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Super Bowl
Super Bowl 29 Vince Lombardi trophy at 49ers Family Day 2009.JPG
The Vince Lombardi Trophy is awarded to the Super Bowl winner
First played 1967
Trophy Vince Lombardi Trophy

Recent and upcoming games
2008 season
Super Bowl XLIII (February 1, 2009)
Pittsburgh Steelers 27, Arizona Cardinals 23
2009 season
Super Bowl XLIV (February 7, 2010)
New Orleans Saints 31. Indianapolis Colts 17
2010 season
Super Bowl XLV (February 6, 2011)

The Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL), the premier association of professional American football. It was first played on January 15, 1967, as part of a merger agreement between the NFL and its then-rival league, the American Football League (AFL). It was agreed that the two leagues' champion teams would play in an AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger was consummated in 1970. After the merger, each league became a "conference", and the game was then played between conference champions. The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. Super Bowl I was played in 1967 to determine the championship of the regular season played in 1966, and Super Bowl XLIV was played on February 7, 2010, to determine the champion of the 2009 regular season.

The day on which the Super Bowl is played is now considered a de facto American national holiday,[1][2][3] called Super Bowl Sunday. It is the second-largest day for U.S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day.[4] And in most years, the Super Bowl is the most-watched American television broadcast. Super Bowl XLIV, played in February 2010, became the most-watched television program ever, drawing an average audience of 106.5 million viewers and taking over the spot held for 27 years by the final episode of M*A*S*H.[5]

Because of its high viewership, commercial airtime for the Super Bowl broadcast is the most expensive of the year. Due to the high cost of investing in advertising on the Super Bowl, companies regularly develop their most expensive advertisements for this broadcast. As a result, watching and discussing the broadcast’s commercials has become a significant aspect of the event (true football fans however, only care about the game itself). In addition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the event's pre-game and halftime ceremonies because of the exposure.

The Pittsburgh Steelers have won six Super Bowls, while the Dallas Cowboys and San Francisco 49ers have each won five. Fifteen other NFL franchises have won at least one Super Bowl. Only four active NFL franchises have not appeared in the Super Bowl: the Detroit Lions, Cleveland Browns, Jacksonville Jaguars, and Houston Texans. The Lions are the only NFC team yet to play in one, the other three are in the AFC. The Browns and Lions have both won NFL championships prior to the Super Bowl era, while the Jaguars (who joined the NFL in 1995) and Texans (2002) joined the league after the Super Bowl era began.

Origin

The Super Bowl was created as part of the merger agreement between the National Football League (NFL) and its competitive rival, the American Football League (AFL). After its inception in 1920, the NFL fended off several rival leagues before the AFL began play in 1960. The intense competitive war for players and fans led to serious merger talks between the two leagues in 1966. According to NFL Films President Steve Sabol, then NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle wanted to call the game "The Big One".[6] During the discussions to iron out the details, one of the AFL's founders and Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt had jokingly referred to the proposed inter league championship as the "Super Bowl". [7] Lamar Hunt, who died in December 2006, coined the term Super Bowl in the late 1960s after watching his kids play with a Super Ball, the bouncy creation of iconic toy manufacturer Wham-O. The small, round ball is now on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The name was consistent with postseason college football games which had long been known as "bowl games." Hunt only meant his suggested name to be a stopgap until a better one could be found; nevertheless, the name "Super Bowl" became permanent. Contrary to popular belief and NFL promotion, however, there was no Super Bowl prior to what is now called "Super Bowl IV". Tickets for the games played in 1967, 1968, and 1969 were printed with "World Championship Game"[8]

After the NFL's Green Bay Packers convincingly won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger. At the time, many doubted the competitiveness of AFL teams compared with NFL counterparts, though that perception changed with the AFL's New York Jets' defeat of the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. One year later, the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL's Minnesota Vikings 23–7 and won Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the last World Championship game played between the champions of the two leagues, as the league merger finally took place later that year.

