgart's home ground, the Mercedes-Benz Arena in Bad Cannstatt. In the background: the Stuttgart Spring Festival

As in the rest of Germany, football is the most popular sport in Stuttgart which is home to 'The Reds' and 'The Blues'. 'The Reds', VfB Stuttgart, are the most famous and popular local club. An established team in the German Bundesliga, VfB was founded in 1893 and has won five German titles since 1950, most recently in 1992 and 2007. VfB is based at the Mercedes-Benz Arena in Bad Cannstatt.

'The Blues', Stuttgarter Kickers, are the second most important football team. They currently play in the Regionalliga Süd (fourth division) at the smaller Gazi Stadium close to the TV tower in Degerloch.

Other lower-division football teams are Sportfreunde Stuttgart - most famous for taking part in the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy in 1908, considered the first World Cup[47] - and FV Zuffenhausen.

Other sports

Stuttgart is home to VfL Pfullingen/Stuttgart, a local handball team that played in the national league from 2001 to 2006 in the Schleyerhalle. Its three-times German champion women's volleyball team, CJD Feuerbach, has now stopped playing for financial reasons but there is now Stuttgart Volleyball Club with a women's team in the 2nd southern league.

Stuttgart's ice hockey team, Stuttgarter EC plays at the Waldau ice rink in Degerloch. The strongest local water polo team is SV Cannstatt which won the German championship in 2006.

Stuttgart has two American Football teams, the Stuttgart Nighthawks American football team which plays in the Western Europe Pro League and Stuttgart Scorpions which plays in Stuttgarter Kickers' Gazi Stadium.

TC Weissenhof is a Stuttgart-based women's tennis team that has won the German championship four times. Another women's team is TEC Waldau Stuttgart (German champions in 2006).

HTC Stuttgarter Kickers is one of the most successful field hockey clubs in Germany, having won the German championship in 2005 and a European title in 2006.

Sporting events

Stuttgart has a reputation for staging major events, including the FIFA World Cup 1974, the UEFA Euro 1988, and the World Championships in Athletics 1993. It was also one of the twelve host cities of the FIFA World Cup 2006. Six matches, three of them second round matches, including the 3rd and 4th place playoff, were played at the Gottlieb Daimler Stadium (today Mercedes-Benz Arena). Stuttgart was also 2007 'European Capital of Sports'[48], hosting events such as the UCI World Cycling Championships Road Race and the IAAF World Athletics Final.

Other famous sports venues are the Weissenhof tennis courts, where the annual Mercedes Cup tennis tournament is played, the Porsche Arena (hosting tennis, basketball and handball) and the Schleyerhalle (boxing, equestrianism/show jumping, gymnastics, track cycling etc).

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Stuttgart is twinned with the following cities: [49]

Stuttgart also has ‘special friendships’ with the following cities: [52]

  • The city district of Bad Cannstatt, which has the second largest mineral water sources in Europe, has a partnership with Újbuda, the 11th district of Budapest, Hungary Hungary, which has the largest mineral water sources in Europe.

Notable residents

Notable people born in Stuttgart or residents who influenced the history of the city:

Gallery

References

Bibliography

  • McLachlan, Gordon (2004). The Rough Guide to Germany. Rough Guides. ISBN 9781843532934. 
  • Peters, Kurt; Andrea Schulte-Peevers, Sarah Johnstone, Etain O'Carroll, Jeanne Oliver, Tom Parkinson, Nicola Williams (2004). Germany. Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781740594714. 

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg". December 2008. 
  2. ^ "(German) Stuttgart". Initiativkreis Europäische Metropolregionen. http://www.deutsche-metropolregionen.org/mitglieder/stuttgart.html. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  3. ^ "(German) Basisinformationen zur Region Stuttgart". Wirtschaftsförderung Region Stuttgart GmbH. http://www.region-stuttgart.de/sixcms/rs_region/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  4. ^ "Introduction to Stuttgart". The New York Times. http://travel.nytimes.com/frommers/travel/guides/europe/germany/stuttgart/frm_stuttgart_0129010001.html. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  5. ^ Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg
  6. ^ "(German) Die Geschichte von Stuttgart". The history of Stuttgart. 2008. http://www.stuttgart-geschichte.de/history/mittelalter.html. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  7. ^ a b c d Chen, Aric (2007-01-07). "Stuttgart, Germany; Motor Stadt (Psst! This Isn't Michigan)". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E2D61F31F934A35752C0A9619C8B63. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  8. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Stuttgart, Germany". Weatherbase. 2009. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=083701&refer=. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f
    This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.
  10. ^ Daniel Kirn (2007). Stuttgart — Eine kleine Stadtgeschichte. Sutton. ISBN 978-3-86680-137-0. 
  11. ^ The life and works of Christian Friedrich von Leins, catalogued in the German National Library. [1]
  12. ^ Population archives of Baden-Württemberg, German PDF
  13. ^ German publication by Michael Kienzle and Dirk Mende: "Wollt Ihr den alten Uhland niederreiten?". Wie die 48er Revolution in Stuttgart ausging. ("The downfall of the 48 Revolution") German 'Schillergesellschaft', Marbach am Neckar 1998 (vol. 44), de:Spezial:ISBN-Suche/3929146835
  14. ^ Stuttgart - Where Business Meets the Future. CD issued by Stuttgart Town Hall, Department for Economic Development, 2005.
  15. ^ Paul Sauer: "Württembergs letzter König. Das Leben Wilhelms II.", German. Stuttgart 1994.
  16. ^ "(German) Von Zeit zu Zeit". May 2008. 
  17. ^ "U.S. Army Installations in Stuttgart". US Army in Germany. http://www.usarmygermany.com/Sont.htm?http&&&www.usarmygermany.com/USAREUR_City_Stuttgart.htm. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Henk Bekker (2005). Adventure Guide Germany. Hunter Publishing, Inc. p. 445. ISBN 9781588435033. http://books.google.com/books?id=28XjYLVEpUoC&pg=PA445. 
  19. ^ McLachlan, p. 245
  20. ^ a b "Typical Stuttgart". Official website of Stuttgart. http://www.stuttgart.de/item/show/339461. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  21. ^ "State Opera Stuttgart". Official website of Stuttgart. http://www.stuttgart-tourist.de/ENG/leisure/staatsoper.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 
  22. ^ http://www.germany.co.uk/Food---Drink/Gourmet/article,Culinary-A-to-Z,1501.html Famous German foods, see also German cuisine
  23. ^ shortnews.de, German article accessed 05-01-10.
  24. ^ "(German) Stuttgarter Weihnachtsmarkt". in.Stuttgart Veranstaltungsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. http://www.stuttgarter-weihnachtsmarkt.de/. 
  25. ^ McLachlan, p. 254
  26. ^ a b Peters, p. 430
  27. ^ Official museum visitor statistics Stuttgart Statistics department (German)
  28. ^ "Linden-Museum Stuttgart - Museum history". Lindenmuseum.de. http://www.lindenmuseum.de/html/english/museum/geschichte/geschichte.php. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  29. ^ BGG International website http://www.bgg-stuttgart.de
  30. ^ Statistiches Amt, Stuttgart, July 2007. PDF source: www.stuttgart.de
  31. ^ "(German) Stuttgart in Zahlen". Official website of Stuttgart. 2008-04-30. http://www.stuttgart.de/sde/menu/frame/ns_top_11089_11101.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  32. ^ Klaus Schlaich, Martin Heckel, Werner Heun (1997). (German) Gesammelte Aufsätze: Kirche und Staat von der Reformation bis zum Grundgesetz. Mohr Siebeck. p. 28. ISBN 9783161467271. 
  33. ^ Stuttgart Journal, German article accessed 28-11-08.
  34. ^ Stuttgart Zeitung 27 Feb 2008, regional unemployment figures
  35. ^ Stuttgart official statistics
  36. ^ City of Hamburg website
  37. ^ "(German) Stuttgart 21 pulls down CDU and SPD". Die Welt. 2009-06-07. http://www.welt.de/politik/article3881313/Stuttgart-21-zieht-CDU-und-SPD-nach-unten.html. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  38. ^ "Wahlergebnisse in Stuttgart – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wahlergebnisse_in_Stuttgart. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  39. ^ McLachlan, p. 243
  40. ^ "Contact." Contact Air. Retrieved on 21 May 2009.
  41. ^ Stuttgart - Where Business Meets the Future. CD issued by Stuttgart Town Hall, Department for Economic Development, 2005
  42. ^ "Stuttgart". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/570224/Stuttgart. 
  43. ^ Stuttgart city council FAQs (German) Umweltzone und Feinstaub-Plakette: Fragen und Antworten
  44. ^ PDF showing the areas of Stuttgart in the Low Emission Zone
  45. ^ Stuttgart S-Bahn, see
  46. ^ Stuttgarter Nachrichten German newspaper report on planned 2nd runway
  47. ^ Lipton Trophy
  48. ^ European Capital of Sport 2007
  49. ^ "Sister cities". Official website of Stuttgart. http://www.stuttgart-tourist.de/ENG/city/zahlen-fakten.htm. 
  50. ^ "Twin Cities". The City of Łódź Office. http://en.www.uml.lodz.pl/index.php?str=2029. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 
  51. ^ "Brno - Partnerská města" (in Czech). © 2006-2009 City of Brno. http://www.brno.cz/index.php?nav02=1985&nav01=34&nav03=1010&nav04=1016&nav05=1249&nav06=1272. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  52. ^ "(German) Stuttgarter Stadtporträt/Städtepartnerschaften/Internationale Partnerschaften/Besonders freundschaftliche Beziehungen". Official website of Stuttgart. http://stuttgart.de/item/show/33695. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Schlossplatz
Schlossplatz

