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Sukkur
سکھر
Sukkur is located in Pakistan
Sukkur
Coordinates: 28°03′N 68°26′E / 28.05°N 68.43°E / 28.05; 68.43
Country  Pakistan
Province Sindh
Government
 - Nazim Nasir Hussain Shah
Area
 - Total 5,165 km2 (1,994.2 sq mi)
Elevation 67 m (220 ft)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Calling code 071
Number of towns 4
Number of Union councils 1
Sukkur District Government Website

Sukkur , or Sakharu (Urdu:سکھر, Sindhi:سکر), formerly Aror (Sanskrit: अरोड, Urdu: اروڑ), is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River in Pakistan in Sukkur District. One conjecture is that when Arabs invaded Sukkur (Sindh) in the 8th century, they found an extreme climate (hot and cold), and called it Saqar, which means intense.[citation needed] However, the word Sakharu in Sindhi means "superior", which the spelling of the city's name in Sindhi suggests is the origin of the name. Sukkur is nicknamed Darya Dino (درياءَ ڏنو, meaning the gift of river), as without the Indus the city would be a desert.

Contents

Administration

The city of Sukkur, as well as being district headquarters, is the capital of Sukkur Taluka and contains one Union council. .[1]

Geography & climate

This must be moved to: Sukkur District
A Satellite Image of River Indus near Sukkur by NASA

The district of Sukkur (whose name is derived from its head quarter Sukkur city) covers an area of 5,165 square kilometres. Geographically it is spanned from 27°05' to 28°02' north latitudes and from 68°47' to 69°43' east longitudes. The city of Sukkur is located at an altitude of 220 feet (67 m) from sea level, having terrestrial coordinates 68°52' east and 27°42' north. It is also the narrowest point of the lower Indus course.

Sukkur district shares its northern border with Shikarpur and the recently constituted Kashmore districts. Ghotki is located on the north-eastern side while Khairpur on the south. Sukkur also shares its border with India (Jaisalmer, Rajasthan). Sukkur is also connected by road and by air with all major cities of Pakistan.

The climate of the Sukkur is characterized by hot and hazy weather during summer days with dry and cold weather in winter. During January, the temperature ranges from 7 to 22 °C (45 to 72 °F). The summer (month of June before the monsoon) temperature averages 35 °C (95 °F) though it often reaches up to 42 °C (108 °F). Generally the summer season commences in March - April and ends before October. The average rainfall of the district is 88 mm, and ranges from 0.59 mm to 25.62 mm per month.

History

Sukkur on the west bank of the River Indus (1860s)

Sukkur has been an important strategic centre and trading route from time immemorial. Alor (or Aror, Sukkur) held the status of capital under the reign of Musikanos, when Alexander invaded India in 326 BCE. The ruins of this ancient town still exist, 8 km east of Rohri, in Sukkur district. In 711 CE, the Arabs invaded Sindh, led by 17 years old Muhammad bin Qasim, and Sukkur (including all of Sindh and lower Punjab) became part of the Umayyad Caliphate.

Later Mughals and many semi-autonomous tribes ruled over Sukkur. The city was ceded to Mirs of Khairpur between 1809 and 1824. In 1833, Shah Shuja (a warlord of Kandahar, Afghanistan) defeated the Talpurs near Sukkur and later made a solemn treaty with the Talpur ruler, by which he relinquished all claims on Sindh. In 1843, the British (General Charles James Napier) defeated the Talpurs at the battles of Miani and Dubbo near Hyderabad. Sukkur, along with the rest of Sindh, was under British rule until the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The (current) district of Sukkur was constituted in 1901 out of part of Shikarpur District, the remainder of which was formed into the Larkana District. Sukkur saw a significant socio-economic uplift after the 1930s, when the British built the world's largest barrage here on the Indus River. After the independence of Pakistan, thousands of Muslim immigrants arrived in Sukkur, while a large number of Hindus left for India.

Sukkur Barrage

The Sukkur Barrage has 66 Gates. The Sukkur barrage (formally called Lloyd Barrage), built under the British Raj on the Indus river, controls one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. Construction of the bridge was started in 1923 and completed in January 1932. The 5000 feet long barrage is made of yellow stone and steel and can water nearly 10 million acres (40,000 km2) of farmland through its seven large canals. Some of the canals are larger than the Suez Canal.

In November 2004, the government of Pakistan initiated a rehabilitation project to revitalize its water storage capacity and distribution efficiency. The project was completed in July 2005, (with less than the allocated amount of Rs. 887 million). Experts believe that the rehabilitation of the barrage has enhanced its efficiency for another 60 to 70 years.

Economy

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Industry

Sukkur is a hub of many small and large scale industries. Among important industries are cotton textiles, cement, leather, tobacco, paint and varnish, pharmaceuticals, agriculture implements, hand pumps, lock making, rice-husking, and sugar. Small-scale cottage industries comprise hosiery, boat making, fishing accessories, thread ball spooling, trunk making brass-wares, cutlery and ceramics.

