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Suffolk
Arms of Suffolk.svg
Motto of County Council: Guide Our Endeavour
EnglandSuffolk.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county
Region East of England[1]
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 8th
3,801 km2 (1,468 sq mi)
Ranked 7th
Admin HQ Ipswich
ISO 3166-2 GB-SFK
ONS code 42
NUTS 3 UKH14
Demography
Population
- Total ()
- Density
- Admin. council
31st
715,700
188 /km2 (487/sq mi)
Ranked 13th
Ethnicity 97.2% White
Politics
Suffolk County Council
www.suffolk.gov.uk
Executive Conservative
Members of Parliament

Bob Blizzard (L)
John Gummer (C)
Michael Lord (C)
Chris Mole (L)
David Ruffley (C)
Richard Spring (C)
Tim Yeo (C)

Districts
SuffolkNumbered.png
  1. Ipswich
  2. Suffolk Coastal
  3. Waveney
  4. Mid Suffolk
  5. Babergh
  6. St Edmundsbury
  7. Forest Heath

Suffolk (pronounced /ˈsʌfək/) is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England. It has borders with Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; other important towns include Lowestoft, Bury St Edmunds and Felixstowe, one of the largest container ports in Europe.[2]

The county is low-lying with few hills, and is largely wetland habitat and arable land with the wetlands of The Broads in the North. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Contents

History

Administration

Suffolk was part of the kingdom of East Anglia which was settled by the Angles in the 5th century AD.

Suffolk was divided into separate Quarter Sessions divisions. These were originally four in number, reduced to two in 1860, the eastern division being administered from Ipswich and the western from Bury St Edmunds. The two divisions were made separate administrative counties as East Suffolk and West Suffolk under the Local Government Act 1888, with Ipswich becoming a county borough. A few Essex parishes were also added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon, and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.

Under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk and Ipswich were merged to form a unified county of Suffolk on 1 April 1974. This was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Ipswich, Mid Suffolk, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, and Waveney. This Act also transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Bill would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire, but Colchester would have been transferred in from Essex; but those changes were not included in Act as passed.

In 2007 the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee.[3][4] The Boundary Committee consulted local bodies and reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, however, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. The Boundary Committee is currently reviewing local government in the county, which may result in the splitting of Suffolk into two unitary authorities - Ipswich & Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk.[5]

Archaeology

West Suffolk is, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath[6]. Many bronze objects, such as swords, spearheads, arrows, axes, palstaves, knives, daggers, rapiers, armour, decorative equipment (in particular for horses) and fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to the Moyse's Hall Museum in Bury St Edmunds. Other finds include traces of cremations and barrows.

In the East of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most signicant Anglo-Saxon archæological finds; a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State, gold and silver bowls and jewellery and a lyre.

Economy

The majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either arable or mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres (32 hectares) to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays through to light sands. Crops grown include winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape, winter and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found in lighter areas along with a variety of vegetables.

The continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, which is held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains primarily an agricultural show.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[fn 1] Agriculture[fn 2] Industry[fn 3] Services[fn 4]
1995 7,113 391 2,449 4,273
2000 8,096 259 2,589 5,248
2003 9,456 270 2,602 6,583
See also: Companies based in Suffolk

Well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene King and Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye have their largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all their meat products and frozen vegetables come from. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company are now in Sudbury. The UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews have some processing units in the county, specifically Holton. Southwold is the home of Adnams Brewery. The Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports, are Port of Lowestoft and port of Ipswich run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main research and development facility at Martlesham Heath.

Geology, landscape and ecology

Much of Suffolk is low-lying on Eocene sand and clays. These rocks are relatively unresistant and the coast is eroding rapidly. Coastal defences have been used to protect several towns, but several cliff-top houses have been lost to coastal erosion in the past. The continuing protection of the coastline and the estuaries, including the Blyth, Alde and Deben, is, in 2008, a matter of considerable discussion.[7]

The coastal strip to the East contains an area of heathland known as "The Sandlings" which runs almost the full length of the coastline.[8]

The west of the county lies on more resistant Cretaceous Chalk. This chalk is the north-eastern extreme of the Southern England Chalk Formation that stretches from Dorset in the south west to Dover in the south east. The Chalk is less easily eroded so forms the only significant hills in the county. The highest point of the county is Great Wood Hill, the highest point of the Newmarket Ridge, near the village of Rede which reaches 128 m (420 ft).

Demographics

The Census 2001 Suffolk recorded a population of 668,553[9]. Between 1981 and 2001 the population of the county grew by 13%, with the district of Mid Suffolk growing fastest at 25%. The population growth is due largely to migration rather than natural increase. There is a very low population between the ages of 15 and 29 as the county has few large towns and institutions of higher education, though the 15-to-29 population in Ipswich is average. There is a larger population over the age of 35, and a larger than average retired population.

Historically, the county's population have mostly been employed as agricultural workers. An 1835 survey showed Suffolk to have 4,526 occupiers of land employing labourers, 1,121 occupiers not employing labourers, 33,040 labourers employed in agriculture, 676 employed in manufacture, 18,167 employed in retail trade or handicraft, 2,228 'capitalists, bankers etc', 5,336 labourers (non-agricultural), 4,940 other males aged over 20, 2,032 male servants and 11,483 female servants.[10] The same publication records the total population of the county at 296,304.

Most English counties have nicknames for people from that county, such as a Tyke from Yorkshire and a Yellowbelly from Lincolnshire; the traditional nickname for people from Suffolk is 'Suffolk Fair-Maids', or 'Silly Suffolk', referring respectively to the supposed beauty of its female inhabitants in the Middle Ages, and to the long history of Christianity in the county and its many fine churches (from Anglo-Saxon selige, originally meaning holy).[citation needed]

Cities, towns and villages

Figures for the number of established communities in Suffolk vary greatly among sources because of the treatment of the large number of all but non-existent hamlets which may consist of just a single farm and a deconsecrated church: remnants of wealthy communities, some dating back to the early days of the Christian era. Suffolk encompasses one of the most ancient regions of the UK: A monastery in Bury St. Edmunds founded in 630AD, plotting of Magna Carta in 1215; the oldest documented structural element of a still inhabited dwelling in Britain found in Clare.

This comparatively recent evidence is but a coda to the widespread settlement in the region shown by earlier archaeological evidence of Mesolithic man as far back as c.7000BC, (Grimes Graves, Norfolk - a 5000 y/o flint mine) with Roman settlements Lakenheath, Long Melford, later Bronze and Saxon settlements. Sutton Hoo: burial ground of the Anglo-Saxon pagan kings of East Anglia.

For a full list of settlements see the List of places in Suffolk.

Notable people

Gainsborough's Mr and Mrs Andrews (1748-49), in the National Gallery in London, depicts in the background the Suffolk landscape of his time.
See also: People from Suffolk

In the arts, Suffolk is noted for having been the home to two of England's best regarded painters, Thomas Gainsborough[11] and John Constable - the Stour Valley area is branded as "Constable Country"[12] - and one of its most noted composers, Benjamin Britten.[13] Other artists of note from Suffolk include the cartoonist Carl Giles (a bronze statue of his character "Grandma" to commemorate this is located in Ipswich town centre), poet Robert Bloomfield,[14] writer and editor Ronald Blythe, actors Ralph Fiennes and Bob Hoskins, musician and record producer Brian Eno and Dani Filth, singer of the Suffolk-based extreme metal group, Cradle of Filth. Hip-hop DJ Tim Westwood is originally from Suffolk and the influential DJ and radio presenter John Peel made the county his home.[15]

Suffolk's contributions to sport include Formula One magnate Bernie Ecclestone and England footballers Terry Butcher, Kieron Dyer and Matthew Upson. Due to Newmarket being the centre of British horseracing many jockeys have settled in the county, including Lester Piggott and Frankie Dettori.