Stuttgart [1] is the capital of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of approximately 590,000 in the immediate city and more than 2,6 million people in the metropolitan area.

Stuttgart was founded in the 10th century; its name is a modern version of the original Stutengarten ("mare's garden"). Presently it is the 6th largest city in Germany. It is most famous for its automotive industry - both Porsche and Mercedes-Benz have their headquarters in Stuttgart and both have car museums.

Stuttgarters are amazingly friendly people who will forgive you if German isn't your first or second (or any) language. If you do speak German well: beware of their dialect - Schwäbisch German can differ from other forms of German (be prepared to hear the word "gell" a lot!) They love to practice other languages (especially English). Stuttgart is a big city with a small-town atmosphere.

Get in

By plane

Stuttgart has one airport [2], located in Leinfelden-Echterdingen. Various airlines including low cost airline TUI [3] serve direct flight connections between Stuttgart and major German and European cities. It will not be difficult to book a flight to Stuttgart from outside Europe connecting through a major hub such as London Heathrow or Paris Charles de Gaulles. Fares usually don't differ if you fly into Frankfurt, Munich, Hamburg or Stuttgart. Lufthansa [4] has an agreement with Deutsche Bahn/German rail [5] and your commuter flight from Frankfurt could actually be a train ride. This is very convenient if you head for Stuttgart CBD.

Delta Airlines has a direct service from Atlanta to Stuttgart. Depending on the success the route will maintain service, but considering the Headquarters of US European Command and Africa Command are located here, it seems most likely.

You'll most likely want to go to the center of Stuttgart but are now standing somewhat outside at the airport in Leinfelden-Echterdingen. The best way is the Public Transport [6] which is clean, cheap and safe.

  • Public Transport
    • The S-Bahn line S2 or S3 will bring you to Stuttgart's center within 27 minutes (see Timetable [7] from station 'Flughafen' to station 'Hauptbahnhof'). Tickets can be purchased at vending machines at the level below the airport and above the platform. Tickets should be validated at orange boxes on the platform before boarding the train.
    • Several bus lines head for other destinations.
  • Taxis will be waiting at the airport and are the fastest connection to SAP [8] in Walldorf.
    • To call airport's taxi service: Phone 0711/ 9 48-44 09
    • To call Stuttgart's Taxi Central: Phone: 0711/ 56 6061.

By train

The main station (Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof) is in the very center of Stuttgart. Timetables for trains and booking are available on the webpages of Deutsche Bahn AG [9]. For getting on from Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof and around in the city of Stuttgart itself, see Public Transportation below.

By car

The state highways A8 and A81 form a cross near Stuttgart ('Stuttgarter Kreuz'). The City is in the upper right quarter of that cross. West/east-Highway A8 passes Stuttgart slightly to the south, north/south-highway A81 passes slightly to the west. Generally, follow the sign "Stuttgart Zentrum" to get to the center of Stuttgart (and try to not lose yourself in a suburb district: there are smaller towns all over the place melted together to form Stuttgart.)

Smaller but important routes from the center of Stuttgart to the areas outside are the B10 (to the east: Esslingen, Göppingen), B14 (to the southwest: 'Stuttgarter Kreuz', Sindelfingen, Böblingen) and B27 (to the south: airport, Tübingen, Reutlingen, to the north: Ludwigsburg).

  • During rush hours, all streets in the region will be a mess! Avoid 07:30 to 9:30 o'clock and 16:30 to 18:30 o'clock.
  • Highway A8 between Stuttgart-Karlsruhe is always a potential traffic-jam during worktime.
  • Never ever during rush hours drive near 'Pragsattel' (traffic node, connecting the northern suburbs). It kills your day.

Get around

Public transportation

Public transportation is provided by the Stadtbahn (U-bahn) and S-Bahn. For short distances, it is best to use the Stadtbahn (or bus if necessary). For longer distances (to get to the suburbs) the S-Bahn is faster but has fewer stations than the Stadtbahn.

Stuttgart's public transport is fully integrated and a travel ticket can be used on any mixture of buses and trains/trams that may be required to complete the journey.

Public transportation late at night (after midnight) is a problem! On the weekend there are night buses, but they are infrequent (1:11AM, 2:00AM, 2:22AM, 3:10AM and 3:33AM) and on odd routes. Be careful if you have a very early airplane since there are no connections to the airport in the early morning between 1 and 5.

If you are staying for more than a day, for added mobility buy a special 3 days ticket ("3-Tage-Ticket"). These are available from:

  • Hotels
  • The airport
  • The tourist information office at the end of Königstraße nearest Hauptbahnhof - but make sure you take proof that you're a tourist (eg. hotel booking confirmation).

There are two types of 3-day tickets available; one covers the main Stuttgart city and the other is valid for the entire VVS network, including Ludwigsburg.

The city transport network is separated in zones. The city of Stuttgart is only Zone 10 and 20. Normal tickets are available at the many automats in the stations.

Travel tickets are usually purchased (and priced) to cover the number of zones for the journey. All day tickets / EinzelTagesTickets are a good value for visitors. Group day tickets/ GruppenTagesTickets are also a good value with 1-5 people able to travel using one ticket. Four-journey tickets / 4er-Tickets are also a good value. These can be used on different days or trips and have to be stamped in the machines on the buses and trains/trams - once at each end of the ticket and on both sides.

Fare-dodging is severely frowned upon and plain-clothes inspectors are on constant patrol. Fines are steep, starting at EUR 40 per person for the first offense.

