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The United States and Soviet Union were the two superpowers during the Cold War. Here, Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev meet in 1985. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the United States was left as the sole world superpower.

A superpower is a state with a leading position in the international system and the ability to influence events and its own interests and project power on a worldwide scale to protect those interests; it is traditionally considered to be one step higher than a great power.

Alice Lyman Miller (Professor of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School), defines a superpower as "a country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time, and so may plausibly attain the status of global hegemon."[1]

It was a term first applied in 1944 to the United States , the Soviet Union, and the British Empire. Following World War II, as the British Empire transformed itself into the Commonwealth and its territories became independent, the Soviet Union and the United States generally came to be regarded as the only two superpowers, and confronted each other in the Cold War.

After the Cold War, the most common belief held that only the United States fulfilled the criteria to be considered a superpower,[2] although it is a matter of debate whether it is a hegemon or if it is a besieged global power.[3] China, the European Union, India, Brazil and Russia[4][5][6][7][8] are also thought to have the potential of achieving superpower status within the 21st century.[9]

Others doubt the existence of superpowers in the post Cold War era altogether, stating that today's complex global marketplace and the rising interdependency between the world's nations has made the concept of a superpower an idea of the past and that the world is now multipolar.[10][11][12][13]

Contents

Application of the term

The term superpower was used to describe nations with greater than great power status as early as 1944, but only gained its specific meaning with regard to the United States, the British Empire and the Soviet Union after World War II. This was because the United States and the Soviet Union had proved themselves to be capable of casting great influence in global politics.

There have been attempts to apply the term superpower retrospectively, and sometimes very loosely, to a variety of past entities such as Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, China[14], India[14], the Persian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Roman Empire,[15][16] the Mongol Empire, Portuguese Empire, the Spanish Empire[17][18], France,[19][20] the Dutch Republic and the British Empire.

Recognition by historians of these older states as superpowers may focus on various superlative traits exhibited by them. For example, at its peak the British Empire was the largest in history with 1 in every 4 people in the world living under its flag.

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Origin

A world map of 1945. According to William T.R. Fox, the United States (blue), the Soviet Union (red), and the British Empire and Commonwealth (teal) were superpowers.

The term in its current political meaning was coined by Dutch-American geostrategist Nicholas Spykman in a series of lectures in 1943 about the potential shape of a new post-war world order. This formed the foundation for the book The Geography of the Peace, which referred primarily to the unmatched maritime global supremacy of the United Kingdom and United States as essential for peace and prosperity in the world.

A year later, William T.R. Fox, an American foreign policy professor, elaborated on the concept in the book The Superpowers: The United States, Britain and the Soviet Union – Their Responsibility for Peace (1944), which spoke of the global reach of a super-empowered nation.[21] Fox used the word Superpower to identify a new category of power able to occupy the highest status in a world in which, as the war then raging demonstrated, states could challenge and fight each other on a global scale.

According to him, there were (at that moment) three states that were superpowers: Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union. The British Empire was the most extensive empire in world history, which was considered the foremost great power and by 1921, held sway over 25% of the world's population[22] and controlled about 25% of the Earth's total land area,[23] while the United States and the Soviet Union grew in power in World War II.

Characteristics

The New York Stock Exchange trading floor. Economic power such as a large nominal GDP and a world reserve currency are important factors in projection of hard power.
Military assets such as a U.S. Navy Nimitz-class aircraft carrier combined with a blue water navy are a means of power projection on a global scale—one hallmark of a superpower[1].

The criteria of a superpower are not clearly defined[2] and as a consequence they may differ between sources.

According to Lyman Miller, "The basic components of superpower stature may be measured along four axes of power: military, economic, political, and cultural (or what political scientist Joseph Nye has termed “soft power”).[1]

In the opinion of Kim Richard Nossal of Queen's University, "generally this term was used to signify a political community that occupied a continental-sized landmass, had a sizable population (relative at least to other major powers); a superordinate economic capacity, including ample indigenous supplies of food and natural resources; enjoyed a high degree of non-dependence on international intercourse; and, most importantly, had a well-developed nuclear capacity (eventually normally defined as second-strike capability)."[2]

In the opinion of Professor Paul Dukes, "a superpower must be able to conduct a global strategy including the possibility of destroying the world; to command vast economic potential and influence; and to present a universal ideology". Although, "many modifications may be made to this basic definition".[24] According to Professor June Teufel Dreyer, "A superpower must be able to project its power, soft and hard, globally."[25]

Cold War

This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1980. Consult the legend on the map for more details.