Significant ecclesiastical figures from Suffolk include former Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon Sudbury, Tudor Catholic cardinal Thomas Wolsey, and author, poet and Benedictine monk John Lydgate

Other significant persons from Suffolk include the Suffragette, Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, captain of HMS Beagle, Robert FitzRoy, Witch-finder General Matthew Hopkins and both Britain's first female physician and mayor, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. Charity leader Sue Ryder settled in Suffolk and based her charity in Cavendish.

St Edmund

King of East Anglia and Christian martyr St Edmund (after whom the town of Bury St Edmunds is named) was killed by invading Danes in the year 869. St Edmund was the patron saint of England until he was replaced by St George in the thirteenth century.

2006 saw the failure of a campaign to have St Edmund named as the patron saint of England, but in 2007 he was named patron saint of Suffolk, with St Edmund's Day falling on 20 November. His flag will be flown in Suffolk on that day.[16]

Education

Primary and Secondary

Suffolk has a comprehensive education system with fourteen independent schools. Unusually for the UK, most of Suffolk has a 3-tier school system in place with Primary Schools (ages 5–9), Middle Schools (ages 9–13) and Upper Schools (ages 13–16). However, a 2006 Suffolk County Council study has concluded that Suffolk should move to the 2-tier school system used in the majority of the UK.[17] The exception to this is in the Ipswich district and parts of the districts of Suffolk Coastal, Mid Suffolk, and Babergh, where the more common 11-16 age schools are in place. All of the county's Upper schools have a sixth form as there are at present (2008) no specific sixth form colleges (though most further education colleges in the county offer A-level courses). In terms of school population, Suffolk's individual schools are large with the Ipswich district with the largest school population and Forest Heath the smallest, with just two schools. The Royal Hospital School near Ipswich, is the largest independent boarding school in Suffolk.

Tertiary

University Campus Suffolk, a collaboration between the University of Essex, the University of East Anglia, partner colleges such as Suffolk New College and local government, began accepting its first students in September 2007. The main Ipswich based waterfront campus building is due for completion in September 2008.[18] Prior to this Suffolk was one of the few English counties not to contain a University campus.

Culture

Sport

Football

The county's sole professional football club is Ipswich Town. Formed in 1878, the club were Football League champions in 1961–62, FA Cup winners in 1977–78 and UEFA Cup winners in 1980–81.[19] Ipswich Town currently play in the Football League Championship - the next highest ranked teams in Suffolk are Bury Town and AFC Sudbury of the Southern League Division One Midlands, and Lowestoft Town in Isthmian League Division One North.

Horse racing

The town of Newmarket is the headquarters of British horseracing - home to the largest cluster of training yards in the country, many key horse racing organisations, including the National Stud,[20] and Newmarket Racecourse. Tattersalls bloodstock auctioneers and the National Horseracing Museum are also in the town. Point to point racing takes place at Higham and Ampton.[21]

Speedway

Speedway racing has been staged in Suffolk since at least the 1950s, following the construction of the Foxhall Stadium, just outside Ipswich, home of the Ipswich Witches. The Witches are currently members of the Speedway Elite League, the UK's top division. Speedway Premier League team Mildenhall Fen Tigers are also from Suffolk.

Cricket

Suffolk C.C.C. compete in the Eastern Division of the Minor Counties Championship.[22] The club has won the championship three times outright and has shared the title one other time as well as winning the MCCA Knockout Trophy once.[23] Home games are played in Bury St Edmunds, Copdock, Exning, Framlingham, Ipswich and Mildenhall.[24]

Arts

Founded in 1948 by Benjamin Britten, the annual Aldeburgh Festival is one of the UK's major classical music festivals. Originating in Aldeburgh, it has been held at the nearby Snape Maltings since 1967. Since 2006, Henham Park, has been home to the annual Latitude Festival. This mainly open-air festival, which has grown considerably in size and scope, includes popular music, comedy, poetry and literary events.

Suffolk in popular culture

The Rendlesham Forest Incident is one of most famous UFO events in England and is commonly referred to as "Britain's Roswell".

The Fourth Protocol, a novel written by Frederick Forsyth, is a Cold War spy thriller partly set in Suffolk and was made into a film starring Michael Caine and Pierce Brosnan. Other novels set in Suffolk include Unnatural Causes by P.D. James and Among the Arthur Ransome's children's books "We Didn't Mean to Go to Sea" and "Coot Club".

A TV series about a British antiques dealer, Lovejoy, was filmed in various locations in Suffolk.[25] The reality TV Series Space Cadets was filmed in Rendlesham Forest, although the producers pretended to the participants that they were in Russia. Several towns and villages in the county have been used for location filming of other television programmes and cinema films. These include an episode of Kavanagh QC and the film Iris.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  2. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  3. ^ includes energy and construction
  4. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

References

  1. ^ Hierarchical list of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics and the statistical regions of Europe The European Commission, Statistical Office of the European Communities (retrieved 6 January 2008)
  2. ^ Felixstowe South reconfiguration inspector's report Department for Transport
  3. ^ Unitary Ipswich - Ipswich's bid for unitary status
  4. ^ Communities and Local Government - Proposals for future unitary structures: Stakeholder consultation
  5. ^ "Suffolk structural review". The Electroal Commission. http://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/boundary-reviews/all-reviews/eastern/suffolk/suffolk-structural-review. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  6. ^ Hall, David. Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence / David Hall and John Coles. London; English Heritage. ISBN 1-85074-477-7. , p. 81-88
  7. ^ "Sea Defences to be saved" East Anglian Daily Times - 29th October 2008
  8. ^ Suffolk Coast and Heaths
  9. ^ Suffolk Profile (2001 Census)
  10. ^ 'The British Almanac' - 1835
  11. ^ "Biography". Gainsborough's House. http://www.gainsborough.org/tg/biography.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  12. ^ "Constable Country walk". The National Trust. http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-vh/w-visits/w-findaplace/w-flatfordbridgecottage/w-flatfordbridgecottage-walk.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  13. ^ "Intervews: Benjamin Britten 1913 - 1976". BBC Four online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/brittenb2.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  14. ^ Cousin, John W.. "A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature". Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=89429&pageno=37. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  15. ^ Lusher, Adam (2006-10-21). "John Peel leaves his wife £1.5m, oh, and 25,000 records". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1532070/John-Peel-leaves-his-wife-andpound1.5m,-oh,-and-25,000-records.html. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  16. ^ "St. Edmund will be Suffolk's patron saint" East Anglian Daily Times 23rd April 2007
  17. ^ "Middle Schools Under Threat" Suffolk Free Press - Dec 2006
  18. ^ University Campus Suffolk - Ipswich
  19. ^ "Club honours". Ipswich Town F.C.. http://web.archive.org/web/20051213211801/www.itfc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/HistoryDetail/0,,10272~347323,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-14. 
  20. ^ "Suffolk Tourism". www.suffolktouristguide.com. http://www.suffolktouristguide.com/. Retrieved 2009-02-02. 
  21. ^ "Courses". www.pointingea.com. http://www.pointingea.com/courses/courses.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-14. 
  22. ^ "Minor Counties Cricket Association". =Cricinfo. http://uk.cricinfo.com/link_to_database/NATIONAL/ENG/MINOR/MCCA/. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  23. ^ "Minor Counties Roll of Honour". www.ecb.co.uk. http://www.ecb.co.uk/news/non-first-class/minor-counties/minor-counties-roll-of-honour,1480,BP.html. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  24. ^ "Minor County Grounds". Cricinfo. http://uk.cricinfo.com/db/NATIONAL/ENG/MINOR/MCCA/GROUNDS.html. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  25. ^ "Lovejoy" (1986) - Filming locations

