The Full Wiki

Surrey: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Surrey
Surreyflag.gif
Motto of County Council: Making Surrey a better place
EnglandSurrey.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county
Origin Historic
Region South East England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 35th
1,663 km2 (642 sq mi)
Ranked 25th
Admin HQ Kingston
(extraterritorially)
ISO 3166-2 GB-SRY
ONS code 43
NUTS 3 UKJ23
Demography
Population
- Total (2008 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 12th
1,109,700
667 /km2 (1,728/sq mi)
Ranked 5th
Ethnicity 95.0% White
2.2% S. Asian
Politics
SurreyCC.png
http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/
Executive Conservative
Members of Parliament
Districts
SurreyNumbered.png
  1. Spelthorne
  2. Runnymede
  3. Surrey Heath
  4. Woking
  5. Elmbridge
  6. Guildford
  7. Waverley
  8. Mole Valley
  9. Epsom and Ewell
  10. Reigate and Banstead
  11. Tandridge

Surrey Pronunciation: /ˈsʌri/ is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire, and Berkshire. The historic county town is Guildford.[1] Surrey County Council sits at Kingston upon Thames, although this has been part of Greater London since 1965.

Surrey is divided into 11 boroughs and districts: Elmbridge, Epsom and Ewell, Guildford, Mole Valley, Reigate and Banstead, Runnymede, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge, Waverley, Woking. After the elections of 1 May 2008, the Conservatives are in control of 10 out of 11 councils in Surrey, with Epsom and Ewell in Residents Association control. The Conservatives hold all 11 Parliamentary constituencies within the county borders.

Contents

Settlements and communications

The tower on the top of Leith Hill the highest point in Surrey
See also list of places in Surrey.

Surrey has a population of approximately 1.1 million people[2]. The historic county town is Guildford, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893. The county council's headquarters have been outside the county's boundaries since 1 April 1965 when Kingston and other areas were included within Greater London by the London Government Act 1963.[3] Recent plans to move the offices to a new site in Woking have now been abandoned.[4] Due to its proximity to London there are many commuter towns and villages in Surrey, the population density is high and the area is more affluent than other parts of the UK. Surrey is the most densely populated county after Greater London, the metropolitan counties and Bristol. Much of the north east of the county is an urban area contiguous to Greater London. In the west, there is a conurbation straddling the Hampshire/Surrey border, including in Surrey Camberley and Farnham.

Most English counties have nicknames for people from that county, such as a Tyke from Yorkshire and a Yellowbelly from Lincolnshire; the traditional nickname for people from Surrey is 'Surrey Capon', as it was well known in the later Middle Ages as the county where chickens were fattened up for the London meat markets.

Physical geography

Surrey contains a good deal of mature woodland (reflected in the official logo of Surrey County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves). Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. It is the most wooded county in Great Britain, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8%[5] and as such is one of the few counties not to include new woodlands in their strategic plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in the UK, one of the oldest in Europe.

Much of Surrey is in the Green Belt and is rolling downland, the county's geology being dominated by the chalk hills of the North Downs. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides much in the way of rural leisure activities, with a very large horse population. Towards the north of the county, the land is largely flat around Staines and borders the River Thames.

The highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking. It is either 293 [6], 294 [7] or 295 [8]metres (961, 965 or 968 ft) above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill 297 metres (974 ft) in West Berkshire.

History

Advertisements

British and Roman Surrey

The Roman Stane or Stone Street runs through Surrey

Before Roman times the area today known as Surrey was very probably occupied by the Atrebates tribe centred at Calleva Atrebatum in the modern county of Hampshire. They are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from Roman documents describing the tribal relations between them and the powerful Catuvellauni on the north bank. In about 42AD King Cunobelinus or Cynfelin ap Tegfan of the Catuvellauni died and war broke out between his sons and King Verica of the Atrebates. The Atrebates were defeated in the conflict, their capital captured and their lands made subject to the Catuvellauni now led by Togodumnus ruling from Camulodunum. Verica fled to Gaul and appealed for Roman aid. The Atrebates were allies with Rome during their invasion of Britain in 43AD. The territory of Surrey was traversed by Stane Street and other less well known Roman roads. There was a Roman temple in Farley Green.

After the Romans left Britain in c.410AD the territory of modern Surrey was officially part of Britannia Prima but was probably ruled by the successor realm of the Atrebates tribe. It has long been speculated that Guildford may have been the Astolat of Arthurian renown, however the legendary city is more likely to have been Calleva (modern day Silchester), the capital of the Atrebates, which resisted the Anglo-Saxons for many years.

The Saxon tribes and the sub-kingdom

From around 480 AD Saxons from the south and Jutes from the east invaded and began to settle in the area and establish a sub-kingdom probably with Middle Saxon overlords.