There are six S-Bahn lines (S1...S6) and 12 Stadtbahn lines (U1...U9 + U13...U15) and several bus lines. Most lines will lead via Hauptbahnhof, ending in a layout that is pretty centralized: If you want to go somewhere, chances are, you have to ride via Hauptbahnhof. The following Stadtbahn or S-Bahn stations are located in the heart of the city: Hauptbahnhof, Schlossplatz, Charlottenplatz, Stadtmitte (Rotebühlplatz), Feuersee, Rathaus, Staatsgalerie, and Berliner Platz (Liederhalle). For a complete description see the official map of rail network[10].

A specialty of public transportation is the rack-railway between Stuttgart-Marienplatz and Stuttgart-Degerloch. It is the only urban rack-railway in Germany!

There is an old cable-car (look for Seilbahn) running from Stuttgart-Heslach to the cementary. It is landmarked.

The [11] is a useful tool that gives prices and detailed information on how to reach every location, including foot paths to buildings.

Stuttgart's public transportation on the web - Homepage: [12] - English version: [13]

Escalators in Germany are a two-lane affair. "Gehen" on the left (to walk with the escalator) and "Stehen" on the right (to stand still). Non-compliance of this scheme is frowned upon! As a Stuttgart resident I can assure you that this is not true. Most people don't care about "rechts stehen, links gehen" ("stand on the right, walk on the left"). However, they will move out of the way if they hear you approaching energetically or if you say "Entschuldigung!".

Pedestrian zone in Stuttgart
Pedestrian zone in Stuttgart

In the inner city, walking is no problem. The distances are not far and a traversal of the inner city by foot can be easily done within 25 minutes.

UK visitors should prepare themselves for small cultural differences:

  • The Germans will patiently wait at a pedestrian crossing, even when no traffic is coming, until the "green man" comes on. This only happens when children are around. Prepare to be yelled at when crossing at a red light when children are watching.

Stuttgart is quite safe. Even at night one may walk alone through the city without fear. One rare exception is the central city park, which should be avoided during late night hours. Of course, always use common sense when walking in a foreign city at night. The biggest danger for a pedestrian in Stuttgart is probably the cars.

To get a sense for the inner city, you should get to know following streets and places:

  • Königstraße: Hauptbahnhof, Schlossplatz, McDonalds 1.
  • Rotebühlplatz: Calwer Passage
  • Marienstraße: McDonalds 2.
  • Rathaus: Marktplatz (Rathausplatz), Schulstraße
  • Stadtpark: Staatstheater, Staatsgalerie, Charlottenplatz
  • Bolzstraße, Friedrichsbau, Liederhalle

Biking

The city lies in a basin of a hilly region the Stuttgarters call "Kessel", literally "cauldron", and betwen the lowest part of the city and the highest part of the city are 250 meter of altitude. There is a lot of car traffic, and routes for bikes are not well developed. Biking in the outlying areas of Stuttgart, e.g. in the Neckar Valley or the Schönbuch (just south of the city) is very nice. Stuttgart is one of the greenest urban areas in Europe. There are many paths through the surrounding forests which are in very good shape.

By car

If you intend to drive by car inside Stuttgart, the only possibility to park are parking blocks at about 1,50 EUR per hour. One secret hint might be the parking place at the Landtag. Some parking blocks are closed during late night, providing no way of getting your car out. The street layout and numerous tunnels in Stuttgart can be confusing for tourists. Driving by car is not recommended.

Car drivers should know following ring and how to get there and off again, if trying to master an inner city ride.

   --- Theodor-Heuss-Str. --- Friedrichsstr. -----
  |                                               |
Paulinenstr.                                 Schillerstr. (Hauptbahnhof)
  |                                               |
   -- Hauptstätter Str.--- Konrad-Adenauer-Str. --

By taxi

Taxis are expensive. For 10 EUR you will get about 4 minutes of a taxi drive. With two or more people, getting a taxi together at night (when public transportation has stopped) can make sense.

Call a taxi in Stuttgart: Phone Nr. 0711/55 10 000 - Taxi-Auto-Zentrale Stuttgart [14]

The "Tazzelwurm" mini-train in Killesberg Park
The "Tazzelwurm" mini-train in Killesberg Park
  • Mercedes-Benz museum and factory, Sindelfingen (S-bahn to Boblingen, then catch the courtesy bus, or walk from Neckarpark station (10-15 mins)). The heart of Mercedes-Benz manufacture, and well worth the visit. There are some 40,000 employees on site, including 9,000 in research & development alone! You need to book ahead through your Mercedes dealer or contact the museum directly via phone/email.  edit
  • Technical museum: Mercedes-Benz Museum, Mercedesstraße 137/1, Bad Cannstatt (S-Bahn: "Neckarpark (Mercedes-Benz)", see timetable etc. [15]), [16]. Newly built in 2006 in an astonishing architecture. Frequently visited and really very cool.
  • Technical museum: Porsche Museum, Porscheplatz 1, Zuffenhausen (S-Bahn: S6 to "Neuwirtshaus (Porscheplatz)", see timetable etc. [17])
  • State gallery: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 30-32, [18]
  • Contemporary arts museum: Kunstgebäude, "Art Building" [19]
  • Modern art museum: Kunstmuseum Stuttgart, Kleiner Schlossplatz 1, [20]
  • Historical art museum: Württembergisches Landesmuseum, Altes Schloss, Schillerplatz 6, [21]
  • Ethnological museum: Lindenmuseum, Hegelplatz 1, features a small but impressing collection of masks from the pacific [22]
  • Wilhelma, zoological and botanical gardens, Neckartalstraße, Bad Cannstatt (More information and arrival see Wilhelma [23])

Definitely a must for families. But watching monkeys and weird flowers in this old place can be fun for young adults, too. (Unless you feel pity for the locked up creatures.) Wilhelma is also worth visiting for its architecture and landscaping features - the core of Wilhelma is housed in a 19th century palace/park landscape in the Moorish style, created for and named after the former king Wilhelm of Wuerttemberg.

  • A fascinating astronomical journey, projected by optical hightech equipment: Carl Zeiss Planetarium [24]

Buildings

Stuttgart used to be an impressive town but was hugely destroyed during World War II and only few buildings were rebuilt to classical elegance. The 50's still were post-war, in the 60's and 70's architectural things didn't matter at all and in the 80's and 90's with major insurance companies and banks building monuments of bad taste in the inner city, the aesthetic situation wasn't really improving.

Here are some of the exceptions:

  • Altes Schloss, Old Palace (1300-1500) [25]
  • Stiftsfruchtkasten, Collegiate Storehouse (1393) [26]
  • Alte Kanzlei, Old Chancellery (16th century) [27]
  • Prinzenbau, Princes' Building (1605-1715) [28]
  • Neues Schloss, New Palace (1700-1800) [29]
  • Solitude Schloss Solitude, Solitude Palace (1700-1800) [30]
  • Wilhelmspalais, King William's Palace (1834-1840) [31]
  • Königsbau, King's Building (1850) [32]
  • Markthalle, Market Hall (1910) [33]
  • Staatstheater (Grosses Haus), State Theater (1912) [34]
  • Hauptbahnhof, Main Railway Station (1920) [35]
  • Weissenhofsiedlung, (1927) [36]
  • Liederhalle, Culture and Congress Centre, (1956) [37]
  • Staatsgalerie, State Gallery (1977) [38]
  • Fernsehturm Stuttgart , TV Tower (1954-1956), world's first TV tower built from reinforced concrete and prototype for all modern TV towers, with a beautiful view over Stuttgart. The Stadtbahn U15 to Ruhbank (Fernsehturm) gives you a wonderful view of the city. Entrance is €5 per person and is worth it for the near-fairground quality of the ride in the lift to the top. There's a nice cafe at the top which serves fresh food and drinks.
  • Grabkapelle Württemberg (Burial chapel Württemberg) [39]
  • Killesbergturm (Killesberg Tower) [40]. A recently built tower in the "Killesberg Park" (see also "green U" under Parks & Gardens), north of the city centre
  • Bismarckturm, [41], a small tower northwest of the city centre, not far from Killesberg Tower
  • Hauptbahnhof The tower of the Hauptbahnhof is a free climb (to the Mercedes-Benz symbol at top), granting awesome views of Königstraße and the city.
  • Domkirche St. Eberhard (St. Eberhard's Cathedral Church), [42]
  • Grabkapelle Württemberg (Burial chapel Württemberg) [43]
  • Hospitalkirche (Hospital Church), [44]
  • Leonhardskirche (St. Leonard's Church), [45]
  • Stiftskirche (Collegiate Church), built in 1175, restored 1999 to 2003 [46]
  • Veitskapelle (St. Vitus Chapel), [47]
  • St. Catherine's Church, Stuttgart(English speaking Anglican Church)[48]
  • Schlossplatz (Palace Square) [49]
  • Marktplatz(Market Square) [50]
  • Karlsplatz (Charles Square) [51]
  • Schillerplatz (Schiller Square) [52]
  • Bohnenviertel(14th century) [53]
  • "Das Grüne U"[54]: Most of Stuttgart's many parks and gardens are usually referred to by locals as "das Grüne U" (the green "U") because of the U-shaped form in which they are located around the city centre. They form a long and beautiful path around the city, starting at the Schlossgarten at the northern facade of the new palace (Neues Schloss), continuing through Rosensteinpark with the natural history museum and a rear entrance to Wilhelma (the zoo), and ending in Killesberg Park. Walking at a reasonable pace, you can walk the entire circuit in about 2 hours. There are beer gardens (look for Biergarten signs) and restaurants along the way, and the Killesberg Park is a real treat. It was designed for a huge botanical expo several years ago and remains a truly stunning park, especially in spring when in full bloom. If you're interested in architecture, be sure not to miss the structural engineering wonder Killesberg Tower, a minimalistic steel construction composed of one central support and a cable outer support system.

Other significant green areas in the city centre are:

  • Akademiegarten, Academy Garden [55]
  • Schlossgarten, Palace Garden [56]
  • Killesberg Railway, a small railway in Killesberg park, on weekends using steam-powered engines!
  • Stuttgart cable Car, an old cable car running to the forest cemetery
  • Rack Railway Stuttgart , German's only urban rack-railway. It uses modern cars like the light railway and offers a nice view

Do

Arts and culture

Theater & Concert

  • Ticket services (this list is by no means complete):
    • Airport Ticket Tower, Airport Stuttgart, Terminal 1, Phone: 0711/9484567
    • ClubHouse, (SWR3 Club-Veranstaltungen) Hauptbahnhof, Kleine Schalterhalle, 70173 Stuttgart, Phone: 0711/260077
  • A good entry spot in the web for theaters, culture and events is [57] (English).
  • Watch and listen to the ballet company [58] of the state theater Stuttgart Staatstheater [59]. (Stuttgart is quite fond of its ballet company dancing at very high skill. Definitely a top place to go to in the evening. You'll need to reserve tickets in advance.)
  • Classical concerts and serious music are covered by the Liederhalle [60]
  • A Musical Theatre (the Apollo-Theater) is placed in Möhringen in the SI-Zentrum [61]. (It has shown musicals like "Cats" and "Miss Saigon" and usually stages a new musical every year.)
  • There is also the Palladium Theater in the Stuttgart Musical Center, which is currently presenting the Broadway musical Wicked [62], starring Willemijn Verkaik as Elphaba and Lucy Scherer as Glinda. This has gotten very good reviews, including Tim Schleider's review, of the Stuttgarter Zeitung, proclaimed, "there is no doubt, Wicked is the most entertaining, the liveliest, the most colorful and, above all, the smartest production that we have seen at the Stuttgart Musical Centre."

Cinema

The entry fee will be about 7,- EUR per person.

  • Most cinemas will run movies with synchronized German voice without text captions and you will fail listening to the movie unless you understand German.
  • But there are at least one or two movie theaters, showing movies with original audio track (and possibly German text captions), which are:
    • Communal movie theater - Kommunales Kino [63] (Original with captions = OmU)
    • Corso Stuttgart Stuttgart-Vaihingen [64] (All movies in original language; Tuesday are Kinoabends with greatly-reduced tickets. Great theatre atmosphere)
    • Ambo [65] (center of Stuttgart, close to the main train station)

Seasonal Festivals

  • Huge wine festival (Weindorf) 10 days in early September. free entrance
  • Huge Christmas Market (Weihnachtsmarkt) during December. free entrance
  • Huge fun fair ("VOLKSFEST ") on the Cannstatter Wasen, beertents and rollercoasters, early September. (Families should go there during daytime: after 20:00 o'clock beware of tough public and drunken people.) Canstatter Wasen is the second largest fun fair in the world. Visiting it is more pleasant than the Oktoberfest in Munich, because tents are not so overcrowded like on the Oktoberfest. free entrance
  • Stuttgarter Frühlingsfest , a fun fair like Cannstatter Wasen in April/May, but smaller. free entrance
  • Festival of Animated Film [66] (Internationales Trickfilmfestival - every year, April or May)
  • Long Night of the Museums (Lange Nacht der Museen), Long Night of Sciences (Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften)
  • Stuttgart Jazz Open [67], festival in mid July lasting about one week featuring American, European and other international performers at two downtown venues, one outdoor near the main train station and one indoor at a jazz club
  • Hamburg Fish Market - 10-day festival featuring seafood, beer, and vendors from the northern port city of Hamburg. The market fills Karlsplatz near the Schlossplatz in mid-July. free entrance
  • Bohnenviertelfest [68] (Bean Quarter Festival) downtown street music festival in mid July - music, food, drinks. free entrance
  • Stuttgart Summer Festival (Sommerfest) early August, city centre - music, food and drinks. free entrance
  • International Festival of Science Fiction, Horror and Thriller (Fantasy Filmfest, late July or early August: Festival for strange films, one week of Horror, Splatter, Asia, Suspense, Action and Animation.
  • Many non-commercial traditional Swabian Events [69] in the summer.

Scenes & Underground

1. Nightclubbing & Bands

  • You can listen to good house, drum'n'base, hiphop and other kinds of electronic music in Stuttgart. However it is not always easy to get into most discotheques. The discotheque N-Pir, which is in a very ugly building in Stuttgart-Feuerbach, has a very restritictive door policy!
  • Bands, Nightclubs and Events are covered by local magazines (generally not in English).
    • Try [70] and [71] (event magazines for Stuttgart).
    • Entry spots for nightclubbing in the cities of Stuttgart/Tübingen/Reutlingen could be:
      • Stuttgart By Night [72] - A plain listing trying to keep track of all clubs, bars, cafes (plus valuable infos about Food After midnight, 24-Hour Petrol Stations)
      • [73], [74], [75]

2. Small Art Galleries

  • Handouts with a list of ongoing exhibitions should be delivered in local art galleries.
  • The web can deliver more info.