The 1956 Suez Crisis suggested that Britain, financially weakened by two world wars, could not then pursue its foreign policy objectives on an equal footing with the new superpowers without sacrificing convertibility of its reserve currency as a central goal of policy.[26] As the majority of World War II had been fought far from its national boundaries, the United States had not suffered the industrial destruction or massive civilian casualties that marked the wartime situation of the countries in Europe or Asia.

The war had reinforced the position of the United States as the world's largest long-term creditor nation and its principal supplier of goods; moreover it had built up a strong industrial and technological infrastructure that had greatly advanced its military strength into a primary position on the global stage.[citation needed]

Despite attempts to create multinational coalitions or legislative bodies (such as the United Nations), it became increasingly clear that the superpowers had very different visions about what the post-war world ought to look like, and after the withdrawal of British aid to Greece in 1947 the United States took the lead in containing Soviet expansion in the Cold War.[27]

The two countries opposed each other ideologically, politically, militarily, and economically. The Soviet Union promoted the ideology of communism, whilst the United States promoted the ideologies of liberal democracy and the free market. This was reflected in the Warsaw Pact and NATO military alliances, respectively, as most of Europe became aligned either with the United States or the Soviet Union. These alliances implied that these two nations were part of an emerging bipolar world, in contrast with a previously multipolar world.[citation needed]

The Soviet Union and the United States fulfilled the superpower criteria in the following ways:

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Flag of the United States.svg United States
Political Strong socialist state. Permanent seat on the UN Security Council. Strong ties with Eastern Europe, anti-colonialist movements, labour parties, and some countries in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Strong and stable capitalist federation/constitutional republic. Permanent seat on the UN Security Council plus two allies with permanent seats. Strong ties with Western Europe, Latin America, British Commonwealth, and several East Asian countries.
Geographic Largest country in the world, with a land area of 22.27 million km²[28] Either the third or fourth largest country in the world, with an area of approximately 9.37 million km².[29]
Cultural Wielded influence through Communist or left-wing dictatorships, and numerous socialist organisations around the world. Freedom of speech and expression heavily restricted. Press explicitly controlled and censored. Wielded influence through sponsoring right-wing republics or dictatorships, capitalist democracies, and numerous democratic organizations around the world. Freedom of speech and other genuinely guaranteed rights for citizens. Rich cultural influence in music, television, films, food, art, and fashion. Occasionally attempted to sway popular opinion by wielding soft power through commercial mediums such as editorial broadcasting and Hollywood.
Military Essentially land-based: largest armed forces in the world and one of the two largest air force in the world. One of the world's strongest navies. The world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons for the second half of the Cold War. Allied to powerful Warsaw Pact countries in Eastern Europe. Global intelligence network, the KGB. Ties with paramilitary and guerrilla groups in the developing world. Large armament production for the global market. Essentially naval-based advanced military with the highest military expenditure in the world,[30] World's largest navy surpassing the next 13 largest navies combined,[31][32] bases all over the world, particularly in an incomplete "ring" bordering the Warsaw Pact to the West, South and East. Largest nuclear arsenal in the world during the first half of the Cold War. One of the largest armies in the world. The largest and most advanced air force in the world. Powerful military allies in Western Europe (NATO) with their own nuclear capabilities. Global intelligence network, the CIA. Ties with paramilitary and guerrilla groups in the developing world. Large armament production through defence contractors along with its developed allies for the global market.
Economic Second largest economy in the world[33]. Enormous mineral and energy resources. Generally self-sufficient, though with some resource inadequacies such as deficiencies in agriculture. Marxist economic theory based primarily on production: industrial production directed by centralised state organs leading to a high degree of inefficiency. Five-year plans frequently used to accomplish economic goals. Economic benefits such as guaranteed employment, free healthcare, free education on all levels formally assured for all citizens, though not necessarily respected. Largest economy in the world. Large resources of minerals, energy resources, metals, and timber, large and modernized farming industry and enormous industrial base. Home to many large global corporations. U.S. Dollar as the dominant world reserve currency under Bretton Woods Conference. Western economic theory based on supply and demand: production determined by customers' demands. Allied with G7 major economies. Supported allied countries' economies via such programmes as the Marshall Plan.
Demographic Had a population of 286.7 million in 1989, the third largest on Earth behind China and India (this included all of the provinces of the USSR, not just that of Russia).[28] Had a population of 248.7 million in 1990, at that time the fourth largest on Earth.[34]

The idea that the Cold War period revolved around only two blocs, or even only two nations, has been challenged by some scholars in the post-Cold War era, who have noted that the bipolar world only exists if one ignores all of the various movements and conflicts that occurred without influence from either of the two superpowers.[citation needed] Additionally, much of the conflict between the superpowers was fought in "proxy wars", which more often than not involved issues more complex than the standard Cold War oppositions.[citation needed]

After the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, the term hyperpower began to be applied to the United States, as the sole remaining superpower of the Cold War era.[2] This term, coined by French foreign minister Hubert Védrine in the 1990s, is controversial and the validity of classifying the United States in this way is disputed. One notable opponent to this theory, Samuel P. Huntington, rejects this theory in favor of a multipolar balance of power.

