|Molar mass||118.09 g/mol|
235 °C, 508 K, 455 °F
|Solubility in 2-propanol, ethanol||2-propanol 0.32 M, ethanol 0.4 M |
|Related carboxylic acids||propionic acid
(what is this?) |
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Succinic acid ( pronunciation: [sək-ˈsi-nik ˈa-səd]; IUPAC systematic name: butanedioic acid; historically known as spirit of amber) is a dicarboxylic acid. Succinate plays a biochemical role in the citric acid cycle. The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber, from which the acid may be obtained.
This is catalysed by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (or complex II of the mitochondrial ETC). The complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ubiquinone. Intermediate electron carriers are FAD and three Fe2S2 clusters part of subunit B.
In nutraceutical form as a food additive and dietary supplement, is safe and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. As an excipient in pharmaceutical products it is used to control acidity and, more rarely, in effervescent tablets.
Succinic acid is created as a byproduct of the fermentation of sugar. It lends to fermented beverages such as wine and beer a common taste that is a combination of saltiness, bitterness and acidity.
|Citric Acid Cycle Metabolic Pathway|
|Acetyl-CoA||NADH + H+||NAD+||H2O||FADH2||FAD||CoA + ATP(GTP)||Pi + ADP(GDP)|
|+||H2O||NADH + H+ + CO2|
|H2O||H2O||NAD(P)+||NAD(P)H + H+||CO2|
Redirecting to Succinic acid