Supervolcano: Wikis

  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.A supervolcano is a volcano capable of producing a super volcanic eruption, which is a volcanic eruption with ejecta greater than 1,000 cubic kilometers (240 cubic miles), which is thousands of times larger than most historic volcanic eruptions.^ Supervolcanoes are orders of magnitude greater than any volcanic eruption ...
  • Supervolcano 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: General]
  • 'Rosetta Stone' Of Supervolcanoes Discovered In Italian Alps 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ A supervolcano refers to a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruptions on earth.

^ And that is when you can get super conditions for a super volcanic eruption.
  • Catalyst: Supervolcano: The Truth About Yellowstone Part 1 - ABC TV Science 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Supervolcanoes can occur when magma in the Earth rises into the crust from a hotspot but is unable to break through the crust.^ Shotgun (30919) writes: on Tuesday December 15, @04:32PM ( #30450170 ) Supervolcanoes can occur when magma in the Earth rises into the crust from a hotspot but is unable to break through the crust .
  • Slashdot Science Story | Yellowstone Supervolcano Larger Than First Thought 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Supervolcanoes occur when magma in the Earth rises into the crust from a hotspot but is unable to break through the crust.
  • theycallmeS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC theycallmes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A supervolcano , or "super eruption " occurs when magma rises from within the Earth's crust , but it's unable to break through to release the lava and volcanic gasses.

.Pressure builds in a large and growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain the pressure.^ If a magma is stats to cool within the crust then crystals will grow until the magma is gone and get large.
  • Volcanic picture glossary 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC explorevolcanoes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pressure builds in a large and growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain the pressure.
  • Super Volcano « BOOM! 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC jellyjames.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • theycallmeS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC theycallmes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pressure builds up under the hotspot until it explodes violently, releasing thousands of cubic kilometers of material in one eruption.

.They can also form at convergent plate boundaries (for example, Toba).^ Is Mount Etna formed on a convergent plate boundary?
  • WikiAnswers - Volcanoes Questions including "What is the supervolcano in Yellowstone" 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volcanoes occur at divergent plate boundaries (spreading ridges), convergent plate boundaries (subduction zones) and above mantle "hotspots".
  • Volcanic activity | inTERRAgate 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.interragate.info [Source type: General]

^ Shield volcanoes are found along divergent plate boundaries where two plates pull apart and lava flows into the gap to form a...
  • WikiAnswers - Volcanoes Questions including "What is the supervolcano in Yellowstone" 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Supervolcanoes are relatively new to science.^ Ash from an ancient supervolcano eruption would have made it difficult for human and animals to chew their food, according to a new study in the Journal of Archaeological Science .
  • Supervolcano Eruption Was Tough on Teeth : Discovery News 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC news.discovery.com [Source type: General]

^ America's supervolcano: Yellowstone park - Physics Today News Picks Physics Today News Picks A blog of hand-picked science news from the staff of Physics Today Home   .
  • America's supervolcano: Yellowstone park - Physics Today News Picks 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC blogs.physicstoday.org [Source type: News]

^ Science news articles about 'yellowstone supervolcano' .
  • Learn more about yellowstone supervolcano | Eureka! Science News 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC esciencenews.com [Source type: News]

.The Discovery Channel highlighted six known supervolcanoes:[2] the Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Valles Caldera in the United States; Lake Toba, North Sumatra, Indonesia; Taupo Volcano, North Island, New Zealand; and Aira Caldera, Kagoshima Prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan.^ Re: Supervolcanoes, Yellowstone Caldera Okay double post ..
  • Supervolcanoes, Yellowstone Caldera - 3D Realms Forums 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC forums.3drealms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As one post I found put it: "When Yellowstone goes off again, and it will, it will be a disaster for the United States and eventually, for the whole world.
  • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of volcanoes that have produced exceedingly voluminous eruptions and formed large calderas in the past 2 million years include Yellowstone, Long Valley in eastern California, Toba in Indonesia and Taupo in New Zealand.
  • Geotimes — June 2005 — Truth, fiction and everything in between at Yellowstone 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.geotimes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although there are only a handful of supervolcanoes, super volcanic eruptions typically cover huge areas with lava and volcanic ash and cause a long-lasting change to weather (such as the triggering of a small ice age) sufficient to threaten the extinction of species.^ "These earthquakes can trigger volcanic eruptions.
  • Super Volcano Signs Supplement 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Causing a small Ice Age which gradually warms over time until the next eruption.
  • Plumbing of a Supervolcano Revealed (LiveScience.com) - Yahoo! News - Yahoo! Buzz 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC buzz.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is the last time there was any major volcanic activity, which was a lava flow.
  • Space.com Forums | View topic - Super Volcano! It's nearby! 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.space.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Word origin

.The term was originally used in the BBC popular science television programme Horizon in 2000 to refer to these types of eruptions.^ The term was originally coined by the producers of the BBC popular science programme, Horizon."
  • Jagged Environment - Further information on extreme environmental events and global warming 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC jaggedenvironment.com [Source type: News]

^ The term was originally coined by the producers of the BBC popular science programme, Horizon, in 2000 to refer to these types of eruptions.

^ A supervolcano is a term, which was made by the producers of the BBC popular science program, Horizon and basically this is a term that refers to a few types of eruption that have a massive effect.
  • Supervolcano BBC Coined Term Lava Tephra La Garita Caldera Fish Canyon Tuff 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.encyclocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4] .That programme introduced the subject of large-scale volcanic eruptions to the general public.^ Not very big on the scale of volcanic eruptions!

