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Styria
Steiermark
—  State of Austria  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Country  Austria
Capital Graz
Government
 - Governor Franz Voves (SPÖ)
Area
 - Total 16,392 km2 (6,329 sq mi)
Population
 - Total 1,203,986
 - Density 73.4/km2 (190.2/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code AT-6
NUTS Region AT2
Votes in Bundesrat 9 (of 62)
Website www.verwaltung.steiermark.at

Styria (German: Steiermark pronounced [ˈʃtaɪ̯ɐmaʁk], Slovene: Štajerska, Prekmurian: Štájersko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. In area, it is the second largest of the nine Austrian federal-states, covering 16,388 km². It borders Slovenia as well as the other Austrian states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Burgenland, and Carinthia. The population (as of 2006) was 1,203,986. The capital city is Graz.

Contents

Geography

The term "Upper Styria" (German: Obersteiermark) used by an Austrian refers to the northern and northwestern parts of the federal-state (districts Liezen, Murau, Judenburg, Knittelfeld, Leoben, Bruck an der Mur, and Mürzzuschlag). The term "West Styria" (Weststeiermark) is used for the districts to the west of Graz (Voitsberg, Deutschlandsberg, western part of the district Leibnitz), the districts east of Graz (Weiz, Hartberg, Feldbach, Fürstenfeld, and Radkersburg) are referred to as "East Styria" (Oststeiermark). The western and eastern parts of the district Graz-Umgebung may or may not be considered parts of West and East Styria, respectively. The southern parts of the Duchy of Styria, which have formed part of Slovenia since 1918, were (and sometimes colloquially still are) referred to as "Lower Styria" (Untersteiermark; Slovene: Štajerska).

History

Economy

Like everywhere in the developed world there has been a shift away from the manufacturing sector towards the service sector in Styria. This has had negative consequences for the industrial regions of upper Styria which have suffered a steady decline in population in recent years. In 2004 Styria had the strongest economic growth rate in Austria at 3.8% - mainly due to the Graz area which saw strong economic growth that year and has continued to grow in economic and population terms since then.

Administrative divisions

The state is divided into 16 districts (Bezirke), and a statutory city.

StyriaLänd Bezirke
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Statutory City

  1. Graz

Districts

  1. Bruck an der Mur
  2. Deutschlandsberg
  3. Feldbach
  4. Fürstenfeld
  5. Graz-Umgebung
  6. Hartberg
  7. Judenburg
  8. Knittelfeld
  9. Leibnitz
  10. Leoben
  11. Liezen with the subdistricts
    Gröbming and Bad Aussee
  12. Mürzzuschlag
  13. Murau
  14. Radkersburg
  15. Voitsberg
  16. Weiz

Politics

An enshrined crucifix amidst the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, testifying to enduring Catholic feeling

The state had been a stronghold of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) since 1945. The governor (Austrian political term: Landeshauptmann) was usually a member of this party.

2005 Elections

In the latest elections for state parliament the Social Democrats (SPÖ) under their regional chairman Franz Voves won the majority after the ÖVP had damaged its credibility through scandals and the secession of a high-ranking party member who took part in the 2005 election after setting up his own party. In this election, the Communist Party (KPÖ) also received many votes after it had gained much popularity through its role in local politics in Graz during the preceding few years. The two right wing populist parties, the FPÖ and the BZÖ both failed to win seats.

Notable persons

See also

External links


Coordinates: 47°15′N 15°10′E / 47.25°N 15.167°E / 47.25; 15.167


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Styria (German: Steiermark; [1]) is a state of Austria.

  • Dachstein Tauern
  • Oberes Murtal
  • Graz Umgebung
  • Bergregion Grimming
  • Mariazellerland - Hochschwab
  • Murau
  • Oststeiermark
  • Salzkammergut
  • Steirisches Oberland
  • Steirisches Thermenland
  • Südsteirisches Weinland
  • Waldheimat Mürztal
  • Weststeiermark
  • Apfelstraße (Apple street)
  • Blumenstraße (Flower street)
  • Eisenstraße (Iron street)
  • Holzstraße (Wood street)
  • Schlösserstraße (Castle street)
  • Wasserstraße (Water street)
  • Murradweg (Mur River bicycle route)
  • Weinland (Wine region)
  • Weststeirische Kulturroute (West-styrian cultural route)

Understand

Styria was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and later a crown-land of Austria-Hungary. During those times Styria also included parts of Slovenia. It borders Carinthia, Salzburg, Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Burgenland, and Slovenia.

