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The Sukhoi Su-30 (NATO reporting name Flanker-C) is a twin-engine, multi-role military aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation. It is a two-seat, dual-role fighter for all-weather, air-to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions. The Su-30 was introduced into operational service in 1996.
The aircraft is a modernised version of the Su-27UB and has several variants. The Su-30K and Su-30MK series have had commercial success. The variants are manufactured by competing organizations: KnAAPO and the IRKUT Corporation, both of which come under the Sukhoi group's umbrella. KnAAPO manufactures the Su-30MKK and the Su-30MK2, which were designed for and sold to China and later Indonesia. Irkut makes the long-range, multi-role Su-30MK series. The series includes the Su-30MKI developed for the Indian Air Force and its derivatives, the MKM, MKA and MKV for Malaysia, Algeria and Venezuela respectively.
Su-27PU long-range interceptor
While the original Su-27 had good range, it still did not have enough for certain air-defense tasks required by the PVO Strany ("PVO" or Protivo-Vozdushnaya Oborona — "Air Defense") whose requirements spanned the need to cover the vast expanse of the Soviet Union. Hence, development began in 1986 on the Su-27PU, an improved-capability variant of the Su-27 capable of serving as a long-range interceptor or airborne command post. The two-seat Su-27UB combat trainer was selected as the basis for the Su-27PU, because it had the performance of a single-seat Su-27 and long-range missions require two crewmen. A "proof-of-concept" demonstrator flew 6 June 1987, and this success led to the kick-off of development work on two Su-27PU prototypes. The first Su-27PU flew at Irkutsk on 31 December 1989, and the first of three pre-series models flew in 14 April 1992.
To adapt the Su-27UB to its new role, the aircraft was fitted with a retractable in-flight refueling probe to increase range; the probe is offset to the left side of the nose and, to accommodate it, the IRST was offset to the right. The aircraft's avionics were changed, fitting special communications and guidance equipment to command formation flights of single-seat Su-27 interceptors. The rear cockpit received a large CRT display which provides the formation leader with tactical information regarding targets and interceptors. The navigation and fly-by-wire systems were also upgraded. It was fitted with an updated NIIP N001 radar, providing some ability for ground attack and to track and engage multiple aerial targets simultaneously.
Sukhoi offered the Su-27PU to be used as a "fighter controller", a sort of mini-AWACS, with the back-seater using the radar and data links to control other fighters. However, the PVO was not interested in buying the Su-27PU. All five Su-27PUs, with the new designation of "Su-30", ended up in PVO service in the training role. Deliveries to the 54th Interceptor Air Regiment at the advanced training base at Savostleyka began in 1996.
A Su-30M two-seat multi-role variant was proposed for Russian use and a few may have been built in the mid-1990s for evaluation.
Sukhoi proposed an export variant, Su-30MK, where "MK" stood for "Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy" (Modernized Commercial). Sukhoi displayed a Su-30MK demonstrator at the Paris Air Show in 1993. A much more optimized Su-30MK demonstrator, rebuilt from the first production Su-27PU, was displayed in 1994.
The Su-30 is a multi-role fighter. It has a two seat cockpit with an airbrake behind the canopy.
Highly flexible multi-role fighter
The Su-30MK is capable of accomplishing a wide variety of combat missions at significant distances from the home base, in any weather conditions and in severe jamming environment, both by day and night.
This multi-role aircraft is adequately fitted for the entire spectrum of tactical and operational combat employment scenarios, varying from counter-air tasks (ie. gaining air superiority, air defense, air patrol and escort) to ground attack, suppression of enemy air defenses, air interdiction, close air support and maritime attack. Additionally, the Su-30MK can perform ECCM and early warning tasks, as well as exercise command-and-control over a group of aerial combat assets performing joint missions. Has 9 g load maneuverability.
Angle of attack
The Su-30MK's aerodynamic configuration is an unstable-in-longitude triplane (see relaxed stability). To increase lifting effectiveness and enhance maneuverability of the aircraft, canards are installed. They are deflected automatically to ensure controlled flight at high angles-of-attack. Canards, however, are installed only in some Su-30 variants like the Su-30MKI.