^ A supervolcano or super volcanic eruption is a volcanic eruption which is substantially larger than any volcano in historic times (generally accepted to be greater than 1,000 cubic-kilometers).
  • theycallmeS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC theycallmes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A super volcano or super volcanic eruption is a volcanic eruption which is orders of magnitude greater than any volcano in historic times (generally accepted to be greater than 200 cubic kilometres).
  • 10 KA Science Blog 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC 10ka.edublogs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Volcanologists and geologists do not refer to "super volcanoes" or "megacalderas" in their scientific work, but sometimes do in public presentations.^ Yellowstone is what geologists call a "super volcano".
  • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Yellowstone National Park Information 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC rawfoodinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.rumormillnews.com [Source type: News]
  • APREIS :YELLOWSTONE,POTENTIALLY VOLCANIC DESTRUCTIVE SITUATION 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.apreis.org [Source type: Original source]
  • yellow stone super volcano 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC harry.brodeur.victoria.bc.ca [Source type: General]

^ There is no exact definition for a super volcano, but the term is often used to refer to volcanos that have produced exceptionally large eruptions in the past.
  • The UnMuseum: Yellowstone Super-Volcano 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.unmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A New Zealand geologist is worried another "super-volcano" is being created under Mount St Helens in the US. .
  • NZ scientist eyes 'super-volcano' - science | Stuff.co.nz 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.stuff.co.nz [Source type: News]

However, they do describe eruptions that rate VEI 8 as "super eruptions".
.
  • Until 2003, supervolcano was not a technical term used in volcanology.^ It is not a technical term used in volcanology.

    ^ CASCADE CALDERAS First of all, let's use the term 'caldera' and get away from using the media-hyped term 'supervolcano', made famous by Hollywood.
    • Mt. Saint Helens: Supervolcano? : Eruptions 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ However, geologists do not use the term supervolcano, they use the term mega-colossal.
    • Cochise College                P 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC skywalker.cochise.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The term megacaldera is sometimes used for caldera supervolcanoes, such as the Blake River Megacaldera Complex in the Abitibi greenstone belt of Ontario and Quebec, Canada.
  • Though there is no well-defined minimum explosive size for a "supervolcano," there are at least two types of volcanic eruption that have been identified as supervolcanoes: large igneous provinces and massive eruptions.^ There is no evidence of an imminent volcanic eruption or hydrothermal explosion.
    • Yellowstone rising 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.eurekalert.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Yellowstone Supervolcano Rising 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.dailygalaxy.com [Source type: General]
    • Yellowstone Rising : News 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The term "supervolcano" has no specifically defined scientific meaning.
    • Yellowstone Supervolcano Supervolcano Yellowstone Park 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.solcomhouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Yellowstone National Park Information 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC rawfoodinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Because there is no well-defined minimum size for a "supervolcano," there is no exact number of such volcanoes.
    • ERUPTION Pro 10 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC exodus2006.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Supervolcanoes were seen on other planets via the Voyager program craft on the moons of Jupiter and Saturn.^ Creators of a British Broadcasting Company (BBC) science program first aired on February 3, 2000, gathered U.S. and British geologists, anthropologists, geneticists, paleontologists and others to talk about supervolcanoes, which was also the name of the resulting documentary.
    • Yellowstone Is a Supervolcano? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.semp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NASA's Voyager spacecraft discovered supervolcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io during its flight past the planet and its moons .

    ^ There are three super volcanoes in the United States [Citation needed](") There are actually at least 8 or 9 supervolcanoes in the US and about 2 dozen known ones in the world.
    • FARK.com: (4650057) Scientists learning to speak supervolcano in their own home 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The outer Solar System volcanoes were mostly cryovolcanoes, not magma .

Large igneous provinces

.Large igneous provinces (LIP) such as Iceland, the Siberian Traps, Deccan Traps, and the Ontong Java Plateau are extensive regions of basalts on a continental scale resulting from flood basalt eruptions.^ Large igneous provinces .

^ Large igneous provinces include eruption events at: .

^ Such an eruption would likely result in global changes to the environment.” An example of a supervolcano is only a few states away.
  • University of North Dakota, Grand Forks - News Release 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www2.und.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When created, these regions often occupy several thousand square kilometres and have volumes on the order of millions of cubic kilometres.^ A super volcano or super volcanic eruption is a volcanic eruption which is orders of magnitude greater than any volcano in historic times (generally accepted to be greater than 200 cubic kilometres).
  • 10 KA Science Blog 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC 10ka.edublogs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thousands of cubic kilometres of ash was thrown into the atmosphere - so much that it blocked out light from the sun all over the world.
  • Armageddon Online - Yellowstone Park is a Super Volcano - an eruption would destroy America 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC armageddononline.tripod.com [Source type: News]
  • Daily Kos: The Super Volcano in Yellowstone is Rumbling 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]
  • Comments on: 250 Small Quakes Rattle Yellowstone - CBS News 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, erupted at Yellowstone 2.2 million years ago, has a volume of 2,500 cubic km.
  • Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.kean.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most cases, the lavas are normally laid down over several million years.^ Two of those eruptions, the Lava Creek eruption (640,000 years ago) and the Huckleberry Ridge eruption (2.2 million years ago), occurred at Yellowstone.
  • Volcano Beneath Yellowstone - Yellowstone Supervolcano! 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC geology.com [Source type: General]

