Surrealism: Wikis

  
  
  











































Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Surrealism
.Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members.^ Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members.
  • Surrealism Art by surrealist artist charnine - similar to dali, magritte 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.charnine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism - 2 reference results Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 1980s, behind the Iron Curtain, Surrealism again entered into politics with an underground artistic opposition movement known as the Orange Alternative.
  • Surrealism Art by surrealist artist charnine - similar to dali, magritte 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.charnine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact.^ Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur ; however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact.
  • Surrealism Art by surrealist artist charnine - similar to dali, magritte 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.charnine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur, however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost with the works being an artifact, and leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.^ Leader Andr Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
  • Surrealism Art by surrealist artist charnine - similar to dali, magritte 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.charnine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur, however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost with the works being an artifact, and leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Surrealism is a literary and artistic movement launched in 1924 by the French poet Andre' Breton proclaiming the radical transformation of all existing social, scientific, and philosophical values through the total liberation of the subconscious.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris.^ Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris.
  • Surrealism Art by surrealist artist charnine - similar to dali, magritte 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.charnine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the war when they returned to Paris the Dada activities continued.
  • Surrealism Art by surrealist artist charnine - similar to dali, magritte 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.charnine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War I scattered the writers and artists who had been based in Paris, and while away from Paris many involved themselves in the Dada movement, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the terrifying conflict upon the world.
  • Surrealism Art by surrealist artist charnine - similar to dali, magritte 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.charnine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the 1920s on, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory.^ From the 1920s on, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music, of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, and philosophy and social theory.
  • Surrealism Art by surrealist artist charnine - similar to dali, magritte 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.charnine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism - Optimistic and practical social surreal art....
  • favourite art directory - surrealist art 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.engelen.com [Source type: General]

^ From the Dada activities of World War I Surrealism was formed with the most important center of the movement in Paris and from the 1920s spreading around the globe, eventually affecting films such as the Angel's Egg and El Topo, amongst others....
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Founding of the movement

.World War I scattered the writers and artists who had been based in Paris, and while away from Paris many involved themselves in the Dada movement, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the terrifying conflict upon the world.^ World War I scattered the writers and artists who had been based in Paris, and while away from Paris many involved themselves in the Dada movement, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the terrifying conflict upon the world.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dada artists, blaming society for the horrors of the war, rejected Victorian values and traditional expectations of art through absurd and provocative images such as Marcel Duchamp's "Fountain."
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ World War II created havoc not only for the general population of Europe but especially for the European artists and writers that opposed Fascism, and Nazism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Dadaists protested with anti-rational anti-art gatherings, performances, writing and art works.^ The Dadaists protested with anti-rational anti-art gatherings, performances, writing and art works.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Richter recalled, the origins of Dadaist activities in New York "were different, but its participants were playing essentially the same anti-art tune as we were.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued.^ From the Dada activities of World War I Surrealism was formed with the most important center of the movement in Paris and from the 1920s spreading around the globe, eventually affecting films such as the Angel's Egg and El Topo, amongst others....
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ By 1920 most of the initiators of Dada has arrived in Paris for what was to be the finale of Dada group activities.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stifled by the restrictions of the war, they were drawn to Dada's revolutionary spirit and nihilistic antics.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the war Surrealism's soon-to-be leader André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used the psychoanalytic methods of Sigmund Freud with soldiers who were shell-shocked.^ During the war Surrealism's soon-to-be leader André Breton , who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used the psychoanalytic methods of Sigmund Freud with soldiers who as so were shell-shocked .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breton, André, Conversations: The Autobiography of Surrealism (Gallimard 1952) (Paragon House English rev. ISBN 1-56924-970-9.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As males who had no use for any of the proffered models of maleness—soldier, politician, cop, gangster, banker, businessman, athlete, bureaucrat, or boss—the men who founded surrealism could be called traitors to their sex.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

He also met the young writer Jacques Vaché and felt that he was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysician Alfred Jarry, and he came to admire the young writer's anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition. Later Breton wrote, "In literature, I am successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."[1]
.Back in Paris, Breton joined in the Dada activities and also started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.^ They were enthusiastically received in Paris by a circle of writers associated with Breton's and Aragon's literary journal Littérature.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Litt érature was founded by Aragon, Breton, and Philippe Soupault.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1920 most of the initiators of Dada has arrived in Paris for what was to be the finale of Dada group activities.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the "automatic" writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in Littérature.^ They began experimenting with automatic writing —spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the "automatic" writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in Littérature .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It defines Surrealism as "pure psychic automatism whereby one's intention is to express, either verbally or in writing, or in any other way, the real functioning of thought".
  • Surrealist art 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.cnac-gp.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Automatic Writing: Surrealist technique which encourages spontaneous writing and urges the individual to transcend conscious preparation, hence giving the unconscious free reign.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

.Breton and Soupault delved deeper into automatism and wrote The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) in 1919. They continued the automatic writing, gathered more artists and writers into the group, and came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada attack on prevailing values.^ Breton and Soupault delved deeper into automatism and wrote The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) in 1919.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Surrealist work, according to leader Breton , was Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) (May–June 1919).
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They continue the experimentation which Breton and Philippe Soupault had embarked upon in Les Champs magntiques , a text written by the method of automatic writing and published in 1919.
  • Surrealist art 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.cnac-gp.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to Breton, Aragon and Soupault the original Surrealists included Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise,[2] Marcel Noll, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Simone Breton, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert and Yves Tanguy.^ Tags: breton surrealism mask dadafrica Another Automatic Drawing by Jean/Hans Arp - Posted: 26.Oct.2007.

^ Aragon, Baron, Boiffard, Breton, Carrive, Crevel, Delteil, Desnos, Eluard, Gérard, Limbour, Malkine, Morise, Naville, Noll, Péret, Picon, Soupault, Vitrac.
  • André Breton - Soluble Fish 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC faculty.dwc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A rather eclectic journal, Litt érature features writing by figures such as poets Guillaume Apollinaire and Paul Valéry along with Arensberg, Arp, and Éluard.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924.
.As they developed their philosophy they felt that while Dada rejected categories and labels, Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.^ As they developed their philosophy they felt that while Dada rejected categories and labels, Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on the dialectical resolution of the contradiction between conscious and unconscious, surrealism indicates a higher, open, and dynamic consciousness, from which no aspect of the real is rejected.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Surrealism's increasing openness to women's full participation could not have occurred had the men who founded it been as hopelessly sexist as they have sometimes been portrayed.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They also looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse.^ They also looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their reading of Hegel and Marx was close in many ways to that of some of the Frankfurt School theorists (Marcuse, Adorno), and they had a lot in common with such other maverick Marxists as Walter Benjamin, Raya Dunayevskaya, and C. L. R. James.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Static media, such as painting and sculpture support a high degree of expressiveness, and, as they are static, the time to develop surreal, abstract, or imaginative works is reasonable.
  • http://www.rchoetzlein.com/research/ 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.rchoetzlein.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Freud's work with free association, dream analysis and the hidden unconscious was of the utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination.^ Encyclopedia.com surrealism , literary and art movement influenced by Freudianism and dedicated to the expression of imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the con.
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The surrealist artists introduced the theory of the liberation of desire through the invention of techniques that aimed to reproduce the mechanisms of dreams.
  • Surrealist art 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.cnac-gp.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The self-display and the dress code of the Belgian surrealists refer through their theatrical form to the method of work used to carry out the surrealist revolution.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness or darkness of the mind.^ However, they embraced idiosyncrasy , while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness or darkness of the mind.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Later the idiosyncratic Salvador Dalí explained it as: "There is only one difference between a madman and me.^ (Later the idiosyncratic Salvador Dalí explained it as: "There is only one difference between a madman and me.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jeffrey: (Grabs a clipboard, his posture mirrors Bridgette’s)The only difference between your compulsion and mine is that obsessive productivity is a virtue whereas mine is just plain ..
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ There have also been attempts to tie the obituary of the movement to the 1989 death of Salvador Dalí.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I am not mad."[2])
.The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, including its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects, by freeing people from what they saw as false rationality, and restrictive customs and structures.^ The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, including its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects, by freeing people from what they saw as false rationality, and restrictive customs and structures.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism has had an identifiable impact on radical and revolutionary politics, both directly — as in some Surrealists joining or allying themselves with radical political groups, movements and parties — and indirectly — through the way in which Surrealists' emphasize the intimate link between freeing imagination and the mind, and liberation from repressive and archaic social structures.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is about a small elite, lead by one person alone, who wants to tell people what they can or cannot do.
  • Venezuela: Dispatch from a Surrealist Autocracy - 10 Zen Monkeys 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.10zenmonkeys.com [Source type: Original source]

Breton proclaimed, the true aim of Surrealism is "long live the social revolution, and it alone!" To this goal, at various times surrealists aligned with communism and anarchism.
.In 1924 they declared their intents and philosophy with the issuance of the first Surrealist Manifesto.^ In 1924 they declared their intents and philosophy with the issuance of the first Surrealist Manifesto .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His writings include the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as pu...
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ On December 1, 1924, shortly after he published the first Surrealist manifesto, Breton released the inaugural issue of La Révolution surréaliste (Surrealist Revolution).
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That same year they established the Bureau of Surrealist Research, and began publishing the journal La Révolution surréaliste.^ That same year they established the Bureau of Surrealist Research , and began publishing the journal La Révolution surréaliste .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He defined Surrealism as: La Révolution surréaliste .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ La Révolution surréaliste 12, ed.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Surrealist Manifesto

.Breton wrote the manifesto of 1924 (another was issued in 1929) that defines the purposes of the group and includes citations of the influences on Surrealism, examples of Surrealist works and discussion of Surrealist automatism.^ Notes on the Sexual Politics of the First Surrealist Group, 1924-1929 .
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Andr é Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism, trans.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andr Breton, Manifesto of Surrealism, 1924.

He defined Surrealism as:
Dictionary: Surrealism, n. .Pure psychic automatism, by which one proposes to express, either verbally, in writing, or by any other manner, the real functioning of thought.^ Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express—verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner—the actual functioning of thought.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pure psychic automatism, by which it is intended to express, verbally, in writing, or by other means, the real process of thought.
  • Breton�What is Surrealism? 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC pers-www.wlv.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This notion however is a superficial comprehension, prompted no doubt by Breton's initial emphasis on automatic writing as the main route toward a higher reality.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation.^ Thought dictated in the absence of all control exerted by reason, and outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Thought's dictation, in the absence of all control exercised by the reason and outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations.
  • Breton�What is Surrealism? 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC pers-www.wlv.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Dictated by thought, in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]



Encyclopedia: Surrealism. Philosophy. .Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought.^ Surrealism is based in the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected association, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on the dialectical resolution of the contradiction between conscious and unconscious, surrealism indicates a higher, open, and dynamic consciousness, from which no aspect of the real is rejected.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Poetic Symbolism style of painting based on Surrealism and Fantastic Realism.
  • Visual Arts > Painters > Surrealist | Art Web Directory, Art Galleries and Painters 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.searchartz.com [Source type: General]

.It tends to ruin once and for all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life.^ It tends definitely to do away with all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in the solution of the principal problems of life.
  • Breton�What is Surrealism? 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC pers-www.wlv.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

La Révolution surréaliste

.Shortly after releasing the first Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, the Surrealists published the inaugural issue of La Révolution surréaliste and publication continued into 1929. Pierre Naville and Benjamin Péret were the initial directors of the publication and modeled the format of the journal on the conservative scientific review La Nature. The format was deceiving, and to the Surrealists' delight La Révolution surréaliste was consistently scandalous and revolutionary.^ La Peinture Surrealiste exhibition was the first ever Surrealist exhibition at Gallerie Pierre in Paris.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pierre Naville and Benjamin Péret were the initial directors of the publication and modeled the format of the journal on the conservative scientific review La Nature.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The format was deceiving, and to the Surrealists' delight La Révolution surréaliste was consistently scandalous and revolutionary.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The journal focused on writing with most pages densely packed with columns of text, but also included reproductions of art, among them works by Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, André Masson and Man Ray.^ Although the focus was on writing, with most pages filled by tightly packed columns of text, the review occasionally made room for a few mediocre reproductions of art, among them works by de Chirico, Ernst, André Masson and Man Ray.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Displayed works by Masson , Man Ray , Klee , Miró , and others.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The journal focused on writing with most pages densely packed with columns of text, but also included reproductions of art, among them works by Giorgio de Chirico , Max Ernst , André Masson and Man Ray .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bureau of Surrealist Research

