Subatomic particle: Wikis

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In physics, subatomic particles are the particles composing nucleons and atoms. There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles, which are not made of other particles, and composite particles. Particle physics and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact.[1]

Elementary particles of the Standard Model include:[2]

Composite subatomic particles (such as protons or atomic nuclei) are bound states of two or more elementary particles. For example, a proton is made of two up quarks and one down quark, while the atomic nuclei of helium-4 is composed of two protons and two neutrons. Composite particles include all hadrons, a group composed of baryons (e.g., protons and neutrons) and mesons (e.g., pions and kaons).

There are hundreds of known subatomic particles. Most are either the result of cosmic rays interacting with matter, or have been produced by scattering processes in particle accelerators.

The hierarchy of subatomic particles

Contents

Introduction to particles

In particle physics, the conceptual idea of a particle is one of several concepts inherited from classical physics, the world we experience, that are used to describe how matter and energy behave at the molecular scales of quantum mechanics. For physicists, the meaning of the word "particle" is rather different from the common sense of the term, reflecting the modern understanding of how particles behave at the quantum scale in ways that differ radically from what everyday experience would lead us to expect.

The idea of a particle underwent serious rethinking in light of experiments which showed that light could behave like a stream of particles (called photons) as well as exhibit wave-like properties. These results necessitated the new concept of wave-particle duality to reflect that quantum-scale "particles" are understood to behave in a way resembling both particles and waves. Another new concept, the uncertainty principle, concluded that analyzing particles at these scales would require a statistical approach. In more recent times, wave-particle duality has been shown to apply not only to photons, but to increasingly massive particles.[3]

All of these factors ultimately combined to replace the notion of discrete "particles" with the concept of "wave-packets" of uncertain boundaries, whose properties are only known as probabilities, and whose interactions with other "particles" remain largely a mystery, even 80 years after the establishment of quantum mechanics.

Energy

Energy and matter we have studied from Einstein's hypotheses are analogous: matter can be austerely denoted in terms of energy. Thus, we have only discovered two mechanisms in which energy can be transferred. These are particles and waves. For example, light can be expressed as both particles and waves. This paradox is known as the Wave–particle Duality Paradox. [4]

Through the work of Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature.[5] This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules. In fact, according to traditional formulations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, wave–particle duality applies to all objects, even macroscopic ones; we can't detect wave properties of macroscopic objects due to their small wavelengths.[6]

Interactions between particles have been scrutinized for many centuries, and a few simple laws underpin how particles behave in collisions and interactions. The most fundamental of these are the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum, which facilitate us to elucidate calculations between particle interactions on scales of magnitude which diverge between planets and quarks[7]. These are the prerequisite basics of Newtonian mechanics, a series of statements and equations in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica originally published in 1687.

Dividing an atom

An electron, which is negatively charged, has a mass equal to 1/1836 of that of a hydrogen atom. The remainder of the hydrogen atom's mass comes from the positively charged proton. The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in its nucleus. Neutrons are neutral particles having a mass slightly greater than that of the proton. Different isotopes of the same element contain the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons. The mass number of an isotope is the total number of nucleons.

Chemistry concerns itself with how electron sharing binds atoms into molecules. Nuclear physics deals with how protons and neutrons arrange themselves in nuclei. The study of subatomic particles, atoms and molecules, and their structure and interactions, requires quantum mechanics. Analyzing processes that change the numbers and types of particles requires quantum field theory. The study of subatomic particles per se is called particle physics. Since most varieties of particle occur only as a result of cosmic rays, or in particle accelerators, particle physics is also called high energy physics.

History

In 1905, Albert Einstein demonstrated the physical reality of the photons, hypothesized by Max Planck in 1900, in order to solve the problem of black body radiation in thermodynamics.

In 1874, G. Johnstone Stoney postulated a minimum unit of electrical charge, for which he suggested the name electron in 1891.[8] In 1897, J. J. Thomson confirmed Stoney's conjecture by discovering the first subatomic particle, the electron (now abbreviated e). Subsequent speculation about the structure of atoms was severely constrained by Ernest Rutherford's 1907 gold foil experiment, showing that the atom is mainly empty space, with almost all its mass concentrated in a (relatively) tiny atomic nucleus. The development of the quantum theory led to the understanding of chemistry in terms of the arrangement of electrons in the mostly empty volume of atoms. In 1918, Rutherford confirmed that the hydrogen nucleus was a particle with a positive charge, which he named the proton, now abbreviated p+. Rutherford also conjectured that all nuclei other than hydrogen contain chargeless particles, which he named the neutron. It is now abbreviated n. James Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932. The word nucleon denotes neutrons and protons collectively.

Neutrinos were postulated in 1931 by Wolfgang Pauli (and named by Enrico Fermi) to be produced in beta decays of neutrons, but were not discovered until 1956. Pions were postulated by Hideki Yukawa as mediators of the residual strong force which binds the nucleus together. The muon was discovered in 1936 by Carl D. Anderson, and initially mistaken for the pion. In the 1950s the first kaons were discovered in cosmic rays.