^ The most recent eruptions Lava Creek, Mesa Falls, and Huckleberry Ridge occurred approximately 600,000 years, 1.3 million years, and 2.1 million years ago respectively.
  • Yellowstone Super Volcano 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC geology.fullerton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most famous of eruptions have been Yellowstone National Park in America (2.2 and 1.3 million years ago) and Lake Toba in Indonesia (75,000 years ago).
  • Volcanic activity | inTERRAgate 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.interragate.info [Source type: General]

.They do release massive amounts of gases.^ They rapidly boil away what little water they contain, releasing steam and other gases forcefully from underground.
  • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The massive amounts of ash, dust, and gases will cause seriously reduced amounts of sunlight to reach the Earths surface for an extended amount of time.
  • The Super Volcano 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.thecheers.org [Source type: General]

.The Réunion hotspot produced the Deccan Traps about 65 million years ago.^ Take the extinction of the dinosaurs, 65 million years ago.
  • Look mom, I'm a meteorite! 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.exitmundi.nl [Source type: General]

^ Early humans living about one million years ago...
  • Early humans living about one million years ago... | Gather 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, 65 million years ago.
  • Look mom, I'm a meteorite! 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.exitmundi.nl [Source type: General]

.Research continues into the effect of the outpourings and whether they contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous.^ We looked at continuous and discontinuous variation and learnt about Mendel and his contribution to the subject Organ systems - We looked at the digestive systems and how they differ in humans and animals.
  • 10 KA Science Blog 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC 10ka.edublogs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vents, which spew sediments, bubbles and other material, contribute to the hydrogen sulfide smell that researchers have smelled as they passed over the area in a boat.
  • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research will continue to explore whether this simple story is what really happened.

.Such outpourings are not explosive though fire fountains may occur.^ Though not explosive, the gases and dust released by such an eruption impact global climate as much as a VEI-8, hence a supervolcano.

^ However, such swarms also may occur on tectonic faults, including California's famed San Andreas.
  • Super Volcano Signs Supplement 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While an explosive eruption of the entire caldera may not necessarily ensue penetration of the chimney into the chamber, response to such an event would be daunting, to say the least.
  • Yellowstone Park Earthquake Swarm Raises Alarms » Right Pundits 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.rightpundits.com [Source type: General]

Many volcanologists consider that Iceland may be a LIP that is currently being formed. .The last major outpouring occurred in 1783–84 from the Laki fissure which is ~40 km long.^ The last major eruption of the supervolcano was about 640,000 years ago, he says, with smaller eruptions occurring about every 20,000 years.
  • Supervolcano boils beneath Yellowstone | Deseret News 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.deseretnews.com [Source type: News]

^ After that last major eruption, volcanism in Yellowstone continued in a quieter fashion with another, much smaller eruption occurring 70,000 years ago.
  • Super Volcano's 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.pufoin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Super Volcano In Yellowstone National Park 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the last three major eruptions have occurred under the same area, the caprock to the magma chamber is highly fractured.
  • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An estimated 14 km3 of basaltic lava was poured out during the eruption.^ Experts have pointed out that "the Yellowstone caldera has inflated and deflated about six to eight times without a volcanic eruption during the last 14,000 years" and that earthquakes are frequently recorded in the area.
  • Yellowstone Supervolcano - When should we start to worry? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]

^ During its last eruption, 640,000 years ago, it released 8,000 times more lava and ash than the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens did.
  • Controversial study suggests possible 'super volcano' in Southwest Washington 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.tdn.com [Source type: News]
  • Controversial study suggests vast magma pool under Washington state | McClatchy 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.mcclatchydc.com [Source type: News]
  • Controversial study suggests vast magma pool under Washington state | McClatchy 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.mcclatchydc.com [Source type: News]

^ This is a series of basalt eruptions over the past 14,000 or so years.
  • Slashdot Science Story | Yellowstone Supervolcano Larger Than First Thought 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.The Ontong Java Plateau now has an area of about 2 million km2, and the province was at least 50% larger before the Manihiki and Hikurangi Plateaus broke away.^ Ash fall from the eruption covers an area of at least 4 million square km (about half the size on the continental United States).
  • Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.kean.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is now 50 Km long, 30 Km wide and 10 Km deep and is full of dissolved gasses at enormous pressure.
  • Exodus 2006 - Supervolcano - Yellowstone National Park  3 February 2010 18:38 UTC exodus2006.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • TheConspiracyZone : IS YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK READY TO BLOW? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC theconspiracyzone.podcastpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It shines at magnitude -2.4 and stands 62 million km away when it rises in the east-south-east during the evening twilight on the 1st.
  • Super Volcano Signs Supplement 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Massive explosive eruptions

.Eruptions with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8 (VEI-8) are colossal events that throw out at least 1,000 km3 Dense Rock Equivalent (DRE) of ejecta; VEI-7 events eject at least 100 km3 (DRE).^ VEI-8 volcanic events have included eruptions at the following: .

^ Volcanic Explosivity Index-8 eruptions (VEI-8 for short) are mega-colossal events that extrude at least 1000 km of magma and pyroclastic material.

^ The Toba caldera in Indonesia underwent an eruption of category 8 (or “mega-colossal”) on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).