At this time the Surrey area was sparsely populated and almost entirely forested. There was a local truce recorded in c.500 (possibly as a result of the Battle of Badon Hill) and only north and east Surrey were retained by the Anglo-Saxons. The westward expansion into British territory continued from c.550AD with some local British communities becoming marooned within the confines of Saxon Surrey, probably around Walton-on-Thames. From 568 the eastern border of Surrey with Kent was agreed and marked by a ditch. Local tribes named Æschingas, Godhelmingas (around Godalming), Tetingas (around Tooting), Woccingas (between Woking and Wokingham), Basingas (the Blackwater Valley) and Sonningas (around Sonning) are known to have existed.

In 661 the sub-kingdom took Mercia as its overlord. In 675 Surrey became one of the last portions of England to convert to Christianity when its sub-King Frithuwold and his son were baptised.[citation needed]

In 685 Surrey changed allegiance and took Wessex as its overlord. In 690 the western border of Surrey was settled with Wessex; the tribal territories of the Sonningas became part of Berkshire and the Basingas became part of Hampshire. In 705 Surrey was transferred from the Middle Saxon diocese of London to the West Saxon diocese of Winchester. After 771 Surrey came under the rule of Offa of Mercia and was so until 823 when Surrey reverted to Wessex and so remained. Some historians have also speculated that the Nox gaga and the Oht gaga tribes listed in the Mercian Tribal Hidage refer to two distinct groups living in Surrey. They were valued together at 7,000 hides.

The name Surrey appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (s.a. 836) as Suðrigean, "southern ric", meaning "south region or realm", possibly from its original relationship with the Middle Saxon kingdom. Another derivation that has been suggested is either *suð-rea or *suðr-ea, "south river" or "southern water", (from ea) also identifying the territory south of the Thames, but this seems to be a mistranslation: the term would be applied to the waterway, and not the land beyond. A strong case can be made for south ridge, from hric, an allusion to the ridge of the Surrey Hills, as seen from London. This suggestion is informed by Bede's Latinized spelling of Sutherigeona in Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum of 731.[9][10]

Sub kings and ealdormen of Surrey

subreguli (Latin for "sub-kings"):

  • Frithuwold (c.673 - 675)
  • Frithuric (675 - c.686)

a series of unknown subreguli until:

  • Brorda (c.775)

a series of unknown ealdormen until:

  • Wulfherd (c.823)
  • Huda (c.853)

a series of unknown ealdormen until:

  • Æðelwerd (late 10th century)
  • Æðelmær (? - 1016) son

The West Saxon shire

The territory of Surrey was formally annexed by Wessex in 860 and became a Shire under the same model as the other counties of Wessex. It is around this time that the wars between the Ænglecynn and the Danes reach their height with Surrey becoming the arena for a number of key battles; most notably at the Battle of Ockley in 851 and the Battle of Farnham in 894.

After the death of King Alfred the Great in 899 his son, King Eadweard I was crowned on the King's Stone at Kingston upon Thames. The use of this stone before 902 is unknown but it seems likely that it would have been something of ancient spiritual or political significance. After him another six kings of England from the House of Wessex were crowned here, the last being Ethelred in 978.

In 1011, it is recorded that Surrey was over-run by Danish forces led by Canute the Great before all of England submitted to them in 1016.

In 1035, Canute died and during the uncertainty that followed the heirs of former Anglo-Saxon rulers attempted to restore the House of Wessex to the throne of England. Alfred Aetheling, the younger of the two heirs (his older brother being the future Edward the Confessor) landed on the coast of Sussex with a Norman mercenary bodyguard and attempted to make his way to London. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle there is an account of this fateful encounter:

"As Ælfred and his men approached the town of Guildford in Surrey, thirty miles south-west of London, they were met by the powerful Earl Godwin of Wessex, who professed loyalty to the young prince and procured lodgings for him and his men in the town. The next morning, Godwin said to Ælfred: "I will safely and securely conduct you to London, where the great men of the kingdom are awaiting your coming, that they may raise you to the throne." This he said in spite of the fact that the throne was already occupied by the son of Knud, Harold Harefoot, and he was actually in league with King Harold to lure the young prince to his death."
"Then the earl led the prince and his men over the hill of Guildown" (called today The Hog's Back and the route of the A31), "which is to the west of Guildford, on the road to Winchester, not London. Perhaps the prince had insisted on continuing his journey to his original destination, his mother’s court in Winchester, in any case, Godwin repeated his tempting offer; showing the prince the magnificent panorama from the hill both to the north and to the south, he said: Look around on the right hand and on the left, and behold what a realm will be subject to your dominion. Ælfred then gave thanks to God and promised that if he should ever be crowned king, he would institute such laws as would be pleasing and acceptable to God and men. At that moment, however, he was seized and bound together with all his men. Nine tenths of them were then murdered. And since the remaining tenth was still so numerous, they, too, were decimated."
"Ælfred was tied to a horse and then conveyed by boat to the monastery of Ely. As the boat reached land, his eyes were put out. For a while he was looked after by the monks, who were fond of him, but soon after he died, probably on February 5, 1036."

