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Sunderland 2.png
Full name Sunderland Association Football Club [SAFC]
Nickname(s) The Black Cats, The Mackems
Founded 1879[1] (as Sunderland and District Teachers)
Ground Stadium of Light
(Capacity: 49,000)
Owner Ellis Short
Chairman Niall Quinn
Manager Steve Bruce
League Premier League
2008–09 Premier League, 16th
Home colours
Away colours
Third colours
Current season

Sunderland Association Football Club (pronounced /ˈsʊndərlənd/) are an English professional association football club based in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear that compete in the Premier League. Since their formation in 1879, they have won six First Division titles—in 1892, 1893, 1895, 1902, 1913, and 1936 and the FA Cup twice, in 1937 and 1973 (see Sunderland A.F.C. seasons).

They were founded by schoolteacher James Allan, moved towards professionalism and were elected into The Football League in 1890 where they performed well in the league, earning plaudits such as a "wonderfully fine team".[2]

Sunderland won their first FA Cup in 1937 with a 3–1 victory over Preston North End, and remained in the top league for 68 successive seasons, losing the record Arsenal when they were relegated in 1958. Sunderland's most notable trophy win after the Second World War was their second FA Cup in 1973, when they secured a 1–0 victory over Leeds United. They have won the second tier title 5 times in that period and the third tier title once.

Sunderland play their home games at the 49,000 capacity all-seater Stadium of Light having moved from Roker Park in 1997. The original ground capacity was 42,000 which was increased to 49,000 following redevelopment in 2000. Sunderland have a long-standing rivalry with their neighbouring club Newcastle United, with whom they have contested the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898.


Early years and league triumphs

Sunderland-based schoolteacher James Allan founded the Sunderland District & Teachers Association Football Club on 17 October 1879.[3] The name of the club was changed to Sunderland Association Football Club in 1881, after other professions were allowed to join. This increased the pool of players and improved the club's financial base.[4] However, Allan grew dissatisfied with the changing attitude in the club towards professionalism.[5] He left to found Sunderland Albion, and the two Sunderland clubs formed a rivalry that lasted until Albion's demise in 1892.[5]

Sunderland were admitted into The Football League for the 1890–91 season. They replaced Stoke City, who had failed to be re-elected, becoming the first new club to join the league since its inauguration in 1888.[6] During the late 19th century, they were declared the "Team of All Talents" by William McGregor,[7] the founder of the league, after a 7–2 win against Aston Villa.[7] Sunderland won the league championship in the 1891–92 season, one season after joining The Football League. The club's 42 points were five clear of nearest rivals Preston North End, and this performance led The Times to describe the players as "a wonderfully fine team".[2] Sunderland successfully defended the title the following season, aided by centre forward Johnny Campbell, who broke the 30-goal mark for the second time in consecutive seasons. In the process, they became the first team to score 100 goals in a season, a feat not matched until 1919–20, when West Bromwich Albion set a new record.[8]

Sunderland came close to winning a third successive league championship in the 1893–94 season, finishing second behind Aston Villa. However, they regained the title in the 1894–95 season, ending the season five points ahead of Everton. After winning the English League Championship, Sunderland played against Heart of Midlothian, the champions of the Scottish League, in a game described as the Championship of the World title match.[9] Sunderland won the game 5–3 and were announced "champions of the world".[10] Sunderland came close to winning another league title in the 1897–98 season, when they finished as runners-up to Sheffield United.[11] That season was their last at Newcastle Road, as they moved to Roker Park the following season.[12] After coming second in 1900–01, the club won their fourth league title in the 1901–02 season, beating Everton by a three point margin.[13]

In 1904, Sunderland's management was embroiled in a payment scandal involving player Andrew McCombie. The club was said to have given the player £100 (£8 thousand today) to help him start his own business, on the understanding that he would repay the money after his benefit game.[14] However, McCombie refused to repay the money, claiming it had been a gift. An investigation conducted by the Football Association concluded that the money given to McCombie was part of a "re-signing/win/draw bonus", which violated the Association's rules. Sunderland were fined £250 (£20 thousand today), and six directors were suspended for two and a half years for not showing a true record of the club's financial dealings. Sunderland manager Alex Mackie was also suspended for three months for his involvement in the affair.[14][15]