.VEI-7 or 8 eruptions are so powerful that they often form circular calderas rather than cones because the downward withdrawal of magma causes the overlying mass to collapse and fill the void magma chamber beneath.^ VEI-8 eruptions are not so great as to form mountains, but instead circular calderas, resulting from the downward collapse of land at the eruption site to fill emptied space in the magma chamber beneath.

^ VEI-7 or 8 eruptions are so powerful that they often form circular calderas rather than cones because the downward withdrawal of magma causes the overlying mass to collapse and fill the void magma chamber beneath.
  • Daily Kos: The Super Volcano in Yellowstone is Rumbling 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ A volcanic caldera forms when the ground collapses because the magma beneath it erupted.
  • Damn Interesting • A Big, Big Hole in the Ground 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

.One of the classic calderas is at Glen Coe in the Grampian Mountains of Scotland.^ One of the classic calderas is at Glen Coe in the Grampian Mountains of Scotland.
  • Daily Kos: The Super Volcano in Yellowstone is Rumbling 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ The 3,000-foot-thick (one kilometer-thick) glaciers of the last Ice Age erased edges of the caldera, which is now a broad, undulating plateau rimmed by mountains.
  • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yellowstone National Park in the U.S. The Grampian Mountains of Scotland Sumatra, Indonesia Idaho in the U.S. Colorado in the U.S. Lake Taupo in New Zealand Island Park on the Wyoming/Idaho border in the U.S. Whakamaru in New Zealand.
  • The Supervolcano at Yellowstone National Park: A Volcanic Eruption at Yellowstone Could Result in Nuclear Winter 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC volcanoes.suite101.com [Source type: Academic]

.First described by Clough et al.^ First described by Clough et al (1909)[3] its geology and volcanic succession has recently been re-analysed in the light of new discoveries.
  • Daily Kos: The Super Volcano in Yellowstone is Rumbling 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.(1909)[5] its geology and volcanic succession has recently been re-analysed in the light of new discoveries.^ First described by Clough et al (1909)[3] its geology and volcanic succession has recently been re-analysed in the light of new discoveries.
  • Daily Kos: The Super Volcano in Yellowstone is Rumbling 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ A team, led by James E. Quick, a geology professor at Southern Methodist University (SMU), has reported the discovery in a new research article.
  • Supervolcano Rosetta Stone Discovered in Alps 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.scientificcomputing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cascades Volcano Observatory EurekAlert – Science News Konquest Online Recent Earthquakes in California Science Daily UC Davis Geology News .
  • Activity at Yellowstone – Thoughts and Discussion | The Geology News Blog 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC geology.rockbandit.net [Source type: General]

[6] .There is an accompanying 1:25000 solid geology map.^ There is an accompanying 1:25000 solid geology map.
  • Daily Kos: The Super Volcano in Yellowstone is Rumbling 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

By way of comparison, the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption was at the lower end of VEI-5 with 1.2 km3, and both Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and Krakatoa in 1883 were VEI-6 with 25 km3.

Known super eruptions

Location of Yellowstone Hotspot in Millions of Years Ago
Estimates of the volume of ejected material are given in parentheses.

VEI 8

VEI 8 eruptions have happened in the following locations.
.
  • Lake Taupo, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand - Oruanui eruption ~26,500 years ago (~1,170 km³)
  • Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia - ~74,000 years ago (~2,800 km³)
  • Whakamaru, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand - Whakamaru Ignimbrite/Mount Curl Tephra ~254,000 years ago (1,200-2,000 km³)[7]
  • Yellowstone Caldera, Lava Creek Tuff, Wyoming, United States, Yellowstone hotspot - 640,000 years ago (1,000 km³)[8]
  • Island Park Caldera, Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, Idaho/Wyoming, United States, Yellowstone hotspot - 2.1 million years ago (2,500 km³)[8]
  • Cerro Galan, Catamarca Province, Argentina - 2.5 million years ago (1,050 km³)
  • Atana Ignimbrite, Pacana Caldera, northern Chile - 4 million years ago (2,500 km³)[9]
  • Heise volcanic field, Kilgore Tuff, Idaho, United States, Yellowstone hotspot - 4.5 million years ago (1,800 km³).^ The largest lake in New Zealand is Lake Taupo situated in the central North Island.

    ^ But the last major eruption at Yellowstone, some 640,000 years ago, ejected 8,000 times the ash and lava of Mount St. Helens.
    • Discovery Channel :: Supervolcano: What's Under Yellowstone? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC dsc.discovery.com [Source type: General]
    • [nhnenews] Discovery Channel: Yellowstone's SuperVolcano 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.buergerwelle.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, erupted at Yellowstone 2.2 million years ago, has a volume of 2,500 cubic km.
    • Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.kean.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [10]
  • .
  • Heise volcanic field, Blacktail Tuff, Idaho, United States, Yellowstone hotspot - 6.6 million years ago (1,500 km³).^ The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, erupted at Yellowstone 2.2 million years ago, has a volume of 2,500 cubic km.
    • Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.kean.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kilgore Tuff, United States - 4.5 million years ago .
    • theycallmeS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC theycallmes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Island Park Caldera, United States - 2.1 million years ago .
    • theycallmeS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC theycallmes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [10]
  • La Garita Caldera, Colorado, United States - Source of the truly enormous eruption of the Fish Canyon Tuff ~27.8 million years ago (~5,000 km³)
  • Sam Ignimbrite, Yemen - 29.5 million years ago (at least 5,550 km³)[11]
.The Lake Toba eruption plunged the Earth into a volcanic winter, eradicating an estimated 60%[12][13][14][15][16] of the human population (although humans managed to survive, even in the vicinity of the volcano[17]), and was responsible for the formation of sulfuric acid[citation needed] in the atmosphere.^ It plunged the Earth into a volcanic winter, and might have eradicated 60 percent of the human population, leaving as few as a thousand breeding pairs to propagate our species.
  • Quake swarm at Yellowstone may signal blast - Hawaii News - Starbulletin.com 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.starbulletin.com [Source type: General]