.The Bureau of Surrealist Research (Centrale Surréaliste) was the Paris office where the Surrealist writers and artists gathered to meet, hold discussions, and conduct interviews with the goal of investigating speech under trance.^ The Bureau of Surrealist Research (Centrale Surréaliste) was the Paris office where the Surrealist writers and artists gathered to meet, hold discussions, and conduct interviews with the goal of investigating speech under trance.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The movement in the mid-1920s was characterized by meetings in cafes where the Surrealists played collaborative drawing games and discussed the theories of Surrealism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For years he has been heading the small Surrealist discussion group which meets at his office every Thursday to discuss the philosophies of Surrealist giants like Andr6 Breton and Philippe Soupault and practice their own Surrealist writing through the use of automatic writing and other games.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

Expansion

André Masson. Automatic Drawing. 1924. Ink on paper, 23.5 x 20.6 cm. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
.The movement in the mid-1920s was characterized by meetings in cafes where the Surrealists played collaborative drawing games, discussed the theories of Surrealism, and developed a variety of techniques such as automatic drawing.^ The Surrealists developed a variety of techniques such as automatic drawing .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1920s several composers were influenced by Surrealism, or by individuals in the Surrealist movement.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The movement in the mid-1920s was characterized by meetings in cafes where the Surrealists played collaborative drawing games and discussed the theories of Surrealism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Breton initially doubted that visual arts could even be useful in the Surrealist movement since they appeared to be less malleable and open to chance and automatism.^ Breton initially doubted that visual arts could even be useful in the Surrealist movement since they appeared to be less malleable and open to chance and automatism .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The show confirmed that Surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it had been initially debated whether this was possible), techniques from Dada, such as photomontage were used.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first he disseminated the ideas of surrealist poetry, but from 1930 on, he contributed to the rapid development of the visual side of the movement, particularly by his translation of what Andre Breton and Aragon had written about painting.
  • History of Art: surrealism 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.all-art.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This caution was overcome by the discovery of such techniques as frottage and decalcomania.^ This caution was overcome by the discovery of such techniques as frottage , and decalcomania .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soon more visual artists joined Surrealism including Giorgio de Chirico, Salvador Dalí, Enrico Donati, Alberto Giacometti, Valentine Hugo, Méret Oppenheim, Toyen, Grégoire Michonze, and Luis Buñuel.^ Giorgio de Chirico briefly associated with the group but never joined.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon more visual artists joined Surrealism including Giorgio de Chirico , Salvador Dalí , Enrico Donati , Alberto Giacometti , Valentine Hugo , Méret Oppenheim , Toyen , Grégoire Michonze , and Luis Buñuel .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, several new members joined: Salvador Dalí , Luis Buñuel , Alberto Giacometti , René Char , and Lee Miller .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though Breton admired Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp and courted them to join the movement, they remained peripheral.^ Though Breton admired Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp and courted them to join the movement, they remained peripheral.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pablo Picasso associated with the Surrealists but never officially joined.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breton published Surrealism and Painting in 1928 which summarized the movement to that point, though he continued to update the work until the 1960s.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .More writers also joined, including former Dadaist Tristan Tzara, René Char, Georges Sadoul, André Thirion, and Maurice Heine.^ More writers also joined, including former Dadaist Tristan Tzara , René Char , Georges Sadoul , André Thirion and Maurice Heine .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group included the musician, poet and artist E.L.T. Mesens , painter and writer René Magritte , Paul Nougé , Marcel Lecomte , Camille Goemans , and André Souris .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paul Éluard , Benjamin Péret , Man Ray , Jacques Baron , René Crevel , Robert Desnos , Georges Limbour , Roger Vitrac , and Joseph Delteil -- organized under Breton and pulled away from the influence of Tristan Tzara and the Dadaists.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1925 an autonomous Surrealist group formed in Brussels.^ In 1925 an autonomous Surrealist group formed in Brussels becoming official in 1926.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet, both Brussels and Walloon surrealists distinguished themselves in the interwar period as distinct groups.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What little is known of the attitudes, activity, and achievements of the female minority in and around the first Surrealist Group during its formative years will be discussed in the introduction to the first section of this anthology.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The group included the musician, poet, and artist E.L.T. Mesens, painter and writer René Magritte, Paul Nougé, Marcel Lecomte, Camille Goemans, and André Souris.^ The group included the musician, poet and artist E.L.T. Mesens , painter and writer René Magritte , Paul Nougé , Marcel Lecomte , Camille Goemans , and André Souris .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A group was formed in 1926 by the poets E.L.T. Mesens and Marcel Lecomte, the theoretician Paul Nouge, the dealer Camille Goemans, and the painter Rene Magritte .
  • History of Art: surrealism 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.all-art.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1929 the satellite group around the journal Le Grand Jeu , including Roger Gilbert-Lecomte , Maurice Henry and the Czech painter Josef Sima , was ostracized.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1927 they were joined by the writer Louis Scutenaire.^ In 1927 they were joined by the writer Louis Scutenaire .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later on, the poet-writer Jean Scutenaire and the two musicians Paul Hooreman and André Souris joined the Brussels group.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They corresponded regularly with the Paris group, and in 1927 both Goemans and Magritte moved to Paris and frequented Breton's circle.^ They corresponded regularly with the Paris group, and in 1927 both Goemans and Magritte moved to Paris and frequented Breton's circle.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group included the musician, poet and artist E.L.T. Mesens , painter and writer René Magritte , Paul Nougé , Marcel Lecomte , Camille Goemans , and André Souris .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Breton's group refused to prioritize the proletarian struggle over radical creation such that their struggles with the Party made the late 1920s a turbulent time for both.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .The artists, with their roots in Dada and Cubism, the abstraction of Wassily Kandinsky, Expressionism, and Post-Impressionism, also reached to older "bloodlines" such as Hieronymus Bosch, and the so-called primitive and naive arts.^ The artists, with their roots in Dada and Cubism , the abstraction of Wassily Kandinsky and Expressionism , and Post-Impressionism , also reached to older "bloodlines" such as Hieronymus Bosch , and the so-called primitive and naive arts.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dada artists, blaming society for the horrors of the war, rejected Victorian values and traditional expectations of art through absurd and provocative images such as Marcel Duchamp's "Fountain."
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ Appearing in July 1917, the first issue of Dada, subtitled Miscellany of Art and Literature, featured contributions from members of avantgarde groups throughout Europe, including Giorgio de Chirico, Robert Delaunay, and Wassily Kandinsky.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.André Masson's automatic drawings of 1923, are often used as the point of the acceptance of visual arts and the break from Dada, since they reflect the influence of the idea of the unconscious mind.^ André Masson 's automatic drawings of 1923, are often used as the point of the acceptance of visual arts and the break from Dada, since they reflect the influence of the idea of the unconscious mind .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The show confirmed that Surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it had been initially debated whether this was possible), techniques from Dada, such as photomontage were used.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the second the influence of Miró and the drawing style of Picasso is visible with the use of fluid curving and intersecting lines and colour, where as the first takes a directness that would later be influential in movements such as Pop art .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another example is Giacometti's 1925 Torso, which marked his movement to simplified forms and inspiration from preclassical sculpture.^ Another example is Alberto Giacometti 's 1925 Torso , which marked his movement to simplified forms and inspiration from preclassical sculpture.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, a striking example of the line used to divide Dada and Surrealism among art experts is the pairing of 1925's Little Machine Constructed by Minimax Dadamax in Person (Von minimax dadamax selbst konstruiertes maschinchen)[5] with The Kiss (Le Baiser)[6] from 1927 by Ernst.^ WebMuseum: Surrealism Surrealism, movement in visual art and literature, flourishing in Europe between World Wars I and II. Surrealism grew principally out of the earlier Dada ...
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ ArtLex on Surrealist Art Surrealism defined with images of examples from art history, great quotations, and links to other resources.
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Max Ernst, which, among other things, have been able to upset the scale of values of art-critics and experts, values based chiefly on technical perfection, personal touch and the lastingness of the materials employed), this experiment can and should serve the cause of the liberation of the proletariat.
  • Breton�What is Surrealism? 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC pers-www.wlv.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The first is generally held to have a distance, and erotic subtext, whereas the second presents an erotic act openly and directly.^ The first is generally held to have a distance, and erotic subtext, whereas the second presents an erotic act openly and directly.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the second the influence of Miró and the drawing style of Picasso is visible with the use of fluid curving and intersecting lines and colour, whereas the first takes a directness that would later be influential in movements such as Pop art.^ In the second the influence of Miró and the drawing style of Picasso is visible with the use of fluid curving and intersecting lines and colour, where as the first takes a directness that would later be influential in movements such as Pop art .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encyclopedia.com surrealism , literary and art movement influenced by Freudianism and dedicated to the expression of imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the con.
  • SURREALISM 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The show confirmed that Surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it had been initially debated whether this was possible), techniques from Dada, such as photomontage were used.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Giorgio de Chirico The Red Tower (La Tour Rouge) (1913).
.Giorgio de Chirico, and his previous development of metaphysical art, was one of the important joining figures between the philosophical and visual aspects of Surrealism.^ Giorgio de Chirico briefly associated with the group but never joined.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Giorgio de Chirico , and his previous development of Metaphysical art , was one of the important joining figures between the philosophical and visual aspects of Surrealism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The show confirmed that Surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it had been initially debated whether this was possible), techniques from Dada, such as photomontage were used.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Between 1911 and 1917, he adopted an unornamented depictional style whose surface would be adopted by others later. .The Red Tower (La tour rouge) from 1913 shows the stark colour contrasts and illustrative style later adopted by Surrealist painters.^ The Red Tower (La tour rouge) from 1913 shows the stark colour contrasts and illustrative style later adopted by Surrealist painters.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1911 and 1917, he adopted an unornamented depictional style whose surface would be adopted by others later.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In later years at least two male surrealists adopted the surnames of their female companions.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His 1914 The Nostalgia of the Poet (La Nostalgie du poete)[7] has the figure turned away from the viewer, and the juxtaposition of a bust with glasses and a fish as a relief defies conventional explanation.^ His 1914 The Nostalgia of the Poet (La Nostalgie du poete) has the figure turned away from the viewer, and the juxtaposition of a bust with glasses and a fish as a relief defies conventional explanation.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was also a writer whose novel Hebdomeros presents a series of dreamscapes with an unusual use of punctuation, syntax, and grammar designed to create an atmosphere and frame around its images.^ He was also a writer, and his novel Hebdomeros presents a series of dreamscapes with an unusual use of punctuation, syntax and grammar designed to create a particular atmosphere and frame around its images.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Capture every image, fill every frame… I used to be so naïve.

.His images, including set designs for the Ballets Russes, would create a decorative form of Surrealism, and he would be an influence on the two artists who would be even more closely associated with Surrealism in the public mind: Dalí and Magritte.^ Dalí and Magritte created the most widely recognized images of the movement.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His images, including set designs for the Ballets Russes , would create a decorative form of visual Surrealism, and he would be an influence on the two artists who would be even more closely associated with Surrealism in the public mind: Salvador Dalí and Magritte .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism is based in the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected association, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He would, however, leave the Surrealist group in 1928.
.In 1924, Miro and Masson applied Surrealism to painting, explicitly leading to the La Peinture Surrealiste exhibition of 1925, held at Gallerie Pierre in Paris, and displaying works by Masson, Man Ray, Klee, Miró, and others.^ La Peinture Surrealiste exhibition was the first ever Surrealist exhibition at Gallerie Pierre in Paris.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1924, Miro and Masson applied Surrealism theory to painting explicitly leading to the La Peinture Surrealiste exhibition of 1925.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Displayed works by Masson , Man Ray , Klee , Miró , and others.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The show confirmed that Surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it had been initially debated whether this was possible), and techniques from Dada, such as photomontage, were used.^ The show confirmed that Surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it had been initially debated whether this was possible), techniques from Dada, such as photomontage were used.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism and dadaism : provocative destruction, the path within, and the exacerbation of the problem of a reconciliation of art and life / Marianne Oesterreicher-Mollwo ; [translated by Stephen Crawshaw].