Pugachev's Cobra maneuver
The integrated aerodynamic configuration, combined with the thrust vectoring control ability, results in unprecedented maneuverability and unique takeoff and landing characteristics. Equipped with a digital fly-by-wire system, the Su-30MK is able to perform some very advanced maneuvers. They include the well-known Pugachev’s Cobra and the Bell. This allows the aircraft to rapidly strip airspeed, causing a pursuing fighter to overshoot. While performing a somersault maneuver the aircraft makes 360-degree turn in the pitch plane without any loss of altitude. In the Controlled Flat Spin maneuver the aircraft performs several full turns in the horizontal plane, with zero forward speed, virtually on the spot.
The aircraft's power plant incorporates two Saturn AL-31F afterburning low-bypass turbofan engines. Two AL-31F turbofans, each rated at 12,500 kgf (123 kN, 27,550 lb) of full afterburning thrust ensures Mach 2 horizontal flight speed, 1,350 km/h speed at low altitude, and a 230 m/s climbing rate.
With a normal fuel reserve of 5,270 kg, the Su-30MK is capable of performing a 4.5-hour combat mission with a range of 3,000 km. An in-flight refueling system increases the flight duration up to 10 hours with a range of 5,200 km (3,231 miles) at cruise altitudes of 11–13 km.
The long range significantly increases deployment options. The missions vary from prolonged patrols, and escorts to long-range intercepts and ground attacks.
Diagonally 2D thrust vectoring control
Differential ±15-degree deflection of the engines' asymmetric nozzles (with turn axes positioned at 32-deg angle to each other) enables pitch/yaw thrust vectoring control. Depending on the maneuver to be performed, nozzles deflections can be synchronized with or differ from the deflections of horizontal tail planes.
A two-member crew configuration contributes significantly to enhanced combat capabilities, due to rational distribution of workload between crew members. While the first pilot flies the aircraft, controls weapons and performs manoeuvring dogfight, the co-pilot employs BVR air-to-air and air-to-ground guided weapons in long-range engagements, monitors tactical environment to ensure situational awareness, and performs command-and-control tasks in group missions.
- Radar: Either a N001VE or Phazotron N010 Zhuk-27 or an N011M BARS pulse Doppler passive electronically scanned array radar. Capable of detecting and tracking up to 15 air targets, while concurrently attacking four of them. The N011M BARS radar (featuring a 20-m (65.6 ft) resolution) ensures detection of large sea-surface targets at a distance of up to 400 km (248.5 mi), and small-size ones at a distance of up to 120 km (74.5 mi).
- Other avionics include an integrated optronic sighting-and-navigation system with a laser gyro navigation system; helmet-mounted displays, a head-up-display, multi-function color LCDs with image mixing ability; and a GPS system (GLONASS/NAVSTAR compatible).
- IR and laser sighting pods to detect and engage small-size ground targets are available for installation. The aircraft is provided with an ECCM facility intended to subvert hostile electronic and electro-optical countermeasures.
- The aircraft features autopilot ability at all flight stages including low-altitude flight in terrain-following mode, and individual and group combat employment against air and ground/sea-surface targets. Automatic control system interconnected with the navigation system ensures route flight, target approach, recovery to airfield and landing approach in automatic mode.
- A standard Su-30K is estimated at US$34 million.
- A Su-30MKK variant is estimated at US$53 million.
- Long range interceptor based on two-seater Su-27UB trainer. Later renamed Su-30.
- Testbed fighter with canards added.
- Commercial version of the basic Su-30.
- Sukhoi proposal for upgrading Russian AF single seat Su-27S. Also proposed export version for Indonesia, 24 was ordered but subsequently cancelled due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the only single seat in Su-30 family.
- Upgrade for operational two-seat fighters, the Su-27UB, Su-30 and Su-30K.
- Basically an upgraded Su-27PU, first real multi-role aircraft in Su-27 family.