3. People

  • Take a day visit to the town Tübingen by train. (From Hauptbahnhof, main station, either take a train to Tübingen or take the S1 to Herrenberg, then change to the Ammertalbahn which goes directly to Tübingen main station. It's mediaeval center is very charming and worth the travel from Stuttgart. Apart from that, there's also a jazz cellar and various bars and cafés in Tübingen which are quite worth a visit. Special recommendations: Wurstküche ("sausage kitchen", kind of a restaurant), the Arsenal (a most lovely cinema) and after perhaps 10PM the Tangente Night.

Nightlife

A good place to go where everyone speaks English is Biddy Earlys, an Irish pub just west of the city centre/Königstraße, a five minutes walk from the major public transport station "Stadtmitte" (S-Bahn, Stadtbahn). Do a google search for directions and keep a sharp eye because the entry is a mere doorway wide which leads down the stairs to the basement. Good bands on the weekends. Two or three euro cover. Everybody always welcome and you don't have to apologize for your poor German here!

The most popular street for clubbing is the Theodor-Heuss-Straße. Over the past years several bars, clubs and lounges have opened here. It has become the most popular place for people to go out on the weekend. During the summer, there are also many opportunities to have a drink outside.

If you want to go to a place where you can meet locals, you can visit the Bonnie and Clyde. It`s near the Stadtbahn station Stöckach. The owners speak English well, so do most of the guests. Many students, so music is from rock to punk. No cover charge.

Another great bar is the Classic Rock Cafe which is a few blocks away from Biddy Early's. Do a Google on it and you can find directions. No cover charge here even on weekends and the music is great! Interesting decor too. And everyone is welcome!

If you're into Indie music, you might wanna check out the Zwölfzehn bar/discotheque in the Paulinenstraße, about 10 minutes west from "Stadtmitte". It is close to the next S-Bahn stop "Feuersee". In that area, around Rotebühlstraße, you'll find some nice theatres and bars.

Another interesting fact about Germany is that prostitution is legal. There are brothels everywhere. One of the biggest ones, a three story affair, is right in the heart of Stuttgart Stadtmitte, about a block from the town hall clock tower. You'll have to look for it though or ask a local where it is as there are no signs --just an unmarked door at street level. It's called the Drei-Farben-Haus (the three color house). Entry is free, looking is free.

On the outskirts of Stuttgart, in Möhringen, there is a hotel/conference/entertainment complex called the SI Centrum. A lot of foreigners stay here. This complex includes a theater for Broadway shows, the Millennium hotel, and a spacious underground complex that houses many conference rooms, bars and restaurants. It's a very nice place to stay and although it's one of the best hotels in Stuttgart, it's not that expensive. Plus there's a Stadtbahn stop right behind the hotel so you can explore easily.

Discotheques with unproblematic access

  • Universum, Stuttgart, inside the stop "Charlottenplatz", take the exit to "Landtag", it's on the right on the way out (rock music, independent music, concerts)
  • Alfa, Stuttgart-Möhringen (Hip-Hop, house, many aggressive people)
  • Röhre, near Wagenburg Tunnel (independent music, not open every weekend, dancefloor is slightly inclined, which may be enerving at dancing)
  • LKA at Stuttgart-Wangen (rock-, country-music)
  • Boa (meat market)
  • Zwölfzehn
  • Keller Club near Rotebühlplatz (indie dance music)
  • Rockfabrik Ludwigsburg (Metal, Goth, etc. located in the city of Ludwigsburg north of Stuttgart)

Further clubs (access may be difficult)

  • Perkins Park
  • Zapata
  • Proton
  • M1 Stuttgart
  • MOVE Club
  • ALASITAS
  • MONO
  • Bett
  • TO-12 (has won several prizes for its interior design)
  • Muttermilch

Gay & Lesbian

  • Eagle (men only leather bar)
  • Boots (men only country style bar)
  • Laura (mixed dance pub)
  • Kings Club (mixed dance club)
  • Jenseitz (mixed gay bar)
  • Zap

Recreation

Travel and wander

Schedule at least a daytime for such action (plus prepare some equipment like maps, drinking water, solid shoes, food, rain gear, warm clothing during cold seasons, etc.!) You may want to contact a local tourist office for guidance.

  • the Black Forest (Schwarzwald)
  • the Schwäbische Alb (hilly mattock landscape) covering natures highlights like the mystical colored "Blautopf" and stalactite caves like "Bärenhöhle". Could be a nice trip for families with children.

From Stuttgart you can take many nice day trips. Just an hour to an hour and a half south is the Swiss border and Zurich. On the way you can see the largest falls in Europe. An hour to the south is Triberg, a beautiful old village in the heart of the black forest which specializes in grandfather and cuckoo clocks. There is also a hiking trail which parallels a stream there. An hour to an hour and a half west from Stuttgart is Strasbourg, France. It is a small but beautiful city and possibly the most charming in France!

Some old university towns are also nearby, e.g. Tübingen (30 km/20 miles south), Heidelberg (ca. 80km/50 miles northwest) or Freiburg (120 km/80 miles southwest).

Sports

  • Swim: Stuttgart is fond of its mineral springs. The best one might be the Leuze Mineralbad [77] which also offers a sauna, but there are many others like Neckarbad or Cannstatt Mineral Bath [78], which is open until 21.30 weekdays and serves excellent food til late !
  • Several commercial Tennis- and Squash-Centers available
  • You can windsurf on areas of the Max-Eyth-See when there is enough wind. (But honestly, surfers should better head for either Atlantic, North Sea or Lago di Garda!)
  • Canooing: you can go canooing on one of the rivers in the greater area: Enz [79], Neckar, Nagold or a little bit further off the Donau [80] and Rhein - there are several good companies offering guided tours. You can check out http://www.viabono.de to find good and certified companies.

Relax

  • Stuttgart is full of mineral springs. Take some time out and enjoy The Leuze [81] or Mineral Bad Cannstatt.

Spectate (Sports/concerts)

  • See the city's most famous sports team, the Fussball Bundesliga Club (premier league football club) VfB Stuttgart [82], in action - if you call such encounter recreation. The club's home ground, the Mercedes-Benz-Arena, is in the Bad Cannstatt district, in the same neighborhood as the Mercedes-Benz Museum and the Cannstatter Wasen, where the Volksfest (i.e. Stuttgart's "Oktoberfest") takes place in autumn (see above).

News about Sport in Stuttgart see Nachrichten Stuttgart Sport [83] [84].

  • International ladies' tennis can be seen in September/October each year, with the WTA's Porsche Grand Prix event having transferred in 2006 from Filderstadt to central Stuttgart at - unsurprisingly - the Porsche Arena [85]. This prestigious Tier I event usually attracts all the top players, with large prize-money and a brand new Porsche car on offer to the winner !
  • Only concerts of classical music take place in the city centre's concert halls, especially Liederhalle [86]. Rock and pop concerts are usually held in the Schleyer Halle [87] or the newly (2006) opened Porsche Arena [88] or - rarely - inside the Daimler Stadium (see above). The mentioned halls/arenas are also in the Cannstatt district, close to the stadium and the Wasen.

You should travel to the stadium, the Benz museum and/or the Schleyer/Porsche Arena by Stadtbahn (subway) or S-Bahn (local train) and get off at the stop Mercedesstraße (Stadtbahn, long walk and you will probably have to ask for further directions) or "Neckarpark (Mercedes-Benz)" (S-Bahn). Finding parking spaces is very difficult, especially at football games and concerts and during the Volksfest.

Buy

Major points

The US enjoys an (almost) 24/7 retail environment. This is definitely not the case in Germany.