The official language is German, however you will find a slovenian speaking minority at the border to Slovenia.

The province can be split into three main regions.

  • Upper Styria lies to the north of the Mur-Muerz valley.
  • Eastern Styria lies to the east of the Mur and to the south of the Mur-Muerz valley.
  • Western Styria lies to the west of the Mur and to the south of the Mur-Muerz valley.
  • Lower Styria referred to the ancient slovenian parts of Styria, however today most Austrians use it to referr to eastern and western Styria at once.

The capital is Graz.

Talk

In Styria, as in many other Austrian areas, phrases originating from foreign languages such as "Ciao," "Tschüß", and "Servus" can be heard often.

Get in

By plane

Styria has its own international airport located near Graz. With connections to many major airport hubs as well as other routes.

Just under 40 miles from Graz there is also an international airport available in Maribor,Slovenia It offers cheaper airport taxes.

By train

Major train routes pass into Styria from all neighbouring provinces and countries. There is an hourly Inter-City connection to Vienna and Carinthia as well as regular Inter/Euro-City connections to Linz, Salzburg and Maribor

By bus

Postbus is operating a route from Klagenfurt to Graz which is significantly faster than the train.

Eurolines operates a few international destinations from/to Graz.

Otherwise it will be difficult to find a long distance bus leaving to Styria.

By car

Motorways A2 from Vienna to Carinthia and A9 from Linz to the slovenian border cross at Graz. There is also a major route available from Salzburg (Ennstalbundestraße).

By bike

There is an excellent bicycle route available next to the river Mur. It starts in Salzburg and ends at the border to Slovenia, at Spielfeld you can cross the border to Slovenia and from there use the bicycle route 1 to get to Maribor.

There is also a possibility to get to Styria using the Drau bicycle route from Tyrol and Carinthia, either via Maribor or via another bicycle route at the very south of the Styria/Carinthia border that crosses over to the Mur bicycle route.

By foot

The european hiking route "Fernwanderweg" E4 alpin starts in Andalusia, Spain crosses through Styria and ends in Crete.

The Austrian hiking routes "Weitwanderweg" 01, 02, 03, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09 cross through Styria as well.

Get around

By train or bus

There exists a vast network of public bus an train services. You will be able to reach nearly every town of the province, although sometimes the connections and operating hours may not be perfect. The whole public transport is part of a single network called "Verbundlinie". They offer a pretty good route planner on their homepage [2].

If you want to enquire offline concerning your transportation needs you can contact their information bureau at Jakoministraße 1 in Graz, right next to the Jakominiplatz. Phone: +43 316 820606 Fax: +43 316 820606-82.

Drink

Styria is famous for its white wine. If you get a chance be sure to stop at a wine yard ("Buschenschank") near the border to Slovenia. There you'll also get great food - order a "Brettljause", but not if you're vegetarian, or fond of small portions, because what you'll receive is a circular wooden tray stacked high with an enormous range of cold meats, and perhaps garnished with horseradish shavings (Kren).