Other International Relations theorists, such as Henry Kissinger, theorize that because the threat of the Soviet Union no longer exists to formerly American-dominated regions such as Japan and Western Europe, American influence is only declining since the end of the Cold War, because such regions no longer need protection or have necessarily similar foreign policies as the United States.[35]

Post Cold War (1991-Present)

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 that ended the Cold War, the post-Cold War world was sometimes considered as a unipolar world,[36][37] with the United States as the world's sole remaining superpower.[38] In the words of Samuel P. Huntington, "The United States, of course, is the sole state with preeminence in every domain of power — economic, military, diplomatic, ideological, technological, and cultural — with the reach and capabilities to promote its interests in virtually every part of the world."[39]

Experts argue that this older assessment of global politics was too simplified, in part because of the difficulty in classifying the European Union at its current stage of development. Others argue that the notion of a superpower is outdated, considering complex global economic interdependencies, and propose that the world is multipolar.[10][11][12][13] According to Samuel P. Huntington, "There is now only one superpower. But that does not mean that the world is unipolar. A unipolar system would have one superpower, no significant major powers, and many minor powers." Huntington thinks, "Contemporary international politics" ... "is instead a strange hybrid, a uni-multipolar system with one superpower and several major powers."[39]

Additionally, there has been some recent speculation that the United States is declining in relative power as the rest of the world rises to match its levels of economic and technological development. Citing economic hardships, Cold War allies becoming less dependent on the United States, a declining dollar, and the rise of other great powers around the world, some experts have suggested the possibility of the United States losing its superpower status in the distant future or even at the present.[3][40][41][42]

Potential superpowers

The present day governments that have been claimed to become (or to remain) a superpower within the 21st century.

Academics and other qualified commentators sometimes identify potential superpowers thought to have a strong likelihood of being recognized as superpowers in the 21st century. The record of such predictions has not been perfect. For example in the 1980s some commentators thought Japan would become a superpower, due to its large GDP and high economic growth at the time.[44] However the prediction has not come to fruition.

Due to their large markets, growing military strength, and economic potential and influence in international affairs, the Federative Republic of Brazil,[45][46][47] the People's Republic of China,[48][49] the European Union,[50][51] the Republic of India,[52] and the Russian Federation[53][54][55], are among the powers which are most often cited as having the ability to influence future world politics and reach the status of superpower in the 21st century. While some believe one (or more) of these countries will replace the United States as a superpower, others believe they will rise to rival, but not replace, the United States.[36]

Others have argued that the notion of a "superpower" is increasingly anachronistic in the 21st century as increased global integration and interdependence makes the projection of a superpower hard.(Aberkane 2010) [56]