^ André Masson 's automatic drawings of 1923, are often used as the point of the acceptance of visual arts and the break from Dada, since they reflect the influence of the idea of the unconscious mind .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following year, on March 26, 1926 Galerie Surréaliste opened with an exhibition by Man Ray.^ The following year, on on March 26 , 1926 Galerie Surréaliste opened with an exhibition by Man Ray .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breton, Man Ray, and Salvador Dalí as well were among those whose writing and imagery exhibited the influence of Sade.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also the Parisian Galerie surréaliste of 1926 and the Galerie Gradiva of 1937 had no following in Belgium .
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Breton published Surrealism and Painting in 1928 which summarized the movement to that point, though he continued to update the work until the 1960s.^ Breton published Surrealism and Painting in 1928 which summarized the movement to that point, though he continued to update the work until the 1960s.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the war proved disruptive for Surrealism, the works continued.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It stressed his connections to Surrealist methods, offered interpretations of his work by Breton, as well as Breton's view that Duchamp represented the bridge between early modern movements, such as Futurism and Cubism , to Surrealism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Writing continues

René Magritte's "This is not a pipe." The Treachery of Images 1928-9
.The first Surrealist work, according to leader Breton, was Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) (May–June 1919).^ Breton and Soupault delved deeper into automatism and wrote The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) in 1919.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Surrealist work, according to leader Breton , was Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) (May–June 1919).
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sweeping criticism of the movement based on isolated quotations from the work of any one surrealist—even André Breton—is always misleading, and is especially so when it proves to be the result of a misundertanding.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Littérature contained automatist works and accounts of dreams.^ Littérature contained automatist works and accounts of dreams.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They began experimenting with automatic writing —spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the "automatic" writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in Littérature .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The magazine and the portfolio both showed their disdain for literal meanings given to objects and focused rather on the undertones, the poetic undercurrents present.^ The magazine and the portfolio both showed their disdain for literal meanings given to objects and focused rather on the undertones, the poetic undercurrents present.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not only did they give emphasis to the poetic undercurrents, but also to the connotations and the overtones which "exist in ambiguous relationships to the visual images."^ Not only did they give emphasis to the poetic undercurrents, but also to the connotations and the overtones which "exist in ambiguous relationships to the visual images."
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only did they perceive the links among the emancipation of women, of the working class, of all humankind, and of nature—they also comprehended that all these emancipations are in reality but one.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many naïve, foreign “Chavistas” seem to believe that the government “only” stopped a concession, and that they did not interfere with a private, independent media company.
  • Venezuela: Dispatch from a Surrealist Autocracy - 10 Zen Monkeys 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.10zenmonkeys.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because Surrealist writers seldom, if ever, appear to organize their thoughts and the images they present, some people find much of their work difficult to parse.^ Because Surrealist writers seldom, if ever, appear to organize their thoughts and the images they present, some people find much of their work difficult to parse.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was also a writer, and his novel Hebdomeros presents a series of dreamscapes with an unusual use of punctuation, syntax and grammar designed to create a particular atmosphere and frame around its images.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were supposed to be make-believe images appearing real!
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.This notion however is a superficial comprehension, prompted no doubt by Breton's initial emphasis on automatic writing as the main route toward a higher reality.^ This notion however is a superficial comprehension, prompted no doubt by Breton's initial emphasis on automatic writing as the main route toward a higher reality.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on the dialectical resolution of the contradiction between conscious and unconscious, surrealism indicates a higher, open, and dynamic consciousness, from which no aspect of the real is rejected.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Write quickly with no preconceived subject,” advised Andre Breton in his First Surrealist Manifesto, “so quickly that you retain nothing and are not tempted to re-read.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

.But—as in Breton's case—much of what is presented as purely automatic is actually edited and very "thought out". Breton himself later admitted that automatic writing's centrality had been overstated, and other elements were introduced, especially as the growing involvement of visual artists in the movement forced the issue, since automatic painting required a rather more strenuous set of approaches.^ But — as in Breton's case itself — much of what is presented as purely automatic is actually edited and very "thought out".
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breton himself later admitted that automatic writing's centrality had been overstated, and other elements were introduced, especially as the growing involvement of visual artists in the movement forced the issue, since automatic painting required a rather more strenuous set of approaches.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express—verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner—the actual functioning of thought.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus such elements as collage were introduced, arising partly from an ideal of startling juxtapositions as revealed in Pierre Reverdy's poetry.^ Thus such elements as collage were introduced, arising partly from an ideal of startling juxtapositions as revealed in Pierre Reverdy 's poetry.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And—as in Magritte's case (where there is no obvious recourse to either automatic techniques or collage)—the very notion of convulsive joining became a tool for revelation in and of itself.^ The doctors had no explanation for why I was loosing weight, why the pain the surgery was designed to eradicate was still there, and why I had developed a severe case of what we now know is fibromyalgia.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

^ Only in my case, there is no knife to discard, there is no satisfactory answer for the brain.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

^ How would you define the obvious evolution in your style and technique from the very beginning of your artistic career up to now?
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.Surrealism was meant to be always in flux—to be more modern than modern—and so it was natural there should be a rapid shuffling of the philosophy as new challenges arose.^ Surrealism was meant to be always in flux — to be more modern than modern — and so it was natural there should be a rapid shuffling of the philosophy as new challenges arose.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term surrealism is nearly always applied by news columnists and TV commentators in ways that have nothing to do with its original meaning.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you think surrealism as a symbolic language can tell us more about an artists' inner belief than other artistic styles?
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.Surrealists revived interest in Isidore Ducasse, known by his pseudonym Comte de Lautréamont and for the line "beautiful as the chance meeting on a dissecting table of a sewing machine and an umbrella," and Arthur Rimbaud, two late 19th century writers believed to be the precursors of Surrealism.^ Isidore Ducasse, Comte de Lautréamont .
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Surrealists revived interest in Isidore Ducasse , known by his pseudonym "Le Comte de Lautréamont" and for the line "beautiful as the chance meeting on a dissecting table of a sewing machine and an umbrella", and Arthur Rimbaud , two late 19th century writers believed to be the precursors of Surrealism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thought of as the effort of humanity to liberate imagination as an act of insurrection against society, Surrealism finds precedents in the alchemists , possibly Dante , Hieronymus Bosch , Marquis de Sade , Charles Fourier , Comte de Lautreamont and Arthur Rimbaud .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples of Surrealist literature are Crevel's Mr. Knife Miss Fork (1931), Aragon's Irene's Cunt (1927), Breton's Sur la route de San Romano (1948), Péret's Death to the Pigs (1929), and Artaud's Le Pese-Nerfs (1926).
.La Révolution surréaliste continued publication into 1929 with most pages densely packed with columns of text, but also included reproductions of art, among them works by de Chirico, Ernst, Masson, and Man Ray.^ MAN RAY. La photographie lenvers.
  • dadasurrealism.htm 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.arslibri.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the focus was on writing, with most pages filled by tightly packed columns of text, the review occasionally made room for a few mediocre reproductions of art, among them works by de Chirico, Ernst, André Masson and Man Ray.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He defined Surrealism as: La Révolution surréaliste .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other works included books, poems, pamphlets, automatic texts and theoretical tracts.

Surrealist films

Early films by Surrealists include:

Music by Surrealists

.In the 1920s several composers were influenced by Surrealism, or by individuals in the Surrealist movement.^ In the 1920s several composers were influenced by Surrealism, or by individuals in the Surrealist movement.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The movement in the mid-1920s was characterized by meetings in cafes where the Surrealists played collaborative drawing games and discussed the theories of Surrealism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ André Breton Breton, André, Manifestoes of Surrealism containing the first, second and introduction to a possible third manifesto, the novel The Soluble Fish , and political aspects of the Surrealist movement.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among them were Bohuslav Martinů, André Souris, and Edgard Varèse, who stated that his work Arcana was drawn from a dream sequence.^ But, I consider my work to explore more than just the dream-state, or sub consciousness.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.June 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Souris in particular was associated with the movement: he had a long relationship with Magritte, and worked on Paul Nouge's publication Adieu Marie.^ Souris in particular was associated with the movement: he had a long relationship with Magritte , and worked on Paul Nouge 's publication Adieu Marie .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group included the musician, poet and artist E.L.T. Mesens , painter and writer René Magritte , Paul Nougé , Marcel Lecomte , Camille Goemans , and André Souris .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was definitely true that Mesens played a central role in the 'public relations' of the Brussels surrealist movement and, as such, took over the leading position of Nougé in the 1930s.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germaine Tailleferre of the French group Les Six wrote several works which could be considered to be inspired by Surrealism[citation needed], including the 1948 Ballet Paris-Magie (scenario by Lise Deharme), the Operas La Petite Sirène (book by Philippe Soupault) and Le Maître (book by Eugène Ionesco).^ Germaine Tailleferre of the French group Les Six wrote several works which could be considered to be inspired by Surrealism, including the 1948 Ballet Paris-Magie (scenario by Lise Deharme ), the Operas La Petite Sirène (book by Philippe Soupault) and Le Maître (book by Eugène Ionesco).
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name "Surrealism" was given to the movement by Andr é Breton and Philippe Soupault in homage to the French writer Guillaume Apollinaire, who first used the word in 1917 to describe his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breton and Soupault delved deeper into automatism and wrote The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) in 1919.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.March 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Tailleferre also wrote popular songs to texts by Claude Marci, the wife of Henri Jeanson, whose portrait had been painted by Magritte in the 1930s.^ No anthropological film from the 1930s provides such a comparable, almost encyclopedic, portrait of a given region or demonstrates such a subtle understanding of ethnographic film style.
  • An Ethnographic Surrealist Film 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An alleged text of Magritte denounced the commercialization of the mystery; his paintings were sold as a piece of land, as jewels and fur coats.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even though Breton by 1946 responded rather negatively to the subject of music with his essay Silence is Golden, later Surrealists, such as Paul Garon, have been interested in—and found parallels to—Surrealism in the improvisation of jazz and the blues.^ Even though Breton by 1946 responded rather negatively to the subject of music with his essay Silence is Golden, later Surrealists have been interested in—and found parallels to—Surrealism in the improvisation of jazz and the blues .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealists such as Paul Garon have written articles and full-length books on the subject.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One might say that Surrealist strands may be found in movements such as Free Jazz ( Don Cherry , Sun Ra , Cecil Taylor etc.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jazz and blues musicians have occasionally reciprocated this interest.^ Jazz and blues musicians have occasionally reciprocated this interest.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the 1976 World Surrealist Exhibition included performances by "Honeyboy" Edwards.^ For example, the 1976 World Surrealist Exhibition included performances by Honeyboy Edwards .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pieces that once shocked the art world highlight a new exhibition featuring dada and surrealist masterpieces challenging the perception of what is real.
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ Works by women artists were regularly included in surrealist exhibitions.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

Surrealism and international politics

.Surrealism as a political force developed unevenly around the world, in some places more emphasis was on artistic practices, in other places political and in other places still, Surrealist praxis looked to supersize both the arts and politics.^ Is it just a place to practice writing, and get some feedback, before moving on to doing it in classes and for what remains of the print medium?

^ Recipients place less emphasis on the monetary value of material things, and more on the thought, time and caring that went into making the gift!