Su-30MK of the Indonesian Air Force
- The commercial version of Su-30M first revealed in 1993. Export versions include navigation and communication equipment from Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.
- Upgraded Su-30MK with canards and TVC.
- MKI stands for "Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy Indiski" meaning "Modernized Commercial India". Jointly-developed with India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for the Indian Air Force. Includes Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) and canards. Equipped with a multi-national avionics complex sourced from Israel, India, Russia and France.
- Export version for China. MKK stands for Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy Kitaya or Modernized Commercial China.
- A derivative of the Indo-Russian MKI, the MKM is a highly specialized version for Royal Malaysian Air Force and includes Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) and canards but with avionics from various countries. It will feature head-up displays (HUD), navigational forward-looking IR system (NAVFLIR) and Damocles Laser Designation pod (LDP) from Thales Group of France, MAW-300 missile approach warning sensor (MAWS), RWS-50 RWR and laser warning sensor (LWS) from SAAB AVITRONICS (South Africa) as well as the Russian NIIP N011M BARS PESA radar, electronic warfare (EW) system, optical-location system (OLS) and a glass cockpit. Others include Goodrich lights and communications suite from Rohde & Schwarz of Germany. For political reasons, Israeli avionics in the MKI variant have been omitted.
- Export version for Venezuela is most likely to be similar to the Su-30MK2. This is based on the presence of two such demonstrator models (No. 0460 and No. 1259) from the KNAAPO facility that took part in July 2006 national day parade in Caracas.
- Su-30MKK with upgraded electronics that enabled support for anti-ship missiles.
- Su-30MK2 variant for Vietnam with minor modifications.
- Su-30MKK with Zhuk MSE radar and Support for Kh-59MK anti-ship missile.
- A specialised version for Algeria is similar to the MKI, but will principally be equipped with French and Russian avionics. It will feature head-up and multifunction displays from the Thales Group and Sagem of France.
Military operators of the Su-30
- Algerian Air Force has 14 Su-30MK fighters in service as of January 2010. 16 more are on order to be delivered instead of 36 MiG-29SMT/UBT.
- People's Republic of China
- Indian Air Force, after years of negotiations, decided to purchase 50 Su-30 aircraft in 1996 and acquired the licence from Sukhoi and Russia to manufacture an additional 140 Su-30MKI aircraft. The Indian Air Force has received 105 Su-30MKIs of the 230 on contract as of October 2009.
- Indonesian Air Force received two Su-30MK2 out of the six on 26 December 2008 and another due to be delivered at 2009. The Indonesian Air Force has 2 Su-30MKs and 3 Su-30MK2s in service as of early 2009.
- Royal Malaysian Air Force after a close visit to India's Su-30MKI, signed a deal to purchase 18 of Su-30MKM (M for Malaysia) in May 2003. The first 2 Su-30MKMs were formally handed over in Irkutsk on 23 May 2007, later arrived in Gong Kedak airbase on 21 June. Full squadron of 18 aircraft will be operational by the end of 2008. As part of the deal, the Russians will send a Malaysian astronaut to the ISS. Has 12 Su-30MKMs in service with 6 on order as on November 2008. Malaysia has had problems with Russian support for the aircraft so will purchase spare parts from China.
- Venezuelan Air Force and the government of Venezuela on 14 June 2006, announced the purchase of 24 units of the Su-30MK2 aircraft. The first two Su-30MK2s arrived in the first week of December 2006 while another 8 were commissioned during 2007, fourteen more units have arrived in 2008 with the last 4 being delivered in August. Has 24 Su-30MK2s in service as of early 2009. A second batch of 12 Su-30MKV is also being considered.
- Vietnam People's Air Force operates 12 of the Su-30MK2V version. 8 more Su-30MK2 are on order in January 2009 with first deliveries to start in 2010. (The initial contract was for 12 aircraft but was reduced to 8 due to the financial crisis, and the contract did not include onboard weapons.) On 4 December 2009, it was reported that Vietnam was close to completing a contract for 12 additional Su-30 MK2s.