The development of new particle accelerators and particle detectors in the 1950s led to the discovery of a huge variety of hadrons, prompting Wolfgang Pauli's remark: "Had I foreseen this, I would have gone into botany". The classification of hadrons through the quark model in 1961 was the beginning of the golden age of modern particle physics, which culminated in the completion of the unified theory called the standard model in the 1970s. The discovery of the weak gauge bosons through the 1980s, and the verification of their properties through the 1990s is considered to be an age of consolidation in particle physics. Among the standard model particles, the existence of the Higgs boson remains to be verified— this is seen as the primary physics goal of the accelerator called the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. All currently known particles fit into the standard model.

See also

References

  1. ^ Fritzsch, Harald (2005). Elementary Particles. World Scientific. pp. 11–20. ISBN 9789812561411. http://books.google.com/books?id=KFodZ8oHz2sC&printsec=frontcover&dq=elementary+particles+subject:%22Science+/+Nuclear+Physics%22.  
  2. ^ Cottingham, W. N.; Greenwood, D. A. (2007). An introduction to the standard model of particle physics. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780521852494. http://books.google.com/books?id=Dm36BYq9iu0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=particle+physics.  
  3. ^ "Wave-particle duality of C60 molecules". Nature 401. 1999. Bibcode1999Natur.401..680A.  
  4. ^ Einstein, Albert; Lawson, Robert W. (1920). Relativity: The Special &vGeneral Theory. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 1-58734-092-5.  
  5. ^ Walter Greiner (2001). Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction. Springer. p. 29. ISBN 3540674586. http://books.google.com/books?id=7qCMUfwoQcAC&pg=PA29&dq=wave-particle+all-particles&as_brr=3&sig=2uPutqrcV_8vPVJwJnw3jstZj-o#PPA30,M1.  
  6. ^ R. Eisberg and R. Resnick (1985). Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 59–60. ISBN 047187373X. "For both large and small wavelengths, both matter and radiation have both particle and wave aspects. [...] But the wave aspects of their motion become more difficult to observe as their wavelengths become shorter. [...] For ordinary macroscopic particles the mass is so large that the momentum is always sufficiently large to make the de Broglie wavelength small enough to be beyond the range of experimental detection, and classical mechanics reigns supreme."  
  7. ^ Isaac Newton (1687). Newton's Laws of Motion (Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica)
  8. ^ Klemperer, Otto (1959). Electron Physics: The Physics of the Free Electron. Academic Press.  

Further reading

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General readers

  • Feynman, R.P. & Weinberg, S. (1987) Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Brian Greene (1999). The Elegant Universe. W.W.Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-05858-1.  
  • Oerter, Robert (2006) The Theory of Almost Everything: The Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics. Plume.
  • Schumm, Bruce A. (2004) Deep Down Things: The Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics. John Hopkins Univ. Press. ISBN 0-8018-7971-X.
  • Martinus Veltman (2003). Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics. World Scientific. ISBN 981-238-149-X.  

Textbooks

  • Coughlan, G. D., J. E. Dodd, and B. M. Gripaios (2006) The Ideas of Particle Physics: An Introduction for Scientists, 3rd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press. An undergraduate text for those not majoring in physics.
  • Griffiths, David J. (1987). Introduction to Elementary Particles. Wiley, John & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-60386-4.  
  • Kane, Gordon L. (1987). Modern Elementary Particle Physics. Perseus Books. ISBN 0-201-11749-5.  

External links


Simple English

A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom. This means it is very, very small. It is so small it cannot even be seen! It is also very interesting to scientists who try to understand atoms better. Some examples of subatomic particles are: protons, neutrons, electrons, quarks and leptons. Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks which are smaller particles. Electrons are examples of leptons.

These particles are often held together within an atom by one of the four fundamental forces (gravity, electromagnetic force, strong force, or weak force), and outside of the atom the particles often move very, very quickly- near the speed of light which is very, very fast. Subatomic particles are divided into two groups, Baryons and Leptons.

Baryons have more things than leptons. They have a given Baryon number. In reactions, the Baryon number must be conserved, meaning that both the starting and ending sides of a reaction must have the same number of Baryons. Baryonic particles are made up of a combination of the six quarks, which are among the most basic particles. The six quark types are up, down (which make up protons and neutrons), strange, charm, top, and bottom.

Leptons are generally much smaller than Baryons. This category includes electrons, Muons, Taus and neutrinos. Leptons are not made up of quarks, and are not divisible.

In addition to these, there are also anti-particles, which have the same mass as their normal counterparts, except they have the opposite charge. Anti-matter and matter cannot exist near each other. Whenever matter and antimatter collide, they destroy each other with a huge release of energy equivalent to E=mc2, where m is the combined mass of the particles, c is the speed of light, and E is the energy produced. These collisions often take place in large particle accelerators, where the energy can turn back into matter by the same equation. This can produce many odd particles that exist only for a short time.

Most of the particles discovered are created by accelerating particles and colliding them against others, creating huge showers of new subatomic particles which decay extremely quickly. However, because the particles are moving close to the speed of light, they obey the law of special relativity, and undergo time dilation. This means that time passes slower for the particle, and they can travel (and be measured) over a longer distance than scientists might predict.


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