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

STYRIA (German, Steiermark or Steyermark), a duchy and crownland of Austria, bounded E. by Hungary and Croatia, S. by Carniola, W. by Carinthia and Salzburg, and N. by Upper and Lower Austria. It has an area of 8670 sq. m. Almost all the district is mountainous, and is distinguished by the beauty of its scenery and by its mineral wealth. Geographically it is divided into northern or Upper Styria, and southern or Lower Styria, and is traversed by various ramifications of the eastern Alps. To the north of the Enns are ramifications of the Salzkammergut and Enns Alps, which include the Dachstein (9830 ft.), and the Grimming (7713 ft.), and the groups of the Todtes Gebirge (6890 ft.) and of the Pyrgas with the Grosser Pyrgas (7360 ft.). The last two groups are separated by the Pyhrn Pass (3100 ft.), traversed by a road constructed in the Roman period. Then comes the Buchstein group with the Grosser Buchstein (7 2 94 ft.). This group forms the northern flank of the celebrated Gesause, a defile 12 m. long, between Admont and Hieflau, through which the Enns forces its course, forming a series of rapids. The southern flank is formed by the massif of the Reichensteiner Gebirge, which culminates in the Hochthor (77 80 ft.) and belongs to the north Styrian Alps, also called Eisenerzer Alps. This group extends east of the Enns, and contains the Erzberg (5000 ft.) celebrated for its iron ores. Other groups of the north Styrian Alps are the Hochschwab, with the highest peak the Hochschwab (7482 ft.) and the Hochveitsch with the Hohe Veitsch (6501 ft.). Then come the Lower Austrian Alps with the groups of the Voralpe (5800 ft.), of the Schneealpe (6245 ft.), and the Raxalpe, with the Heukuppe (6950 ft.). All these mountains belong to the northern zone of the eastern Alps. South of the Enns, Styria is traversed by groups of the central zone of the eastern Alps: the Niedere Tauern, the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria and the Styrian Nieder Alps. The principal divisions of the Niedere Tauern are: the Radstadter Tauern with the Hochgolling (9390 ft.), the Wolzer Alps with the Predigtstuhl (8349 ft.), the Rottenmanner Tauern with the Grosser Bssenstein (8032 ft.), and the Seckauer Alps or Zinken group, which culminates in the Zinkenkogel (7865 ft.). The principal ramifications of the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria are: the Stang Alps with the Kenigsstuhl (7646 ft.) and Eisenhut (8007 ft.), the Judenburger or Seethaler Alps with the Zirbitzkogel (7862 ft.), and the Koralpen which culminates in the Grosser Speikkogel (7023 ft.). The Styrian Nieder Alps cover the country north and east of the Mur, and contain the Fischbacher Alps with the Hochlantsch (5646 ft.), the Wechsel group (57 00 ft.), and the small Semmering group with the Stuhleck or Spitaler Alpe (5847 ft.), and the Sonnenwendstein (4994 ft.). In this group is the famous Semmering Pass, which leads from Lower Austria into Styria and is crossed by the Semmering railway. This railway, which was completed in 1854, is the oldest of the great continental mountain railways, and is remarkable for its numerous and long tunnels, its viaducts and galleries. It has a length of 35 m., beginning at Gloggnitz in Lower Austria and ending at Miirzzuschlag in Styria, and passes through some exceedingly beautiful scenery. The whole region is now a favourite summer resort. South of the Drave Styria is traversed by the following ramifications of the southern zone of the eastern Alps: the Bacher Gebirge with the Cerni Vrch or Schwarzer Berg (5078 ft.), and the Sannthaler or Steiner Alps with the Oistriza (77 0 9 ft.) and the highest peak of the group, the Grintovc or Grintouz (8429 ft.), which is situated on the threefold boundary of Carinthia, Carniola and Styria. Here is also the mountain country of Cilli, with the highest peak, the Wachberg (3364 ft.). The mountains decrease in height from west to east, and the south-east of Styria may be described as hilly rather than mountainous. This part is occupied by the eastern outliers of the Alps, known as the Styrian hill country, and by the Windisch Biiheln, which is one of the most renowned vine districts in the whole of Austria. Styria belongs to the watershed of the Danube and its principal rivers are: the Enns with its affluent the Salza, the Raab with the Feistritz, the Mur with the Miirz, the Drau or Drave, and the Sau or Save, which receives the Sann and the Sotla. Styria has numerous small Alpine lakes of which the most important are the Grundel-see, the TOplitz-see, and the Leopoldsteiner-see. There is a mean annual difference of about 9° F. between the north-west and the south-east. The best known mineral springs are the alkaline springs of Rohitsch and Gleichenberg, the brine springs of Aussee, and the thermal springs of Tiiffer, Neuhaus and Tobelbad.