Interestingly, during the 1920s the remains of several hundred soldiers, probably Normans, were found to the west of Guildford. They were bound and had been executed. The grave was dated to c.1040. It is likely that they were the guards of poor Prince Ælfred.

After the Anglo-Saxon restoration through the accession of Eadweard III in 1042 Surrey remained unmolested until the Norman Conquest in 1066.

Few remains of the ancient British, the Roman, or the Saxon periods in Surrey exist. There are remains of Iron Age hillforts at Holmbury Hill, Hascombe Hill, Anstiebury (near Capel), Dry Hill (near Lingfield), St. Ann's Hill, Chertsey and St. George's Hill, Walton-on-Thames. Most of these sites were created in the 1st century BC and many were re-occupied during the middle of the 1st Ccentury AD.[11] There are a number of round barrows and bell barrows in various locations. Only fragments of Stane Street and Ermine Street, the Roman roads which crossed the county, remain.

Medieval Surrey

Hundreds of Surrey c.825 - 1889

In 1088, William II granted William de Warenne the title of Earl of Surrey as reward for Warenne's loyalty during the rebellion that followed the death of William I of England. The chief subsequent event connected with it was the signing of the great charter at Runnymede, and other public events were mostly intertwined with the history of the metropolis. However, Guildford Castle was captured by forces supporting Prince Louis of France in 1216, and in June 1497 the county was overrun by as many as 15,000 Cornish rebels heading for London. This would have been the first Brythonic army to move through Surrey for nearly 900 years. There was a brief battle just outside Guildford at Gil Down before the Cornish rebels marched north east through Banstead and right across Wallington and Brixton Hundreds as far as Blackheath in Kent where they were eventually routed by an English army.

Specimens of monastic buildings of early English date occur in Chertsey Abbey, Waverley Abbey and Newark Priory. These were all destroyed during the Reformation. It was also the home of the Merton Priory from 1114 until 1538. From the Saxon period up until Victorian times Surrey was divided into the 14 hundreds of Blackheath, Brixton, Copthorne, Effingham Half-Hundred, Elmbridge, Farnham, Godalming, Godley, Kingston, Reigate, Tandridge, Wallington, Woking and Wotton.

Modern history

Surrey
Geography
Status Administrative county
HQ Newington 1889 - 1893
Kingston upon Thames from 1893
History
Created 1889
Abolished 1974
Succeeded by Surrey
Demography
1891 population 452,218[12]
1971 population 1,002,832[13]
The arms granted to Surrey County Council in 1934 and used until 1974

The Local Government Act 1888 reorganised county-level local government throughout England and Wales. Accordingly, the administrative county of Surrey was formed in 1889 when the Provisional Surrey County Council first met, consisting of 19 aldermen and 57 councillors. The county council assumed the administrative responsibilities previously exercised by the county's justices in quarter sessions. The county had revised boundaries, with the north east of the historic county bordering the City of London becoming part of a new County of London. These areas now form the London Boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and Wandsworth, and the Penge area of the London Borough of Bromley. At the same time, the borough of Croydon became a county borough, outside the jurisdiction of the county council.

For purposes other than local government the administrative county of Surrey and county borough of Croydon continued to form a "county of Surrey" to which a Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum (Chief Magistrate) and a High Sheriff were appointed.

Surrey had been administered from Newington since the 1790s, and the county council was initially based in the sessions house there. As Newington was included in the County of London it lay outside the area administered by the council, and a site for a new county hall within the administrative county was sought. By 1890 six towns were being considered: Epsom, Guildford, Kingston, Redhill, Surbiton and Wimbledon.[14] A decision to build the new County Hall at Kingston was made in 1891, (the building opened in 1893[15]) but this site would also became overtaken by the growing London conurbation and by the 1930s most of the north of the county had been built over, becoming outer suburbs of London, although continuing to form part of Surrey administratively.

In 1960 the report of the Herbert Commission recommended that much of north Surrey (including Kingston and Croydon) be included in a new "Greater London". The recommendations of the report were enacted in highly modified form in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963. The areas that now form the London Boroughs of Croydon, Kingston, Merton, Sutton and that part of Richmond south of the River Thames were transferred from Surrey to Greater London. At the same time part of the county of Middlesex, which had been abolished by the legislation, was added to Surrey. This area now forms the borough of Spelthorne.

Further local government reform under the Local Government Act 1972 took place in 1974. The 1972 Act abolished administrative counties and introduced non-metropolitan counties in their place. The boundaries of the non-metropolitan county of Surrey were similar to those of the administrative county with the exception of Gatwick Airport and some surrounding land which was transferred to West Sussex. It was originally proposed that the parishes of Horley and Charlwood would become part of West Sussex, however fierce local opposition led to a reversal of this under the Charlwood and Horley Act 1974.

On 3 August 2007 it was announced that foot-and-mouth disease had been discovered near Guildford.[16] This was the first outbreak in the UK since 2001.