Further league championship titles

On 5 December 1908, Sunderland achieved their highest ever league win, against north-east rivals Newcastle United. They won the game 9–1; Billy Hogg and George Holley each scored hat-tricks.[16] The club won the league again in 1913,[17] but lost their first FA Cup final 1–0 to Aston Villa.[18] This was the closest the club has come to winning the league title and the FA Cup in the same season.[19] Two seasons later the First World War brought the league to a halt. After the league's resumption, Sunderland came close to winning another championship in the 1922–23 season, when they were runners-up to Liverpool.[20] They also came close the following season, finishing third, four points from the top of the league.[21] The club escaped relegation from the First Division by one point in the 1927–28 season despite 35 goals from Dave Halliday. The point was won in a match against Middlesbrough, and they finished in fifteenth place.[22] Halliday improved his goal scoring to 43 goals in 42 games the following season,[23] an all-time Sunderland record for goals scored in a single season.[24]

The club's sixth league championship came in the 1935–36 season,[25] and they won the FA Cup the following season, after a 3–1 victory against Preston North End at Wembley Stadium.[26] The remainder of the decade saw mid-table finishes, until the league and FA Cup were suspended for the duration of the Second World War. Some football was still played as a morale boosting exercise, in the form of the Football League War Cup. Sunderland were finalists in the tournament in 1942, but were beaten by Wolverhampton Wanderers.[27]

For Sunderland, the immediate post-war years were characterised by significant spending; the club paid £18,000 (£474 thousand today) for Carlisle United's Ivor Broadis in January 1949.[14] Broadis was also Carlisle's manager at the time, and this is the first instance of a player transferring himself to another club.[28] This, along with record-breaking transfer fees to secure the services of Len Shackleton and Welsh international Trevor Ford, led to a contemporary nickname, the "Bank of England".[29] The club finished third in the First Division in 1950,[30] their highest finish since the 1936 championship.

Financial troubles and cup success

The late 1950s saw a sharp downturn in Sunderland's fortunes, and the club was once again implicated in a major financial scandal in 1957.[15] Found guilty of making payments to players in excess of the maximum wage, they were fined £5,000 (£90 thousand today), and their chairman and three directors were suspended.[14][31][32] The following year, Sunderland were relegated from the highest division for the first time in their 68-year league history.[33]

Sunderland's absence from the top flight lasted six years. The club came within one game of promotion back to the First Division in the 1962–63 season. Sunderland required only a draw in their final game against promotion rivals Chelsea, who had another game left to play after this match, to secure promotion. However, they were defeated,[34] and Chelsea won their last game 7–0 to clinch promotion, finishing ahead of Sunderland on goal difference.[35] After the close call in the previous season, the club was promoted to Division One in 1964 after finishing in second place. Sunderland beat Charlton Athletic in the final stages of the season, where they clinched promotion with a game to spare.[36] At the end of the decade, they were again relegated to the Second Division after finishing 21st.[37]

The memorial for 1973 FA Cup final winning manager Bob Stokoe

Sunderland won their last major trophy in 1973, in a 1–0 victory over Don Revie's Leeds United in the FA Cup Final.[38] A Second Division club at the time, Sunderland won the game, mostly thanks to the efforts of their goalkeeper Jimmy Montgomery, who saved two of Peter Lorimer's shots at goal in quick succession.[39] Ian Porterfield scored a volley in the 30th minute to beat Leeds and take the trophy.[39] Since 1973 only two other clubs, Southampton in 1976,[40] and West Ham United in 1980,[41] have equalled Sunderland's achievement of lifting the FA Cup while playing outside the top tier of English football.