The game is played annually on a Sunday as the final game of the NFL Playoffs. Originally the game took place in early to mid-January, following a 14-game regular season and playoffs. Over the years, the date of the Super Bowl has progressed from the second Sunday in January, to the third, then the fourth Sunday in January; the game is now played on the first Sunday in February, given the current 17-week (16 games and one bye week) regular season and three rounds of playoffs. This progression of the date of the Super Bowl has been caused by the following: the expansion of the NFL regular season in 1978 from 14 games to 16, the expansion of the pre-Super Bowl playoff field from eight to twelve teams, necessitating the addition of a third round of playoffs (also in 1978), the addition of the regular season bye-week in the 1990s, and the decision prior to the 2001 season to start the regular season the week after Labor Day, moving the start of the season to a week later than it had been (in 1997, for example, the regular season started on Sunday, August 31). Former NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle is often considered the mastermind of both the merger and the Super Bowl. His leadership guided the two competitors into the merger agreement and cemented the preeminence of the Super Bowl.

The winning team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy, named for the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl games and three of the five preceding NFL championships (1961, 1962, 1965). Following his death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi Trophy, and was first awarded as such to the Baltimore Colts at Super Bowl V in Miami. Though the first World Championship Game between the AFL and NFL was not called Super Bowl I. The advertisement on page 61 of the January 15, 1967 game read "Immediately following the Super Bowl, this will be the first down."

Game history

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1966–1967: Packers early success

The Green Bay Packers won the first two Super Bowls, defeating the Kansas City Chiefs and the Oakland Raiders. The Packers were led by quarterback Bart Starr, who was named MVP for both games. These two championships, along with the Packers' NFL championships in 1961, 1962, and 1965 have led many people to consider the Packers to be the "Team of the '60s." Green Bay is often referred to as "Title Town."

1968–1980 AFL/AFC dominance

In Super Bowl III, behind the guarantee of Joe Namath, the New York Jets defeated the 18-point favorite Baltimore Colts 16–7. The win helped solidify the AFL as a legitimate contender with the NFL. And as it turned out, the 1970s were dominated by the AFC, though four of those wins were by pre-merger NFL teams that had been moved to the AFC. Only one NFC franchise won a Super Bowl during the decade: the Dallas Cowboys. Dallas appeared in five Super Bowls and won Super Bowls VI and XII.

Perfection

During the 1970s, a majority of the Super Bowls were won by just two teams, the Miami Dolphins and the Pittsburgh Steelers, winning a combined six championships in the decade. Miami won Super Bowls VII and VIII. The first of these Super Bowl wins capped the only undefeated and untied season in the history of the NFL. The 2007 New England Patriots who went 16–0 during the regular season ended up losing Super Bowl XLII to the New York Giants.

The Steelers' dynasty

Pittsburgh won four Super Bowls between 1974 and 1980 (IX, X, XIII, and XIV) behind the coaching of Chuck Noll and play of Terry Bradshaw, Lynn Swann, and Franco Harris—each receiving at least one MVP award—and their "Steel Curtain" defense led by "Mean" Joe Greene and Jack Lambert. The Steelers were the first team to win three and then four Super Bowls and appeared in six AFC Championship Games during the decade making the playoffs eight straight seasons. Nine players and three coaches/administrators that were on each of the championship seasons have been inducted into the Hall of Fame. Pittsburgh is also the only team to win back-to-back Super Bowls on two different occasions.

1981–1996: The NFC's winning streak

NFC teams won fifteen of sixteen Super Bowls in this stretch, including thirteen in a row from 1984 to 1996.

The 49ers lead the NFC domination in the 1980s

The most successful franchise of the 1980s was the San Francisco 49ers, who won four Super Bowls in the decade (XVI, XIX, XXIII, and XXIV). They were known for using Bill Walsh's west coast offense. The 1980s also included the 1985 Chicago Bears who finished the season with an 18–1 record (a feat accomplished the prior year by the 49ers), and two championships for the Washington Redskins. The Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders were the only AFC franchise to win a Super Bowl in the 1980s, winning Super Bowls XV and XVIII. The remaining Super Bowl from the decade was won by the New York Giants following the 1986 season.