Economy

Surrey is an affluent county with a service based economy closely tied to that of London. Surrey has the highest GDP per capita of any county in the UK and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of London. Surrey is credited with having the highest proportion of millionaires in the UK. The average wage in Surrey is bolstered by the high number of residents who work in financial services.[17]

Surrey’s proximity to London and strategic location within South East England has resulted in it becoming one of the most affluent and successful counties in the UK. Surrey’s enduring popularity explains why it dominated the top 10 best places to live in Phil & Kirsty’s 2007 list. The busiest single runway airport in the world (Gatwick) was historically in Surrey, but is now part of West Sussex.

Surrey is also renowned for gardening, with the RHS’s flagship RHS Garden, Wisley, along with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in Greater London. The National Archives for England & Wales are also in Kew. NGOs including WWF UK & Compassion in World Farming are based here.

Surrey has more organisation and company headquarters than any other county in the UK. Electronic giants Nikon, Whirlpool, Canon, Toshiba, Samsung and Philips are housed here. Kia Motors and Toyota UK also have their HQs in Surrey. Some of the largest FMCG multinationals in the world have their UK and/or European headquarters here, including Unilever, Procter & Gamble, Superdrug, Nestle, SC Johnson, Kimberly-Clark and Colgate-Palmolive.

Government Quangos such as SEEDA, SEERA and GOSE are headquartered in Guildford. Drug giants Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis house their UK headquarters here, as does oil conglomerate Esso. The racing organisation McLaren is based in Woking, and the once famous Brooklands race track is near Weybridge.

There has been criticism in recent years due to public spending per head being the lowest of any county in the UK.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Surrey at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.[18]

Year Regional Gross Value Added[19] Agriculture[20] Industry[21] Services[22]
1995 12,177 116 2,414 9,647
2000 19,811 103 3,288 16,420
2003 22,790 99 3,394 19,297

Waste management

Albury landfill

There are two active landfill sites in Surrey. One is at Albury near Guildford. This site is managed by SITA. The other is a Patteson Court near Redhill.[23]

Major towns

See List of places in Surrey

The largest town in Surrey is Guildford with 66,773; Woking is a close second with a population of 62,796. The third largest town is Ewell with 39,994 people to the north of the county and the fourth is Camberley with 30,155 people in the west of the county. Towns with between 25,000 and 30,000 are Ashford, Epsom, Farnham, Staines and Redhill.[24]

Transport

Road

Three major motorways pass through the county. These are the M25 (London Orbital), M3 and the M23.

The A3 trunk road is another important road and is a major route to the south coast and London.

Rail

Surrey is well connected to London by rail and services to Surrey originate from London's Waterloo, Victoria or London Bridge stations. Services are operated by Southern and South West Trains.

There are three main lines which pass through Surrey. They are the Brighton Main Line from Victoria or London Bridge, the South Western Main Line and the Portsmouth Direct Line from Waterloo. Several other lines branch off from those three.

The main stations in Surrey are Woking, Guildford and Redhill.

Air

There are no airports in Surrey although Gatwick (near the Sussex/Surrey border) and Heathrow airports are close at hand and both are connected to Surrey by the modes of transport mentioned above.

Education

Surrey has a comprehensive secondary education system with 53 state schools (not including sixth form colleges), but there are also 41 independent schools including Preparatory schools and Senior schools —a high proportion of school children in Surrey are privately educated.[citation needed] Most have sixth forms although Reigate, Esher, Egham, Spelthorne, Woking and Waverley districts tend to have separate sixth form colleges.

Higher education

Places of interest

Significant landscapes in Surrey include Box Hill just north of Dorking; the Devil's Punch Bowl at Hindhead; Frensham Common, heathland with a variety of plant, animal and birdlife plus the Great Pond and Little Pond dating from the Middle Ages when they were constructed to provide food for the Bishop of Winchester's estate. Leith Hill to the south west of Dorking is the highest point in south-east England. Witley Common, Thursley Common and Elstead MoatNational Trust are expansive areas of ancient heathland south of Godalming are run by the National Trust and Ministry of Defence. The Surrey Hills are an area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB).

More manicured landscapes can be seen at Claremont Landscape Garden, south of Esher (dating from 1715). There is also Winkworth Arboretum south east of Godalming which was created in the 20th century. Wisley is home to the Royal Horticultural Society gardens.

Surrey has important country houses such as Clandon ParkHistoric House, an 18th century Palladian mansion in West Clandon to the east of Guildford. Nearby there is Hatchlands ParkHistoric House in East Clandon, east of Guildford, was built in 1758 with Robert Adam interiors and a collection of keyboard instruments. Polesden LaceyHistoric House south of Great Bookham is a regency villa with extensive grounds. On a smaller scale, Oakhurst Cottage in Hambledon near Godalming is a restored 16th century worker's home. There is a museum at Rural Life Centre, Tilford.

The county is linked to the sea by the River Wey and the Wey and Godalming Navigations. Dapdune Wharf in Guildford commemorates this and is home to a restored Wey barge, the Reliance. Furthermore on the River Tillingbourne, Shalford Mill is an 18th century water-mill.