By winning the 1973 FA Cup Final, Sunderland qualified for the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, the club's only appearance in European competition to date.[42] Sunderland beat Vasas Budapest 3–0 on aggregate, and were drawn against Lisbon club Sporting in the second round.[42] They won the first leg at Roker Park 2–1 but were defeated 2–0 in the away leg, and were knocked out of the competition 3–2 on aggregate.[42] After spending six seasons in the Second Division, Sunderland were promoted to Division One in the 1975–76 season; they topped the table over Bristol City by three points.[43] However, Sunderland were relegated the following season back into Division Two, without their FA Cup Final winning manager Bob Stokoe, who had resigned because of health problems at the start of the season.[44] The club celebrated its 100-year centenary in the 1979–80 season with a testimonial against an England XI side, which they lost 2–0.[45]

Sunderland appeared in their only League Cup final in 1985, but lost 1–0 to Norwich City.[46][47] In 1987, Sunderland saw one of the lowest points in their history, when they were relegated to the Third Division of the English league for the first time.[48] Under new chairman Bob Murray and new manager Denis Smith, the club was promoted the following season.[49] In 1990, they were promoted back to the top flight in unusual circumstances. Sunderland lost to Swindon Town in the play-off final, but Swindon's promotion was revoked after the club was found guilty of financial irregularities and Sunderland were promoted instead.[50] They stayed up for one year before being relegated on the final day of the following season.[51]

The Davy lamp monument, outside the Stadium of Light

Sunderland's last outing in a major final came in 1992 when, as a Second Division club, they returned to the FA Cup final. There was to be no repeat of the heroics of 1973, as Sunderland lost 2–0 to Liverpool.[52] The early 1990s was a turbulent period for the club. In 1995, they faced the prospect of a return to the third-tier of English football.[53] Peter Reid was brought in as manager, and quickly turned things around. Reid's time in charge had a stabilising effect; he remained manager for seven years.[54] After promotion from Division One in the 1995–96 season, Sunderland began their first season in the Premier League, but finished third from the bottom and were relegated back to the First Division.[55] In 1997, Sunderland left Roker Park, their home for 99 years. Bearing fond memories of the stadium, former Sunderland player Len Shackleton said, "There will never be another place like Roker".[56] The club moved to the Stadium of Light, a 42,000-seat arena that, at the time, was the largest stadium built in England after the Second World War.[57] Capacity was later increased to 49,000.[57]

Recent highs and lows

Sunderland returned to the Premier League as First-Division champions in 1999 with a then-record 105 points.[58] Two consecutive seventh place finishes in the Premier League were followed by two less successful seasons, and they were relegated to the second-tier with a then-record low 19 points in 2003.[59][60] Former Ireland manager Mick McCarthy took over at the club, and, in 2005, he took Sunderland up as champions for the third time in less than ten years.[61] However, the club's stay in the top flight was short-lived; as Sunderland were once again relegated. If that wasn't enough, to the joy of their local rivals they even managed to break their record-low total of 19 points, a new record-low total of 15 points was the most shameful event to hit the club in recent times.[60] McCarthy left the club in mid-season, and he was replaced temporarily by former Sunderland player Kevin Ball.[61] The record-low fifteen-point performance was surpassed in the 2007–08 season by Derby County, who finished on eleven points.[62]

Following the club's relegation, it was taken over by the Irish Drumaville Consortium,[63] headed by ex-player Niall Quinn, who appointed former Manchester United captain Roy Keane as the new manager.[64] Under Keane, the club rose steadily up the table with an unbeaten run of 17 games[65] to win promotion to the Premier League,[66] and were named winners of the Championship after beating Luton Town 5–0 at Kenilworth Road on 6 May 2007.[67] The club's form in the 2007–08 season was better than during their last season in the Premier League, as they finished 15th with 39 points.[68] Following an inconsistent start to the 2008–09 season Keane resigned, to be replaced by coach Ricky Sbragia, initially as caretaker manager though his position was later made permanent. After keeping Sunderland in the Premier League, Sbragia stepped down from his managerial post.[69] Steve Bruce was then announced as the new Sunderland manager on 3 June, signing a three-year contract.[70]

Colours and crest

Sunderland's club badge, used from 1977–1997

Sunderland played in an all blue strip from their formation until 1884,[71] until they adopted a red and white halved strip.[72] They assumed the current strip of red and white stripes in the 1887–88 season.[73] Their badge included a ship, the upper part of the City of Sunderland coat of arms, a black cat, and a football in front of Sunderland's red and white stripes.[74] In 1977 the badge was changed, but still included the ship, football and the background of red and white stripes.[75]