The Cowboys dominate the early 1990s

The Dallas Cowboys became the dominant team in the NFL in the early 1990s. After championships by division rivals New York and Washington to start the decade, the Cowboys won three of the next four Super Bowls. With Super Bowl XXIX, the 49ers became the first team to win five Super Bowls. The Cowboys also won their fifth title ( Super Bowl XXX ) in the decade and appeared in four NFC championship games as well, winning with both a balanced offense and dominant defense. The 49ers and the Cowboys faced each other in three consecutive NFC championships. As both teams began to lose their dominance late into the decade, another NFC powerhouse, the Green Bay Packers, led by three time MVP quarterback Brett Favre, emerged, winning Super Bowl XXXI following the 1996 season.

The early 1990s also featured the Buffalo Bills, who became the only team to date to appear in four consecutive Super Bowls. However, they lost all of them.

1997–Present: The AFC Rises Again

In Super Bowl XXXII, quarterback John Elway led the Denver Broncos to an upset victory over the defending champion Packers, snapping the NFC's 13-game winning streak, and beginning a streak in which the AFC would win nine of the next thirteen Super Bowls. The Broncos would go on to win Super Bowl XXXIII the next year, over the Atlanta Falcons, in Elway's final game before retiring. After an NFC win by the St. Louis Rams in Super Bowl XXXIV, the AFC continued its winning ways, with wins by the Baltimore Ravens and New England Patriots.

The Patriots dominate the early 2000s

The Patriots became the dominant team through the early 2000s, winning the championship in three of the first five years of the decade. In Super Bowl XXXVI Super Bowl MVP quarterback Tom Brady led his team to a 20–17 upset victory over the Rams. The Patriots also went on to win Super Bowls XXXVIII and XXXIX. They lost Super Bowl XLII to the New York Giants in 2008 becoming the only team to go 18–1 and not win the Super Bowl. (Had they won they would have been the first team to finish a season 19–0 and also join the 1972 Miami Dolphins as the only teams to have perfect seasons.)

The second half of the decade saw parity among both conferences. The AFC recorded wins by the Pittsburgh Steelers (XL and XLIII) and the Indianapolis Colts (XLI). The Giants (XLII) and the New Orleans Saints (XLIV) logged NFC wins.

Security

The Super Bowl has been designated a National Special Security Event by the United States Secret Service and the Department of Homeland Security every year since Super Bowl XXXVI, which was the first Bowl played following the September 11 attacks. That means that the stadium and surrounding area face increased security measures, especially on game day. Among other things, this means that the once-ubiquitous blimps (according to NFL Films' Steven Sabol, Super Bowl XIX had four of them) have been grounded.

Television coverage and ratings

For many years, the Super Bowl has had a very large television audience in the U.S., and it is often the most watched television program of the year. The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings which usually come in around a 40 rating and 60 share (i.e., on average, 40 percent of all U.S. households, and 60 percent of all homes tuned into television during the game). This means that on average, 80 to 90 million Americans are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment.

A frequently-misquoted[9][10] figure from NFL press releases has led to the common perception that the Super Bowl has an annual global audience of around one billion people. In fact, the NFL states one billion as the game's potential worldwide audience – i.e. the number of people able to watch the game.[11] Independent studies suggest that the average global viewership is just over 100 million, the vast majority of whom are U.S. viewers.[9] This is comparable with the final of the European UEFA Champions League [12][13] making both the most watched annual sporting events (both the 4-yearly Olympic Games and FIFA World Cup exceed this total).

The highest-rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI in 1982, which was watched in 49.1 percent of households (73 share) or 40,020,000 households at the time. Ratings for that game, a San Francisco victory over Cincinnati, may have been boosted by a large blizzard that affected much of the northeastern United States on game day, keeping even more people than usual at home in front of the TV. Super Bowl XVI still ranks #4 on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and three other Super Bowls (XII, XVII, and XX) made the top 10.[14] Super Bowl XLIV in 2010 holds the record for total U.S. viewership, attracting an average audience of 106.5 million viewers. Although the proliferation of cable and satellite television has undercut broadcast ratings somewhat in recent years, the game is still sufficiently popular that a number of networks actually schedule original programming during the game, such as independently produced halftime entertainment, simply to take advantage of a large audience already in front of the television. Other networks air reruns or syndicated programming to avoid wasting a potentially highly rated new episode.