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Southwold beach hut
Southwold beach hut
Suffolk[1] is a picturesque county in England located in East Anglia. One of the largest counties in the country, it shares its borders with Norfolk to the north, Essex to the south, Cambridgeshire to the east and the North Sea to the west. Suffolk encompasses one of the most ancient parts of England and has maintained its largely agricultural roots. Consequently it is proving to be a growing favourite with tourists who want to experience incredible beaches, traditional country living, and pastoral beauty all in the same place.
Map of Suffolk
Map of Suffolk
  • Sealand - A sea fort which claims to be world's smallest independent 'country' off the coast of Suffolk

Understand

Suffolk's biggest appeal is its untouched essence. Ignored by tourists, it is perfect for those adventurous enough to get off the beaten track and explore the county.

Full of unspoilt countryside and exquisite beaches, Suffolk is home to towns and villages of various small size. The capital town is Ipswich, one of England's oldest towns as testament to Suffolk's antiquity . This rural county in 2001 recorded just a 668,553 population, and so despite having ample shops and services, it remains the perfect antitode to urban life. Moreover it's geographical positioning means it is able to offer visitors a seaside trip at award-winning beaches, a rural retreat to the Norfolk Broads, and a historical haven in the Victorian town of Felixstowe.

Talk

Whilst Suffolk is by no means densely populated, it enjoys a strong community feel due to its small pockets of close-knit villages and hamlets in the county. In such an environment, meeting people and indulging in the company of others is certainly a fixture despite the lack of bars and clubs outside of Ipswich. Moreover, busy market Newmarket and the fashionable beaches of the Sunrise Coast often draw large crowds, particularly on festival/racing days of which there are many.

Get in

Suffolk has a wide variety of transport available to those visiting the county. Situated just two hours from London, Suffolk is accessible by car, bus and train.

Car

As a large county, Suffolk is accessible from many directions and despite it's idyllic isolation, is very well connected to the UK motorway system. If you are coming from the North of England or the Midlands the A14 runs from the M6/M1 junction crossing the A1 near Huntingdon, then running near to Cambridge, Newmarket, Bury St Edmunds, and Ipswich before ending at the port of Felixstowe. Just east of Newmarket the A11 heads north past Thetford to Norwich. If you are entering the county from London, there are a number of main motorways that can be used. The A12 runs through Essex to Ipswich and Lowestoft whilst the M11 coming off the M25 runs close to the West of Suffolk through Cambridgeshire.

Boat

Sunrise over the port of Felixstowe
Sunrise over the port of Felixstowe
As a coastal county, Suffolk has its own port at Felixstowe. Whilst this has not operated in a commercial sense for some time, nearby ports at Harwich, Essex are, and it is still possible to travel by boat from the port to Europe. Stenaline runs regular services to the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark.

Air

Being a London satellite area, Suffolk is serviced by the London airports, in particular, Stansted. Stansted Airport is close to the M11 and is served by rail to London (Liverpool Street) and Cambridge, Peterborough and Ely. Stansted is the third largest London airport and has direct scheduled flights to Europe and other parts of the UK. There is also a regional airport, Norwich Airport in neighbouring county Norfolk.

Bus Most bus routes will be to and from London, and most of the major towns and points of interest are serviced. There are occasional direct routes from Birmingham and Northern major cities. Prices vary between operators and time of year.

Rail

Formerly run by One Railways, most services in the Suffolk area are operated by National Express East Anglia. Trains from London to Ipswich, Newmarket or Felixstowe run between every 15 minutes to every hour, and are normally around an hour and a half. Prices vary depending on age, time of year, and operator, and usually include a sharp spike in price if tickets are bought on the day of travel.

Get around

On Foot

With some of the most beautiful natural scenes in the country, getting about on foot is a must. Getting muddy in the Norfolk broads, or taking a walk down the beach in Southwold are popular favourites. Due to the large size of the county, getting to neighbouring towns on foot is virtually impossible. However, towns can be thoroughly explored by foot and most towns are pedestrian friendly. Moreover, larger towns such as Ipswich and ancient market town Newmarket, are catered to pedestrians and shoppers.

Bus

Buses are operated by First Group Coach Services who run a regular service between towns. Prices vary depending on area and distance travelled, and late services are exceptionally limited and are reserved only for the large towns. Ipswich also offer a park and ride service to maintain the peacefulness of even it's largest town.

Trains

There are many different train routes running within Suffolk and to neighbouring counties, and most are operated by One Railway. Services by the operator have been criticised highly but are for the most part are regular with tickets available from National Rail. However, such services do not come cheap, with Suffolk train fares the 5th highest in the country- unusual considering the small population of the county and consequently lower demand.

Car

Suffolk roads connecting
Suffolk roads connecting
With the sheer breadth of the county, getting around by car is probably most convenient. Moreover with most towns connected by country lanes, and the rising price of fares, travelling by car is not only more convenient, but potentially cheaper.

See

Itineraries

Suffolk is one of the largest counties in the UK and every town has something incredible to see.

Newmarket is a world unto itself. This ancient market town, has remained faithful to it's regal roots, as the town that Charles II once set up home upon. Building his royal palace here, he established the first horse racecourse in Britain, a tradition that has remained in Newmarket today. Now devoted entirely to horseracing, the area has two racecourses, the July Course and the Rowley Mile- named after Charles II favourite horse 'Old Rowley'.

Bury St Edmunds is another medieval market town known for its medieval ruins made up of a monastry destroyed by Henry VIII. It also is home to the awe-inspiring 16th Century Cathedral of St.Edmundsbury, a well preserved cathedral worthy of study. The market still runs today and sells local produce from the fens in keeping with the county's authentic traditionalism.

Lavenham is perhaps the most picturesque of all the villages. Suffolk as a whole is known for its beautiful village houses of pink walls and black thatch, and Lavenham is the epitome of this. Especially popular with painters, Lavenham has over 300 listed buildings, most of them authentic medieval buildings, whilst being home to one of Britain's WW2 airfields. Now deserted with the natural landscape typical of Suffolk, it remains a thought-provoking and beautiful sight.

Felixstowe is known as the 'Garden Resort of the East Coast' due to its exquisite seafront garden areas. The gardens are in many respects, a national treasure and they have been recognised on the English Heritage Register.

Orford Castle
Orford Castle
Orford is home to Orford Castle, a well preserved medieval fortress built in the 12th century.

The Sunrise Coast is the name given to the East Anglian Coast of North Suffolk. It includes within this title, beaches, the Norfolk Broads National Park and some of the market towns. Lowestoft is home to two of the award-winning beaches in the area, whilst trendy beach Southwold offers a more classical beach holiday.