Agriculture

Sukkur had a large fertile and cultivable land area until a few decades ago, when the Indus river was not as barren as today. Now its agricultural productivity has been much reduced. It has not achieved a reasonable yield per unit area over time, on account of continuous shortages of water and ignorance of modern irrigation systems. Despite the lack of water, during kharif, rice, bajra, cotton, tomatoes and peas are cultivated; whereas during rabi the main crops are wheat, barley, graham and melons. Sukkur is famous, world over, for its delicious dates. Sukkur also has a large Riveraine forest along the course of the Indus. These tropical forests are found within the protective embankments on either side of the Indus. During 1997-98 the total area under forests was 510 km2 which yielded 55,000 cubic feet (1,600 m3) of timber and 27,000 cubic feet (760 m3) of firewood besides other mine products.

Education

Some important educational institutions in Sukkur.

Sites of interest

Manzilgah Mosque at Bundar Road, Indus River
Sadh Belo ساڌ ٻيلو Temple on river Indus
  • Majid Manzilgah, Bundar road
  • Rohri
  • Aror (ruins of historical city)
  • Shrine of Syed Sadar-Ur-Din-Shah
  • Tomb of Shah Khairuddin Jillani
  • Tomb of the Seven Maidens Sateen Jo Aastan
  • Kot Mir Yakoob Ali Shah Rohri
  • Tomb of Abdul Baqi Purani, Ex-Governor of Bukkur.
  • Bukkur Island
  • Tomb of Syed Hakim Ali
  • Minaret of Masum Shah
  • Sadh Belo Temple on River Indus
  • Thermal Power Station Sukkur
  • Lansdowne Bridge Rohri
  • Sukkur (Lloyd) Barrage
  • Shikarpur Road connecting Quetta via Shikarpur
  • Shrine of Qazi Baba
  • Adam Shah je Takri
  • Degree College
  • Islamia College
  • Dadu Choke conneting Shikarpur Road, Waritar Rd & Hussaini Rd
  • Lab-e-Mehran
  • Lansdowne Bridge
  • Minara Road
  • Shahi Bazaar, Frere Road
  • Ayub Gate
  • Ladies and Children Hill Park
  • Looks Park/Qasim Park
  • Acher Ghitti
  • Bhutta Road (old Garden Road)
  • Bunder Road
  • Barrage colony
  • Purana Sukkur (Old Sukkur)
  • Sheikh Shee Road Sukkur
  • Raharki sahib
  • Jinnat (Genie's) Building, Old Sukkur
  • Hyderi Masjid, Old Sukkur
  • Tomb Syed Mukhdoom Shah Badshah
  • Shah Khair ud din Shah Badshah (G. A. Shah) - Old Sukkur

See also

References

  • Siddique G. Memon (2000): Sukkur Then and Now, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-579069-3

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : South Asia : Pakistan : Sindh : Sukkur
Contents

Sukkur lies on the west bank of Indus River in Sukkur District and is the third largest city of Sindh province, in Pakistan. When Arabs invaded Sukkur (Sindh) in the 8th century(712 A.D.), they found an extreme climate of hot and cold, and called it Saqar, which means intense. Sukkur is nicknamed Darya Dino meaning the gift of river, as without the Indus the city would be a desert.

  • Sukkur Airport

By bus

By bus

  • Rohri
  • Aror (ruins of historical city)
  • Shrine of Syed Sadar-Un-Din Shah
  • Tomb of Shah Khairuddin Jillani
  • Tomb of the Seven Maidens Sateen Jo Aastan
  • Kot Mir Yakoob Ali Shah Rohri
  • Tomb of Abdul Baqi Purani, Ex-Governor of Bukkur.
  • Bukkur Island
  • Tomb of Syed Hakim Ali
  • Minaret of Masum Shah
  • Sadh Belo Temple on River Indus
  • Thermal Power Station Sukkur
  • Lansdowne Bridge Rohri
  • Sukkur (Lloyd) Barrage
  • Lab-e-Mehran
  • Jafry Manzil (on Miani Road)
  • Shahi Bazaar, Frere Road
  • Ayub Gate
  • Ladies and Children Hill Park
  • Looks Parak/Qasim Park
  • Jinnat (Genie's) Building, Old Sukkur
  • Hyderi Masjid, Old Sukkur
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SUKKUR, or Sakhar, a town and district of British India, in Sind, Bombay. The town is situated on the right bank of the Indus, 24 m. N.W. of Skikarpur. Pop. (1901), 31,316. Sukkur has always commanded the trade of Sind, and the river is now crossed by a cantilever bridge carrying the North-Western railway to Kotri. The town was ceded to the Khairpur mirs between 1809 and 1824. In 1833 Shah Shuja defeated the Talpurs here with great loss. In 1842 it came under British rule.

The District Of Sukkur was created in 1901 out of part of Shikarpur district, the remainder of which was formed into the district of Larkana. Area, 5403 sq. m. It is chiefly alluvial plain, but there are slight hills at Sukkur and Rohri. In the higher-lying parts are salt lands (Kalar), or even desert in the area known as the Registan. The climate is hot, dry and enervating. The annual rainfall at Sukkur town averages only 42 in. The population in 1901 was 523,345, showing an increase of 10% in the decade. A considerable part of the district is irrigated, the principal crops being wheat, millets, rice, pulses and oil seeds. Earthen, leathern and metal ware, cotton cloth and tussore silk are manufactured, also pipe-bowls, snuff-boxes and scissors. Lines of the North-Western railway serve the district, and there is a branch from Sukkur towards Quetta.


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