^ Most of the first surrealists were young men in their early twenties—a few still teenagers—who had passed through the horrors of the First World War.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.During the 1930s the Surrealist idea spread from Europe to North America, South America (founding of the Mandrágora group in Chile in 1938), Central America, the Caribbean, and throughout Asia.^ During the 1930s the Surrealist idea spread from Europe to North America, South America, Central America , the Caribbean , and throughout Asia.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Word of Dada quickly spread: Tzara's new review was purchased widely and found its way into every country in Europe, and its international status was established.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the Dadaists spreading throughout Europe, the impact of the movement had only just begun.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As both an artistic idea and as an ideology of political change.^ As both an artistic idea and as an ideology of political change.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Politically, Surrealism was ultra-leftist, communist, or anarchist.^ Politically, Surrealism was ultra-leftist, communist , or anarchist .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The radical politics of Surrealism, 1919-1950 , an article looking at Surrealisms connections to anarchist, socialist and working class politics.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The split from Dada has been characterised as a split between anarchists and communists, with the Surrealists as communist.^ The split from Dada has been characterised as a split between anarchists and communists, with the Surrealists as communist.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Breton and his comrades supported Leon Trotsky and his International Left Opposition for a while, though there was an openness to anarchism that manifested more fully after World War II. Some Surrealists, such as Benjamin Péret, Mary Low, and Juan Breá, aligned with forms of left communism.^ World War II and the Post War period .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breton and his comrades supported Leon Trotsky and his International Left Opposition for a while, though there was an openness to anarchism that manifested more fully after World War II .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Surrealists, such as Benjamin Peret , Mary Low, and Juan Breá, aligned with forms of left communism .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dalí supported capitalism and the fascist dictatorship of Francisco Franco but cannot be said to represent a trend in Surrealism in this respect; in fact he was considered, by Breton and his associates, to have betrayed and left Surrealism.^ Dalí supported capitalism and the fascist dictatorship of Francisco Franco but cannot be said to represent a trend in Surrealism in this respect; in fact he was considered, by Breton and his associates, to have betrayed and left Surrealism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many individuals closely associated with Breton, notably Louis Aragon , left his group to work more closely with the Communists.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breton celebrated his faithful supporters and spitefully denounced those members who had defected from his circle and betrayed his doctrine.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Péret, Low, and Breá joined the POUM during the Spanish Civil War.^ Péret, Low, and Breá joined the POUM during the Spanish Civil War .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Spanish Civil War, Unik and Buñuel worked together again on a film supporting the Republican cause.
  • An Ethnographic Surrealist Film 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Breton's followers, along with the Communist Party, were working for the "liberation of man." However, Breton's group refused to prioritize the proletarian struggle over radical creation such that their struggles with the Party made the late 1920s a turbulent time for both. .Many individuals closely associated with Breton, notably Louis Aragon, left his group to work more closely with the Communists.^ Writers Louis Aragon, Breton, and Ribemont-Dessaignes had in fact occasionally contributed to Dada since 1918, and were eagerly awaiting Tzara's arrival in Paris.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By issue number 16, it was clear that Picabia had left the Dada movement and was focusing on the activities of a newly forming group under the guidance of Breton.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were enthusiastically received in Paris by a circle of writers associated with Breton's and Aragon's literary journal Littérature.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Surrealists have often sought to link their efforts with political ideals and activities.^ Surrealists have often sought to link their efforts with political ideals and activities.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Declaration of January 27, 1925,[8] for example, members of the Paris-based Bureau of Surrealist Research (including André Breton, Louis Aragon, and, Antonin Artaud, as well as some two dozen others) declared their affinity for revolutionary politics.^ In the Declaration of January 27 , 1925 , for example, members of the Paris-based Bureau of Surrealist Research (including André Breton, Louis Aragon, and, Antonin Artaud, as well as some two dozen others) declared their affinity for revolutionary politics.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of Surrealist literature are Crevel's Mr. Knife Miss Fork (1931), Aragon's Irene's Cunt (1927), Breton's Sur la route de San Romano (1948), Peret's Death to the Pigs (1929), and Artaud's Le Pese-Nerfs (1926).
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bureau of Surrealist Research (Centrale Surréaliste) was the Paris office where the Surrealist writers and artists gathered to meet, hold discussions, and conduct interviews with the goal of investigating speech under trance.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While this was initially a somewhat vague formulation, by the 1930s many Surrealists had strongly identified themselves with communism.^ While this was initially a somewhat vague formulation, by the 1930s many Surrealists had strongly identified themselves with communism.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By boldly identifying themselves with the cause of working-class self-emancipation, the surrealists demonstrated their utter scorn for capitalism's cultural elitism.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many new artists explicitly took up the Surrealist banner for themselves.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The foremost document of this tendency within Surrealism is the Manifesto for a Free Revolutionary Art,[9] published under the names of Breton and Diego Rivera, but actually co-authored by Breton and Leon Trotsky.^ The foremost document of this tendency within Surrealism is the Manifesto for a Free Revolutionary Art , published under the names of Breton and Diego Rivera , but actually co-authored by Breton and Leon Trotsky .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andr é Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism, trans.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major himself was the author of a "Manifesto of Socialist Surrealism".
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.However, in 1933 the Surrealists’ assertion that a 'proletarian literature' within a capitalist society was impossible led to their break with the Association des Ecrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires, and the expulsion of Breton, Éluard and Crevel from the Communist Party.^ However, in 1933 the Surrealists’ assertion that a 'proletarian literature' within a capitalist society was impossible led to their break with the Association des Ecrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires, and the expulsion of Breton, Éluard and Crevel from the Communist Party.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of Surrealist literature are Crevel's Mr. Knife Miss Fork (1931), Aragon's Irene's Cunt (1927), Breton's Sur la route de San Romano (1948), Peret's Death to the Pigs (1929), and Artaud's Le Pese-Nerfs (1926).
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many individuals closely associated with Breton, notably Louis Aragon , left his group to work more closely with the Communists.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.In 1925, the Paris Surrealist group and the extreme left of the French Communist Party came together to support Abd-el-Krim, leader of the Rif uprising against French colonialism in Morocco.^ In 1925, the Paris Surrealist group and the extreme left of the French Communist Party came together to support Abd-el-Krim , leader of the Rif uprising against French colonialism in Morocco .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an open letter to writer and French ambassador to Japan, Paul Claudel , the Paris group announced: "We Surrealists pronounced ourselves in favour of changing the imperialist war, in its chronic and colonial form, into a civil war.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many individuals closely associated with Breton, notably Louis Aragon , left his group to work more closely with the Communists.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In an open letter to writer and French ambassador to Japan, Paul Claudel, the Paris group announced:
"We Surrealists pronounced ourselves in favour of changing the imperialist war, in its chronic and colonial form, into a civil war. Thus we placed our energies at the disposal of the revolution, of the proletariat and its struggles, and defined our attitude towards the colonial problem, and hence towards the colour question."
The anticolonial revolutionary and proletarian politics of "Murderous Humanitarianism" (1932) which was drafted mainly by René Crevel, signed by André Breton, Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, Yves Tanguy, and the Martiniquan Surrealists Pierre Yoyotte and J.M. Monnerot perhaps makes it the original document of what is later called 'black Surrealism',[11] although it is the contact between Aimé Césaire and Breton in the 1940s in Martinique that really lead to the communication of what is known as 'black Surrealism'.
.Anticolonial revolutionary writers in the Négritude movement of Martinique, a French colony at the time, took up Surrealism as a revolutionary method - a critique of European culture and a radical subjective.^ Anticolonial revolutionary writers in the Négritude movement of Martinique , a French colony at the time, took up Surrealism as a revolutionary method - a critique of European culture and a radical subjective.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism is a literary and artistic movement launched in 1924 by the French poet Andre' Breton proclaiming the radical transformation of all existing social, scientific, and philosophical values through the total liberation of the subconscious.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ As Huelsenbeck recalled, as Dada gained momentum, Tzara took on the role of a prophet by bombarding French and Italian artists and writers with letters about Dada activities.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This linked with other Surrealists and was very important for the subsequent development of Surrealism as a revolutionary praxis.^ This linked with other Surrealists and was very important for the subsequent development of Surrealism as a revolutionary praxis.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism as a political force developed unevenly around the world, in some places more emphasis was on artistic practices, in other places political and in other places still, Surrealist praxis looked to supersize both the arts and politics.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The journal Tropiques, featuring the work of Cesaire along with René Ménil, Lucie Thésée, Aristide Maugée and others, was first published in 1940.[12]
.It is interesting to note that when in 1938 André Breton traveled with his wife the painter Jacqueline Lamba to Mexico to meet Trotsky; staying as the guest of Diego Rivera's former wife Guadalupe Marin; he met Frida Kahlo and saw her paintings for the first time.^ During the painting "Self Portrait - Facing my Reality" I was reading a biography about Frida Kahlo, and it was the honesty in her work that inspired me to change my central figure from a made up person (as I always did up to that point in time) to a self portrait.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.Breton declared Kahlo to be an "innate" Surrealist painter.^ Breton declared Kahlo to be an "innate" Surrealist painter.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1951 Mesens again wrote a letter to Breton, declaring that he was fed up with his surrealist friends and announcing that he had given up the London Gallery and wanted to return to the continent.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Internal politics

.In 1929 the satellite group around the journal Le Grand Jeu, including Roger Gilbert-Lecomte, Maurice Henry and the Czech painter Josef Sima, was ostracized.^ In 1929 the satellite group around the journal Le Grand Jeu , including Roger Gilbert-Lecomte , Maurice Henry and the Czech painter Josef Sima , was ostracized.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group included the musician, poet and artist E.L.T. Mesens , painter and writer René Magritte , Paul Nougé , Marcel Lecomte , Camille Goemans , and André Souris .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also in February, Breton asked Surrealists to assess their "degree of moral competence", and theoretical refinements included in the second manifeste du surréalisme excluded anyone reluctant to commit to collective action, a list which included Leiris, Georges Limbour, Max Morise, Baron, Queneau, Prévert, Desnos, Masson and Boiffard.^ Also in February, Breton asked Surrealists to assess their "degree of moral competence", and theoretical refinements included in the second manifeste du surréalisme excluded anyone reluctant to commit to collective action: Leiris , Limbour , Morise , Baron , Queneau , Prévert , Desnos , Masson and Boiffard .
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the release of Breton's Manifeste du surrealisme, Surrealism had a name, a leader, and a direction.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ André Breton Breton, André, Manifestoes of Surrealism containing the first, second and introduction to a possible third manifesto, the novel The Soluble Fish , and political aspects of the Surrealist movement.
  • Surrealism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Excluded members launched a counterattack, sharply criticizing Breton in the pamphlet Un Cadavre, which featured a picture of Breton wearing a crown of thorns. The pamphlet drew upon an earlier act of subversion by likening Breton to Anatole France, whose unquestioned value Breton had challenged in 1924.
.In hindsight, the disunion of 1929-30 and the effects of Un Cadavre had very little negative impact upon Surrealism as Breton saw it, since core figures such as Aragon, Crevel, Dalí and Buñuel remained true the idea of group action, at least for the time being.^ And in 1940 even Magritte was being renounced by Mesens for his 'petit bourgeois mentality' to which Breton answered: 'I do not want the track of surrealism to be covered with dead bodies.'
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon the world would learn of Breton's developing ideas, and the flag of Surrealism would be raised.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writers Louis Aragon, Breton, and Ribemont-Dessaignes had in fact occasionally contributed to Dada since 1918, and were eagerly awaiting Tzara's arrival in Paris.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The success (or at least the controversy) of Dalí and Buñuel's film L'Age d'Or in December 1930 had a regenerative effect, drawing a number of new recruits, and encouraging countless new artistic works the following year and throughout the 1930s.^ Following Karla's work means that, in your Academia.edu News Feed, you will see Karla's: status updates new papers new research interests and other research updates.
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Surrealism as a research interest (56) 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Following Gabriel's work means that, in your Academia.edu News Feed, you will see Gabriel's: status updates new papers new research interests and other research updates.
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Surrealism as a research interest (56) 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Land Without Bread is probably best understood as the concluding work in a "triptych" that includes Buñuel's earlier surrealist films (Aranda 1976: 116).
  • An Ethnographic Surrealist Film 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Disgruntled surrealists moved to the periodical Documents, edited by Georges Bataille, whose anti-idealist materialism formed a hybrid Surrealism intending to expose the base instincts of humans.^ Surrealism is based in the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected association, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Documents of Dada and Surrealism: Dada and Surrealist Journals in the Mary Reynolds CollectionPage 26 of 26 ...
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the Parisian surrealists, no Bureau de Recherches surréalistes to attract visitors and give publicity to the movement was formed.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][14] .To the dismay of many, Documents fizzled out in 1931, just as Surrealism seemed to be gathering more steam.^ The intensity of the surrealist life, its extremism and "fanaticism," seems to have disoriented many critics, who prefer poets and artists to be more easygoing and manipulable.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What made surrealism different is that more and more women kept joining it, expanding it, and changing it, and that the men in it changed too (or dropped out).
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There were a number of reconciliations after this period of disunion, such as between Breton and Bataille, while Aragon left the group after committing himself to the communist party in 1932. More members were ousted over the years for a variety of infractions, both political and personal, while others left of to pursue creativity of their own style.^ The general attitude toward the daguerreotype was that it could create images more realistically because there was no artist to interpret and modify it in his own style.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ Now, the person at the top is someone who comes from the commission - Ashton has been trade commissioner for slightly more than a year.
  • The Prague Post - Opinion - Belgian surrealism 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.praguepost.com [Source type: News]

^ Yet, in clear opposition to the Parisian group of the 1920s, Nougé did not want to become a member or a 'fellow traveller' of any official political party.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of World War II the surrealist group led by André Breton decided to explicitly embrace anarchism.^ Most of the first surrealists were young men in their early twenties—a few still teenagers—who had passed through the horrors of the First World War.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Contact with the Parisian group was already established when André Breton and Paul Eluard travelled to Brussels in 1925 and approved Correspondance as a surrealist magazine.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism in New York The outbreak of World War II brought many of the Surrealists to New York: Dalí, Man Ray, Matta, and Yves Tanguy had all arrived by 1940.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1952 Breton wrote "It was in the black mirror of anarchism that surrealism first recognised itself."^ From its first day surrealism as an organized movement was itself a free association.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

[15] "Breton was consistent in his support for the Federation Anarchiste and he continued to offer his solidarity after the Platformists around Fontenis transformed the FA into the Federation Communiste Libertaire. .He was one of the few intellectuals who continued to offer his support to the FCL during the Algerian war when the FCL suffered severe repression and was forced underground.^ Most of the first surrealists were young men in their early twenties—a few still teenagers—who had passed through the horrors of the First World War.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

He sheltered Fontenis whilst he was in hiding. He refused to take sides on the splits in the French anarchist movement and both he and Peret expressed solidarity as well with the new FA set up by the synthesist anarchists and worked in the Antifascist Committees of the 60s alongside the FA."[15]