  • The banks close at lunchtime on weekdays, usually 13:00 - 14:00.
  • The banks close at 13:00 on Saturday and stay shut until Monday morning.
  • Other than MasterCard and Visa, a surprisingly large number of stores and restaurants do not take credit cards and it may be difficult to find ATMs that accept other cards as well.
  • Shops are open until about 8PM Monday-Saturday.
  • Stuttgart city centre has practically NO shops open on Sunday. The only shops you're likely to find open are the odd chemist (Apotheke) and a brezel shop or two. If you're leaving Germany on a Sunday and are putting off your souvenir-buying until the day you leave, you'll be getting all your presents from the airport.
  • By the same token, ensure you've got enough food, drink and toiletries to last you from Saturday until Monday.
  • Don't try perfumes and aftershaves by spraying directly onto your wrist etc. - you'll get disapproving looks. There are small sticks of card provided - spray onto those and smell them.

Shopping around the Königstraße

The main shopping street in Stuttgart is the Königstraße which starts at the main railway station. Left and right of Königstraße are interesting shops, too, but Königstraße is a good startpoint for navigation in the inner city.

What may come as surprise to American visitors is that the price listed on German price tags is the price you pay - tax (MWST) is already included. Non-EU shoppers can buy Value Added Tax (VAT) forms (€3 each) and use each for 19% off the listed price! Since they cost money, this is only practical for items over a certain amount.

Big department stores/shopping malls

  • Galeria Kaufhof (range of goods: all products you can think of / price and quality: mass market)
  • Breuninger (range of goods: clothing and household / price and quality: high / the traditional department store in Stuttgart)
  • Karstadt(range of goods: household, clothing, electronics / price and quality: average)
  • Königsbaupassagen [89] (range of goods: all products you can think of / price and quality: mass market / high)

Clothing

  • Abseits[90] (trendy designer labels at high prices. Just behind the Kunstmuseum.)
  • Breuninger Subway (latest fashion highlights and shoes)
  • Breuninger [91] (nice clothes and shoes for the business man and woman)
  • C&A
  • Fruit of the Loom, Uli Knecht
  • Geschwisterliebe (German brand for young people)
  • H&M (Hennes & Mauritz, cheap trendy bodywear)
  • Pimkie and NewYorker (trendy clothes for teens)
  • SportScheck (sport shoes, clothing and equipment), near to the train station
  • COS (Königstraße)

Music stores

  • WOM = World of music (near Hauptbahnhof)
  • Saturn
  • Ratzer Records [92]
  • Second Hand Records [93]

Food markets

  • market square: "Marktplatz am Rathaus", public market on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday mornings;
  • "Wilhelmsplatz", somewhat smaller public food market on Friday
  • market hall: "Markthalle" (exotic wares, exotic prices)
  • indoor farmer's market: Bauernmarkthalle, Herderstraße 13 (U9 Vogelsang) [94]

Food stores

Messe Stuttgart (trade fairs)

Still located few kilometers away from the main train station on a hill called Killesberg on the top of Stuttgart.

Homepage: [95]

(At the time of writing, a new and bigger trade fair is being built near the airport outside of Stuttgart and will in Spring 2007 be used instead.)

Consumer exhibitions

Some of the consumer exhibitions of the Messe Stuttgart can be entertaining and educational:

  • (October) Süddeutsche Spielmesse - South Germany's largest exhibition for games
  • (October) Modelbau Süd - Exhibition for model cars, aircraft, ships
  • (October) Future World - The consumer exhibition for multimedia

Eat

Major points

Food and drink in Germany can differ from the US/UK and other countries. Here are a few miscellaneous points to consider:

  • Smaller restaurants sometimes don't have much for vegetarians.
  • Groups of diners will usually receive their orders individually when the food is ready, rather than all together.
  • In a bar, beer will be served at your table and you usually pay the waiter/waitress when you leave (or when they leave).
  • Mineral water is usually carbonated ("mit Kohlensäure") and still water ("ohne Kohlensäure/stilles Wasser") usually has to be specified.
  • If you ask for tea (the drink) you'll probably get fruit tea. Ask for "englischen Tee" for normal tea but have a backup plan as smaller cafes may not have any.
  • "Milch" (milk) for drinks and breakfast cereal is usually condensed/evaporated milk. Ask for "frische Milch" for normal milk.
  • Many fruit juices are packed with multi-vitamins, giving them a cloudy/opaque appearance and a somewhat silty texture.
  • If you ask for coffee, it will usually come with milk already in it. Ask for "schwarzen Kaffee" for black coffee.
  • Grocery stores can often be found in the basement level of department stores.
  • Stuttgart is known for the Brezel. (You'll find them at the small wooden cabins on Königstraße and at any baker's shop.)
  • At the many Döner (Turkish food) stands. Take care to order "mit Scharf" (Pul Biber - dried chili, hot) or "ohne Scharf" (not hot...). If you order hot, you'll mostly be given an asking look. Say again and you'll get what you asked for.
  • Some Italian and Asian delivery services at varying quality. (Order online for example with [96] or [97])
  • Some small snack shops sell potato chips with ketchup and roasted sausage. They are sometimes located in white trailers.
  • Of course McDonalds, Burger King and Subway are in town, too. If you want to try their locally renowned single shop competitor, go to Udo Snack in Calwer Straße or XXL Burger on Steinstr. which is run by an old couple.
  • Also on Steinstr. is Veggie Voodoo King, a vegan falafel shop.
  • Only two or three fast food shops are opened during night. Kebap Nemo at Rotebühlplatz. Dilan Kebab (walk from Stadtmitte towards Wilhelmsplatz and take a left "Tagblattturm")
  • For opened during night: The "Gül Kebap" which is a Döner and has opened 24/7. You can find it near the "Rathaus" (City Hall) and even closer to the "Conrad".
  • If you have young children with you, try Wienerwald across from the train station. They have a play area with a small slide and their half chicken meal with salad and fries is enough food for an adult and small child to share.
  • In the Hauptbahnhof, you can eat at "Nordsee" (a chain of fast food seafood restaurant). There is an amazing variety of seafood dishes, sandwiches, sushi, etc. The price is very good and the presentation is colourful and appetizing!
  • If you enter restaurants of small hotels or guesthouses you'll most likely get the local Swabian food (and often bad support for vegetarians). Order some 'Spätzle' or 'Knödel' as a rich side dish there.
  • Stuttgart publishes a book annually entitled "Stuttgart geht aus" (Stuttgart goes out). This is available at iPunkt next to the Hauptbahnhoff on Königstrasse. This book, published in German, is a great guide to restaurants in the city. The small biergartens typically have great food, and they're all listed in this book! (The German is low-level and a pocket dictionary will be all you'll need if you don't speak German)
  • There are good and bad restaurants of any color in town: German, Italian, French, Greek, Japanese, Chinese, Indian, African, American among others.
  • Common restaurant prices:
    • Pizza prices start at about 8,- EUR.
    • Nice meat or fish will start at about 16,- EUR.
    • Non-alcoholic drinks start at 2,50 EUR
    • Glass of beer start at 2,60 EUR
    • Glass of wine with ok quality start at 5,- EUR
    • Longdrinks start at 6,- EUR
  • Stuttgart also has two star rated restaurants
    • Wielandshöhe [98] (Vincent Klink)
    • Speisemeisterei [99] (Martin Öxle)
  • Two nice Italian restaurants can be found at the beginning of Calwer Straße at the Stadtmitte S-Bahn stop.
  • Restaurant Cafe Markthalle, Dorotheenstrasse 4 (one block from Rathaus Marktplatz farmer's market), +49 (0)711/24 59 79 (fax: +49 (0)711/23 61 040). M-F 6AM-10PM Sa 7AM-6PM. Restaurant attached to Stuttgart's international marketplace for produce, meat, and cheese (which is a nice shopping experience by itself). Serves regional and seasonal dishes. Also serves substantial breakfasts if you are hungry for more than bakery fare. €7-€15 for entrees, drinks start at €2.  edit
  • Sonja's Biergarten im Schlossgarten (Beer garden in the palace park), Am Schlossgarten 18 (in the city park near the main train station), +49 (0)711 - 22 612 74 (, fax: +49 (0)711 - 22 612 75), [100]. Daily 10:30AM-1 AM. Beautiful setting and reasonable prices. Order cafeteria style or sit down to be waited on. Free live music on Sundays from May - September. €3-10 for entrees, drinks start at €2.  edit
  • Sophies Brauhaus, Marienstraße 28 (U-Bahn Rotebuehlplatz, S-Bahn Stadtmitte), +49 (0)711/61 09 62 (, fax: +49 (0)711/61 18 75), [101]. M-Th 11:30AM-1:30AM, F-Sa 11:30AM-2AM, Su 10AM-midnight. Brewpub serving regional specialties and its own beer. €1.20-€15.  edit
  • Punto Fisso italienisches Restaurant, Punto Fisso . Christophstraße 14 . 70178 Stuttgart, +49 (0)711 605126, [102]. M-Th 12:00AM-2:30PM and 18:00PM-1:00AM, F-Sa 12:00AM-2:30PM and 18:00PM-2:00AM, Su 12:00AM-1:00AM. Die Adresse für hervorragende italienisches Küche in Stuttgart . One of the best italian restaurant in stuttgart €2.50-€17,50.  edit