^ Volcanic eruptions are known to pollute the atmosphere with sulfuric acid.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Mystery of the Megavolcano | PBS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lake Toba eruption sent the Earth into a volcanic winter; eradicating 60% of the human population on Earth.
  • Volcanic activity | inTERRAgate 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.interragate.info [Source type: General]

.However the coincidental agreement in above sources about percentage value of extinction is contrary to differing estimates of human population size at that time.^ No such volcano has exploded in historical times and the program hinted at the possibility that evidence for a human population collapse about 70-80 thousand years ago might be attributed to the last such explosion of a different super volcano in Indonesia.
  • EBTX - Exploding Planets 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC ebtx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lake Toba erupting 75,000 years ago (the eruption that reduced human population to about 10000): Spoiler: Yellowstone would be much, much larger.
  • xkcd • View topic - Hurricane Rita vs. Yellowstone Super Volcano 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Described as a massive climate-changing event, the Lake Toba eruption is thought to have killed an estimated 60 percent of humans alive at the time.
  • Supervolcano Rosetta Stone Discovered in Alps 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.scientificcomputing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

VEI 7

Cross-section through Long Valley Caldera
.VEI-7 volcanic events, less colossal but still supermassive, have occurred in the geological past.^ North America isn't the only continent that's experienced super-colossal volcanic eruptions in the recent geologic past.
  • 'Rosetta Stone' Of Supervolcanoes Discovered In Italian Alps 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ Their conclusion is that the volcanic cycle is waning, but that there is still a very real potential of an eruption of massive proportions sometime in the near geologic future.
  • Super Volcano's 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.pufoin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Super Volcano In Yellowstone National Park 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exact truth of it, however, is difficult to determine, primarily because it's impossible to predict when volcanic and geologic events are going to take place.
  • Yellowstone "super volcano"-Disputed! 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.truthorfiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only ones in historic times are Tambora, in 1815, Lake Taupo (Hatepe), around 180 AD,[18] and possibly Baekdu Mountain, 969 CE (± 20 years).^ The last one erupted 74,000 years ago at Lake Toba, Sumatra, and the nearest to us is Lake Taupo, on the North Island of New Zealand.
  • Nowhere to hide - TV & Radio - www.smh.com.au 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: News]

^ Taupo in New Zealand was the most recent super-volcano, around 26,500 years ago.
  • Naturalist 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.newagebd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lake Toba on the island of Sumatra occupies the caldera of a supervolcano, one that according to some theories nearly obliterated human life at around 75,000 years ago.
  • The Real Truth about Yellowstone 'Supervolcano' 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]

[19]
.

Media portrayal

Satellite image of Lake Toba, the site of a VEI-8 eruption ~75,000 years ago.
Volcano, lake and caldera locations in the Taupo Volcanic Zone.
.A National Geographic documentary called Earth Shocks portrayed the destructive impact of the rapid eruption at Lake Toba approximately 75,000 years ago, which is thought to have caused a phenomenon known as the Millennial Ice Age that lasted for ~1000 years and killed an estimated 60 to 75%[12][13][14][16][26] of the human population of the time.^ The last time it blew was 640,000 years ago.

^ In fact, 74,000 years ago, humanity almost did.
  • The Floor Is Rising, And We're Getting Hot Feet 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.exitmundi.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ The last eruption was more than 640,000 years ago, we are overdue for annihilation.
  • Comments on: 250 Small Quakes Rattle Yellowstone - CBS News 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But according to Alan Robock et al.,[27] the Toba incident did not initiate an ice age, but rather exacerbated an ice age that had already been underway.^ Yellowstone could do what the Toba Super Volcano did some 70,000 years ago: throw the planet into an ice age that lasted close to 60,000 years and destroy 90-98% of the world’s population.
  • Is The Yellowstone Caldera Calling? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DREW SHINDELL: We think Toba could have pushed the planet towards an ice age, because the model was able to increase the area covered by snow.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Mystery of the Megavolcano | PBS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Added to this, observations suggest that it occurred during the initial stages of an ice age, and some scientists believe Toba may have contributed to this climatic swing.
  • THE TOBA SUPERVOLCANO and HUMAN EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC toba.arch.ox.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nevertheless, the climate recovered over a few decades.
.An eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano is one of the scenarios depicted in the docudrama End Day, BBC website.^ Yellowstone is one of Earth's few supervolcanoes.
  • Yellowstone's secret has changed face of continent | Travel | Chron.com - Houston Chronicle 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.chron.com [Source type: General]

^ Scenario: supervolcano eruption in the US .
  • Monstrous TV   3 February 2010 18:38 UTC tv.monstrous.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM Re: Yellowstone Supervolcano eruption soon?
  • Yellowstone �Supervolcano� eruption soon? - Google Earth Community 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC bbs.keyhole.com [Source type: General]