Golden age

Throughout the 1930s, Surrealism continued to become more visible to the public at large. .A Surrealist group developed in Britain and, according to Breton, their 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition was a high water mark of the period and became the model for international exhibitions.^ It was Mesens too who introduced Magritte to the international art world - in the 1936 International Surrealist Exhibition of London - and the same year in the Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition in the Museum of Modern Art of New York.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1951 Mesens again wrote a letter to Breton, declaring that he was fed up with his surrealist friends and announcing that he had given up the London Gallery and wanted to return to the continent.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An excerpt from a 1948 art exhibition catalog in Paris, “The Exquisite Corpse” explains the collective word and drawing game created by Breton and other Surrealists.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

.Dalí and Magritte created the most widely recognized images of the movement.^ It was Minotaure that first reproduced the sculpture of Picasso, as well as some of the most provocative of Dalí's images.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dalí joined the group in 1929, and participated in the rapid establishment of the visual style between 1930 and 1935.
.Surrealism as a visual movement had found a method: to expose psychological truth by stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance, in order to create a compelling image that was beyond ordinary formal organization, in order to evoke empathy from the viewer.^ From its first day surrealism as an organized movement was itself a free association.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, the few books that do acknowledge, to some extent, women's activity in surrealism tend to be less than scrupulous in their accounts of surrealism as a body of thought and an organized movement.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1935 Mesens intensified the connections between Brussels and Walloon surrealism by organizing an international surrealist exhibition in the founding place of Walloon surrealism, La Louvière .
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1931 was a year when several Surrealist painters produced works which marked turning points in their stylistic evolution: Magritte's Voice of Space (La Voix des airs)[16] is an example of this process, where three large spheres representing bells hang above a landscape.^ De Cl6rambault and Janet, this brief article airs some of the grievances on the part of traditional psychologists with the Surrealist ideologies.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Both Mesens and Magritte were convinced that an attitude of anti-opportunism was necessary for a surrealist, which also seems to be a good starting point for a liaison between art dealer and painter.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As much as Mesens believed enthusiastically in the working power of the surrealist project, he was also equally convinced that the art of Magritte was going to play a significant part in it too.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another Surrealist landscape from this same year is Yves Tanguy's Promontory Palace (Palais promontoire), with its molten forms and liquid shapes.^ What little is known of the attitudes, activity, and achievements of the female minority in and around the first Surrealist Group during its formative years will be discussed in the introduction to the first section of this anthology.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

Liquid shapes became the trademark of Dalí, particularly in his The Persistence of Memory, which features the image of watches that sag as if they are melting.
The characteristics of this style—a combination of the depictive, the abstract, and the psychological—came to stand for the alienation which many people felt in the modern period, combined with the sense of reaching more deeply into the psyche, to be "made whole with one's individuality".
.Between 1930 and 1933, the Surrealist Group in Paris issued the periodical Le Surrealisme au service de la revolution as the successor of La Révolution surréaliste.^ Breton's successor to La Révolution surréaliste was the more politically engaged journal Le Surréalisme au service de la Révolution.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ La Révolution surréaliste 12, ed.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 1, 1924, shortly after he published the first Surrealist manifesto, Breton released the inaugural issue of La Révolution surréaliste (Surrealist Revolution).
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From 1936 through 1938 Wolfgang Paalen, Gordon Onslow Ford, and Roberto Matta joined the group. Paalen contributed Fumage and Onslow Ford Coulage as new pictorial automatic techniques.
.Long after personal, political and professional tensions fragmented the Surrealist group, Magritte and Dalí continued to define a visual program in the arts.^ Both Mesens and Magritte were convinced that an attitude of anti-opportunism was necessary for a surrealist, which also seems to be a good starting point for a liaison between art dealer and painter.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notes on the Sexual Politics of the First Surrealist Group, 1924-1929 .
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Known for their rebellious and political tenor, it was not long before the Berlin Dada group members soon directed their aggressions at one another.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This program reached beyond painting, to encompass photography as well, as can be seen from a Man Ray self portrait, whose use of assemblage influenced Robert Rauschenberg's collage boxes.^ MAN RAY. La photographie lenvers.
  • dadasurrealism.htm 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.arslibri.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When Man Ray made the photo collage Surrealist chessboard in 1934, only the portraits of Mesens and Magritte were included as representatives of the Belgian surrealist group.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breton, Man Ray, and Salvador Dalí as well were among those whose writing and imagery exhibited the influence of Sade.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

L'Ange du Foyer ou le Triomphe du Surréalisme (1937) by Max Ernst.
.During the 1930s Peggy Guggenheim, an important American art collector, married Max Ernst and began promoting work by other Surrealists such as Yves Tanguy and the British artist John Tunnard.^ Over the next six years, twelve additional vibrant numbers were released with rich coverage not only of the Surrealists, but of many other emerging artists as well.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Featuring Realistic Mythological and Fairy Art created in a style inspired by Classic Illustrators by American Artist & Photographer Howard David Johnson.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlike Joostens , the Belgian surrealists were not fulltime artists, but 'worked' in daily life to survive.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Major exhibitions in the 1930s
.
  • 1936 - London International Surrealist Exhibition is organised in London by the art historian Herbert Read, with an introduction by André Breton.
  • 1936 - Museum of Modern Art in New York shows the exhibition Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism.
  • 1938 - A new International Surrealist Exhibition was held at the Beaux-arts Gallery, Paris, with more than 60 artists from different countries, and showed around 300 paintings, objects, collages, photographs and installations.^ Surrealism; edited with an introduction by Herbert Read; contributions by André Breton [and others] .

    ^ New York Dada April 1921, p.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was Mesens too who introduced Magritte to the international art world - in the 1936 International Surrealist Exhibition of London - and the same year in the Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition in the Museum of Modern Art of New York.
    • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Surrealists wanted to create an exhibition which in itself would be a creative act and called on Marcel Duchamp to do so.^ MARCEL DUCHAMP. A retrospective exhibition.
    • dadasurrealism.htm 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.arslibri.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Created by Duchamp and Man Ray, this magazine would be the only New York journal that would claim itself to be Dada.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An excerpt from a 1948 art exhibition catalog in Paris, “The Exquisite Corpse” explains the collective word and drawing game created by Breton and other Surrealists.
    • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

    .At the exhibition's entrance he placed Salvador Dalí's Rainy Taxi (an old taxi rigged to produce a steady drizzle of water down the inside of the windows, and a shark-headed creature in the driver's seat and a blond mannequin crawling with live snails in the back) greeted the patrons who were in full evening dress.^ These noises have been living, almost exclusively, inside my head for a long, long time now and I’m eager to finally get rid of them for good.

    ^ Breton, Man Ray, and Salvador Dalí as well were among those whose writing and imagery exhibited the influence of Sade.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To crawl inside your head and shake the dust from the shelves.

    Surrealist Street filled one side of the lobby with mannequins dressed by various Surrealists. He designed the main hall to seem like subterranean cave with 1,200 coal bags suspended from the ceiling over a coal brazier with a single light bulb which provided the only lighting,[17] so patrons were given flashlights with which to view the art. The floor was carpeted with dead leaves, ferns and grasses and the aroma of roasting coffee filled the air. .Much to the Surrealists' satisfaction the exhibition scandalized the viewers.^ The sober and uninspired format was deceiving, and much to the delight of the Surrealist group, La Révolution surréaliste was consistently and incessantly scandalous and revolutionary.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]

World War II and the Post War period

Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942
.World War II created havoc not only for the general population of Europe but especially for the European artists and writers that opposed Fascism, and Nazism.^ Not unlike Zurich, New York had become a refuge for European artists seeking to escape the war.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the Belgian avant-garde, which only took its start after the First World War, 'community art' was the keyword in the formulation of ideals.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The general attitude toward the daguerreotype was that it could create images more realistically because there was no artist to interpret and modify it in his own style.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.Many important artists fled to North America, and relative safety in the United States.^ With Breton, Ernst, and Duchamp as editorial advisors, VVV gave exiled Surrealist writers and artists great exposure in the United States.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The art community in New York City in particular was already grappling with Surrealist ideas and several artists like Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock, Robert Motherwell, and Roberto Matta, converged closely with the surrealist artists themselves, albeit with some suspicion and reservations.^ Reflecting new connections within the New York art community, this issue also featured contributions by artist Robert Motherwell and critic Harold Rosenberg.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not unlike Zurich, New York had become a refuge for European artists seeking to escape the war.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1916, the three men had become the center of radical anti -art activities in New York.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ideas concerning the unconscious and dream imagery were quickly embraced. .By the Second World War, the taste of the American avant-garde in New York City swung decisively towards Abstract Expressionism with the support of key taste makers, including Peggy Guggenheim, Leo Steinberg and Clement Greenberg.^ The exhibition traces surrealism beginning with its roots in the avant-garde dada movement that began in 1916 in response to the devastation of World of War I. .
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ Not unlike Zurich, New York had become a refuge for European artists seeking to escape the war.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the Belgian avant-garde, which only took its start after the First World War, 'community art' was the keyword in the formulation of ideals.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it should not be easily forgotten that Abstract Expressionism itself grew directly out of the meeting of American (particularly New York) artists with European Surrealists self-exiled during World War II. In particular, Arshile Gorky and Wolfgang Paalen influenced the development of this American art form, which, as Surrealism did, celebrated the instantaneous human act as the well-spring of creativity.^ Fantasy Art also qualify as Surrealism or Surrealistic Art?
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ The exhibition traces surrealism beginning with its roots in the avant-garde dada movement that began in 1916 in response to the devastation of World of War I. .
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ All art is ultimately some form of imitation, even if you are an expressionist painter imitating an abstract vision in your own mind.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.The early work of many Abstract Expressionists reveals a tight bond between the more superficial aspects of both movements, and the emergence (at a later date) of aspects of Dadaistic humor in such artists as Rauschenberg sheds an even starker light upon the connection.^ All art is ultimately some form of imitation, even if you are an expressionist painter imitating an abstract vision in your own mind.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ By precursors I mean poets, artists, and thinkers recognized by surrealists (not necessarily by critics) as having prefigured one or more aspects of surrealism.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to extending the life of the Surrealist movement, American reviews such as View and VVV provided a forum for communication between the Surrealists and a growing number of emerging American artists.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up until the emergence of Pop Art, Surrealism can be seen to have been the single most important influence on the sudden growth in American arts, and even in Pop, some of the humor manifested in Surrealism can be found, often turned to a cultural criticism.^ All art is ultimately some form of imitation, even if you are an expressionist painter imitating an abstract vision in your own mind.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ Pop surrealism : the rise of underground art / essays by Robert Williams, Carlo McCormick and Larry Reid ; edited by Kirsten Anderson.

^ To start at the beginning, with what is perhaps the single most common misperception, surrealism most emphatically does not signify unreality, or a denial of the real, or a "refusal to accept reality."
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Second World War overshadowed, for a time, almost all intellectual and artistic production.^ From architectural journals to radical literary reviews, this selection of periodicals constitutes a revealing document of European artistic and literary life in the years spanning the two world wars.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approving Breton's rejection of his dearest friend Eluard, he denigrated Eluard's role in the resistance during the Second World War as 'heroism of the facade'.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a disabled almost complete shut-in, the opportunity to communicate with artists all over the world is rewarding and grounding.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.In 1940 Yves Tanguy married American Surrealist painter Kay Sage.^ Surrealism in New York The outbreak of World War II brought many of the Surrealists to New York: Dalí, Man Ray, Matta, and Yves Tanguy had all arrived by 1940.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1941, Breton went to the United States, where he co-founded the short-lived magazine VVV with Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, and the American artist David Hare.^ With Breton, Ernst, and Duchamp as editorial advisors, VVV gave exiled Surrealist writers and artists great exposure in the United States.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have not been able to attend an art opening in over a year, and have not been able to properly take advantage of living in the United States' third or forth (it keeps changing) largest city.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

^ Contributors to the sixth issue of Dada indicate the range of artists who now aligned themselves with the Dadaists: Breton, Duchamp, Éluard, and Picabia are all featured in this issue.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it was the American poet, Charles Henri Ford, and his magazine View which offered Breton a channel for promoting Surrealism in the United States.^ Broader terms: Surrealism Arts, Modern -- 20th century -- California Surrealism -- United States California Narrower terms: Surrealism -- California -- Exhibitions Pop art -- California .