Following Apple Computer's 1984 commercial introducing the Macintosh computer, directed by Ridley Scott, the broadcast of the Super Bowl became the premier showcase for high concept or simply extravagantly expensive commercials.[citation needed] Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser "Bud Bowl" campaign, and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. Prices have increased each year, with advertisers paying as much as $3 million for a 30-second spot during Super Bowl XLIII in 2009 (though this dropped to $2.8 million for Super Bowl XLIV). A segment of the audience tunes in to the Super Bowl solely to watch the creative commercials[citation needed].

Super Bowl on TV

Network Number broadcast Years broadcast Future scheduled telecasts
ABC*[›] 7 1985, 1988, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2006
CBS 17 1967, 1968, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1992, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010 2013
Fox 5 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 2011, 2014
NBC 16 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1989, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2009 2012

^ *: Not currently broadcasting NFL.
The first Super Bowl was simultaneously broadcast by CBS and NBC, with each network using the same video feed but providing its own commentary teams for the audio portion. Super Bowls I–VI were blacked out in the television markets of the host cities, due to league restrictions then in place.

Lead-out programming

The network that airs the Super Bowl typically takes advantage of the large audience to air an episode of a hit series or to premiere the pilot of a promising new series in the lead-out slot, immediately following the Super Bowl and the post-game coverage. [1]

Entertainment

Initially, it was sort of a novelty and so it didn't quite feel right. But it was just like, this is the year. ... Bands of our generation, you can sort of be seen on a stage like this or, like, not seen. There's not a lot of middle places. It is a tremendous venue.

——Bruce Springsteen explaining why he turned down several invitations to play at the Super Bowl before finally agreeing to appear in Super Bowl XLIII.[15]

Early Super Bowls featured a halftime show consisting of marching bands from local colleges or high schools. But as the popularity of the game increased, so did the potential of exposure. This has led to the trend of popular singers and musicians performing during its pre-game ceremonies, the halftime show, or even just singing the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner".[16] Unlike regular season or playoff games, thirty minutes are allocated for the Super Bowl halftime.

The first halftime show to feature only one star performer was Michael Jackson during Super Bowl XXVII in 1993. The NFL specifically went after a big star like Jackson to increase viewership and to continue expanding the Super Bowl as a mega-event.[17] Another especially memorable performance came during Super Bowl XXXVI in 2002, when U2 performed. During their second song, "Where the Streets Have No Name" the band played under a large projection screen which scrolled through names of the victims of the September 11 attacks.

The halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVIII in 2004 generated controversy, when Justin Timberlake removed a piece of Janet Jackson's top, exposing her right breast with a star-shaped ring around the nipple. Timberlake and Jackson have maintained that the incident was accidental, calling it a "wardrobe malfunction." The game was airing live on CBS, and MTV (at the time, a corporate sister company of CBS within Viacom) produced the halftime show. Immediately after that moment, the director cut to a very wide-angle shot and cut to a commercial break. However, video captures of the moment in detail circulated quickly on the Internet. The NFL, embarrassed by the incident, permanently banned MTV from doing another halftime show in any capacity. This also led to the FCC tightening controls on indecency and fining CBS and CBS-owned stations a total of US $550,000 for the incident. The fine was later reversed in July, 2008.

Except for Super Bowl XXXIX, the famous "I'm Going to Disney World/Disneyland" advertising campaign took place at every Super Bowl since Super Bowl XXI, when quarterback Phil Simms from the New York Giants became the first player to say the now-famous tagline. Typically, Disney ran the ad several times during the game showing several players from both teams practicing the catch-phrase.

Venue

Looking toward Ford Field the night of Super Bowl XL.

Twenty-six out of forty-four Super Bowls have been played in one of three locations: New Orleans, Louisiana (nine times), the Greater Miami area (ten times), and the Greater Los Angeles area (seven times). These three "big" hosts are then followed by Tampa, Florida and San Diego, California: San Diego has hosted three games, and Tampa has hosted four.