In spite of the irregular nature of the surface, but little of the soil can be called unproductive. Of its total area 47-49% is covered with fine forests. About 19% is arable land, 12% pastures, 5.60% meadows, while 1.06% is occupied by gardens and 1.4% by vineyards which produce wine of a good quality. Cattle-rearing has taken a great development and also dairyfarming in the Alpine fashion. A good race of horses is bred in the valley of the Enns, while poultry-rearing and bee-keeping are carried on in the south. Fish and game are also plentiful. The great wealth of Styria, however, lies underground. Its extensive iron mines, mostly at Erzberg, which were worked during the Roman period, yield nearly half of the total production of iron in Austria. The principal foundries are at Eisenerz, Vordernberg, Trofaiach, Hiefiau, Zeltweg and Neuberg. Next in importance comes the mining of brown coal, which has also been carried on for a long time. The richest coalfields are situated near Leoben, near Voitsberg and Koflach, near Eibiswald and Wies, and round Trifail, Tiiffer and Hrastnig. Its other mineral resources include graphite, copper, zinc, lead, salt, alum, potter's clay, marble and good mill and building stones. Iron-foundries, machine-shops and manufactures of various kinds of iron and steel goods are very numerous. A special branch is the making of scythes and sickles which are exported in large quantities. Among its other industrial products are glass, paper, cement, cotton goods, chemicals and gunpowder. Linen-weaving is a household industry.

The population of Styria in 1900 was 1,356,058, which is equivalent to 156 inhabitants per square mile. This proportion is considerably above the rate in the other mountainous regions of Austria. Nearly all (98.74%), profess the Roman Catholic faith and are under the bishops of Seckau and of Lavant. The Protestants number only a little over 13,000, while there are about 2 500 Jews. Two-thirds of the inhabitants are Germans; the remainder, chiefly found in the valleys of the Drave and Save, are Sla y s (Slovenes). At the head of the educational institutions of the province stands the university of Graz. The local Diet, of which the two Roman Catholic bishops and the rector of the university of Graz are members ex officio, is composed of 63 members, while Styria sends 27 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 21 districts and 4 towns with autonomous municipalities, namely Graz (pop. 138,370), the capital, Cilli (6743), Marburg (24,501) and Pettau (4227). Other important places are Leoben (10,204), Bruck on the Mur (7527), Mariazell (1263), Mi rzzuschlag (4856), Eisenerz (6494), Vordernberg (3111), Judenburg (4901), Trifail (10,851), Eggenberg (9570), Donawitz (13,093), KOflach (3345) and Voitsberg (3321).

In the Roman period Styria, which even thus early was famed for its iron and steel, was inhabited by the Celtic Taurisci, and divided geographically between Noricum and Pannonia. Subsequently it was successively occupied or traversed by Visigoths, Huns, Ostrogoths, Langobardi, Franks and Avars. Towards the end of the 6th century the last-named began to give way to the Sla y s, who ultimately made themselves masters of the entire district. Styria was included in the conquests of Charlemagne, and was henceforth comprised in the German marks erected against the Avar and the Sla y. At first the identity of Styria is lost in the great duchy of Carinthia, corresponding more or less closely to the Upper Carinthian mark. This duchy, however, afterwards fell to pieces, and a distinct mark of Styria was recognized, taking its name from the margrave Ottacar of Steier (1056). A century or so later it was created a duchy. In 1192 the duchy of Styria came by inheritance to the house of Austria, and from that time it shared the fortunes of Upper and Lower Austria, passing like them to the Habsburgs in 1282. The Protestant Reformation met an early and general welcome in Styria, but the dukes took the most stringent measures to stamp it out, offering their subjects recantation or expatriation as the only alternatives. At least 30,000 Protestants preferred exile, and it was not till the edict of tolerance of 1781 granted by Joseph II. that religious liberty was recognized.

See Die 0sterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort and Bild, vol. vii. (24 vols., Wien, 1885-1902); A. von Muchar, Geschichte des Herzogtums Steiermark (8 vols., Graz, 1844-1867). It treats the history till 1558. F. M. Mayer, Geschichte der Steiermark Wait besonderer Riicksicht auf das Kulturleben (Graz, 1898); J. von Zahn, Styriaca (Graz, 1894-1896).


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