Canteens

Canteens fit the gap between fast food and a common restaurant. Canteens serve somewhat richer meal at medium prices. Most canteens have a busy ambience.

Breakfast

In the morning, locals definitely want to get some fresh bread (and brezels and broetchen [bread rolls/buns]) from the baker's shop and serve them with butter, cheese, ham, honey, jam and eggs from the fridge.

Many locals and visitors will enjoy breakfast at the bakery itself, in the "Stehcafe" - literally, "standing cafe". These are usually a corner of the shop with tall tables which you stand at rather than sit at.

Orange juice together with coffee or tea or hot chocolate will fit nicely.

The breakfast in hotels will also look more or less that way.

You can also order this breakfast setup in some or the other cafe or pub, but you'd have to know the good places at first, if you don't want to end up with a poor dish.

There are 2 Starbucks Coffee Shops along Königstraße (a 3rd to open soon on the high-end districk on Calwer Straße). But don't look for low-fat muffin or cream cheese options.

Drink

Many shops offer inside free water from a fountain. Be prepared for solid prices in bars, cafes, pubs, clubs and the like. You'll find plenty of them (including, for example Irish Pubs and Community).

  • Waranga, Kleiner Schlossplatz
  • Palast der Republik (during summer), Friedrichstraße 27
  • The Sky Beach (during summer) [103]
  • Suite 212, the first bar/lounge that opened on Stuttgart's party street - the Theodor-Heuss-Straße

If you're looking for a posh club, you can try one of the following:

  • Penthouse, Heilbronner Str. [104]
  • Perkins Park, Stresemannstr. 39 [105]

In such places, it's hard to be overdressed. But even if you "dress to impress", there's no guarantee that the doormen will let you in.

For a more alternative atmosphere, check out one of these:

  • Schocken, Hirsch Str. 36 [106]
  • Schräglage, Marktstr. 6 [107]
  • Kap Tormentoso, large smoking section, good beer, Hirschstr. 27 [108]
  • Hotzenplotz, rustic atmosphere, Silberburgstr. 88 [109]
  • Alex30 Hostel, Alexanderstrasse 30 (U-bahn: Olgaeck), +49 (0)711 / 838895-0 (, fax: +49 (0)711 / 838895-20), [110]. checkout: 12:00. Centrally located hostel with breakfast buffet. Youth Hostel card is not required to stay. Free wifi in lobby only if you have your own laptop. Otherwise there's a computer terminal at regular rates. Shared room from €22. Private rooms also available.  edit
  • Youth hostel at Haussmannstraße 27, Tel:+49.711.24 15 83. About ten minutes walk from main station [111], or take the U15 to Eugensplatz (Jugendherberge). 25 Euro for each adult and 5 euro for internet access + 6 euro for breakfast & also 3 euro for a Youth Hostel card. They will charge you for shampoo (1.5 euro) and towel (cleaning fee 1.5 euro) separately.
  • ETAPE hotel at Siemmensstrasse 28, right next to Maybachstraße U-Bahn and a few minutes walk from Pragsattel there is free wireless internet access in the rooms and foyer however the login webpage is very bad and sometimes the "Gratis WLAN" link doesn't display. During the week a room for 1 person is €49 with a €10 surcharge for a second person and €39 at the weekend. The rooms have a double bed and a single bed in them.
  • There's a relatively new service that provides comparably cheap accommodation for shorter or longer stays [112].
  • Also try T-Com Tageshotel at Universität in Vaihingen. Reasonable prices for weekend stays, including buffet breakfast.
  • If you have an early morning flight, it is possible to spend the night in the airport, as check-in areas stay open at night.
  • Le Méridien Stuttgart, Willy-Brand-Straße 30, +49 711 2221 0 (), [113]. This centrally-located park-side hotel has 291 rooms and suites, a wellness area with pool, jacuzzi, sauna and fitness center, a French restaurant (Le Cassoulet) and 13 meeting rooms Rates starting from EUR 138.  edit
  • Steigenberger Graf Zeppelin. Has more traditional luxury rooms. Rates are similar to the Le Meridien.  edit

Communicate

The main telecommunications provider in Germany is Deutsche Telekom which trades under the names of T-Home (for landline phones), T-Online (for Internet connections) and T-Mobile for mobile communications. Anything relating to these companies are easily identified by the bright pink "T" logo. There are often shops in German towns called "T-Punkt" (Literally T-Point) where you can buy cell phones and get other information.

  • The main mobile networks in Germany are T-Mobile, O2 Deutschland, Vodafone and E-Plus.
  • Call Shops are frequented by a lot of foreigners to call home.
  • A mobile/cell phone is known as a "Handy".
  • Prepaid Handys are cheap - about EUR 20,- and certain phones get free in-coming calls, so long as the call is received in Germany (TMobile). Calling a different country is expensive, so beware. Prepaid Handys can be found cheaply in Electronics stores and other stores as well (Saturn, Tschibo, etc.).
  • Don't forget that the text messages and voice messages from the network (eg. when checking or topping up credit) will be in German. If you don't speak German, get somebody to help you.
  • The mobile GSM networks are fully developed. UMTS (3G), too.
  • Public phone cells accept telephone-cards and coins. Since almost everybody owns his own mobile, public phone cells outside crowded areas become less and harder to spot, but they are still available.
  • Internet cafes
  • Local phone lines are either usable for analog-modems or for ISDN. An up-to-date list of call-by-call providers can be found at heise.de [114].
  • Commercial WLAN-Hotspots are available at the airport and few other places.
  • Do be aware though, that a lot of WLAN-Hotspots are operated by T-Mobile (Germany's main telecommunications provider) and they can be quite expensive and some only give you German instructions! The Germans do tend you help you out with this.
  • Some hotels provide WLAN-Hotspots. Ask in advance.
  • If you find a private WLAN with an email-address as its network name, it's most likely an invitation to contact its friendly operator via email.
  • Usenet, see group: stgt.general
  • IRCnet: join channel #stuttgart

Get out

By train

For connections and timetables see webpages of Deutsche Bahn AG [115].