The Current NFL policy is to hold Super Bowls only in cities which have an NFL franchise. The last time the Los Angeles area hosted the game was Super Bowl XXVII in 1993. The league's two teams vacated the city in 1995: the Raiders moved back to Oakland, California, and the Rams moved to St. Louis, Missouri.

No team has played the Super Bowl in their home stadium. The closest have been the San Francisco 49ers who played Super Bowl XIX in Stanford Stadium rather than Candlestick Park, and the Los Angeles Rams who played Super Bowl XIV in the Rose Bowl rather than the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The only other Super Bowl venue which wasn't the home stadium to an NFL team at the time was Rice Stadium in Houston, Texas and the Rose Bowl: the Houston Oilers had played there previously, but had moved to the Astrodome several years prior to Super Bowl VIII. The Orange Bowl was the only AFL stadium to host a Super Bowl, II and III. It is also the only stadium to host consecutive Super Bowls. Tulane Stadium was the first of three Super Bowl venues to have been demolished: it was torn down in 1979. The others are Tampa Stadium (demolished in 1999) and the Miami Orange Bowl (demolished 2008).

Only three Super Bowls have been played in northern cities; two in the Detroit area (Super Bowl XVI at Pontiac Silverdome in Pontiac, and Super Bowl XL at Ford Field in Detroit), and one in Minneapolis (Super Bowl XXVI). However, all three were played inside domed stadiums. There has never been a Super Bowl scheduled to be played outside in cold temperatures. Super Bowl XLVI will also be played in a northern city, Indianapolis, Indiana. The new Lucas Oil Stadium has a retractable roof, which presumably will not be retracted when the game is played in February 2012.

On March 5, 2006, Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City, Missouri, a "cold weather" city, was awarded the rights to host Super Bowl XLIX in 2015. However, the game was contingent on the successful passage of two sales taxes in Jackson County, Missouri on April 4, 2006. The first tax would have funded improvements to Arrowhead, home of the Chiefs and neighboring Kauffman Stadium, home of the Kansas City Royals Major League Baseball team. The second tax would have allowed the construction of a "rolling roof" between the two stadiums.[18] However, the second tax failed to pass. With increased opposition by local business leaders and politicians, Kansas City eventually withdrew its request to host the game by May 25, 2006.[19] Before that, Super Bowl XLIV, slated for February 7, 2010, was withdrawn from New York City's proposed West Side Stadium, also to have been a retractable roof facility, because the city, state, and proposed tenants New York Jets could not agree on funding. The game was then awarded to Sun Life Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida.

Selection process

The location of the Super Bowl is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually three to five years before the game. Cities place bids to host a Super Bowl. Candidate cities are evaluated in terms of stadium renovation and ability to host a Super Bowl.[20] Then the NFL owners meet to make a selection on the site. The sites for the next four Super Bowls have been determined, up to Super Bowl XLVII in 2013. On October 16, 2007, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell suggested that a Super Bowl might be played in London, probably at Wembley Stadium.[21] The game has never been played in a region which lacks an NFL franchise. (Seven Super Bowls have been played in Los Angeles, but none since the Los Angeles Raiders and Los Angeles Rams both relocated elsewhere in 1995.)

Home team designation

The designated "home team" alternates between the AFC team in even-numbered games (the Indianapolis Colts in Super Bowl XLIV in February 2010), and the NFC team in odd-numbered games (the Arizona Cardinals in Super Bowl XLIII in February 2009).[22][23] This alternation was initiated with the first Super Bowl, when the Green Bay Packers of the NFL were the designated home team.

Since Super Bowl XIII in January 1979, the home team is given the choice of wearing their colored or white jerseys. Formerly, the designated home team was specified to wear their colored jerseys, which resulted in Dallas donning their less familiar dark blue jerseys for Super Bowl V.

