Subspecies: Wikis

  
  

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Subspecies (commonly abbreviated subsp. or ssp.) in biological classification, is 1, a taxonomic rank subordinate to species, or 2, a taxonomic unit, a taxon in that rank (plural: subspecies). A subspecies cannot be recognized in isolation: a species will either be recognized as having no subspecies at all or two or more, never just one.
.The differences between subspecies are usually less distinct than the differences between species.^ Between five and 18 species are accepted by different authorities.
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The characteristics attributed to subspecies generally have evolved as a result of geographical distribution or isolation.

Contents

Nomenclature

.In zoology, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th edition, 1999) accepts only one rank below that of species, namely this rank of subspecies or race.^ The name "Desert Cat" is reserved for a subspecies of the true Wild Cat, but it would go better with this species.
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Other groupings, "infrasubspecific entities" (e.g. pet breeds and Transgenic Animals) do not have names regulated by the ICZN. Such forms have no official status, though they may be useful in describing altitudinal or geographical clines. The scientific name of a subspecies is a binomen followed by a subspecific name, as Panthera tigris sumatrae (Sumatran Tiger). A name of this kind is called a trinomen.
Likewise in bacteriology, the only rank allowed below species is subspecies. Names published before 1992 in the rank of variety are taken to be names of subspecies; see International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria).
In botany, subspecies is one of many ranks below that of species, such as variety, subvariety, form, and subform. The subspecific name is preceded by "ssp." or "subsp.", as Schoenoplectus californicus ssp. tatora (Totora). Any botanical name including a subspecies, variety, etc., is called a ternary name.

Nominate subspecies

A subspecies indicated by the repetition of the specific name is known as the nominate subspecies. Thus Motacilla alba alba (often abbreviated Motacilla a. alba) is the nominate subspecies of the White Wagtail (Motacilla alba).
.(A somewhat similar system also applies in the case of genera: a genus may have a subgenus of the same name, and that is known as the nominate subgenus, for example the Kerry slug, Geomalacus maculosus, is also sometimes known as Geomalacus (Geomalacus) maculosus.^ Sandalwood The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is a fragrant wood, and the name may be applied to any of a number of woods.
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^ Santa Apollonia Santa Apollonia may refer to: Saint ApolloniaRéunion island, known as Santa Apollonia when it was ruled by the Portuguese This is a [disambiguationdisambiguation] page: a list of articles associated with the same title.
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^ Sandfish Sandfish is a common name of Gonorhynchus, a genus of fishScincus scincus, a skink This is a [disambiguationdisambiguation] page: a list of articles associated with the same title.
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)

Doubtful cases

.When biologists disagree over whether a certain population is a subspecies or a full species, the species name may be written in parentheses.^ The name "Desert Cat" is reserved for a subspecies of the true Wild Cat, but it would go better with this species.
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Thus Larus (argentatus) smithsonianus means the American Herring Gull; the notation with parentheses means that some consider it a subspecies of a larger Herring Gull species and therefore call it Larus argentatus smithsonianus, while others consider it a full species and therefore call it Larus smithsonianus (and the user of the notation was not taking a position).

Criteria

.Members of one subspecies differ morphologically or by different coding sequences of a peptide from members of other subspecies of the species.^ Graduated from high school, she planned to study Art and Design but, one night at an university party, the other three members of the future band w..
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Subspecies are defined in relation to species.
.If the two groups do not interbreed because of something intrinsic to their genetic make-up (perhaps green frogs do not find red frogs sexually attractive, or they breed at different times of year) then they are different species.^ Santo Onofre The freguesia of Santo Onofre, along with Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, is one of the two parishes which make up the city of Caldas da Rainha, Portugal.
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.If, on the other hand, the two groups would interbreed freely provided only that some external barrier was removed (perhaps there is a waterfall too high for frogs to scale, or the populations are far distant from one another) then they are subspecies.^ Sandwich (disambiguation) The word sandwich, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language: Sandwich -- a preparation of meat or some other filling between two slices of bread, which can be held in the hand and eaten without utensils (in theory).* By extension; a layered material consisting of one o..
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^ San Diego Jaws The San Diego Jaws were a soccer team based out of San Diego that played in the NASL. They only lasted one year, 1976.
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^ Two famous shipwrecks, one in 1906 and another in 1943, occurred near Sannak.
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Other factors include differences in mating behavior or time and ecological preferences such as soil content.
.Note that the distinction between a species and a subspecies depends only on the likelihood that in the absence of external barriers the two populations would merge back into a single, genetically unified population.^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
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^ The name "Desert Cat" is reserved for a subspecies of the true Wild Cat, but it would go better with this species.
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It has nothing to do with 'how different' the two groups appear to be to the human observer.
As knowledge of a particular group increases, its categorisation may need to be re-assessed. The Rock Pipit was formerly classed as a subspecies of Water Pipit, but is now recognised to be a full species. For an example of a subspecies, see Pied Wagtail.
Cryptic species are morphologically similar, but have differences in DNA or other factors.

Monotypic and polytypic species

A monotypic species has no races, or rather one race comprising the whole species. Monotypic species can occur in several ways:
.
  • All members of the species are very similar and cannot be sensibly divided into biologically significant subcategories.
  • The individuals vary considerably but the variation is essentially random and largely meaningless so far as genetic transmission of these variations is concerned.
  • The variation among individuals is noticeable and follows a pattern, but there are no clear dividing lines among separate groups: they fade imperceptibly into one another.^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
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    ^ Santa Bárbara (department) Santa Bárbara is one of the 18 departments (departamentos) into which the Central American nation of Honduras is divided.
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    ^ They are very small fishes: with the exception of the larger Donaldson's sandburrower, Limnichthys donaldsoni, most species reach onl..
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    Such clinal variation always indicates substantial gene flow among the apparently separate groups that make up the population(s). Populations that have a steady, substantial gene flow among them are likely to represent a monotypic species even when a fair degree of genetic variation is obvious.
A polytypic species has two or more races or subspecies. These are separate groups that are clearly distinct from one another and do not generally interbreed (although there may be a relatively narrow hybridization zone), but which would interbreed freely if given the chance to do so. .Note that groups which would not interbreed freely, even if brought together such that they had the opportunity to do so, are not races: they are separate species.^ Note that the city name (Sanmu) is pronounced differently from the town name (Sanbu) even though they are written with the sa..
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^ Note that the city name is pronounced differently from the town name even though they are written with the same Japanese characters.
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See also

References

  • Ernst Mayr, Peter D. Ashlock: Principles of Systematic Zoology, Mcgraw-Hill College, 1991, ISBN 0070411441

Wikispecies

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Simple English

Subspecies is a classification (taxonomy) in biology. It is directly below species. When looking at the Latin name, subspecies are indicated by the third name. Subspecies can mix with each other; animals or plants from different subspecies can have offspring together (This is not the case with those from different species).

When looking at subspecies, they can also be told apart sufficiently by looking at the appearance or DNA of an animal or a plant.

Very often, there are populations that are between two subspecies; this is because evolution is a continuous process. Subspecies can often be recognised by subsp or ssp (before the third part of the name) especially in botany.

Examples of subspecies are:

  • The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and the dingo (Canis lupus dingo) are both subspecies of the wolf (Canis lupus)
  • The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) is a subspecies of the Wild cat (Felis silvestris)



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Species, which are similar to those in the above article.








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