References

  1. ^ a b c www.stanford.edu
  2. ^ a b c d e "Analyzing American Power in the Post-Cold War Era". http://post.queensu.ca/~nossalk/papers/hyperpower.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  3. ^ a b Unger J (2008), U.S. no longer superpower, now a besieged global power, scholars say University of Illinois
  4. ^ CNN 2008 interview with US Senators Carl Levin & John Cornyn (Russia a superpower)[1]
  5. ^ New York Times by Ronald Steel professor of international relations August 24, 2008 (Superpower Reborn)[2]
  6. ^ Voice of America News editor by Robert Berger Feb. 15, 2010 cite Netanyahu calls Russia an important Superpower[3]
  7. ^ Premier.gov.ru - Feb. 16, 2010 cite Transcript: Russia a Superpower in every Aspect[4]
  8. ^ ISRIA.com; Feb. 16, 2010; cite "Netanyahu: Russia is an important "superpower" [5]
  9. ^ Waving Goodbye to Hegemony
  10. ^ a b "The Multipolar World Vs. The Superpower". http://www.theglobalist.com/DBWeb/printStoryId.aspx?StoryId=3553. Retrieved 2006-06-10. 
  11. ^ a b "The Multipolar Unilateralist". http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/03/AR2006030302055.html. Retrieved 2006-06-10. 
  12. ^ a b "No Longer the "Lone" Superpower". http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/challenges/competitors/2005/0315chinapower.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-11. 
  13. ^ a b "The war that may end the age of superpower". http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/ED05Ak01.html. Retrieved 2006-06-11. 
  14. ^ a b Angus Maddison (2003). The World Economy: Historical Statistics, OECD, Paris.
  15. ^ www.heritage.org
  16. ^ www.blackwellpublishing.com
  17. ^ KAMEN, H., Spain's Road To Empire: The Making Of A World Power, 1492-1763, 2003, Penguin, 640p.
  18. ^ Edwards, John (2005). Isabella: Catholic Queen and Madam of Spain. Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0752433318. 
  19. ^ Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Mark Greengrass, The Ancien Régime 1998 Wiley-Blackwell, page 512
  20. ^ Steven Englund, Napoleon: A Political Life, 2005, Harvard University Press, page 254
  21. ^ www.casaasia.es
  22. ^ Angus Maddison. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (p. 98, 242). OECD, Paris, 2001.
  23. ^ To Rule the Earth..., hostkingdom.net, Bibliography, Accessed March 11, 2007
  24. ^ abe.etailer.dpsl.net
  25. ^ www.fpri.org
  26. ^ Adam Klug and Gregor W. Smith, 'Suez and Sterling', Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 36, No. 3 (July 1999), pp. 181-203.
  27. ^ Robert Frazier, 'Did Britain Start the Cold War? Bevin and the Truman Doctrine', Historical Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Sep., 1984), pp. 715-727.
  28. ^ a b Library of Congress Country Studies
  29. ^ http://www.theodora.com/wfb1989/united_states/united_states_geography.html
  30. ^ www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/spending.htm
  31. ^ Gates, Robert M. "A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon or a New Age". Council On Foreign Relations. http://fullaccess.foreignaffairs.org/20090101faessay88103-p20/robert-m-gates/a-balanced-strategy.html. Retrieved 8 December 2008. 
  32. ^ Weighing the US Navy Defense & Security Analysis, Volume 17, Issue 3 December 2001 , pages 259 - 265
  33. ^ "1990 CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact90/world12.txt. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  34. ^ www.census.gov
  35. ^ Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, p. 24,26
  36. ^ a b Charles Krauthammer, The Unipolar Moment, Foreign Policy Magazine (1991).
  37. ^ www.gaikoforum.com
  38. ^ Country profile: United States of America, BBC News, Accessed March 11, 2007
  39. ^ a b www-stage.foreignaffairs.org
  40. ^ Seizing American supremacy
  41. ^ The Coming End of the American Superpower
  42. ^ U.S.: A Losing Superpower?
  43. ^ Country profile: United States of America, BBC News, Accessed July 22, 2008
  44. ^ time.com 1988 article "Japan From Superrich To Superpower"
  45. ^ http://cornellsun.com/section/news/content/2009/11/01/alumna-analyzes-brazil%E2%80%99s-emergence
  46. ^ While the US Looks Eastward Brazil Is Emerging as a Nuclear Superpower
  47. ^ Brazil is becoming an economic and political superpower
  48. ^ US-China Institute :: news & features :: china as a global power
  49. ^ Visions of China, CNN Specials, Accessed March 11, 2007
  50. ^ John McCormick,(2007). The European Superpower. Palgrave Macmillan.
  51. ^ Europe: the new superpower by Mark Leonard, Irish Times, Accessed March 11, 2007
  52. ^ India Rising | Newsweek International | Newsweek.com
  53. ^ Russia: A superpower rises again - CNN.com
  54. ^ Russia on the march - again - Telegraph
  55. ^ Russia in the 21st Century - Cambridge University Press
  56. ^ http://www.sens-public.org/IMG/pdf/SensPublic_IAberkane_guerre_dans_la_geopolitique_moderne.pdf

Bibliography


Simple English

A superpower is a country that is one of the most powerful countries in the world. It is more powerful than a major power.

In the years following World War II, the United Nations was formed. The 5 countries that had nuclear bombs - those who were able to start a nuclear war - were all given permanent seats on the Security Council. This means they are on the Security Council forever. They were also all given equal veto power over decisions in the Security Council. These five countries were: United States, United Kingdom, China, France, and the Soviet Union.

After the Soviet Union split into a lot of smaller countries in 1991, Russia got most of the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons, and also its permanent seat in the Security Council. Some other countries also have nuclear weapons now, and can also start a nuclear war just as well, but they are not permanent members with veto power. The Republic of India and Pakistan are two countries like this.


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