While most of the home teams in the Super Bowl have chosen to wear their colored jerseys, there have been four exceptions; the Cowboys twice (XIII & XXVII), the Washington Redskins (XVII), and the Pittsburgh Steelers (XL). The Cowboys (since 1965) and Redskins (since the arrival of coach Joe Gibbs in 1981) have traditionally worn white jerseys at home. Meanwhile, the Steelers, who have always worn their black jerseys at home since the AFL-NFL merger in 1970, opted for the white jerseys after winning three consecutive playoff games on the road, wearing white. The Steelers' decision was compared with the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XX. The Patriots had worn white jerseys at home during the 1985 season, but after winning road playoff games against the New York Jets and Miami Dolphins wearing red jerseys, New England opted to wear red for the Super Bowl as the designated home team. Strangely, the Dallas Cowboys (V) and the Washington Redskins (VII) have lost their Super Bowl games wearing their colored jerseys, although the Redskins wore their burgundy jerseys at home throughout the 1972 season leading up to Super Bowl VII.

Stadiums that have hosted the Super Bowl

Name Location # hosted Years hosted
Louisiana Superdome New Orleans, Louisiana 7* 1978, 1981, 1986, 1990, 1997, 2002, 2013
Miami Orange Bowl Miami, Florida 5 1968, 1969, 1971, 1976, 1979
Rose Bowl Pasadena, California 5 1977, 1980, 1983, 1987, 1993
Joe Robbie/Pro Player/Dolphin/Sun Life Stadium Miami Gardens, Florida 5 1989, 1995, 1999, 2007, 2010
Tulane Stadium New Orleans, Louisiana 3 1970, 1972, 1975
Jack Murphy/Qualcomm Stadium San Diego, California 3 1988, 1998, 2003
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Los Angeles, California 2 1967, 1973
Tampa Stadium Tampa, Florida 2 1984, 1991
Georgia Dome Atlanta, Georgia 2 1994, 2000
Raymond James Stadium Tampa, Florida 2 2001, 2009
Rice Stadium Houston, Texas 1 1974
Pontiac Silverdome Pontiac, Michigan 1 1982
Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome Minneapolis, Minnesota 1 1992
Sun Devil Stadium Tempe, Arizona 1 1996
Reliant Stadium Houston, Texas 1 2004
ALLTEL/Jacksonville Municipal Stadium Jacksonville, Florida 1 2005
Ford Field Detroit, Michigan 1 2006
University of Phoenix Stadium Glendale, Arizona 1 2008
Stanford Stadium Palo Alto, California 1 1985
Cowboys Stadium Arlington, Texas 1* 2011
Lucas Oil Stadium Indianapolis, Indiana 1* 2012

italics indicate a now-demolished stadium

"*" indicates hosted + scheduled match

Future Super Bowl host stadiums

The city of New Orleans submitted a bid to host Super Bowl XLVII in 2013 at the Louisiana Superdome.[24] and was selected by NFL owners on May 19, 2009.[25] It will be the first Super Bowl hosted in New Orleans since Hurricane Katrina damaged the stadium.[25]

Tampa Bay, Miami and East Rutherford, New Jersey are in the running to host Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.[25][26]

The game has never been played in a region which lacks an NFL franchise, though cities without NFL teams are not categorically ineligible to host the event.[citation needed]

London, England has occasionally been mentioned as a host city for a Super Bowl in the near future, perhaps as early as 2014. The most likely venue would be Wembley Stadium, which has hosted several NFL games in the past. NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell has openly discussed the possibility a few times.[25][27][28][29]

Even though the Los Angeles area currently lacks a NFL franchise, the league is considering holding Super Bowl L there, to mark the 50th Super Bowl, commemorating Super Bowl I which was held at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum .[26][29] If Los Angeles were to host the game, it could be held at the Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, or a new stadium such as the proposed Los Angeles Stadium in the City of Industry.[30] The NFL has not had a franchise in the city since the 1995 NFL season and has not played a Super Bowl in the metropolitan area since 1993.