Data from KNAAPO Su-30MK page, Sukhoi Su-30MK page, Gordon and Davison
- Crew: 2
- Length: 21.935 m (72.97 ft)
- Wingspan: 14.7 m (48.2 ft)
- Height: 6.36 m (20.85 ft)
- Wing area: 62.0 m² (667 ft²)
- Empty weight: 17,700 kg (39,021 lb)
- Loaded weight: 24,900 kg (54,900 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 34,500 kg (76,060 lb)
- Powerplant: 2× AL-31FL low-bypass turbofans
- Dry thrust: 7,600 kgf (74.5 kN, 16,750 lbf) each
- Thrust with afterburner: 12,500 kgf (122.58 kN, 27,560 lbf) each
The Su-27PU had 8 hardpoints for its weapon load, whereas the Su-30MK's combat load is mounted on 12 hardpoints: 2 wingtip AAM launch rails, 3 pylons under each wing, 1 pylon under each engine nacelle, and 2 pylons in tandem in the "arch" between the engines. All versions can carry up to 8 tonnes of external stores.
- Guns: 1 × GSh-30-1 gun (30 mm caliber, 150 rounds)
- AAMs: 6 × R-27ER1 (AA-10C), 2 × R-27ET1 (AA-10D), 6 × R-73E (AA-11), 6 × R-77 RVV-AE(AA-12)
- ASMs: 6 × Kh-31P/Kh-31A anti-radar missiles, 6 × Kh-29T/L laser guided missiles, 2 × Kh-59ME
- Aerial bombs: 6 × KAB 500KR, 3 × KAB-1500KR, 8 × FAB-500T, 28 × OFAB-250-270
Incidents and accidents
- 12 June 1999: Paris Air Show (Video)
- 10 June 2006: Le Bourget, Paris Air Show, France, a Russian Su-30MK crashed — both pilots ejected safely and no one was hurt on the ground.
- 30 April 2009: an Indian Air Force Sukhoi30MKI crashed near Jaisalmer. A pilot died
- 30 November 2009: an Indian Air Force Sukhoi30MKI crashed near Jaisalmer. The pilots survived.
- The Chinese have lost 5 Flankers, of which 4 are Su-30s. At least this much has made it to the public domain, owing to China's secretive nature.
- ^ Su-30MK page. Sukhoi.
- ^ Discovering Novel Fighter Combat Maneuvers.
- ^ Su-30, FAS.org
- ^ a b c Sukhoi Su-27 - Operator List. MilAvia.net, 14 March 2009.
- ^ HAL to supply for Sukhoi fighters to Russia
- ^ SU30MKI
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ Russia, Vietnam ink submarine, arms deal, spacewar.com, 2009-12-21, accessed 2009-12-22
- ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory". 2010 Aerospace Source Book. Aviation Week and Space Technology, January 2010.
- ^ "IAF interested in 50 more Su-30 MKIs". Times of India, 2 October 2009.
- ^ "Three Su-27SKM fighter jets are due to be delivered by 2010". armybase.us, 27 December 2008.
- ^ "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International, 11–17 November 2008.
- ^ China Humbly Launches Serial Production of Stolen Russian Fighter Jets
- ^ Air Forces Monthly, August 2006 issue.
- ^ Chavez warns U.S. after getting Russian warplanes. RIA Novosti,
- ^ "Russia To Build 12 Fighters for Vietnam: Reports". Defense News, 14 May 2009.
- ^ "Vietnam could become key importer of Russian weaponry". RIA Novosti, 4 December 2009
- ^ Sukhoi Su-30MK, KNAAPO.
- ^ Su-30MK Aircraft performance page, Sukhoi.
- ^ Gordon and Davison 2006, pp. 92, 95–96.
- ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2009/apr/30air-force-plane-crashes-one-dead.htm
- ^ http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20091130/157043482.html
- ^ http://www.ejection-history.org.uk/Country-By-Country/China_PR.htm
- Gordon, Yefim and Peter Davison. Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker, Specialty Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58007-091-1.