.In 2005, a two-part television docudrama entitled Supervolcano was shown on BBC, the Discovery Channel, and other television networks worldwide.^ Supervolcanoes are also found in other parts of the world, according to the Discovery Channel.
  • Understanding Why Yellowstone’s Supervolcano Is So Dangerous 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: News]
  • As Yellowstone Quakes Die Down, Officials Seek to Ease Supervolcano Fears 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: News]

^ International News • March 11, 2005 As if the world's increasingly violent weather weren't enough (See previous article), the BBC is set to air a two part documentary on the potential threat of mass destruction posed by ...
  • Reader Comments - "Supervolcanoes:" A Potential Global Catastrophe 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.insurancejournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Discovery Channel presents an opportunity for viewers to explore the Yellowstone supervolcano and witness for the first time a fact-based dramatic portrayal of what could happen if it erupted in SUPERVOLCANO, a two-hour docudrama premiering April 10, 8:00 - 10:00 PM (ET/PT).
  • Yellowstone Supervolcano Unknown by Nearly Two-Thirds of Adult Americans, Says New Survey 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www2.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]

.It looked at the events that could take place if the Yellowstone supervolcano erupted.^ Steamboat Geyser, could take place at Yellowstone .

^ Could Yellowstone in Wyoming explode as a Supervolcano?
  • Revelation 13: The English King James version Bible code - A Giant Tidal Wave in the Future from a Canary Island Volcano? Could Yellowstone explode as a Supervolcano? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Could Yellowstone explode as a Supervolcano?
  • Revelation 13: The English King James version Bible code - A Giant Tidal Wave in the Future from a Canary Island Volcano? Could Yellowstone explode as a Supervolcano? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It featured footage of volcano eruptions from around the world and computer-generated imagery depicting the event.^ A supervolcano or super volcanic eruption is a volcanic eruption which is substantially larger than any volcano in historic times (generally accepted to be greater than 1,000 cubic-kilometers).
  • theycallmeS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC theycallmes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was used by the producers of The BBC TV show Horizon in 2000 to refer to volcanoes that have generated Earth's largest volcanic eruptions.
  • Super Volcano's 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.pufoin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we drained at a rate of a trillion watts (which is roughly the peak generation capacity in the US), that would remove the energy equivalent of a Yellowstone caldera eruption in around a century.
  • Slashdot Science Story | Yellowstone Supervolcano Larger Than First Thought 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.According to the program, such an eruption would have devastating effect across the globe and would cover virtually all of the United States with at least 1 cm of volcanic ash, causing mass destruction in the nearby vicinity and killing plants and wildlife across the continent.^ The eruptions covered as much as half the continental United States with inches to feet of volcanic ash.
  • Yellowstone rising 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.eurekalert.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volcanic ash would cover places thousands of miles away.
  • Canuck's Cynics' Corner » Yellowstone - Super Volcano... Potential Global Disaster 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC blogs.survivalistssite.com [Source type: General]

^ Ash-like particles would definitely fit with a volcanic eruption.
  • Are there clues in Our Lady�s message, pointing to a future Yellowstone supervolcano eruption? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.tldm.org [Source type: Original source]

.The dramatic elements in the program were followed by Supervolcano: The Truth About Yellowstone, a documentary about the evidence behind the movie.^ This thread is about supervolcanoes, but Yellowstone supervolcano in particular.
  • Supervolcanoes, Yellowstone Caldera [Archive] - 3D Realms Forums 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC forums.3drealms.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Supervolcanoes, Yellowstone Caldera - 3D Realms Forums 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC forums.3drealms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every few hundred thousand years, such chambers can erupt as so-called supervolcanoes – the one below Yellowstone did about 640,000 years ago.
  • NZ scientist eyes 'super-volcano' - science | Stuff.co.nz 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.stuff.co.nz [Source type: News]

^ Creators of a British Broadcasting Company (BBC) science program first aired on February 3, 2000, gathered U.S. and British geologists, anthropologists, geneticists, paleontologists and others to talk about supervolcanoes, which was also the name of the resulting documentary.
  • Yellowstone Is a Supervolcano? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.semp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The program had originally been scheduled to be transmitted in early 2005, but it was felt that this would be insensitive so soon after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.^ Indian Ocean tsunami 2004 .
  • BBC shelves £8m disaster documentary | Media | MediaGuardian 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rob May 29th, 2005 at 5:10 am Would the tsunami cause enough shift to make Lake Toba blow?
  • johnaugust.com » Michelle Pfeiffer, Supervolcanoes and the Yellowstone Fallacy 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC johnaugust.com [Source type: General]

^ The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea earthquake that occurred with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.