Ipswich has a rich history despite often being overlooked for its strong links with London and more commercial nature. Nonetheless, the town is very much a thriving part of Suffolk, with Christchurch Mansion presenting a superb art collection including paintings by Constable and Gainsborough of the local area.

Ely is known for its breathtaking Cathedral, with spires to make any architect fan's heart race.

John Russell Gallery is a perfect combination of tradition with a modern twist. Displaying art from East Anglian artists solely- most of which is focused on the landscape- this gallery specialises in the contemporary art sphere.

Do

Despite Suffolk's relaxed environment, with its royal history and devotion to heart-warming countryside tradition it is a treasure trove of activity begging to be discovered.

Image:July course.jpg
The Rowley Mile Racecourse
Attending Newmarket on race day is an essential part of a trip to Suffolk. Take a 'flutter' and place a bet on some of the best horses racing in the country. The town is also a thriving shopping centre, with a wealth of eateries, shops and even overnight accommodation where needed.

Southwold is home to Adnams brewery, a local brewer making beer and wine. This established and acclaimed brewer have attracted fame for their dedication to traditional brewing and high standards of drink. The products of the Adnams brewery rarely leaves the borders of Suffolk due to deterioriation in taste, so find out how these drinks are made with the brewery guided tour in Southwold.

Suffolk is the festival hotspot of the country. Suffolk offers a number of cultural, traditional and family-oriented festivals. The most famous of these is Latitude festival, a popular music, arts and comedy festival held at Henham Park. Other festivals include Aldeburgh Festival- a festival of classical music set up by Benjamin Britten in the trendy/affluent area of Aldeburgh- and the two Southwold and Laversham Literature festivals.

Image:IpswichTown.jpg
Danny Simpson playing for Ipswich Town
For sports fans, going to see a match can be thrilling. Ipswich Town Football Club currently play at Portman Road Stadium. Competing in the Football League Championship Ipswich have a very respectable record of wins and are sure to get pulses racing. For cricket lovers, Suffolk County Cricket Club compete in the Minor Counties Championship, and also have a successful track record of three championship.

Crabbing isn't just a hobby in Suffolk- it's a life. Check out the British Open Crabbing Championship held each year in Walberswick, growing in size each year, it is not uncommon for the event to attract over a thousand entrants.

Visitors often take advantage of the beautiful River Ore boat trips- a favourite with the residents is the Orford quay to Richardson's Smokehouse trip, an excursion where patrons can sample freshly smoked fish and meat from a local family who have run the company for three generations.

In Felixstowe, The Spa Pavilion Theatre caters for spectators all year round, with a variety of shows from pantomime to ballet. At Felixstowe Ferry, travellers can take a trip across the estuary to Bawdsey, and find out about about the place where radar began.

For budding historians, there is nothing much more historical than Sutton Hoo. This national trust site served as a burial ground for Anglo-Saxon kings, and today there are various tours around the chamber.

Orford is also home to Orford Castle, the former abode of Henry II. Explore the maze-like building itself, and compare to nearby castle, Framlingham Castle.

Eat

Suffolk has a tasty selection of well-known restaurants serving a range of cuisine. It is particularly noted for its gastropubs, establishments adhering to the sumptuous tradition of the English pub, with an emphasis on brilliant cuisine.

The Anchor Inn a fine selection of speciality beers and wine, with traditional pub food, at low prices Main Street, Walberswick, nr Southwold, Suffolk IP18 6UA Tel 01502 722112

The Swan Inn being by the coast it’s no surprise that fresh fish is a popular choice for diners. A restaurant for fishermen at reasonable prices Swan Lane, Barnby, nr Beccles, Suffolk NR34 7QF Tel 01502 476646

152 Aldeburgh Local food at low prices in this restaurants calendar-correct menu 152 High Street, Aldeburgh, Suffolk IP15 5AQ Tel 01728 454594

The White Hart an adorably anarchic village pub as they should be. Enjoy fine food next to the loyal followers or the knitting circle or local crabbers group Helmingham Road, Otley Suffolk IP6 9NS Tel 01473 890312

The Station Hotel see the castle, then eat like a king in this relaxed eating establishment Station Road, Framlingham, Suffolk IP13 9EE Tel 01728 723455

Maison Bleue Suffolk might be quintessentially British, but some French charm does not go amiss with a delightfully fishy menu 30-31 Churchgate Street, Bury St Edmunds IP33 1RG Tel 01284 760623

Crown and Castle Modern buzzy restaurant with eclectic menu Orford, Near Woodbridge, Suffolk IP12 2LJ Tel 01394 450205

The Swan Hotel Lavish restaurant with a good choice of wine by the glass and selection of food for vegetarians High Street, Lavenham CO10 9QA Tel 01787 247477

Splurge

Hintlesham Hall Dress up for an impressive dinner served in a sixteenth century manor house. Choose from the most delectable dishes, including cream of Jerusalem artichoke & watercress soup, all using fresh local produce Hintlesham, Ipswich IP8 3NS Tel 01473 652268

Fredericks at the Ickworth Feast not only your appetite, but your eyes on the decadent architecture and interiors of the Ickworth. With local food given an extravagant twist by up and coming chef Lee Childs Horringer, Bury St Edmunds 1P29 5QE Tel 01284 735350

  • Swallow Belstead Brook Hotel, Belstead Rd, Ipswich, IP2, [2]. Former hunting lodge turned hotel, this establishment still maintains the same cosiness and relaxing charm  edit
  • Melverley Heights Guest House, 62 Tuddenham Road, Ipswich, IP4 2SP. Victorian property offering bed and breakfast made from local produce  edit
  • The Crown Inn Hotel, Hall Street, Long Melford, Sudbury, CO10 9JL. Family run 17th Century Inn complete with restaurant offering a full A La Carte menu for dinner & lunch  edit
  • The White Hart Hotel, 134 High Street, Newmarket, CB8 8JP, [3]. This hotel is ideally situated on the High Street in the centre of Newmarket, just 20 minutes walk from the racecourse and 10 minutes from the Tattersalls auctioneers  edit
  • The Mill Hotel, Walnut Tree Lane, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 1BD, [4]. Edwardian style well furnished hotel with popular restaurant  edit
  • Bawdsey Manor Bed and Breakfast (B&B and Guesthouse), Bawdsey Manor, Bawdsey, Woodbridge, Suffolk, IP12 3AZ, +441394 411 633, [5]. Large bed and breakfast in a beautiful house set in outstanding location in Suffolk.  edit
  • Winelodge (Contemporary hotel), 1 Victoria Terrace Esplanade, Lowestoft, NR33 0QG, 01502 512 777, [6]. Modern hotel offering well appointed, hi-tech and stylish accommodation.  edit
  • Bedford Lodge Hotel, Bury Road, Newmarket, CB8 7BX Nr Cambridge, [7]. Peaceful hotel complete with award winning restaurant, health club and steam room.  edit
  • The Grange Hotel, Barton Road, IP31 3PQ Thurston, [8]. Attractive Tudor style country house hotel set in secluded gardens in the heart of Suffolk  edit
  • Cadogan Hotel, Fordham Rd, CB8 7AA Newmarket, [9]. Small award winning family-run hotel within a charming 19th century building, steeped in history  edit
  • The Westleton Crown, The Street, Nr. Southwold, IP17 3AD Westleton, [10]. An ideal base for exploring the Suffolk Coast- located half way between Southwold and Aldeburgh, this hotel is a medieval building with modern comfort with its own award-winning pub  edit
  • The Angel Hotel, 3 Angel Hill, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk IP33 1LT, [11]. Opulent surroundings in this large 75 bedroom award-winning hotel  edit
  • The Great House Restaurant and Hotel, Market Place, Lavenham, Suffolk CO10 9QZ, [12]. Authentic luxury boutique hotel in the middle of the medieval village of Lavenham  edit

Drink

If you are looking for a drink, check out one of Suffolk’s renowned traditional pubs. You will be spoilt for choice in Suffolk with these establishments, serving drinks the way all pubs should.