^ In view of the centrality of the notion of love in surrealism, the fact that poet Marceline Desbordes-Valmore (1786-1859) is cited as "surrealist in love" in Bretons first Manifesto in 1924 confers upon her particular importance (Breton 1967, 27).
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With Breton, Ernst, and Duchamp as editorial advisors, VVV gave exiled Surrealist writers and artists great exposure in the United States.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The View special issue on Duchamp was crucial for the public understanding of Surrealism in America.^ From the very first issue of La Révolution surréaliste , movement publications have featured writings by women alongside those of their male comrades.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It stressed his connections to Surrealist methods, offered interpretations of his work by Breton, as well as Breton's view that Duchamp represented the bridge between early modern movements, such as Futurism and Cubism, to Surrealism.^ The self-display and the dress code of the Belgian surrealists refer through their theatrical form to the method of work used to carry out the surrealist revolution.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sweeping criticism of the movement based on isolated quotations from the work of any one surrealist—even André Breton—is always misleading, and is especially so when it proves to be the result of a misundertanding.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Rosemont, Surrealist Women 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The surrealistic movement in the early to mid twentieth century explored the realm of the subconscious, and to this end, my work can be classified as "surrealistic".
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.Wolfgang Paalen left the group in 1942 due to political/philosophical differences with Breton, founding his journal Dyn.^ Breton's successor to La Révolution surréaliste was the more politically engaged journal Le Surréalisme au service de la Révolution.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By issue number 16, it was clear that Picabia had left the Dada movement and was focusing on the activities of a newly forming group under the guidance of Breton.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Though the war proved disruptive for Surrealism, the works continued. .Many Surrealist artists continued to explore their vocabularies, including Magritte.^ Over the next six years, twelve additional vibrant numbers were released with rich coverage not only of the Surrealists, but of many other emerging artists as well.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Juxaposing Surrealist views against those of a staunch Christian Science contigency, I also plan to explore the animousity of many Surrealists against organized religion.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Yet, the Belgian surrealist artist René Magritte has become a star in both high and popular culture.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many members of the Surrealist movement continued to correspond and meet.^ Much like Dada, the history of the Surrealist movement can be traced through its many journals and reviews.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Dalí may have been excommunicated by Breton, he neither abandoned his themes from the 1930s, including references to the "persistence of time" in a later painting, nor did he become a depictive pompier.^ So creating one painting for me, with all the attention to detail, may take me up to ten times longer than if I weren't ill.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

^ Later realistic art training was abandoned in most schools and things like splattering paint in fits of rage were deemed more than enough.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ This painting, created from a sketch I did on the plane returning home from my first trip to NYC, depicts the frustration I felt from my physical limitations.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.His classic period did not represent so sharp a break with the past as some descriptions of his work might portray, and some, such as Thirion, argued that there were works of his after this period that continued to have some relevance for the movement.^ There are some grand things coming in the future and if all goes according to plan, we will help to re-invent the independent movement in American cinema with true independence.

During the 1940s Surrealism's influence was also felt in England and America. Mark Rothko took an interest in biomorphic figures, and in England Henry Moore, Lucian Freud, Francis Bacon and Paul Nash used or experimented with Surrealist techniques. .However, Conroy Maddox, one of the first British Surrealists whose work in this genre dated from 1935, remained within the movement, and organized an exhibition of current Surrealist work in 1978 in response to an earlier show which infuriated him because it did not properly represent Surrealism.^ The exhibition traces surrealism beginning with its roots in the avant-garde dada movement that began in 1916 in response to the devastation of World of War I. .
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ Nougé did not only compare the Brussels surrealists with mites, but also with parasites, whose favourite place was in old paper and books.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The surrealistic movement in the early to mid twentieth century explored the realm of the subconscious, and to this end, my work can be classified as "surrealistic".
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.Maddox's exhibition, titled Surrealism Unlimited, was held in Paris and attracted international attention.^ In 1935 Mesens intensified the connections between Brussels and Walloon surrealism by organizing an international surrealist exhibition in the founding place of Walloon surrealism, La Louvière .
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He held his last one-man show in 2002, and died three years later.^ One of the paintings deals with the realization, some 12 years later, of the extreme consequences of relinquishing custody of my two children to their father.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

.Magritte's work became more realistic in its depiction of actual objects, while maintaining the element of juxtaposition, such as in 1951's Personal Values (Les Valeurs Personneles)[18] and 1954's Empire of Light (L’Empire des lumières).^ Personally, I would define my work more as emotionalism than surrealism.
  • Artist to Artist | Interview by Rocío Heredia - Guest Artist Karen Musick, Surrealist Painter 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.rocioheredia.com [Source type: General]

^ Rene Magritte's "The Castle of the Pyrenees" depicting a huge boulder hovering above dark ocean waves highlights the exhibition's surrealist work.
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

[19] .Magritte continued to produce works which have entered artistic vocabulary, such as Castle in the Pyrenees (La Chateau des Pyrenees),[20] which refers back to Voix from 1931, in its suspension over a landscape.^ Rene Magritte's "The Castle of the Pyrenees" depicting a huge boulder hovering above dark ocean waves highlights the exhibition's surrealist work.
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ Brussels, Archives et Musée de la Littérature française, Marcel Mariën, FSXLVII 11/20.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other figures from the Surrealist movement were expelled. Several of these artists, like Roberto Matta (by his own description) "remained close to Surrealism."[4]
.After the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Endre Rozsda returned to Paris to continue creating his own word that had been transcended the surrealism.^ An excerpt from a 1948 art exhibition catalog in Paris, “The Exquisite Corpse” explains the collective word and drawing game created by Breton and other Surrealists.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Given Surrealism’s propensity for creating unorthodox juxtapositions of words and ideas, the medium of dialogue in theater provides amble breeding ground for Surrealist dramatists.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

The preface to his first exhibition in the Furstenberg Gallery (1957) was written by Breton yet.[21]
.Many new artists explicitly took up the Surrealist banner for themselves.^ The Belgian surrealists never cast themselves as bohemian artists.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For artists who later would make up the Abstract Expressionist group, the Surrealists were a significant and liberating influence.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the next six years, twelve additional vibrant numbers were released with rich coverage not only of the Surrealists, but of many other emerging artists as well.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dorothea Tanning and Louise Bourgeois continued to work, for example, with Tanning's Rainy Day Canape from 1970. Duchamp continued to produce sculpture in secret including an installation with the realistic depiction of a woman viewable only through a peephole.^ The collection surveys two of the most significant art movements of the 20th century through more than 200 works including paintings, sculptures, collages, photographs and film drawn from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, in the days of Peter Paul Rubens, being forty to sixty pounds over-weight was considered not only attractive, but was a status symbol.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.Breton continued to write and espouse the importance of liberating of the human mind, as with the publication The Tower of Light in 1952. Breton's return to France after the War, began a new phase of Surrealist activity in Paris, and his critiques of rationalism and dualism found a new audience.^ In 1951 Mesens again wrote a letter to Breton, declaring that he was fed up with his surrealist friends and announcing that he had given up the London Gallery and wanted to return to the continent.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An excerpt from a 1948 art exhibition catalog in Paris, “The Exquisite Corpse” explains the collective word and drawing game created by Breton and other Surrealists.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Write quickly with no preconceived subject,” advised Andre Breton in his First Surrealist Manifesto, “so quickly that you retain nothing and are not tempted to re-read.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

.Breton insisted that Surrealism was an ongoing revolt against the reduction of humanity to market relationships, religious gestures and misery and to espouse the importance of liberating the human mind.^ His "Address to the Pope" expresses the Surrealists' revolt against what they viewed as constraining religious values: "The world is the soul's abyss, warped Pope, Pope foreign to the soul.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Major exhibitions of the 1940s, '50s and '60s
.
  • 1942 - First Papers of Surrealism - New York - The Surrealists again called on Duchamp to design an exhibition.^ The first issue (October 1942) has a cover design by Ernst and includes writing by Breton.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Patrick Walberg, Surrealism (New York, 1965) p.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The magazine Correspondance , first published in 1925, can be called its first surrealist manifestation.
    • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This time he wove a 3-dimensional web of string throughout the rooms of the space, in some cases making it almost impossible to see the works.[22] .He made a secret arrangement with an associate's son to bring his friends to the opening of the show, so that when the finely dressed patrons arrived they found a dozen children in athletic clothes kicking and passing balls, and skipping rope.^ In founding the Cabaret Voltaire, Ball made an arrangement with Herr Ephraim, the owner of what was then known as Meierei Bar.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    His design for the show's catalog included "found", rather than posed, photographs of the artists.[4]
  • 1947 - International Surrealist Exhibition - Paris
  • 1959 - International Surrealist Exhibition - Paris
  • 1960 - Surrealist Intrusion in the Enchanters' Domain - New York

Post-Breton Surrealism

Roberto Matta. Elle Loge La Folie, oil on canvas, 1970.
.There is no clear consensus about the end, or if there was an end, to the Surrealist movement.^ It appears that there was no longer a strong group identity in the 1960s to validate the surrealistic project.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the Parisian surrealists, no Bureau de Recherches surréalistes to attract visitors and give publicity to the movement was formed.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although group identity was an important factor in the validation of the surrealist project, there was no such thing as 'Belgian' surrealism.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some art historians suggest that World War II effectively disbanded the movement.^ The exhibition traces surrealism beginning with its roots in the avant-garde dada movement that began in 1916 in response to the devastation of World of War I. .
  • Dada, surrealist masterpieces make U.S. stop - The Herald Dispatch 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.herald-dispatch.com [Source type: General]

^ For the Belgian avant-garde, which only took its start after the First World War, 'community art' was the keyword in the formulation of ideals.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1939, however, with Europe in a deep economic slump and on the verge of World War II, Skira was no longer able to afford to continue his deluxe magazine.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, art historian Sarane Alexandrian (1970) states, "the death of André Breton in 1966 marked the end of Surrealism as an organized movement." There have also been attempts to tie the obituary of the movement to the 1989 death of Salvador Dalí[citation needed].
.In the 1960s, the artists and writers grouped around the Situationist International were closely associated with Surrealism.^ An example of this may be found in the group portrait Drop of water , painted by the Belgian surrealist female artist Jane Graverol in the 1960s.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Guy Debord was critical of and distanced himself from Surrealism, others, such as Asger Jorn, were explicitly using Surrealist techniques and methods.^ Still, this did not prevent him from identifying himself completely with surrealism and the surrealistic lifestyle.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Creating an intriguing dialectic between form and content, as well as the critical and the creative parts of my thesis, I will use surrealist technique (Automatic writing) to shape the dialogue of a surrealist play.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Although group identity was an important factor in the validation of the surrealist project, there was no such thing as 'Belgian' surrealism.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The events of May 1968 in France included a number of Surrealist ideas, and among the slogans the students spray-painted on the walls of the Sorbonne were familiar Surrealist ones.^ On the one hand, the surrealists turned against the idea of the artist as a 'genius'.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Joan Miró would commemorate this in a painting titled May 1968. There were also groups who associated with both currents and were more attached to Surrealism, such as the Revolutionary Surrealist Group.^ As a member of the Surrealist group, David, a financial consultant, is on difficult terms with both his wife and somewhat with his son, Garrett.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ However, the Drop of water indicates as well that there can be a sea of other people around it who support the surrealistic project.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appears that there was no longer a strong group identity in the 1960s to validate the surrealistic project.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Europe and all over the world since the 1960s, artists have combined Surrealism with what is believed to be a classical 16th century technique called mischtechnik, a kind of mix of egg tempera and oil paint rediscovered by Ernst Fuchs, a contemporary of Dalí, and now practiced and taught by many followers, including Robert Venosa and Chris Mars.^ Many 20th century contemporary realists and artists working in the Photo Realism style were trained in an educational system openly hostile or dismissive to Classical realism and art tradition and were only taught the tenets of Abstraction and Expressionism.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ The merger of all the world's art forms to realize the potential of motion pictures has come now to still realistic art media.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ Surrealism in New York The outbreak of World War II brought many of the Surrealists to New York: Dalí, Man Ray, Matta, and Yves Tanguy had all arrived by 1940.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The former curator of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Michael Bell, has called this style "veristic Surrealism", which depicts with meticulous clarity and great detail a world analogous to the dream world.^ According to Mesens, surrealism was 'a universal attitude to life - not an "art style": I am not a painter but a surrealist can be said'.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed under: Pop art -- California -- San Francisco Bay region .

^ It was Mesens too who introduced Magritte to the international art world - in the 1936 International Surrealist Exhibition of London - and the same year in the Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition in the Museum of Modern Art of New York.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other tempera artists, such as Robert Vickrey, regularly depict Surreal imagery.^ With sensational covers, high-quality photography, and the frequent use of color, Minotaure brought such artists' work to life like no other magazine had.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During the 1980s, behind the Iron Curtain, Surrealism again entered into politics with an underground artistic opposition movement known as the Orange Alternative. The Orange Alternative was created in 1981 by Waldemar Fydrych (alias 'Major'), a graduate of history and art history at the University of Wrocław. .They used Surrealist symbolism and terminology in their large scale happenings organized in the major Polish cities during the Jaruzelski regime, and painted Surrealist graffiti on spots covering up anti-regime slogans.^ They used the strategies of group photograph, magazine and manifestoes to portray themselves as a solid, surrealist group.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first place they used the tactic of depersonalization in their surrealist writings, paintings, photographs, mind games and music.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I use the dirty god muscle of money only because, in this world, this façade they’ve built up, I could not survive without it.