.The program and its accompanying documentaries were released on DVD region 2 simultaneously with its broadcast.^ Accompanying this excellent DVD, are two equally excellent documentaries which even if one is not a connoisseur of this genre one will find them fascinating.
  • Supervolcano [DVD] [2005]: Amazon.co.uk: Michael Riley, Gary Lewis, Shaun Johnston, Adrian Holmes, Jennifer Copping, Rebecca Jenkins, Tom McBeath, Robert Wisden, Susan Duerden, Jane McLean, Sam Charles, Kevin McNulty, Tony Mitchell, Ailsa Orr, Deboragh Gabler, Fiona Scott, Mark Johnston, Michael J. Mosley, Edward Canfor-Dumas, Julian Simpson: DVD 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Nova featured an episode, Mystery of the Megavolcano, in September 2006 examining such eruptions in the last 100,000 years.^ It's been 620,000 since the last eruption.
  • Devastation for America? Yellowstone Earthquakes and the Super Volcano 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.postchronicle.com [Source type: News]
  • Photo: Imminent Devastation? Yellowstone Eruption Concerns 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.postchronicle.com [Source type: News]

^ The last such small eruption occurred about 80,000 years ago.
  • Daily Kos: The Super Volcano in Yellowstone is Rumbling 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ The last eruption was 640,000 years agoso the next is overdue.
  • Yellowstone Supervolcano Supervolcano Yellowstone Park 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.solcomhouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Super Volcano In Yellowstone National Park 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]
In 2006, the Sci Fi Channel aired the documentary Countdown to Doomsday which featured a segment called "Supervolcano".
In 2006, ABC News aired the documentary Last Days on Earth which featured a segment called "Supervolcano".
.Also in 2006, the television show Stargate Atlantis aired an episode called Inferno (Stargate Atlantis) whose plot revolves around the discovery and subsequent eruption of a supervolcano on another planet.^ The plot revolves around a series of violent eruptions at Yellowstone in Wyoming that send thousands of cubic metres of rock, gas and ash spiralling up in cloud that rains down over three-quarters of the United States.
  • Secular Blasphemy 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC blogs.salon.com [Source type: General]

^ Note : this would not include flood basalts as a "supervolcano" although most flood basalt provinces dwarf so-called "supervolcanic" eruptions.
  • Mt. Saint Helens: Supervolcano? : Eruptions 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ It is also certain that there is going to be another super eruption somewhere on the Planet.
  • Catalyst: Supervolcano: The Truth About Yellowstone Part 1 - ABC TV Science 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2008, the Yellowstone supervolcano was featured in the BBC program 10 things you didn't know about Volcanoes, presented by Dr Iain Stewart, a volcanologist.^ If you don't know anything about geology or volcanos, fear not.
  • Amazon.com: Super Volcano: The Ticking Time Bomb Beneath Yellowstone National Park (9780760329252): Greg Breining: Books 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The Yellowstone Supervolcano First thing's first: Where there is a caldera, a volcano has erupted.

^ Supervolcanoes, Yellowstone Caldera What is this you ask?
  • Supervolcanoes, Yellowstone Caldera - 3D Realms Forums 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC forums.3drealms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the film 2012, an eruption of Yellowstone is one of several cataclysmic events which brings about the end of the world [29].^ Is the world going to end in 2012?
  • Yellowstone’s Supervolcano Even Scarier Than Previously Thought – The Blogs at HowStuffWorks 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC blogs.howstuffworks.com [Source type: General]