The Crown, this former hotel comes with a fine wooden and red leather decor, several types of local beer on tap, alongside a very respectable 20 wines by the glass. 90 High Street, Southwold, Suffolk IP18 6DP (01502) 722275

The Kings Head Inn, Dating back to the 16th century, the King's Head Inn adheres to a unique tradition of serving beer straight from the casks of the tap room rather than from a bar Orford IP12 2LW 01394 450271

The Ship, a traditional family pub with Mauldon’s on tap from unique handpumps St. James's Street, Dunwich, Suffolk, IP17 3DT

The Anchor, a friendly pub with a range of unique and rare beers and wine- including some from the pub’s own vineyard 1 Court Street, Nayland, Suffolk, CO6 4JL

The Golden Key This is a pub with a landlord willing to go the extra mile. Local beer, and evenings to meet your winemaker Priory Lane, Snape, Suffolk, IP17 1S, (01728) 688510

The Anchor, Log fires and over 20 wines by the glass The Street Walberswick Suffolk IP18 6UA The Plough, a new pub with a lot of passion. This establishment even hosts its own beer festival in July The Street, Wissett, Suffolk, IP19 0JE (01986) 872201

Stay safe

As a large county, areas vary in different ways in terms of safety. As with most commercial towns, Ipswich has been known to become rowdy on Friday on Saturdays, particularly around pub/nightclub close. Nonetheless, with frequent taxis available, vistors can feel secure provided they plan ahead. In other areas, staying safe against the elements becomes more pressing. If you are driving, make sure to drive slow on frosty days, or days with poor visibility, as Suffolk has many country lanes that are regularly used by drivers. If visiting the coasts, or the broads, be sure to tell someone where you are going, and ideally to reserve these areas for daytime.

Get out

London is just a two hour journey away from capital town, Ipswich if you crave the hustle and bustle of the big smoke. Trains normally run well into the evening so you can enjoy the city at your own pace.

Sealand occupies an unusual position both geographically and politically and is well worth a visit. A kingdom in it's own right with it's own currency and flag, this tiny 'island' is the coast's most enthralling secret.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SUFFOLK, an eastern county of England, bounded N. by Norfolk, E. by the North Sea, S. by Essex and W. by Cambridgeshire. The area is 1488.6 sq. m. The surface is as a whole but slightly undulating. In the extreme north-west near Mildenhall, a small area of the Fen district is included. This is bordered by a low range of chalk hills extending from Haverhill northwards along the western boundary, and thence by Bury St Edmunds to Thetford. The coast-line has a length of about 62 m., and is comparatively regular, the bays being generally shallow and the headlands rounded and only slightly prominent. The estuaries of the Deben, Orwell and Stour, however, are between Io and 12 m. in length. The shore is generally low and marshy, with occasional clay and sand cliffs. It includes, in the declivity on which Old Lowestoft stands, the most easterly point of English land. Like the Norfolk coast, this shore has suffered greatly from incursions of the sea, the demolition of the ancient port of Dunwich forming the most noteworthy example. The principal seaside resorts are Lowestoft, Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe. The rivers flowing northward are the Lark, in the north-west corner, which passes in a north-westerly direction to the Great Ouse in Norfolk; the Little Ouse or Brandon, also a tributary of the Great Ouse, flowing by Thetford and Brandon and forming part of the northern boundary of the county; and the Waveney, which rises in Norfolk and forms the northern boundary of Suffolk from Palgrave till it falls into the mouth of the Yare at Yarmouth. The Waveney is navigable from Bungay, and by means of Oulton Broad also communicates with the sea at Lowestoft. The rivers flowing in a south-easterly direction to the North Sea are the Blyth; the Alde or Ore, which has a course for nearly 10 m. parallel to the seashore; the Deben, from Debenham, flowing past Woodbridge, up to which it is navigable; the Orwell or Gipping, which becomes navigable at Stowmarket, whence it flows past Needham Market and Ipswich; and the Stour, which forms nearly the whole southern boundary of the county, receiving the Brett, which flows past Lavenham and Hadleigh; it is navigable from Sudbury. At the union of its estuary with that of the Orwell is the important port of Harwich (in Essex). The county has no valuable minerals. Flints are worked, as they have been from pre-historic times; a considerable quantity of clay is raised and lime and whiting are obtained in various districts.

Table of contents

Geology

The principal geological formations are the Chalk and the Tertiary deposits. The former occupies the surface, except where covered by superficial drift, in the central and north-west portions of the county, and it extends beneath the Tertiaries in the south-east and east. In the extreme north-west round Mildenhall the Chalk borders a tract of fen land in a range of low hills from Haverhill by Newmarket and Bury St Edmunds to Thetford. The Chalk is quarried near Ipswich, Bury St Edmunds, Mildenhall and elsewhere; at Brandon the chalk flints for gun-locks and building have been exploited from early times. The Tertiary formations include Thanet sand, seen near Sudbury; and Reading Beds and London Clay which extend from Sudbury through Hadleigh, Ipswich, Woodbridge and thence beneath younger deposits to the extreme north-east of the county. Above the Eocene formations lie the Pliocene "Crags," which in the north overlap the Eocene boundary on to the chalk. The oldest of the crag deposits is the Coralline Crag, pale sandy and marly beds with many fossils; this is best exposed west and north of Aldeburgh and about Sudbourne and Orford. Resting upon the Coralline beds, or upon other formations in their absence, is the Red Crag, a familiar feature above the London Clay in the cliffs at Felixstowe and Baudsey, where many fossils used to be found; inland it appears at Bentley, Stutton and Chillesford, where the "Scrobicularia Clay" and Chillesford beds of Prestwich appear above it. The last-named beds probably correspond with the Norwich Crag, the name given to the upper, paler portion of the Red Crag, together with certain higher beds in the north part of east Suffolk. The Norwich Crag is visible at Dunwich, Bavent, Easton and Wangford. In the north the Cromer Forest beds, gravels with fresh-water fossils and mammalian remains, may be seen on the coast at Corton and Pakefield. Between the top of the London Clay and the base of the Crags is the "Suffolk Bone Bed" with abundant mammalian bones and phosphatic nodules. Glacial gravel, sand and chalky boulder clay are scattered over much of the county, generally forming stiffer soils in the west and lighter sandy soils in the east. Pebble gravels occur at Westleton and Halesworth, and later gravels, with palaeolithic implements, at Hoxne; while old river-gravels of still later date border the present river valleys. The chalk and gault have been penetrated by a boring at Stutton, revealing a hard palaeozoic slaty rock at the depth of about 1000 ft.