This badge was used until the relocation from Roker Park to the Stadium of Light.[76] To coincide with the move, Sunderland released a new crest divided into four quarters; the upper right and lower left featured their traditional red and white colours, but the ship was omitted. The upper left section features the Penshaw Monument and the lower right section shows the Wearmouth Bridge.[76] A colliery wheel at the top of the crest commemorates County Durham's mining history, and the land the Stadium of Light was built on, formerly the Monkwearmouth Colliery. The crest also contains two lions, the black cats of Sunderland, and a banner displaying the club's motto, Consectatio Excellentiae, which means "In pursuit of excellence".[76]


Average match attendances since 1891

Sunderland have had seven stadia throughout their history; the first was at Blue House Field in Hendon in 1879. The ground was close to the place where Sunderland formed, at Hendon Board School; at that time the rent for use of the ground was £10 (£800 today).[14][77] The club relocated briefly to Groves Field in Ashbrooke in 1882, before moving again the following season.[78] The club's third stadium was Horatio Street in Roker, the first Sunderland stadium north of the River Wear; the club played a single season there before another move,[79] this time to Abbs Field in Fulwell for two seasons. Abbs Field was notable for being the first Sunderland ground to which they charged admission.[80]

Sunderland moved to Newcastle Road in 1886. By 1898, the ground reached a capacity of 15,000 after renovations, and its rent had risen to £100 (£8.3 thousand today) a year.[14][81] Near the turn of the century, Sunderland needed a bigger stadium. They returned to Roker and set up home in Roker Park. It was opened on 10 September 1898, and the home team played a match the same day against Liverpool,[82] which they won. The stadium's capacity increased to 50,000 after redevelopment with architect Archibald Leitch in 1913. Sunderland were nearly bankrupted by the cost of renovating the Main Stand, and Roker Park was put up for sale but no further action was taken. On 8 March 1933, an overcrowded Roker Park recorded the highest ever attendance at a Sunderland match, 75,118 against Derby County in a FA Cup sixth round replay.[83] Roker Park suffered a bombing in 1943, in which once corner of the stadium was destroyed. A special constable was killed whilst patrolling the stadium. By the 1990s, the stadium was no longer large enough, and had no room for possible expansion.[84] In January 1990, the Taylor Report was released after overcrowding at the Hillsborough Stadium resulted in 96 deaths, an incident known as the Hillsborough Disaster.[85] The report recommended that all major stadiums must be converted to an all-seater design.[86] As a result, Roker Park's capacity was reduced. It was demolished in 1997 and a housing estate built in its place.[82]

The Stadium of Light has been Sunderland's home ground since 1997.

In 1997, Sunderland moved to their present ground, Stadium of Light in Monkwearmouth, which was opened by Prince Andrew, Duke of York. Built with an original capacity of 42,000, it hosted its first game against Dutch team Ajax.[87] The stadium bears the same name as the Portuguese club Benfica's ground Estádio da Luz, albeit in a different language. Stadium expansion in 2000 saw the capacity increase to 49,000. A Davy lamp monument stands outside the stadium, as a reminder of the Monkwearmouth Colliery pit the stadium was built on.[88] Future reconstruction would allow the stadium's capacity to reach 66,000.[89]

Supporters and rivalries

Sunderland held the fifth highest average home attendance out of the 20 clubs in the Premier League at the end of the 2007–08 season with an average of 43,344.[90] The club has many supporter groups from various countries, including the United States, Australia, Canada and Ireland.[91] The Sunderland fans were recorded as the loudest crowd in the 2007–08 season, following a survey carried out at every ground in the league; the highest peak volume was measured at 129.2 decibels.[92]

The club has an official monthly subscription magazine, called the Legion of Light, which season ticket holders receive for no cost.[93] The club's current fanzine is A Love Supreme.[94] Others in the past have been It's The Hope I Can't Stand, Sex and Chocolate, Wise Men Say, and The Roker Roar (later The Wearside Roar).[95]