^ It was the one about Yellowstone.
  • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A big eruption of Yellowstone could be a civilization-ending event.
  • Yellowstone earthquake swarm continues into third day, intensifies - Democratic Underground 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2009, the Toba supervolcano was featured in the episode Fire and Ice on Animal Armageddon.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo/about/faq/faqsupervolcano.php#supervolcano
  2. ^ O'Hanlon, Larry. "Supervolcano: Yellowstone's Super Sisters". Discovery Channel. http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/supervolcano/others/others.html. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  3. ^ BBC TV Horizon, 3 February 2000, Supervolcanoes
  4. ^ USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory
  5. ^ Clough, C. T; Maufe, H. B. & Bailey, E. B; 1909. The cauldron subsidence of Glen Coe, and the Associated Igneous Phenomena. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 65, 611-678.
  6. ^ Kokelaar, B. P and Moore, I. D; 2006. Glencoe caldera volcano, Scotland. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham. ISBN 0852725256.
  7. ^ Froggatt, P. C.; Nelson, C. S.; Carter, L.; Griggs, G.; Black, K. P. (13 February 1986). "An exceptionally large late Quaternary eruption from New Zealand". Nature 319: 578–582. doi:10.1038/319578a0. "The minimum total volume of tephra is 1,200 km³ but probably nearer 2,000 km³, ...". .
  8. ^ a b c http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/largeeruptions.cfm
  9. ^ Lindsay, J. M.;de Silva, S.;Trumbull, R.; Emmermann, R. and Wemmer, K. (2001). La Pacana caldera, N. Chile: a re-evaluation of the stratigraphy and volcanology of one of the world's largest resurgent calderas, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 106 (1-2), 145–173. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(00)00270-5.
  10. ^ a b c http://bulletin.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/117/3-4/288 Lisa A. Morgan and William C. McIntosh, Timing and development of the Heise volcanic field, Snake River Plain, Idaho, western USA, GSA Bulletin; March 2005; v. 117; no. 3-4; p. 288-306; DOI: 10.1130/B25519.1
  11. ^ Ingrid Ukstins Peate; Joel A. Baker; Mohamed Al-Kadasi; Abdulkarim Al-Subbary; Kim B. Knight; Peter Riisager; Matthew F. Thirlwall; David W. Peate; Paul R. Renne; Martin A. Menzies (2005). "Volcanic stratigraphy of large-volume silicic pyroclastic eruptions during Oligocene Afro-Arabian flood volcanism in Yemen". Bulletin of Volcanology 68: 135–156. doi:10.1007/s00445-005-0428-4. .
  12. ^ a b Stanley H. Ambrose, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1998
  13. ^ a b Knight, M.D., Walker, G.P.L., Ellwood, B.B., and Diehl, J.F., 1986, Stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and magnetic fabric of the Toba Tuffs: Constraints on their sources and eruptive styles: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, p. 10,355-10,382.
  14. ^ a b Ninkovich, D., Sparks, R.S.J., and Ledbetter, M.T., 1978, The exceptional magnitude and intensity of the Toba eruption, Sumatra: An example of using deep-sea tephra layers as a geological tool: Bulletin Volcanologique, v. 41, p. 286-298.
  15. ^ Rose, W.I., and Chesner, C.A., 1987, Dispersal of ash in the great Toba eruption, 75 ka: Geology, v. 15, p. 913-917. Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.
  16. ^ a b Williams, M.A.J., and Royce, K., 1982, Quaternary geology of the Middle Son Valley, north central India: Implications for prehistoric archaeology: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 38, p. 139-162.
  17. ^ Michael Petraglia et al., Science v.317, p.114 (2007)
  18. ^ a b Wilson, C. J. N.; Ambraseys, N. N.; Bradley, J.; Walker, G. P. L. (1980). "A new date for the Taupo eruption, New Zealand". Nature 288: 252–253. doi:10.1038/288252a0.
  19. ^ Horn, Susanne; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich (2000). "Volatile emission during the eruption of Baitoushan Volcano (China/North Korea) ca. 969 AD". Bulletin of Volcanology 61 (8): 537–555. doi:10.1007/s004450050004. "The 969±20 AD Plinian eruption of Baitoushan Volcano (China/North Korea) produced a total tephra volume of 96±19 km³ [magma volume (DRE): 24±5 km³].". 
  20. ^ Froggatt, P. C. and Lowe, D. J. (1990). A review of late Quaternary silicic and some other tephra formations from New Zealand: their stratigraphy, nomenclature, distribution, volume, and age, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 33, 89-109.
  21. ^ Bailet, R. A. and Carr, R. G. (1994). Physical geology and eruptive history of the Matahina Ignimbrite, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 37, 319-344.
  22. ^ Izett, Glen A. (1981). "Volcanic Ash Beds: Recorders of Upper Cenozoic Silicic Pyroclastic Volcanism in the Western United States". Journal of Geophysical Research 86 (B11): 10200–10222. doi:10.1029/JB086iB11p10200. 
  23. ^ Briggs, R.M.; Gifford, M.G.; Moyle, A.R.; Taylor, S.R.; Normaff, M.D.; Houghton, B.F.; and Wilson, C.J.N. (1993). "Geochemical zoning and eruptive mixing in ignimbrites from Mangakino volcano, Taupe Volcanic Zone, New Zealand". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 56: 175–203. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(93)90016-K. .
  24. ^ Ort, M. H.; de Silva, S.; Jiminez, N.; Salisbury, M.; Jicha, B. R. and Singer, B. S. (2009). Two new supereruptions in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes.
  25. ^ Ashfall Fossil Beds State Historical Park. "The Ashfall Story". http://www.ashfall.unl.edu/ashfallstory.html. Retrieved 2006-08-08. 
  26. ^ Rose, W.I., and Chesner, C.A., 1987, Dispersal of ash in the great Toba eruption, 75 ka: Geology, v. 15, p. 913-917. Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.
  27. ^ Robock, A., C.M. Ammann, L. Oman, D. Shindell, S. Levis, and G. Stenchikov (2009). "Did the Toba volcanic eruption of ~74k BP produce widespread glaciation?". Journal of Geophysical Research 114: D10107. doi:10.1029/2008JD011652. 
  28. ^ Mystery of the Megavolcano official site, PBS.org
  29. ^ "Is the apocalypse a real and present danger? A menacing bubble of magma rumbling beneath Yellowstone Park really does threaten to blow its top and wreak havoc upon the planet. But when?"

References

  • Mason, Ben G.; Pyle, David M.; Oppenheimer, Clive (2004). ."The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth". Bulletin of Volcanology 66 (8): 735–748. doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0355-9. 
  • Timmreck, C.; Graf, H.-F. (2006).^ Now we know that Lake Toba is the site of one of the largest volcanic eruptions ever to occur on Earth.
    • NOVA | Transcripts | Mystery of the Megavolcano | PBS 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The size of the last three major Yellowstone eruptions was much less than previous eruptions further to the southwest, and each has been decreasing in size and increasing in frequency.
    • YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mason, Ben G., et al, “Size and Frequency of the Largest Explosive Eruptions on Earth,” in Bulletin of Volcanology , v.
    • The Straight Dope: Is Yellowstone Park sitting on a supervolcano that's about to blow? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."The initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super volcano: a model study".^ In 1815, the eruption of Mount Tambora, a volcano in Indonesia, led to the famous "year without a summer," in which crops failed across the Northern Hemisphere.
    • As Yellowstone Bubbles, Experts Are Calm - washingtonpost.com 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Some experts believe that a super volcano in the United States may soon erupt with such force as to lay waste much of North America.

    ^ The crater of this super volcano is over 40 miles across and were it to erupt again, the force could be 10,000 times more powerful than the eruption of Mt.
    • Are there clues in Our Lady�s message, pointing to a future Yellowstone supervolcano eruption? 3 February 2010 18:38 UTC www.tldm.org [Source type: Original source]

    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6: 35–49. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/35/2006/acp-6-35-2006.html. 

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Supervolcano, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message