There are many typical English villages including Holmbury St Mary which lies in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, close to the Greensand Way and North Downs Way. It was developed in the 19th century and still has a mainly Victorian character as on the whole no new building is allowed. The youth hostel, constructed in the village in 1935, was the first purpose-built by the Youth Hostels Association.

Runnymede where the Magna Carta was signed

Runnymede at Egham is the site of the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215. Waverley and Chertsey Abbeys were very significant in medieval Surrey.

Guildford Cathedral is a post-war cathedral built from bricks made from the clay hill on which it stands.

Brooklands Museum recognises the motoring past of Surrey. The county is also home to Thorpe Park, & Chessington World of AdventuresAmusement Park, sister theme parks of Alton Towers.

Culture, arts and sport

The first known record of cricket was in Guildford, Surrey (see History of English cricket to 1696). Currently, the Surrey County Cricket Club represents the historic county of Surrey, although its largest ground, The Oval in Kennington, is now in Greater London. The club also uses Whitgift School, South Croydon and Woodbridge Road, Guildford for some games. Mitcham Cricket Club, formed in 1685 and the oldest documented club in the game's history, was within Surrey's borders until 1965.[25]

James Hunt, the 1976 Formula 1 World Driver's Champion was born in Belmont, Surrey in 1947 (Belmont is administered by the London Borough of Sutton).

Surrey has numerous football teams. As of the end of the 2008/09 season the top 20 clubs based on their league finishes within the National League System were:

Brooklands was the first ever purpose-built motorsport race circuit.

In popular music, the "Surrey Delta" produced many of the musicians in 60s British blues movements, notably, Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page who all came from south west Surrey. The Rolling Stones developed its music at Crawdaddy Club in Richmond. Paul Weller of the Jam was also brought up in Woking.

Surrey in film and books

Sculpture of a Wellsian Martian tripod in Woking

Surrey has been mentioned in literature: in the Harry Potter series, Harry's only living relatives, the Dursleys, live in Little Whinging, a fictional town located in Surrey. The character Ford Prefect from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy claimed to be from Guildford in Surrey, but in actuality he was from a small planet somewhere in the vicinity of Betelguese. Surrey was mentioned often in Aldous Huxley's novel Brave New World. Much of H. G. Wells's 1898 novella The War of the Worlds is set in Surrey with many specific towns and villages identified. The Martians first land on Horsell Common on the north side of Woking, outside the Bleak House pub, now called Sands. In the story the narrator flees in the direction of London, first passing Byfleet and then Weybridge before travelling east along the north bank of the Thames. Jane Austen's novel Emma is set in Surrey and the famous picnic where Emma embarrasses Miss Bates takes place on Box Hill. In The Secret Dreamworld of a Shopaholic (novel) by Sophie Kinsella, Rebecca Bloomwood's parents live in Oxshott, Surrey. Atonement (novel) is also set in the Surrey lands. Tom Felton, who is most famous for his role as Draco Malfoy in the Harry Potter films, lives in Surrey with his mother and three brothers.

Non-wellsian Tripods were also seen in Surrey in the village of Friday Street ("Friday Street". http://www.gnelson.demon.co.uk/Tripods.html. Retrieved 2009-01-12. )

The late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman mentions Camberley in his poem "A Subaltern's Lovesong". In contrast, Carshalton forms the literary backdrop to many of the poems by James Farrar.

The county has also been used as a film location. Part of the movie The Holiday was filmed in Godalming: Kate Winslet's character Iris lived there and Cameron Diaz's character Amanda switched houses with her as part of a home exchange. The final scene of Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason uses the village church in Shere, as does the movie The Wedding Date. In the 1976 film The Omen, the scenes at the cathedral were filmed at Guildford Cathedral.[26] The film I Want Candy follows two hopeful lads from Leatherhead trying to break into the movies. Surrey woodland represented Germany in the opening scene of Gladiator, starring Russell Crowe; it was filmed at The Bourne Woods near Farnham in Surrey. Surrey has been also mentioned in Sophie Kinsella's Shopaholic books. Scenes for the 2009 BBC production of Emma by Jane Austen, starring Romola Garai and Michael Gambon, were filmed at St Mary the Virgin Church Send near Guildford and at Loseley House.

Surrey is the location for Lara Croft's mansion in the Tomb Raider game series.

In an episode of Silent Witness, character Nikki Alexander mentions how she was sent to a grammar school in Guildford and that she was found at Guildford Train Station after she ran away.

Most Haunted producer Karl Beattie originates from Guildford.