Traditionally, Sunderland's main rivals are Newcastle United and against whom the Tyne–Wear derby is competed.[96] The club were rivals with fellow Sunderland-based team, Sunderland Albion, in the 1880s and 1890s. The clubs met in the FA Cup in the third qualifying round; Sunderland, however, withdrew from the competition to deny Albion a share of the gate receipts.[5] In the same season the clubs were drawn again in the Durham Challenge Cup; in a ploy again to prevent Albion from gaining money from the ticket sales, Sunderland proposed that the gate money be donated to charity. Albion declined and Sunderland won the match 2–0.[5] Sunderland achieved their first victory over Newcastle United at home in 28 years, when they won the derby in the 2008–09 season.[97]

Statistics and records

League positions since 1890–91 season.
Coloured horizontal lines indicate league divisions. Blue and green lines represent the divide between first and second divisions, and divides between second and third divisions respectively.

The holder of the record for the most league appearances is Jimmy Montgomery, having made 527 first team appearances between 1961 and 1976.[98] The club's top league goal scorer is Charlie Buchan, who scored 209 goals from 1911–1925;[99] Bobby Gurney is the record goalscorer over all competitions with 227 goals between 1926 and 1939.[100] Dave Halliday holds the record for the most goals scored in a season: 43 in the 1928–29 season in the Football League First Division.[99] Charlie Hurley is the most capped player for the club, making 36 appearances for the Republic of Ireland.[99]

The club's widest victory margin in the league was in the 9–1 win against Newcastle United in the First Division in 1908.[101] Their heaviest defeats in the league were 8–0 against Sheffield Wednesday in 1911, West Ham United in 1968 and Watford in 1982.[101] Sunderland joined the top division in England, The Football League, in the 1890–91 season and were not relegated until 1957–58 (a span of 67 seasons).

Sunderland's record home attendance is 75,118 for a sixth round replay FA Cup match against Derby County on 8 March 1933.[102] The highest transfer fee received for a Sunderland player is £5 million, from Leeds United for Michael Bridges in July 1999,[99] while the most spent by the club on a player was £10 million for Darren Bent from Tottenham Hotspur in August 2009.[103] although this fee could rise to as much as £16million, dependent upon the number of goals the player scores & the number of premier league and international appearances.


Sunderland's official nickname is The Black Cats. They have other nicknames, such as The Rokerites, Roker Men, the Light Brigade, the Miners and the Sols.[104] After leaving Roker Park for the Stadium of Light in 1997, the club decided on a vote to settle the nickname for the last time.[104] The Black Cats won the majority of the 11,000 votes, beating off other suggestions such as the Light Brigade, the Miners, the Sols and the Mackems.[104] There is a long historical link between black cats and Sunderland, including the "Black Cat Battery", a battery gun based on the River Wear.[104] Around the early 1800s, the southern side of the River Wear contained four gun batteries, which guarded the river mouth during the Napoleonic wars.[105] In 1805, the battery was manned by local militia, the Sunderland Loyal Volunteers, one of whom was a cooper by trade named Joshua Dunn. He was said to have "fled from the howling of an approaching black cat, convinced by the influence of the full moon and a warming dram or two that it was the devil incarnate". From that point onwards the John Paul Jones Battery was known as the Black Cat Battery.[105] A Sunderland supporter, Billy Morris, took a black cat in his top pocket as a good luck charm to the 1937 FA Cup final in which Sunderland brought home the trophy for the first time.[104] During the 1960s a black cat lived in Roker Park, fed and watered by the football club.[104] Since the 1960s the emblem of the Sunderland A.F.C. Supporters Association has been a black cat.[106]

As well as the "Team of All Talents" at the turn of the 20th century,[107] Sunderland were known as the "Bank of England club" during the 1950s. This was a reference to the club's spending in the transfer market at the time, which saw the transfer-record broken twice.[108] At the beginning of the 2006–07 season, the purchase of the club by the Irish Drumaville Consortium, the appointments of Niall Quinn and Roy Keane to their respective roles as chairman and manager, as well as the relatively large number of Irish players in the squad, led some fans to jokingly dub the team "Sund-Ireland".[109]