.Major himself was the author of a "Manifesto of Socialist Surrealism". In this manifesto, he stated that the socialist (communist) system had become so Surrealistic that it could be seen as an expression of art itself.^ Broader terms: Surrealism Arts, Modern -- 20th century -- California Surrealism -- United States California Narrower terms: Surrealism -- California -- Exhibitions Pop art -- California .

^ Marcel Mariën, a young surrealist of the post-war neo-avant-garde, considered himself important, because he could convince the surrealist pioneers to publish their texts.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Naturally, the darker side human nature shows itself again with condemnation of new schools of expression, and new art media and technology.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.Surrealistic art also remains popular with museum patrons.^ LOS ANGELES. LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM OF ART. The Dada & Surrealist Word-Image.
  • dadasurrealism.htm 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.arslibri.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Guggenheim Museum in New York City held an exhibit, Two Private Eyes, in 1999, and in 2001 Tate Modern held an exhibition of Surrealist art that attracted over 170,000 visitors.^ It was Mesens too who introduced Magritte to the international art world - in the 1936 International Surrealist Exhibition of London - and the same year in the Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition in the Museum of Modern Art of New York.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alfred Steiglitz's progressive New York gallery that made its mark as one of the U.S. centers for the avant-garde, was the city's first journal devoted to the work of modern artists.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Richter recalled, the origins of Dadaist activities in New York "were different, but its participants were playing essentially the same anti-art tune as we were.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2002 the Met in New York City held a show, Desire Unbound, and the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris a show called La Révolution surréaliste.^ La Révolution surréaliste 12, ed.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the twelfth and final issue of La Révolution surréaliste (December 15, 1929), Breton published the "Second Surrealist Manifesto."
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrealism and the invention of a Political Culture , Lanham , New York and Oxford , 2002, 2-4.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Impact of Surrealism

.While Surrealism is typically associated with the arts, it has been said to transcend them; Surrealism has had an impact in many other fields.^ According to Mesens, surrealism was 'a universal attitude to life - not an "art style": I am not a painter but a surrealist can be said'.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this sense, Surrealism does not specifically refer only to self-identified "Surrealists", or those sanctioned by Breton, rather, it refers to a range of creative acts of revolt and efforts to liberate imagination.^ The self-display and the dress code of the Belgian surrealists refer through their theatrical form to the method of work used to carry out the surrealist revolution.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, this did not prevent him from identifying himself completely with surrealism and the surrealistic lifestyle.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concerned by some disruptive factions that had developed within the Surrealist group, Breton used this issue to assert his power and restate the principles of Surrealism as he saw them.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to Surrealist ideas that are grounded in the ideas of Hegel, Marx and Freud, Surrealism is seen by its advocates as being inherently dynamic and as dialectical in its thought.^ Given Surrealism’s propensity for creating unorthodox juxtapositions of words and ideas, the medium of dialogue in theater provides amble breeding ground for Surrealist dramatists.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Turning to the Surrealist group immediately following William's death, Natalie plays up the idea of Surrealism as a liberation and God as imprisonment.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Being an 'entrepreneur-surrealist' did not place him in the 'history of anti-surrealism'.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Surrealists have also drawn on sources as seemingly diverse as Clark Ashton Smith, Montague Summers, Horace Walpole, Fantomas, The Residents, Bugs Bunny, comic strips, the obscure poet Samuel Greenberg and the hobo writer and humourist T-Bone Slim. .One might say that Surrealist strands may be found in movements such as Free Jazz (Don Cherry, Sun Ra, Cecil Taylor etc.^ In addition to extending the life of the Surrealist movement, American reviews such as View and VVV provided a forum for communication between the Surrealists and a growing number of emerging American artists.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was definitely true that Mesens played a central role in the 'public relations' of the Brussels surrealist movement and, as such, took over the leading position of Nougé in the 1930s.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his letter Huelsenbeck pointed to the fact that historians in the future might take such texts as the one from Seuphor literally.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) and even in the daily lives of people in confrontation with limiting social conditions. .Thought of as the effort of humanity to liberate imagination as an act of insurrection against society, Surrealism finds precedents in the alchemists, possibly Dante, Hieronymus Bosch, Marquis de Sade, Charles Fourier, Comte de Lautreamont and Arthur Rimbaud.^ To this proto-surrealist tradition belonged 'heroes' like Sigmund Freud, Charles Baudelaire, Comte de Lautréamont, Hieronymous Bosch and Facteur Cheval.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Surrealists believe that non-Western cultures also provide a continued source of inspiration for Surrealist activity because some may strike up a better balance between instrumental reason and imagination in flight than Western culture.^ Surrealism and the Exotic By Louise Tythacott E-book (PDF for Digital Editions): $140.00 Download immediately This item has not been rated yet "Surrealism and the Exotic" is the story of the obsessive relationship between surrealist and non-western culture.
  • Surrealism - Lulu.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

.Surrealism has had an identifiable impact on radical and revolutionary politics, both directly — as in some Surrealists joining or allying themselves with radical political groups, movements and parties — and indirectly — through the way in which Surrealists' emphasize the intimate link between freeing imagination and the mind, and liberation from repressive and archaic social structures.^ Surrealism is a literary and artistic movement launched in 1924 by the French poet Andre' Breton proclaiming the radical transformation of all existing social, scientific, and philosophical values through the total liberation of the subconscious.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ As a member of the Surrealist group, David, a financial consultant, is on difficult terms with both his wife and somewhat with his son, Garrett.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ Both Mesens and Magritte were convinced that an attitude of anti-opportunism was necessary for a surrealist, which also seems to be a good starting point for a liaison between art dealer and painter.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was especially visible in the New Left of the 1960s and 1970s and the French revolt of May 1968, whose slogan "All power to the imagination" rose directly from French Surrealist thought and practice.^ The golden years of the 1960s with it's claim for 'all power to the imagination' had a stimulating effect on the commercialization of the mystery.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is an unparalleled introduction to the Surrealist movement and to French thought and culture in the 1920s and '30s.
  • Surrealism - Lulu.com 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ Your personal manifesto in one sentence: All power to the imagination.

.Many significant literary movements in the later half of the 20th century were directly or indirectly influenced by Surrealism.^ This is one the most interesting collections of Surrealist writing that I have seen, with numerous Surrealist texts written in poetic prose, that shows the women of Surrealism have made a significant contribution to this 20th Century literary movement.
  • Metro Times: Book Review: Penelope Rosemont / Surrealist Women: An International Anthology 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.metrotimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the 20th century realism had spread to nearly all nations- realistic elements combined with those of Impressionism, Symbolism, and other movements.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ For artists who later would make up the Abstract Expressionist group, the Surrealists were a significant and liberating influence.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This period is known as the Postmodern era; though there's no widely agreed upon central definition of Postmodernism, many themes and techniques commonly identified as Postmodern are nearly identical to Surrealism.^ Perhaps a crude form of it was known to the ancient Greeks, but there is no material evidence to substantiate such a point of view.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ Without Surrealism there is no one to fight on the front lines for love.

^ Love is the true liberation, without it there is no Surrealism.

Perhaps the writers within the Postmodern era who have the most in common with Surrealism are the playwrights of Theatre of the Absurd. .Though not an organized movement, these playwrights were grouped together based on some similarities of theme and technique; these similarities can perhaps be traced to influence from the Surrealists.^ Garrett:Yeah, it’s this Surrealist group game where everyone makes up a sentence or a picture together.
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ THE BIG FIVE: (below) Brought together through the Surrealist Group as prisoners of their unconscious .
  • Honors Sample: Exquisite Corpse: The Surrealist Game - Department of English - Georgetown College 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC english.georgetown.edu [Source type: General]

^ For artists who later would make up the Abstract Expressionist group, the Surrealists were a significant and liberating influence.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eugène Ionesco in particular was fond of Surrealism, claiming at one point that Breton was one of the most important thinkers in history.^ Simple, because this is one of the most carefully guarded "secrets of the old masters" and most people don't know very much about art history...
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ Apparently, it is not self-promotion, visibility or glamour that matters, but the element of mystery that is one of the most important criterion to achieving eternal fame.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one point, Breton had even contemplated merging his Littérature with Dada.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Samuel Beckett was also fond of Surrealists, even translating much of the poetry into English; he may have had closer ties had the Surrealists not been critical of Beckett's mentor and friend James Joyce.^ Surrealists and surrealism, 1919-1939 / by Gaëtan Picon ; translated from the French by James Emmons.

Many writers from and associated with the Beat Generation were influenced greatly by Surrealists. Philip Lamantia and Ted Joans are often categorized as both Beat and Surrealist writers. Many other Beat writers claimed Surrealism as a significant influence. A few examples include Bob Kaufman, Gregory Corso, and Allen Ginsberg. In popular culture much of the stream of consciousness song writing of the young Bob Dylan, c. 1960s and including some of Dylan's more recent writing as well, (c. mid - 1980s-2006) clearly have Surrealist connections and undertones. In popular culture much of the song writing of The Beatles reached a more surreal tone during the mid-1960s as psychedelics had entered the public consciousness. .Magic Realism, a popular technique among novelists of the latter half of the 20th century especially among Latin American writers, has some obvious similarities to Surrealism with its juxtaposition of the normal and the dream-like.^ Surrealism is based in the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected association, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the 20th century realism had spread to nearly all nations- realistic elements combined with those of Impressionism, Symbolism, and other movements.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ I never really liked the ones with weak or helpless women dominated by musclemen though, I like the magical and powerful ladies.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.The prominence of Magic Realism in Latin American literature is often credited in some part to the direct influence of Surrealism on Latin American artists (Frida Kahlo, for example).^ Realism in Art and literature has always meant that the artist attempts to represent persons, scenes, things, and facts as they are, life as it is.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ In the latter part of the 20th century, realistic artists like HDJ were challenged to do abstract art to prove themselves as shown in the example above (Deirdre of the sorrows).
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ I've often thought that some of the most fantastic creatures and visions in all of the literature of mankind were found in the sacred texts of active religions.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

Surrealist groups

See also Category:Surrealist groups.
Surrealist individuals and groups have attempted to carry on with Surrealism after the death of André Breton in 1966. The original Paris Surrealist Group was disbanded by member Jean Schuster in 1969.

Surrealism and theatre

Surrealist theater depicts the subconscious experience, moody tone and disjointed structure, sometimes imposing a unifying idea.[23]
Antonin Artaud, one of the original Surrealists, rejected Western theatre as a perversion of the original intent of theatre, which he felt should be a religious and mystical experience. He thought that rational discourse comprised "falsehood and illusion", which embodied the worst of discourse. .Endeavouring to create a new theatrical form that would be immediate and direct, linking the unconscious minds of performers and spectators, a sort of ritual event,[24] Artaud created the Theatre of Cruelty where emotions, feelings, and the metaphysical were expressed not through text or dialogue but physically, creating a mythological, archetypal, allegorical vision, closely related to the world of dreams.^ Created by Duchamp and Man Ray, this magazine would be the only New York journal that would claim itself to be Dada.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My sources have been transformed so much in the creation of these new works of art that they would not violate an existing copyright even if they were so protected.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ The self-display and the dress code of the Belgian surrealists refer through their theatrical form to the method of work used to carry out the surrealist revolution.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
These sentiments also led to the Theatre of the Absurd whose inspiration came, in part, from silent film and comedy, as well as the tradition of verbal nonsense in early sound film (Laurel and Hardy, W. C. Fields, the Marx Brothers).
Virginia Woolf's only play Freshwater conjurs surreal images by suggestion using a collective identity.

Surrealism and film

See also, List of surrealist films.

Surrealism and comedy

Criticism of Surrealism

Feminist

.Feminists have in the past critiqued the Surrealist movement, claiming that it is fundamentally a male movement and a male fellowship, despite the celebrated women Surrealists (such as Leonora Carrington, Leonor Fini, Kay Sage, Dorothea Tanning, and Remedios Varo).^ In addition to extending the life of the Surrealist movement, American reviews such as View and VVV provided a forum for communication between the Surrealists and a growing number of emerging American artists.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was definitely true that Mesens played a central role in the 'public relations' of the Brussels surrealist movement and, as such, took over the leading position of Nougé in the 1930s.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Websites sold peeks at photos of celebrities' heads pasted onto photos of wild women in scandalous poses for all the world to see- but advertised as real celebrity pix.
  • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.Feminist critics believe that it adopts archaic attitudes toward women, such as worshiping them symbolically through stereotypes and sexist norms.^ Marc Eemans recognized himself in the unidentifiable figure at the back of Graverol's picture, characteristic, according to Eemans, of the elitist attitude the Brussels surrealists adopted towards him.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Women are often made to represent higher values and transformed into objects of desire and of mystery.[26]
One of the pioneers in feminist critique of Surrealism was Xavière Gauthier. Her book Surréalisme et sexualité (1971)[27] inspired further important scholarship related to the marginalization of women in relation to "the avant-garde."