Agriculture

Suffolk is one of the most fertile counties in England. In the 18th century it was famed for its dairy products. The high prices of grain during the wars of the French Revolution led to the extensive breaking up of its pastures, and it is now one of the principal grain-growing counties in England. There is considerable variety of soils, and consequently in modes of farming in different parts of the county. Along the sea-coast a sandy loam or thin sandy soil prevails, covered in some places with the heath on which large quantities of sheep are fed, interspersed with tracts, more or less marshy, on which cattle are grazed. The best land adjoins the rivers, and consists of a rich sandy loam, with patches of lighter and easier soil. In the south-west and the centre is much finer grain-land having mostly a clay subsoil, but not so tenacious as the clay in Essex. In climate Suffolk is one of the driest of the English counties; thus, the mean annual rainfall at Bury St Edmunds is rather less than 24 in. Towards the north-west the soil is generally poor, consisting partly of sand on chalk, and partly of peat and open heath. Some four-fifths of the total area of the county is under cultivation. Barley, oats and wheat are the most important of the grain crops. The breed of horses known as Suffolk punches is one of the most valued for agricultural purposes in England. The breed of cattle native to the county is a polled variety, on the improvement of which great pains have been bestowed. The old Suffolk cows, famous for their great milking qualities, were of various colours, yellow predominating. The improved are all red. Much milk is sent to London, Yarmouth, &c. Many cattle, mostly imported from Ireland, are grazed in the winter. The sheep are nearly all of the blackfaced improved Suffolk breed, a cross between the old Norfolk horned sheep and Southdowns. The breed of pigs most common is small and black.

Manufactures and Trade

The county is essentially agricultural, and the most important manufactures relate to this branch of industry. They include that of agricultural implements, especiaNy at Ipswich, Bury St Edmunds and Stowmarket, and that of artificial manures at Ipswich and Stowmarket, for which coprolites are dug. Malting is extensively carried on throughout the county. There are chemical and gun-cotton manufactories at Stowmarket and gun flints are still made at Brandon. At other towns small miscellaneous manufactures are carried on, including silk, cotton, linen, woollen, and horsehair and coco-nut matting. The principal ports are Lowestoft, Southwold, Aldeburgh, Woodbridge and Ipswich. Lowestoft is the chief fishing town. Herrings and mackerel are the fish most abundant on the coasts.

Communications

The main line of the Great Eastern railway, entering the county from the south, serves Ipswich and Stowmarket, continuing north into Norfolk. The east Suffolk branch from Ipswich serves Woodbridge, Saxmundham, Halesworth, and Beccles, with branches to Felixstowe, to Framlingham, to Aldeburgh, and to Lowestoft; while the Southwold Light railway connects with that town from Halesworth. The other principal branches are those from Stowmarket to Bury St Edmunds and westward into Cambridgeshire, from Essex into Norfolk by Long Melford, Bury St Edmunds and Thetford, and from Long Melford to Haverhill, which is the northern terminus of the Colne Valley railway.

Population and Administration. - The area of the ancient county is 952,710 ac -es, with a population in 1891 of 371,235 and in 1901 of 3 8 4, 2 93. Suffolk comprises 21 hundreds, and for administrative purposes is divided into the counties of East Suffolk (557,854 acres) and West Suffolk (390,914 acres). The following are municipal boroughs and urban districts.

(I) East Suffolk. Municipal boroughs - Aldeburgh (pop. 2405), Beccles (6898), Eye (2004), Ipswich, a county borough and the county town (66,630), Lowestoft (29,850), Southwold (2800). Urban districts - Bungay (3314), Felixstowe and Walton (5815),(5815), Halesworth (2246), Leiston-cum-Sizewell (3259), Oulton Broad (4044), Saxmundham (1452), Stowmarket (4162), Woodbridge (4640).

(2) West Suffolk. Municipal boroughs - Bury St Edmunds (16,255), Sudbury (7109). Urban districts - Glemsford (1975), Hadleigh (3245), Haverhill (4862), Newmarket (10,688), which is mainly in the ancient county of Cambridge.

Small market and other towns are numerous, such are Brandon, Clare, Debenham, Framlingham, Lavenham, Mildenhall, Needham Market and Orford. For parliamentary purposes the county constitutes five divisions, each returning one member, viz. north or Lowestoft division, north-east or Eye, north-west or Stowmarket, south or Sudbury, and south-east or Woodbridge. Bury St Edmunds returns one member and Ipswich two; part of the borough of Great Yarmouth falls within the county. There is one court of quarter sessions for the two administrative counties, which is usually held at Ipswich for east Suffolk, and then by adjournment at Bury St Edmunds for west Suffolk. East Suffolk is divided into I i and west Suffolk into 8 petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Bury St Edmunds, Ipswich, Sudbury, Eye, Lowestoft and Southwold have separate commissions of the peace, and the three first-named have also separate courts of quarter sessions. The total number of civil parishes is 519. The ancient county contains 465 ecclesiastical parishes and districts, wholly or in part; it is situated partly in the diocese of Ely and partly in that of Norwich.

History

The county of Suffolk (Sudfole, Suthfolc) was formed from the south part of the kingdom of East Anglia which had been settled by the Angles in the latter half of the 5th century. The most important Anglo-Saxon settlements appear to have been made at Sudbury and Ipswich. Before the end of the Norman dynasty strongholds had arisen at Eye, Clare, Walton and Framlingham. Probably the establishment of Suffolk as a separate shire was scarcely completed before the Conquest, and although it was reckoned as distinct from Norfolk in the Domesday Survey of 1086, the fiscal administration of Norfolk and Suffolk remained under one sheriff until 1575 The boundary of the county has undergone very little change, though its area has been I/ considerably affected by coast erosion. Parts of Gorleston and Thetford, which formerly belonged to the ancient county of Suffolk, are now within the administrative county of Norfolk, and other slight alterations of the administrative boundary have been made. Under the Local Government Act of 1888 Suffolk was divided into the two administrative counties of east and west Suffolk.

At first the whole shire lay within the diocese of Dunwich which was founded c. 631. In 673 a new bishopric was established at Elmham to comprise the whole of Norfolk which had formerly been included in the see of Dunwich. The latter came to an end with the incursion of the Danes, and on the revival of Christianity in this district Suffolk was included in the diocese of Elmham, subsequently removed from South Elmham to Thetford and thence to Norwich. In1835-1836the archdeaconry of Sudbury was transferred by the ecclesiastical commissioners to the diocese of Ely. This archdeaconry had been separated from the original archdeaconry of Suffolk in 1127. In 1256 the latter included thirteen deaneries which have since been subdivided, so that at present it contains eighteen deaneries; Sudbury archdeaconry which comprised eight deaneries in 1256 now includes eleven. There were also three districts under peculiar jurisdiction of Canterbury and one under that of Rochester.

The shire-court was held at Ipswich. In 1831 the whole county contained twenty-one hundreds and three municipal boroughs. Most of these hundreds were identical with those of the Domesday Survey, but in 1086 Babergh was rated as two hundreds, Cosford, Ipswich and Parham as half hundreds and Samford as a hundred and a half. Hoxne hundred was formerly known as Bishop's hundred and the vills which were included later in Thredling hundred were within Claydon hundred in 1086. Two large ecclesiastical liberties extended over more than half of the county; that of St Edmund included the hundreds of Risbridge, Thedwastry, Thingoe, Cosford, Lackford and Blackbourn in which the king's writ did not run, and St Aethelreda of Ely claimed a similar privilege in the hundreds of Carleford, Colneis, Plumesgate, Loes, Wilford and Thredling. Among others who had large lands in the county with co-extensive jurisdiction were the lords of the honor of Clare, earls of Gloucester and Hereford and the lords of the honor of Eye, held successively by the Bigods, the Uffords and the De la Poles, earls of Suffolk. The Wingfields, Bacons and Herveys have been closely connected with the county.