Sunderland are currently sponsored by the Irish bookmaker Boylesports, who signed a four-year contract with the club in 2007 worth up to £12 million, which will ensure that the company is the main shirt sponsor until 2011.[110] The club was sponsored by the Vaux Breweries between 1985 and 1999, and subsequently by Sunderland car dealership company Reg Vardy from 1999 to 2007.[111][112] They were also sponsored for a short time by the transport company "Cowies," later Arriva, whose headquarters are in Sunderland.[111][113]

Players and managers

As of 31 January 2010.[114]

Current squad

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Scotland GK Craig Gordon
2 England DF Phil Bardsley
3 Northern Ireland DF George McCartney
4 England DF Michael Turner
5 England DF Anton Ferdinand
6 Scotland DF Alan Hutton (on loan from Tottenham Hotspur)
7 Netherlands MF Boudewijn Zenden
8 France MF Steed Malbranque
9 England FW Fraizer Campbell
10 England MF Kieran Richardson
11 England FW Darren Bent
12 Ghana DF John Mensah (on loan from Lyon)
15 England MF Liam Noble
16 England MF Jordan Henderson
No. Position Player
17 Trinidad and Tobago FW Kenwyne Jones
18 Republic of Ireland MF David Meyler
19 Albania MF Lorik Cana (captain)[115]
20 Republic of Ireland MF Andy Reid
22 Paraguay DF Paulo da Silva
24 Northern Ireland GK Trevor Carson
26 England MF Adam Reed
27 England DF Matthew Kilgallon
28 Zimbabwe FW Benjani Mwaruwari (on loan from Manchester City)
30 England FW Ryan Noble
32 Hungary GK Márton Fülöp
33 Republic of Ireland DF Michael Liddle
39 England MF Lee Cattermole

Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
6 Jamaica DF Nyron Nosworthy (at Sheffield United)
14 Republic of Ireland FW Daryl Murphy (at Ipswich Town)
23 Northern Ireland FW David Healy (at Ipswich Town)
25 Republic of Ireland FW Roy O'Donovan (at Hartlepool until the end of the season)
28 Finland MF Teemu Tainio (at Birmingham City until the end of the 2009–10 season)
No. Position Player
England MF Jack Colback (at Ipswich Town until the end of the season.)[116]
France DF Jean-Yves M'voto (at Southend United until the end of the season)[117]
England FW Martyn Waghorn (at Leicester City until the end of the season)[118]

Notable players


Current manager: Steve Bruce.[119]


The following are the honours Sunderland have achieved since their foundation in 1879.[120][121][122]


Winners (6): 1891–92, 1892–93, 1894–95, 1901–02, 1912–13, 1935–36
Runners-up (5): 1893–94, 1897–98, 1900–01, 1922–23, 1934–35
Winners (5): 1975–76, 1995–96, 1998–99, 2004–05, 2006–07
Runners-up (2): 1963–64, 1979–80
Promotion (1): 1989–90
Winners (1): 1987–88


Winners (2): 1937, 1973
Runners-up (2): 1913, 1992
Semi-finalists (8): 1891, 1892, 1895, 1931, 1938, 1955, 1956, 2004
Runners-up (1): 1985
Semi-finalists (2): 1963, 1999
Winners (1): 1936
Runners-up (1): 1937
Winners (1): 1903
Runners-up (1): 1942
  • Albufeira Cup
Winners (1): 2008