Freudian

.Freud initiated the psychoanalytic critique of Surrealism with his remark that what interested him most about the Surrealists was not their unconscious but their conscious.^ Still, this did not prevent him from identifying himself completely with surrealism and the surrealistic lifestyle.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whilst talking about surrealism and fame, it is necessary to refer to this correspondence of surrealists.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for Breton, Mesens kept him informed about the (in)activity of Belgian surrealism and even carried on business with him.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His meaning was that the manifestations of and experiments with psychic automatism highlighted by Surrealists as the liberation of the unconscious were highly structured by ego activity, similar to the activities of the dream censorship in dreams, and that therefore it was in principle a mistake to regard Surrealist poems and other art works as direct manifestations of the unconscious, when they were indeed highly shaped and processed by the ego.^ Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express—verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner—the actual functioning of thought.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As much as Mesens believed enthusiastically in the working power of the surrealist project, he was also equally convinced that the art of Magritte was going to play a significant part in it too.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through their journals, the Dadaists and Surrealists defined and broadcast their views of the world, and expressed their hopes to transform and liberate art and culture.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this view, the Surrealists may have been producing great works, but they were products of the conscious, not the unconscious mind, and they deceived themselves with regard to what they were doing with the unconscious.^ His "Address to the Pope" expresses the Surrealists' revolt against what they viewed as constraining religious values: "The world is the soul's abyss, warped Pope, Pope foreign to the soul.
  • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The surrealists clearly did not view themselves as cheap revolutionaries.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They used the strategies of group photograph, magazine and manifestoes to portray themselves as a solid, surrealist group.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In psychoanalysis proper, the unconscious does not just express itself automatically but can only be uncovered through the analysis of resistance and transference in the psychoanalytic process.[citation needed]

Situationist

.While some individuals and groups on the core and fringes of the Situationist International were Surrealists themselves, others were very critical of the movement, or indeed what remained of the movement in the late 1950s and '60s.^ Yet, both Brussels and Walloon surrealists distinguished themselves in the interwar period as distinct groups.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mesens was very enthusiastic about it and wanted to create a stable 'Belgian' surrealist group.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They used the strategies of group photograph, magazine and manifestoes to portray themselves as a solid, surrealist group.
  • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Situationist International could therefore be seen as a break and continuation of the Surrealist praxis.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Breton, "Vaché is surrealist in me", in Surrealist Manifesto.
  2. ^ a b Dalí, Salvador, Diary of a Genius quoted in The Columbia World of Quotations (1996)
  3. ^ a b c d Dawn Ades, with Matthew Gale: "Surrealism", The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford University Press, 2001. Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 2007. Accessed March 15, 2007, GroveArt.com
  4. ^ a b c d Tomkins, Calvin, Duchamp: A Biography. Henry Holt and Company, Inc, 1996. ISBN 0-8050-5789-7
  5. ^ Link to Guggenheim collection with reproduction of the painting and further information.
  6. ^ Link to Guggenheim collection with reproduction of the painting and further information.
  7. ^ Link to Guggenheim collection with reproduction of the painting and further information.
  8. ^ "Modern History Sourcebook: A Surrealist Manifesto, 1925". Fordham.edu. 1925-01-27. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1925Surrealism.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  9. ^ Generation-online.org
  10. ^ Lewis, Helena. Dada Turns Red. 1990. University of Edinburgh Press. A history of the uneasy relations between Surrealists and Communists from the 1920s through the 1950s.
  11. ^ Kelley, Robin D.G. A Poetics of Anticolonialism. November 1999.
  12. ^ Kelley, Robin D.G. "Poetry and the Political Imagination: Aimé Césaire, Negritude, & the Applications of Surrealism". July 2001
  13. ^ "Frida Kahlo, Paintings, Chronology, Biography, Bio". Fridakahlofans.com. http://www.fridakahlofans.com/chronologyenglish.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  14. ^ Surrealist Art from Centre Pompidou. Retrieved March 20, 2007.
  15. ^ a b "1919-1950: The politics of Surrealism by Nick Heath". Libcom.org. http://libcom.org/history/1919-1950-the-politics-of-surrealism. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  16. ^ "Surrealism - Magritte - Voice of Space". Guggenheim Collection. http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/movement_work_md_Surrealism_92_2.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  17. ^ "Marcel Duchamp". Toutfait.com. http://www.toutfait.com/issues/volume2/issue_4/interviews/hirschhorn/popup_8.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  18. ^ SFmoma.org
  19. ^ "Artist - Magritte - Empire of Light - Large". Guggenheim Collection. http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_work_lg_92_1.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  20. ^ Bertc.com
  21. ^ Breton, André. Surrealism and Painting, Icon, 1973
  22. ^ "Marcel Duchamp". Toutfait.com. http://www.toutfait.com/issues/volume2/issue_4/interviews/hirschhorn/popup_9.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  23. ^ Samuel Beckett Terms
  24. ^ "Artaud and Semiotics". Holycross.edu. http://www.holycross.edu/departments/theatre/eisser/semiotics.html. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  25. ^ "The Theatre Of The Absurd". Arts.gla.ac.uk. http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/Slavonic/Absurd.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  26. ^ Greer, Germaine, "Double vision: Surrealism's women thought they were celebrating sexual emancipation. But were they just fulfilling men's erotic fantasies?", Guardian Unlimited, March 5, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
  27. ^ Gallimard, collection idées, 1971

Bibliography

.
  • Manifestoes of Surrealism containing the first, second and introduction to a possible third manifesto, the novel The Soluble Fish, and political aspects of the Surrealist movement.^ On December 1, 1924, shortly after he published the first Surrealist manifesto, Breton released the inaugural issue of La Révolution surréaliste (Surrealist Revolution).
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unlike the Parisian surrealists, no Bureau de Recherches surréalistes to attract visitors and give publicity to the movement was formed.
    • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While the first two issues of Dada (the second appeared in December 1917) followed the structured format of Cabaret Voltaire, the third issue of Dada (December 1918) was decidedly different and marked significant changes within the Dada movement itself.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-472-17900-4 .
  • What is Surrealism?: Selected Writings of André Breton.^ In the nineteenth and final issue of 391 (October 1924), he signed off as "Francis Picabia, Stage Manager for André Breton's Surrealism."
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Paris: The Heart of Surrealism André Breton marked his definitive break with Dada with the release of his Manifeste du surrealisme; Poisson soluble in 1924.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-87348-822-9 .
  • Conversations: The Autobiography of Surrealism (Gallimard 1952) (Paragon House English rev. ed. 1993). ISBN 1-56924-970-9.
  • The Abridged Dictionary of Surrealism, reprinted in:
    • Bonnet, Marguerite, ed. (1988). Oeuvres complètes, 1:328. Paris: Éditions Gallimard.
Other sources
  • Alexandrian, Sarane. .Surrealist Art London: Thames & Hudson, 1970.
  • Appollinaire, Guillaume 1917, 1991. Program note for Parade, printed in Oeuvres en prose complètes, 2:865-866, Pierre Caizergues and Michel Décaudin, eds.^ Note: Abstract Paintings by Congo the Chimpanzee outsold Warhol and Renoir by over 25,000 dollars in June 2005 at a London art auction.
    • Fantasy Art: The Surrealist-Fantasy Art Gallery of HowardDavid Johnson 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Documents of Dada and Surrealism: Dada and Surrealist Journals in the Mary Reynolds Collection IRENE E. HOFMANN Ryerson and Burnham Libraries, The Art Institute of Chicago Dada 6 (Bulletin Dada), ed.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lucy R. Lippard, ed., Surrealists on Art (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1970), p.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Paris: Éditions Gallimard.
  • Brotchie, Alastair and Gooding, Mel, eds. .A Book of Surrealist Games Berkeley, CA: Shambhala, 1995. ISBN 1-57062-084-9.
  • Caws, Mary Ann Surrealist Painters and Poets: An Anthology 2001, MIT Press.
  • Durozoi, Gerard, History of the Surrealist Movement Translated by Alison Anderson University of Chicago Press.^ Ann Arbor (The University of Michigan Press), 1969.
    • dadasurrealism.htm 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.arslibri.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ CAWS, MARY ANN. The Surrealist Look.
    • dadasurrealism.htm 7 January 2010 14:45 UTC www.arslibri.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Dada Painters and Poets: An Anthology, ed.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    2004. ISBN 0-226-17411-5.
  • Flahutez, Fabrice, Nouveau Monde et Nouveau Mythe. .Mutations du surréalisme de l'exil américain à l'écart absolu (1941-1965), Les presses du réel, Dijon, 2007.
  • Lewis, Helena.^ Breton's successor to La Révolution surréaliste was the more politically engaged journal Le Surréalisme au service de la Révolution.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Dada Turns Red. Edinburgh, Scotland: University of Ednburgh Press, 1990.
  • _____. .The Politics Of Surrealism 1988
  • Low Mary, Breá Juan, Red Spanish Notebook, City Light Books, Sans Francisco, 1979, ISBN 087286-132-5
  • Melly, George Paris and the Surrealists Thames & Hudson.^ Gérard Durozoi, Histoire du mouvement surréaliste , Paris, 1997, 132.
    • Strategies of Fame by An Paenhuysen 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.imageandnarrative.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1991.
  • Moebius, Stephan. Die Zauberlehrlinge. Soziologiegeschichte des Collège de Sociologie. Konstanz: UVK 2006. About the College of Sociology, its members and sociological impacts.
  • Nadeau, Maurice. History of Surrealism Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 1989. ISBN 0-674-40345-2.

External links

André Breton writings

.
  • Manifesto of Surrealism by André Breton.^ In the nineteenth and final issue of 391 (October 1924), he signed off as "Francis Picabia, Stage Manager for André Breton's Surrealism."
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Paris: The Heart of Surrealism André Breton marked his definitive break with Dada with the release of his Manifeste du surrealisme; Poisson soluble in 1924.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Andr é Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism, trans.
    • Dada and Surrealist Journals 2 February 2010 9:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1924.
  • What is Surrealism? Lecture by Breton, Brussels 1934

Overview websites

Surrealism and politics

Surrealist poetry


Simple English

File:Dona i
Woman and Bird, Joan Miró, 1982; Barcelona
File:Angel Planells. La dona
Angel Planells 1933

Surrealism was an art and cultural movement which began in 1920.[1]

The name was invented in 1917. Guillaume Apollinaire wrote the program notes for the ballet Parade, which was created for the Ballets Russes of Serge Diaghilev. This was a collaborative work by Jean Cocteau, Erik Satie, Pablo Picasso and Léonide Massine. The program notes ran:

"From this new alliance... there has come about, in Parade, a kind of super-realism ('sur-réalisme'), in which I see the starting point of a series of manifestations of this new spirit".

The movement grew out of Dadaism. This was, amid the horrors of World War I, a protest at the meaningless of civilised life.

At the same time the work of Sigmund Freud began to filter through, and affect the literary and art worlds. André Breton was trained in psychiatry, and during the war he worked in a hospital where he used Freud's methods on shell-shock patients. Not surprisingly, Breton influenced many writers and artists after the war.

Freud's work placed emphasis on the subconscious mind, and its role in steering behaviour and emotion. His way of using free association, and dream analysis to get a clue to the subconscious was picked up by the surrealists. They painted dreamlike fantasies, and practised automatic drawing without sight: 'automatism'.

In 1924, Breton wrote a Surrealist Manifesto, which defined surrealism as:

"Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express -- verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner -- the actual functioning of thought. Dictated by the thought, in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern".

Breton discussed his first encounter with the surreal, in a description of a hypnagogic state,[2] in which a strange phrase inexplicably appeared in his mind: There is a man cut in two by the window. This phrase illustrates Breton's view of Surrealism as two distant realities brought together to create a new, uncanny union

Surrealist works have an element of surprise: unexpected items are placed next to each other for no clear reason. Many Surrealist artists and writers see their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost. The works are an artifact, and André Breton said that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. From the 1920s in Paris it spread around the globe. It influenced films such as the Angel's Egg and El Topo.

Artists

Max Ernst, Salvador Dali, Man Ray, André Masson, Joan Miró and Marcel Duchamps were some of the best-known surrealist artists.

Surrealist films

Man Ray made the first surrealist film: Return to reason (1923).Luis Buñuel and Dali made two well-known surrealist films: Un chien andalou (1929) and L'Âge d'Or (1930). Jean Cocteau made three films, known as the Orphic Trilogy: Le Sang d'un poète (1930), Orphée (1950) and Testament of Orpheus (1960), which includes a cameo appearance by Pablo Picasso.

References

  1. Dawn Ades, with Matthew Gale 2001 "Surrealism", The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford University Press. Grove Art Online: GroveArt.com
  2. Between waking and sleeping


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Surrealism, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message