Suffolk suffered severely from Danish incursions, and after the Treaty of Wedmore became a part of the Danelagh. In 1173 the earl of Leicester landed at Walton with an army of Flemings and was joined by Hugh Bigod against Henry II. In 1317 and the succeeding years a great part of the county was in arms for Thomas of Lancaster. Queen Isabella and Mortimer having landed at Walton found all the district in their favour. In 1330 the county was raised to suppress the supporters of the earl of Kent; and again in 1381 there was a serious rising of the peasantry chiefly in the neighbourhood of Bury St Edmunds. Although the county was for the most part Yorkist it took little part in the Wars of the Roses. In 1525 the artisans of the south strongly resisted Henry VIII.'s forced loan. It was from Suffolk that Mary drew the army which supported her claim to the throne. In the Civil Wars the county was for the most part parliamentarian, and joined the Association of the Eastern Counties for defence against the Papists.

The county was constantly represented in parliament by two knights from 1290, until the Reform Bill of 1832gave four members to Suffolk, at the same time disfranchising the boroughs of Dunwich, Orford and Aldeburgh. Suffolk was early among the most populous of English counties, doubtless owing to its proximity to the continent. Fishing fleets have left its ports to bring back cod and ling from Iceland and herring and mackerel from the North Sea. From the 14th to the 17th century it was among the chief manufacturing counties of England owing to its cloth-weaving industry, which was at the height of its prosperity during the 15th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries its agricultural resources were utilized to provide the rapidly-growing metropolis with food. In the following century various textile industries, such as the manufacture of sail-cloth, cocoa-nut fibre, horse-hair and clothing were established; silk-weavers migrated to Suffolk from Spitalfields, and early in the 19th century an important china factory flourished at Lowestoft.

Antiquities.-Of monastic remains the most important are those of the great Benedictine abbey of Bury St Edmunds, noticed under that town; the college of Clare, originally a cell to the abbey of Bec in Normandy and afterwards to St Peter's Westminster, converted into a college of secular canons in the reign of Henry VI., still retaining much of its ancient architecture, and now used as a boarding-school; the Decorated gateway of the Augustinian priory of Butley; and the remains of the Grey Friars monastery at Dunwich. A peculiarity of the church architecture is the use of flint for purposes of ornamentation, often of a very elaborate kind, especially on the porches and parapets of the towers. Another characteristic is the round towers, which are confined to East Anglia; but are considerably more numerous in Norfolk than in Suffolk, the principal being those of Little Saxham and Herringfleet, both good examples of Norman. It is questionable whether there are any remains of pre-Norman architecture in the county. The Decorated is well represented, but by far the greater proportion of the churches are Perpendicular, fine examples of which are so numerous that it is hard to select examples. But the church of Blythburgh in the east and the exquisite ornate building at Lavenham in the west may be noted as typical, while the church of Long Melford, another fine example, should be mentioned on account of its remarkable lady chapel. Special features are the open roofs and woodwork (as at St Mary's, Bury St Edmunds, Earl Stonham and Stonham Aspall, Ufford and Blythburgh), and the fine fonts.

The remains of old castles are comparatively unimportant, the principal being the entrenchments and part of the walls of Bungay, the ancient stronghold of the Bigods; the picturesque ruins of Mettingham, built by John de Norwich in the reign of Edward III.; Wingfield, surrounded by a deep moat, with the turret walls and the drawbridge still existing; the splendid ruin of Framlingham, with high and massive walls, originally founded in the 6th century, but restored in the 12th; the outlines of the extensive fortress of Clare Castle, anciently the baronial residence of the earls of Clare; and the fine Norman keep of Orford Castle, on an eminence overlooking the sea. Among the many fine residences within the county there are several interesting examples of domestic architecture of the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. Hengrave Hall (c. 1530), 4 m. north-west from Bury St Edmunds, is a noteworthy example - an exceedingly picturesque building of brick and stone, enclosing a court-yard. Another is Helmingham Hall, a Tudor mansion of brick, surrounded by a moat crossed by a drawbridge. West Stow Manor is also Tudor; its gatehouse is fine, but the mansion has been adapted into a farmhouse.

See A. Suckling, The History and Antiquities of Suffolk (1846-1848); William White, History, gazetteer and directory of Suffolk (1855); John Kirby, The Suffolk Traveller (1735); A. Page, Supplement to the Suffolk Traveller (1843); Victoria County History; Suffolk.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Suffolk

Plural
-

Suffolk

  1. A maritime county in the east of England bordered by Norfolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire and the North Sea.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

This article requires significantly more historical detail on the particular phases of this location's historical development. The ideal article for a place will give the reader a feel for what it was like to live at that location at the time their relatives were alive there..
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Suffolk
File:EnglandSuffolk.png
Geography
Status: Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county
Region: East of England
Area:
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 8th
3,801 km² / 1,467 sq mile
Ranked 7th
Admin HQ: Ipswich
ISO 3166-2: GB-SFK
ONS code: 42
NUTS 3: UKH14
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. Council
Ranked 31st Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
702,100


185

/ km²
Ranked 13th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Ethnicity: 97.2% White
Politics
File:Suffolk-coa.png
Suffolk County Council
http://www.suffolk.gov.uk/
Executive: Conservative
Members of Parliament
Bob Blizzard (L)
John Gummer (C)
Michael Lord (C)
Chris Mole (L)
David Ruffley (C)
Richard Spring (C)
Tim Yeo (C)
Districts
File:SuffolkNumbered.png
  1. Ipswich
  2. Suffolk Coastal
  3. Waveney
  4. Mid Suffolk
  5. Babergh
  6. St Edmundsbury
  7. Forest Heath

Suffolk (pronouncedImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif /ˈsʌfək/) is a historic and non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, United Kingdom. It has borders with Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich, at 52°03′22″N, 1°08′59″E and other important towns include Lowestoft and Bury St Edmunds. Felixstowe is one of the largest container ports in Europe.[1]

The county is low-lying with few hills, and is largely wetland habitat and arable land with the wetlands of The Broads in the North, and the Suffolk Coast and Heaths is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Contents

History

Main article: History of Suffolk

Suffolk was part of the kingdom of East Anglia which was settled by the Angles in the 5th century.

Suffolk was divided into separate Quarter Sessions divisions. These were originally four in number, reduced to two in 1860: the eastern division being administered from Ipswich and the western from Bury St Edmunds. The two divisions were made separate administrative counties as East Suffolk and West Suffolk under the Local Government Act 1888, with Ipswich becoming a county borough.

Under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk and Ipswich were merged to form a unified county of Suffolk on April 1, 1974. This was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Ipswich, Mid Suffolk, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, Waveney. This also saw a further part of land near Great Yarmouth become part of Norfolk. As introduced into Parliament, the Local Government Bill would have included Newmarket and Haverhill into Cambridgeshire, with it being compensated by the inclusion of Colchester from Essex: these proposals were ultimately decided against.