Cities/regions that have hosted the Super Bowl

Name # hosted Years hosted
Miami Area 10 1968, 1969, 1971, 1976, 1979, 1989, 1995, 1999, 2007, 2010
New Orleans 9 1970, 1972, 1975, 1978, 1981, 1986, 1990, 1997, 2002
Greater Los Angeles Area 7 1967, 1973, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1987, 1993
Tampa 4 1984, 1991, 2001, 2009
San Diego 3 1988, 1998, 2003
Houston 2 1974, 2004
Detroit Area 2 1982, 2006
Atlanta 2 1994, 2000
Phoenix area 2 1996, 2008
Minneapolis 1 1992
Jacksonville 1 2005
San Francisco Bay Area 1 1985

Future Super Bowl host cities/regions

2011Arlington (Dallas-Ft.Worth Metro) (1)

2012Indianapolis (1)

2013New Orleans (10)

Super Bowl trademark

While the first Super Bowl between the Green Bay Packers and the Kansas City Chiefs was played in 1967, the NFL did not register the game's trademark until Friday, March 7, 1969. The filing applicant is listed as the National Football League, a New York Unincorporated Association provides a description that the trademark is used in commerce for entertainment services in the nature of football exhibitions. First use is declared as of January 15, 1967. The representing law office of Naylor & Neal filed the application for the National Football League and the American Football League for registration of the Super Bowl. The current trademark status is registered and renewed as of December 11, 2009 and owned by the National Football League of New York, New York.[31]

The National Football League was not the first entity to claim Super Bowl as their trademark related to football. Prior to 1969, the company, Tudor Metal Products Corporation of Brooklyn, NY, filed an application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Super Bowl for a game described as equipment (or apparatus) sold as a unit for playing a football-type board game." The Super Bowl board game was listed in the class for ropes, string, nets, tents, awnings, tarpaulins, sails, sacks and bags (not included in other classes); padding and stuffing materials (except of rubber or plastics); raw fibrous textile materials. Application was filed on Monday, December 19, 1966 with registration granted on March 12, 1968. First use for the Super Bowl board game is stated as December 6, 1966.

The entire interest and good will in the Super Bowl trademark was assigned to the National Football League Properties, Inc. on September 5, 1985. The trademark status is current and renewed as of February 27, 2008 and is the property of the National Football League of New York, New York.[32]

NFL trademark issues

The NFL is vigilant on stopping what it says is unauthorized commercial use of its trademarked terms "NFL," "Super Bowl," or "Super Sunday"; as a result, many events and promotions tied to the game but not sanctioned by the NFL are forced to refer to it with colloquialisms such as "The Big Game," or other generic descriptions.[33]

The NFL claims that the use of the phrase "Super Bowl" implies an NFL affiliation, and on this basis the league asserts broad rights to restrict how the game may be shown publicly; for example, the league says Super Bowl showings are prohibited in churches or at other events that "promote a message"; and venues that do not regularly show sporting events cannot show the Super Bowl on any television screen larger than 55 inches.[34] Some critics say the NFL is exaggerating its ownership rights by stating that "any use is prohibited", as this contradicts the broad doctrine of fair use in the United States.[34]

In 2008, legislation was proposed by Senator Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) "to provide an exemption from exclusive rights in copyright for certain nonprofit organizations to display live football games, and "for other purposes."[35]

In 2006, the NFL made an attempt to trademark "The Big Game" as well. However, it withdrew the application in 2007 due to growing commercial opposition to the move, mostly from fans of both Stanford and Cal who compete in The Big Game which concludes their Pac-10 season.[36]

Trends and statistics

The following trends have been noted regarding Super Bowl games.

Relationships between pre-game perceptions and winning

  • Teams with lower-numbered seeds are 14–12 (.538) and NFC teams have won 7 of 9 Super Bowls matching same-numbered seeds, which thus far have always been #1 vs. #1. Playoff seedings were first instituted in the 1975 season.
  • When the game matches two teams that played each other during the regular season, the regular season loser is 7–5 (.583), and 5–1 (.833) the last six times this has happened.

Relationships between leads and winning

  • Teams scoring first are 28–16 (.651); 14–7 (.667) with a touchdown, 13–9 (.591) with a field goal and 1–0 with a safety.
  • Teams scoring 32+ points are 18–0; 30+ points, 22–1 (.957); 20+ points, 39–11 (.780); under 20 points, 5–33 (.132); under 14 points, 0–17.
  • Teams scoring the game's first touchdown are 31–13 (.705)
  • Teams leading after one quarter are 22–11 (.667). Eleven Super Bowls have been tied at the end of the first quarter.
  • Teams leading at halftime are 33–9 (.786). Two Super Bowls have been tied at halftime.
  • Teams leading after three quarters are 36–7 (.837). One Super Bowl has been tied at the end of the third quarter.
  • Teams shutout in the first half are 0–11; in the second half 1–7 (.125).
  • Teams gaining a double-digit lead (10 points or more) during the game are 40–2 (.952). Four Super Bowls haven't had such a point difference.