Footnotes and references

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  2. ^ a b Days, pp 29–30.
  3. ^ Days, p 3.
  4. ^ Days, p 7.
  5. ^ a b c d Days, p 19.
  6. ^ Days, p 27.
  7. ^ a b Days, p 21.
  8. ^ Days, pp 31–32.
  9. ^ "Hearts History 1894–1904". Hearts F.C..,,10289~985232,00.html. Retrieved 8 January 2009. 
  10. ^ Days, pp 35–36.
  11. ^ Days, pp 43–44.
  12. ^ Days, pp 45–46.
  13. ^ Days, pp 55–56.
  14. ^ a b c d e f UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Measuring Worth: UK CPI.
  15. ^ a b Days, p 63.
  16. ^ Days, pp 73–76.
  17. ^ Days, pp 85–86.
  18. ^ "English FA Cup — Final 1913". Soccerbase. Retrieved 19 December 2008. 
  19. ^ Days, pp 87–88.
  20. ^ Days, pp 107–108.
  21. ^ Days, pp 111–112.
  22. ^ Days, pp 121–122.
  23. ^ "Football League Div 1 & 2 Leading Goalscorers 1920–39". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 5 December 2008. 
  24. ^ "1920–1929". Sunderland A.F.C.. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 23 January 2009. 
  25. ^ Days, pp 139–140.
  26. ^ "English FA Cup — Final 1937". Soccerbase. Retrieved 19 December 2008. 
  27. ^ Days, p 154.
  28. ^ Amos, Mike (14 December 2007). "Broadis still; bubbling along at 85". The Northern Echo. Retrieved 19 September 2008. 
  29. ^ Days, pp 169–170.
  30. ^ Richard Rundle. "Football League 1949–1950". Football Club History Database. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
  31. ^ Days, pp 183–184.
  32. ^ "The Jimmy Hill Years: PFA Chairman 1957–1961". Professional Footballers' Association. Retrieved 4 January 2009. 
  33. ^ Days, p 187.
  34. ^ "Sunderland 0 – 1 Chelsea". Soccerbase. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
  35. ^ Days, pp 199–200.
  36. ^ Days, pp 201–202.
  37. ^ Days, pp 217–218.
  38. ^ "Shocks do happen". The FA. Archived from the original on 2005-04-06. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 
  39. ^ a b Morgan, Richard (31 December 2003). "Monty wanting more heroics". The FA. Archived from the original on 2004-12-11. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 
  40. ^ "Classic Cup Finals: 1976". The FA. Retrieved 19 December 2008. 
  41. ^ Winter, Henry (7 April 2008). "Ledley volley sends Cardiff City to FA Cup final". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 
  42. ^ a b c "European Competitions 1973-74". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 19 December 2008. 
  43. ^ Days, pp 235–236.
  44. ^ Days, pp 239–240.
  45. ^ Days, pp 247–248.
  46. ^ "1985 Milk Cup Final". Sporting Chronicle. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  47. ^ "Up for the cups". Norwich Evening News 24. 10 May 2004. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  48. ^ Days, pp 265–266.
  49. ^ Days, pp 269–270.
  50. ^ "Division Two Play-Off Winners 1989/1990". Swindon Town F.C.. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 
  51. ^ Richard Rundle. "Football League 1990–1991". Football Club History Database. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
  52. ^ "Thomas sinks Sunderland". The FA. Retrieved 19 December 2008. 
  53. ^ Days, pp 291–292.
  54. ^ "Peter Reid's managerial career". Soccerbase. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  55. ^ "FA Premier League 1996–97". Football Club History Database. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
  56. ^ Days, p 298.
  57. ^ a b "Stadium of Light". Sunderland A.F.C.. Archived from the original on 2008-04-16. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  58. ^ Days, p 312.
  59. ^ "2000 To Date". Sunderland A.F.C.. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  60. ^ a b "Club Profile". Premier League. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  61. ^ a b "2000 To Date". Sunderland A.F.C.. Archived from the original on 2006-03-26. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  62. ^ Stevenson, Jonathon (29 March 2008). "Where do woeful Derby rank?". BBC Sport. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  63. ^ "2000 To Date". Sunderland A.F.C.. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  64. ^ "Keane becomes new Sunderland boss". BBC Sport. 28 August 2006. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  65. ^ Alexander, Jeremy (23 April 2007). "Keane's march to the top falters on tiny Colchester's own ambitions". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  66. ^ Mercer, Nathan (29 April 2007). "Crystal Palace 2–0 Derby". BBC Sport. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  67. ^ Walker, Michael (7 May 2007). "Sunderland's title has Keane almost smiling". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  68. ^ "2007/08 League Table". Sunderland A.F.C.. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
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