County Emergency Services

Surrey is served by these emergency services.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Medieval Guildford—"Henry III confirmed Guildford's status as the county town of Surrey in 1257"". Guildford Borough Council. http://www.guildford.gov.uk/guildfordweb/leisure/guildfordmuseum/guildfordsites/historynotes/medieval+guildford.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-12. 
  2. ^ "2008 mid-year estimates of population". Surrey City Council. http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/sccwebsite/sccwspages.nsf/LookupWebPagesByTITLE_RTF/2008+mid-year+estimates+of+population?opendocument. Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  3. ^ "Relationships / unit history of Surrey". Vision of Britain. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10152902. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  4. ^ Surrey County Council press release January 17, 2006
  5. ^ "Surrey's woodlands". Surrey County Council. http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/sccwebsite/sccwspages.nsf/LookupWebPagesByTITLE_RTF/Surrey's+woodlands?opendocument. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  6. ^ http://www.infobritain.co.uk/Leith_Hill.htm
  7. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/surrey/hi/people_and_places/newsid_8387000/8387218.stm
  8. ^ http://bubl.ac.uk/org/tacit/marilyns/chapter4.htm
  9. ^ Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, quoted in Flower.
  10. ^ Flower, John Wickham (1865). Surrey Etymologies. Cox and Wyman. pp. 7–13. OCLC 35186332. 
  11. ^ Dyer, James. Penguin Guide to Prehistoric England & Wales, pp. 235-239.
  12. ^ Census of England and Wales 1891, General Report, Table III: Administrative counties and county boroughs
  13. ^ Surrey, Vision of Britain, accessed October 17, 2007
  14. ^ The Times, March 27, 1890
  15. ^ David Robinson, History of County Hall, Surrey County Council
  16. ^ "Farm infected with foot-and-mouth". BBC News. 4 August 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/6930684.stm. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  17. ^ Surrey 'stockbroker belt' tops UK house-price list - Property, House & Home - The Independent
  18. ^ "Regional Gross Value Added" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 21 December 2005. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_economy/RegionalGVA.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  19. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  20. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  21. ^ includes energy and construction
  22. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  23. ^ "Landfill Guide". Surrey Waste Management. http://www.surreywaste.co.uk/default.aspx?pageID=22#Dis. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  24. ^ "2001 Census: Town/villages in Surrey with population more than 1000" (PDF). Surrey County Council. http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/sccwebsite/sccwspublications.nsf/591f7dda55aad72a80256c670041a50d/1c602ea59c869c9180256e600054b26c/$FILE/Town%20populations.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  25. ^ Phil Shaw, The Independent, 13 July 2003, Cricket: After 400 years, history is made next to the A323. Retrieved on 6 February 2007. Quote: "Mitcham Green has been in continual use as a cricket venue for 317 years".
  26. ^ "Church fears return of Omen curse". The Observer. 4 June 2004. http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,1789988,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 

Bibliography

External links

Coordinates: 51°14′35″N 0°25′05″W / 51.243°N 0.418°W / 51.243; -0.418


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Surrey (disambiguation).

Surrey [1] is a county in the South East of England, located to the south west of London.

Map of Surrey
Map of Surrey
  • Guildford - the county town, and largest town in Surrey, has a medieval castle, a modern cathedral, a large university and good shopping on its traditional cobbled High Street and nearby North Street
  • Chertsey
  • Dorking - picturesque town lying at the foot of the North Downs, boasting Britain's largest vineyard, great antiques shopping, and superb running, walking and outdoors opportunities
  • Epsom - home of the Epsom Derby, a two-day festival of horse racing dating back to 1780, held each year in early June
  • Farnham - ancient historic Market Town with intact medieval castle
  • Godalming - ancient English market town on the River Wey
  • Haslemere
  • Redhill
  • Reigate
  • Thames Ditton - attractive village just three miles up the Thames from Kingston upon Thames
  • Weybridge - pleasant town, closer to central London, with good commuter links
  • Woking - second largest town, also with good shopping and a couple of attractions
  • Camberley - Up and coming town, with good road links to central London and home to the Sandhurst Military Academy
  • Frimley Green - Charming english country village which is home to the BDO World Darts Championship at the Lakeside Country Club

Understand

Surrey is one of the "Home Counties" arranged in a belt around London, but it is not all residential towns for commuters. The county contains some attractive countryside, in particular the rolling chalk hills of the North Downs. There are plenty of woods and rivers to explore, and an extensive network of footpaths and cycle paths. Many of the towns have interesting histories, and there is a lot to discover in this compact area southwest of London.

  • Heathrow Airport is convenient for the north and west of Surrey, while London's second largest airport, Gatwick, lies just across the border with West Sussex.
  • From London Waterloo South West Trains [2] operates regular services to Guildford and other towns in Surrey. Southern [3] runs services to south and east Surrey out of London Victoria.
  • The M3 and M25 London orbital motorways provide good access to the north of Surrey. The M23 motorway runs from north to south through the eastern part of the county. Other major roads include the A3 London-Portsmouth trunk road, the A24 London-Worthing road, and the A25, which traverses Surrey on an east-west axis.

Get around

By bus

Metrobus [4] and Arriva [5] operate in the Surrey area.