For connections to nearer cities in the area which may be worth a visit (e.g. Esslingen, Ludwigsburg with their historic centres), you may also try the "S-Bahn" commuter trains which will take you there and back at least every half an hour. See Public transportation above for more information and timetable links. Other nearby cities that may be of interest include Tübingen and Reutlingen.

Fast inner-German connections

From main station Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof:

Fast European connections

From main station Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof:

  • to Salzburg (Austria): 4:05 hrs. (ICE)
  • to Vienna (Austria): 7:32 hrs. (IC, EN; via Munich and Salzburg)
  • to Strasbourg (France) 1:20 hours (TGV),
  • to Paris (France): 3:40 hours (TGV via Strasbourg) or 4:00 hours (ICE, change in Mannheim)
  • to Zurich (Switzerland): 2:48 hours (ICE via Schaffhausen)
  • to Amsterdam (Netherlands): 5:01 hours (ICE via Köln, Arnhem)
  • to Prague (Czech Republic): 8:32 hours (ICE, EC)
  • to Brussels (Belgium): 4:49 hours (ICE, IC,Thalys)
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

STUTTGART, a city of Germany, capital of the kingdom of Wurttemberg. It lies in a basin watered by the Nesenbach just above its confluence with the Neckar, 115 m. N.W. from Munich, and at the centre of a network of railways placing it in direct communication with all the principal towns of south Germany. Pop. (1905), 2 49,443, of whom about one-half reside in the suburbs of Cannstatt, Berg, Gaisburg, Gablenburg and others. Charmingly situated among vine-clad and wooded hills, Stuttgart stands at a height of nearly 900 ft. above the sea and enjoys a healthy climate. It is intersected from southwest to north-east by the long and handsome KOnigsstrasse, dividing it into an upper and a lower town. In all its main features it is essentially a modern town, and few of its principal buildings are older than the 19th century. Many of them, however, are of considerable architectural importance and the revival of the Renaissance style is perhaps illustrated nowhere better than in Stuttgart. The lower, or south-eastern, part contains both the small group of streets belonging to old Stuttgart, and also the most important part of the new town. Of the numerous churches in the city the most interesting are the Stiftskirche, with two towers, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic; the Leonhardskirche, also a Gothic building of the 15th century; the Hospitalkirche, restored in 1841, the cloisters of which contain the tomb of Johann Reuchlin; the fine modern Gothic church of St John; the new Roman Catholic church of St Nicholas; the Friedenskirche; and the English church. A large proportion of the most prominent buildings are clustered round the spacious Schlossplatz, with its fine promenades. Among these are the new palace, an imposing structure of the 18th century, finished in 1807; the old palace, a 16th-century building, with a picturesque arcaded court; the KOnigsbau, a huge modern building with a fine colonnade, containing ball and concert rooms; the so-called Akademie, formerly the seat of the Karlschule, where Schiller received part of his education, and now containing the royal library; and the court theatre, destroyed by fire in 1902, and subsequently rebuilt. In the centre of the Schlossplatz is the lofty jubilee column, erected in 1841 in memory of the king of Wurttemberg, William I., and in the courtyard of the old palace is a bronze equestrian statue of Duke Eberhard the Bearded. On or near the Schlossplatz also are the new courts of justice; the Wilhelmspalast and the palace of the crown prince; the large royal stables; the new post office; and the central railway station, one of the handsomest structures of the kind in Germany. The city contains a fine statue of Schiller, designed by Thorvaldsen; a bronze statue of Christopher, duke of Wurttemberg; a monument to the emperor William I.; an equestrian statue of King William I. in the court of the museum of the plastic arts; and a large monumental fountain in the Eugensplatte. Other prominent buildings are: the Queen Olga buildings, erected in1893-1895in the Renaissance style; the national industrial museum (1890-1896) in the late Renaissance style, flanked by two cupola-crowned towers and decorated with medallions of famous Swabians; the magnificent new town-hall; and the railway viaduct across the valley of the Neckar, 740 yds. long.

The art collections of Stuttgart are numerous and valuable. The museum of art comprises a picture gallery, a collection of casts of Thorvaldsen's works and a cabinet of engravings. The royal library contains about 400,000 printed volumes, including one of the largest collections of Bibles in the world, and also about 20,000 MSS., many of great rarity. To these may be added the industrial museum, the cabinet of coins, the museum of natural history, the collection of majolica vases in the new palace, and the Wurttemberg museum of antiquities. The city also contains numerous excellent educational establishments, although the state university is not here but at Tubingen, and its conservatorium of music has long been renowned. The technical high school, which since 1899 has possessed the right to confer the degree of doctor of engineering, practically enjoys academic status and so do the veterinary high school and the school of art.

Stuttgart is the centre of the publishing trade of south Germany, and it has busy industries in everything connected with the production of books. Its other manufactures include machinery, pianos and other musical instruments, cotton goods, cigars, furniture, leather, paper, colours and chemicals. Its trade also in books, hops, horses, and cloth is considerable, and a large banking and exchange business is done here. The beauty of its situation and its educational advantages attract numerous foreign residents, especially English and American. Stuttgart is the headquarters of the XIII. corps of the German army, and contains a fairly large garrison for which accommodation is provided in the extensive barracks in and around the city.

To the north-east of the new palace lies the beautiful palace park, embellished with statuary and artificial sheets of water, and extending nearly all the way to Cannstatt, a distance of over two miles. Cannstatt, which was incorporated with Stuttgart in 1903, attracts numerous visitors owing to its beautiful situation on the Neckar and its saline and chalybeate springs. In the environs of Stuttgart and Cannstatt lie Rosenstein, Wilhelma and other residences of the royal family of Wurttemberg.

Stuttgart seems to have originated in a stud (Stuten Garten) of the early counts of Wurttemberg, and is first mentioned in a document of 1229. Its importance, however, is of comparatively modern growth and in the early history of Wurttemberg it was overshadowed by Cannstatt, the central situation of which on the Neckar seemed to mark it out as the natural capital of the country. After the destruction of the castle of Wurttemberg early in the 14th century, Count Eberhard transferred his residence to Stuttgart, which about 1500 became the recognized capital of Wurttemberg. But even as capital its growth was slow. At the beginning of the 19th century it did not contain 20,000 inhabitants, and its real advance began with the reigns of Kings Frederick and William I., who exerted themselves in every way to improve and beautify it. In 1849 Stuttgart was the place of meeting of the assembly called the Rumpfparlament. See Pfaff, Geschichte der Stadt Stuttgart (2 vols., Stuttgart, 18 451847); Wochner, Stuttgart seit 25 Jahren (Stuttgart, 1871); Seytter, Unser Stuttgart, Geschichte, Sage and Kultur (Stuttgart, 1903); J. Hartmann, Chronik der Stadt Stuttgart (Stuttgart, 1886) Barth, Stuttgarter Handel in alter Zeit (Stuttgart, 1896); Widmann, Wanderung durch Stuttgart and Umgebung (Stuttgart, 1896); M. Bach, Stuttgarter Kunst 1794-1860 (Stuttgart, 1900); Weinberg, Fiihrer durch die Hauptand Residenzstadt Stuttgart (Stuttgart, 1906): M. Bach and C. Lotter, Bilder aus Alt-Stuttgart (Stuttgart, 1896); and the official Chronik der Hauptand Residenzstadt Stuttgart (1898, seq.).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

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Stuttgart

  1. The capital of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Translations


German

Pronunciation

Etymology

From Old High German stuotgarten (stud garden).

Proper noun

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Stuttgart

  1. Stuttgart







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