The Department for Communities and Local Government is currently considering whether Ipswich Borough Council should become a new unitary authority.[2][3]

West Suffolk is, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, renowned for archaeological findings from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath[4]. Many bronze objects, such as swords, spear-heads, arrows, axes, palstaves, knives, daggers, rapiers, armour, decorative equipment (in particular for horses) and fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to the Moyse's Hall Museum in Bury St Edmunds. Other finds include traces of cremations and barrows.

Economy

The majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either arable or mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays through to light sands. Crops grown include winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oil seed rape, winter and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found in lighter areas along with a variety of vegetables.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[5] Agriculture[6] Industry[7] Services[8]
1995 7,113 391 2,449 4,273
2000 8,096 259 2,589 5,248
2003 9,456 270 2,602 6,583
See also: Companies based in Suffolk

Well-known companies in Suffolk are Greene King and Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye have their largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all their meat products and frozen vegetables come from. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company are now in Sudbury. The UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews have some processing units in the county, specifically Holton. Felixstowe is an important port.

Geology, landscape and ecology

Much of Suffolk is low-lying on Eocene sand and clays. These rocks are relatively unresistant and on the coast are eroded rapidly. Coastal defences have been used to protect several towns, but several cliff-top houses have been lost to coastal erosion in the past.

The west of the county lies on more resistant Cretaceous Chalk. This chalk is the north-eastern extreme of the Southern England Chalk Formation that stretches from Dorset in the south west to Dover in the south east. The Chalk is less easily eroded so forms the only significant hills in the county. The highest point of the county is Great Wood Hill, the highest point of the Newmarket Ridge, near the village of Rede which reaches 128 m (420 ft).

Demographics

The Census 2001 Suffolk recorded a population of 668,548. Between 1981 and 2001 the population of the county grew by 13%, with the district of Mid Suffolk growing fastest at 25%. The population growth is due largely to migration rather than natural increase. There is a very low population between the ages of 15 and 29 as the county has few large towns and institutions of higher education, though the 15-to-29 population in Ipswich is average. There is a larger population over the age of 35, and a larger than average retired population.

Most English counties have nicknames for people from that county, such as a Tyke from Yorkshire and a Yellowbelly from Lincolnshire; the traditional nickname for people from Suffolk is 'Suffolk Fair-Maids', or 'Silly Suffolk', referring respectively to the supposed beauty of its female inhabitants in the Middle Ages, and to the long history of Christianity in the county and its many fine churches (from Anglo-Saxon selige, originally meaning holy).

Cities, towns and villages

The agreed-upon number of established communities in Suffolk varies greatly because of the large number of the all but non-existent hamlets which may consist of just a single farm and a deconsecrated church: remnants of wealthy communities, some dating back to the early days of the Christian era. Suffolk encompasses one of the most ancient regions of the UK: A monastery in Bury St. Edmunds founded in 630AD, plotting of Magna Carta in 1215; the oldest documented structural element of a still inhabited dwelling in Britain found in Clare.

This comparatively recent evidence is but a coda to the widespread settlement in the region shown by earlier archaeological evidence of Mesolithic man as far back as c.7000BC, (Grimes Graves, Norfolk - a 5000 y/o flint mine) with Roman settlements Lakenheath, Long Melford, later Bronze and Saxon settlements. Sutton Hoo: burial ground of the Anglo-Saxon pagan kings of East Anglia.

For a full list of settlements see the List of places in Suffolk.

Notable people from Suffolk

See also: People from Suffolk

In the arts, Suffolk is noted for having been the home to two of England's best regarded painters, Thomas Gainsborough and John Constable - the Stour Valley area is branded as "Constable Country" - and one of its most noted composers, Benjamin Britten. Other artists of note from Suffolk include the poet Robert Bloomfield, writer and editor Ronald Blythe, actors Ralph Fiennes and Bob Hoskins, musician and record producer Brian Eno and Dani Filth, singer of the Suffolk-based black metal group, Cradle of Filth. Hip-hop DJ Tim Westwood is originally from Suffolk and the influential DJ and radio presenter John Peel made the county his home.

Suffolk's contributions to sport include Formula 1 magnate Bernie Ecclestone and England footballers Terry Butcher, Kieron Dyer and Matthew Upson. Due to Newmarket being the centre of British horseracing many jockeys have settled in the county, including Lester Piggott and Frankie Dettori.

Significant ecclesiastical figures from Suffolk include former Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon Sudbury, King of East Anglia and Christian martyr, St Edmund (after whom the town of Bury St Edmunds is named), Tudor Catholic cardinal Thomas Wolsey, and author, poet and Benedictine monk John Lydgate

Other significant persons from Suffolk include the Suffragette, Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, captain of HMS Beagle, Robert FitzRoy, Witch-finder General Matthew Hopkins and both Britain's first female physician and mayor, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. Charity leader Sue Ryder settled in Suffolk and based her charity in Cavendish.

Education

Primary and Secondary

See also List of schools in Suffolk

Suffolk has a comprehensive education system with fourteen independent schools. Unusually for the UK, most of Suffolk has a 3-tier school system in place with Primary Schools (ages 5-9),Middle Schools (ages 9-13) and Upper Schools (ages 13-16). However, a 2006 Suffolk County Council study has concluded that Suffolk should move to the 2-tier school system used in the majority of the UK. [9] The exception to this is in the Ipswich district and some in the districts of Suffolk Coastal, Mid Suffolk, and Babergh where the more common have 11-16 age schools are in place. All of the county's Upper schools have a sixth form as there are no specific sixth form colleges (though most further education colleges in the county offer A-level courses). In terms of school population, Suffolk's individual schools are large with the Ipswich district with the largest school population and Forest Heath the smallest, with just two schools.

Tertiary

The establishment of University Campus Suffolk, a collaboration between the University of Essex, the University of East Anglia, partner colleges and local government, began accepting its first students in September 2007. The main Ipswich based waterfront campus building is not due for completion until September 2008.

Trivia

The Rendlesham Forest Incident is the name given to a series of reported sightings of unexplained lights and objects in the sky, and the alleged landing of an extraterrestrial spacecraft, in December 1980, in the vicinity of Rendlesham Forest, Suffolk, England.

A TV series about a British antiques dealer, Lovejoy, was filmed in various locations in Suffolk [1].

The Series Space Cadets was Also filmed in Rendlesham Forest, Suffolk although the producers pretended that they were in Russia.

See also

References

  1. ^ Felixstowe South reconfiguration inspector's report Department for Transport
  2. ^ Unitary Ipswich - Ipswich's bid for unitary status
  3. ^ Communities and Local Government - Proposals for future unitary structures: Stakeholder consultation
  4. ^ Hall, David [1994]. Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence / David Hall and John Coles. London; English Heritage. ISBN 1-85074-477-7. , p. 81-88
  5. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  6. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  7. ^ includes energy and construction
  8. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  9. ^ "Middle Schools Under Threat" Suffolk Free Press - Dec 2006

External links


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Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|Map of Suffolk within England.]]

Suffolk is a county in England. The counties around Suffolk are Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea is on the east. The county town is Ipswich and other big towns include Lowestoft and Bury St Edmunds. Felixstowe is one of the largest container ports in Europe.

Geography

Suffolk is mostly flat and has very fertile soil which is good for both growing crops and grazing animals on.

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