Get out

London, East Sussex, West Sussex, Kent, Hampshire, and Berkshire are all nearby destinations. Oxford is slightly further afield, but communications links are good between Surrey and most other parts of southern England.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SURREY, a south-eastern county of England bounded N. by the Thames, separating it from Buckinghamshire and Middlesex, E. by Kent, S. by Sussex, and W. by Hampshire and Berkshire. The administrative county of London bounds that of Surrey (south of the Thames) on the north-east. The area is 758 sq. m. The north Downs are a picturesque line of hills running east and west through the county somewhat south of the centre (see D owNs). Leith Hill, south-west of Dorking (965 ft.), is the highest summit, and commands a prospect unrivalled in the south of England; Holmbury Hill close by reaches 857 ft., and the detached summit of Hindhead above Haslemere in the southwest reaches 895 ft. At Guildford the Wey breaches the hills; and at Dorking the Mole. These are the chief rivers of the county; they reach the Thames near Weybridge and at East Molesey respectively. The Wandle is a smaller tributary in the northeast of the county. Surrey is thus almost entirely in the Thames basin. In the south-east it includes headstreams of the Eden, a tributary of the Medway; and in the south a small area drains to the English channel. Three types of scenery appear - that of the hilly southern district; that of the Thames, with its richlywooded banks; and, in the north-west, that of the sandy heathcovered district, abundant in conifers, which includes the healthy open tracts of Bagshot Heath and other commons, extending into Berkshire and Hampshire. Possessing these varied attractions, Surrey has become practically a great residential district for those who must live in the neighbourhood of London.

Table of contents

Geology

The northern portion of the county, in the London basin, belongs to the Eocene formation: the lower ground is occupied chiefly by the London Clay of the Lower Eocene, stretching (with interruptions) from London to Farnham; this is fringed on its southern edge by the underlying Woolwich beds of the same group, which also appear in isolated patches at Headley near Leatherhead; and the Thanet Sands at the base crop out between Beddington, Banstead and Leatherhead. The north-western portion of the county, covered chiefly by heath and Scotch fir, belongs to the Upper Eocene, Bagshot Sands: the Fox hills and the bleak Chobham Ridges are formed of the upper series of the group, which rests upon the middle beds occupying the greater part of Bagshot Heath and Bisley and Pirbright commons, while eastwards the commons of Chobham, Woking and Esher belong to the lower division of the group. To the south of the Eocene formations the smooth rounded outlines of the chalk hills extend through the centre of the county from Farnham to Westerham (Kent). From Farnham to Guildford they form a narrow ridge called the Hog's Back, about halt a mile in breadth with a higher northern dip, the greatest elevation reached in this section being 505 ft. East of Guildford the northern dip decreases and the outcrop widens, throwing out picturesque summits, frequently partly wooded, and commanding wide and beautiful views over the Weald. The Upper Greensand, locally known as firestone, and quarried and mined for this purpose and for hearthstone near Godstone, crops out underneath the Chalk along the southern escarpment of the Downs. The Gault, a dark blue sandy clay, rests beneath the Upper Greensand in the bottom of the long narrow valley which separates the chalk Downs from the well-marked Lower Greensand hills. The Lower Greensand includes the subordinate divisions known as the Folkestone Sands, exploited near Godstone for commercial purposes; the Sandgate beds, to which the well-known fuller's earth of Nutfield belongs, and the Hythe beds, which contain the Kentish Rag, a sandy glauconitic limestone used for road repairs and building; also a hard, conglomeratic phase of this series locally called Bargate stone. To this formation belong the heights of Leith Hill, Hindhead and the Devil's Punchbowl, Holmbury Hill. Between the Lower Greensand and the Weald Clay is a narrow inconspicuous belt of Atherfield Clay. The Weald Clay itself consists of a blue or brown shaly clay, amid which are deposited river shells, plants of tropical origin and reptilian remains. The lower portion of the Wealden series, the Hastings Sands, occupy a small area in the south-eastern corner of the county. Bordering the Thames there are terraced deposits of gravel and loam.

Agriculture

Between one-half and threefifths of the area of the county, a low proportion, is under cultivation, and of this about five-ninths is in permanent pasture. There are considerable varieties of soil, ranging from plastic clay to calcareous earth and bare rocky heath. The plastic clay is well adapted for wheat, but oats are the most largely grown of the decreasing grain crops. A considerable area is occupied by market gardens on the alluvial soil along the banks of the Thames, especially in the vicinity of London. In early times the market gardeners were Flemings, who introduced the culture of asparagus at Battersea and of carrots at Chertsey. Rhododendrons and azaleas are largely grown in the north-western district of the county. In the neighbourhood of Mitcham various medicinal plants are cultivated, such as lavender, mint, camomile, anise, rosemary, liquorice, hyssop, &c. The calcareous soil in the neighbourhood of Farnham is well adapted for hops, but this crop in Surrey is of minor importance. There is a large area under wood. Oak, chestnut, walnut, ash and elm are extensively planted; alder and willow plantations are common; and the Scotch fir, propagates naturally from seed on the commons in the north-west. The extent of pasture land is not great, with the exception of the Downs, which are chiefly occupied as sheep-runs. Dairy-farming is a more important industry than cattle-feeding, large quantities of milk being sent to London.