There has never been...

  • a Super Bowl that went into overtime, although three have been tied in the final minute.
  • a Super Bowl shutout; every Super Bowl participant to date has scored at least 3 points.
  • a Super Bowl scoreless at halftime.
  • a Super Bowl with no touchdowns. There have been at least two touchdowns scored in every Super Bowl game.
  • a team or head coach who has won more than two consecutive Super Bowls.
  • a starting quarterback to win Super Bowls on two different teams. (Two starting QBs have played on different teams)
  • a team which played in a Super Bowl in their home stadium. (Two teams have played in their home market, but in a different stadium.)
  • a punt return for a touchdown in any Super Bowl game.

Miscellaneous

  • Field goals have been converted in 42 of 44 Super Bowls to date. (Super Bowls VII and IX are the exceptions.)
  • Twenty-five Super Bowls have seen both teams hold the lead at least once.
  • Five coaches have taken two different clubs to the Super Bowl: Don Shula (Colts and Dolphins), Dick Vermeil (Eagles and Rams), Bill Parcells (Giants and Patriots), Dan Reeves (Broncos and Falcons) and Mike Holmgren (Packers and Seahawks).
  • Five colleges have had multiple alumni quarterbacks win the Super Bowl: Alabama (Namath, Stabler, Starr); BYU (Young, McMahon); Notre Dame (Montana, Theisman); Purdue (Dawson, Griese, Brees); and Stanford (Plunkett, Elway).

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2004/01/29/super_bowl_underscores_cultural_divide/
  2. ^ http://www.nfl.com/news/story?id=09000d5d810f2987&template=without-video-with-comments&confirm=true
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  8. ^ Hoffarth, Rex (2009-02-01). "NBC's Super Bowl history". Los Angeles Newspaper Group. http://insidesocal.com/tomhoffarth/archives/2009/02/nbcs-super-bowl.html. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
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  16. ^ Super Bowl – Entertainment
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  36. ^ NFL sidelines its pursuit of Big Game trademark

Further reading

  • 2006 NFL Record and Fact Book. Time Inc. Home Entertainment. ISBN 1-933405-32-5. 
  • Total Football II: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League. Harper Collins. ISBN 1-933405-32-5. 
  • The Sporting News Complete Super Bowl Book 1995. ISBN 0-89204-523-X. 
  • The Super Bowl: An Official Retrospective with DVD. Ballantine Books. 2005. ISBN 0-345-48719-2. 
  • MacCambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game. Random House. ISBN 0-375-50454-0. 
  • Chris Jones (February 2, 2005). "NFL tightens restrictions on Super Bowl advertisements". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
  • John Branch (February 4, 2006). "Build It and They Will Come". The New York Times.
  • Super Bowl play-by-plays from USA Today. Last accessed September 28, 2005.
  • All-Time Super Bowl Odds from The Sports Network. Last accessed October 16, 2005.
  • 100 Greatest Super Bowl Moments by Kevin Jackson, Jeff Merron, and David Schoenfield; espn.com. Last accessed October 31, 2005.
  • Various Authors – "SI's 25 Lost Treasures" – Sports Illustrated, July 11, 2005 p. 114.
  • "The Super Bowl I-VII." Lost Treasures of NFL Films. ESPN2. January 26, 2001.
  • "MTV's Super Bowl Uncensored". MTV. January 27, 2001.
  • "Talk Shows." CBS: 50 Years from Television City. CBS. April 27, 2002.
  • Dee, Tommy (January 2007). ""Super Bowl Halftime Jinx"". Maxim Magazine Online. http://www.maximonline.com/articles/index.aspx?a_id=7435&src=cl9. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 

External links


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