Manufactures and Communications

The more important manufactures are chiefly confined to London and its immediate neighbourhood. The rivers Mole and Wandle, however, supply power for a variety of manufactures, such as oil, paper and sheet-iron mills. Communications include the navigation of the Thames and Wey, and the Basingstoke canal, communicating with the Wey from Frimley and Woking. Owing to its proximity to London the county is served by many lines of railway, the companies being the London & South-Western, the London Brighton & South Coast and the South-Eastern & Chatham.

Population and Administration

The area of the ancient county is 485,122 acres, with a population in 1901 of 2,012,744. The population in 1801 was 268,233, and in 1851, 683,082; and it nearly doubled between 1871 and 1901. Under the provisions of the Local Government Act 1888, part of the county was transferred to the county of London. Thus the area of the ancient county, extrametropolitan, is 461,999 acres, with a population in 1901 of 675,774. The area of the administrative county is 461,807 acres. The county contains 14 hundreds. Croydon (pop. 133,895) is a county borough, and the other municipal boroughs are Godalming (8748), Guildford (1 5,93 8), Kingston (34,375),(34,375), Reigate (25,993), Richmond (31,672),(31,672), Wimbledon (41,652). The following are urban districts: Barnes (17,821), Carshalton (6746), Caterham (9486), Chertsey (12,762), Dorking (7670), East and West Molesey (6034), Egham (10,187), Epsom (10,915), Esher and The Dittons (9489), Farnham (6124), Frimley (8409), Ham (1460),(1460), Leatherhead (4964), The Maidens and Coombe (6233), Surbiton (15,017), Sutton (17,223),(17,223), Waltonon-Thames (10,329), Weybridge (5329), Woking (16,244). There are six parliamentary divisions - North Western or Chertsey, Mid or Epsom, Kingston, North Eastern or Wimbledon, South Eastern or Reigate, South Western or Guildford; each returning one member. The borough of Croydon returns one member. Surrey is in the south-eastern circuit, and assizes are held at Guildford and Kingston alternately. The administrative county has one court of quarter sessions, and is divided into eleven petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Croydon, Godalming, Guildford, Kingston, Reigate and Richmond have separate commissions of the peace, and Croydon and Guildford have in addition separate courts of quarter sessions. The central criminal court has jurisdiction over certain parishes adjacent to London. All those civil parishes within the county of Surrey, of which any part is within 12 m. of, or of which no part is more than 15 m. from, Charing Cross, are in the metropolitan police district. The total number of civil parishes is 144. The ancient county contains 230 ecclesiastical parishes or districts, wholly or in part situated in the dioceses of Rochester, Winchester, Canterbury, Oxford and Chichester.

History

The early history of this district is somewhat uncertain. Ethelwerd, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 823, places it in the "Medii Angli" or "Medii Saxones." Its position between the Weald and the Thames decided its northern and southern borders, and the Kentish boundary probably dates from the battle of Wibbandune between Ethelbert of Kent and Ceawlin of Wessex, which traditionally took place at Wimbledon, though this is disputed. The western border, like the southern, was a wild uncultivated district; no settled boundary probably existing at the time of the Domesday Survey. The number of hundreds at that time was fourteen as now, but the hundred of Farnham was not so called, the lands of the bishop of Winchester being placed in no hundred, but coinciding with the present hundred of that name. There is no record of Surrey ever having been in any diocese but Winchester, of which it was an archdeaconry in the 12th century. At the time of the Domesday Survey there were four deaneries: Croydon, Southwark, Guildford and Ewell. Croydon was a peculiar of Canterbury, in which diocese it was included in 1291. In the time of Henry VIII., Croydon was comprehended in the deanery of Ewell, some of its rectories being included in the deanery of Southwark. The old deanery of Guildford was included in the modern one of Stoke. In 1877, Southwark, with some parishes, was transferred to the diocese of Rochester. In the 7th century Surrey was under the overlordship of Wulfhere, king of Mercia, who founded Chertsey abbey, but in 823, when the Mercians were defeated by Egbert of Wessex, it was included in the kingdom of Wessex, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates.

Surrey was constantly overrun by Danish hordes in the 9th century and until peace was established by the accession of Canute. In 857 a great national victory over the Danes took place at Ockley near Leith Hill. Surrey is not of great historical importance, except its northern border, the southern part having been forest and waste land, long uninhabited and almost impassable for an army. Guildford, though the county town, and often the seat of the court under John and Henry III., was of little importance beside Southwark, the centre of trade and commerce, the residence of many ecclesiastical dignitaries, a frequent point of attack on London, and a centre for rebellions and riots. The Norman army traversed and ravaged the county in their march on London, a large portion of the county having been in the hands of Edward and Harold, fell to the share of William himself; his most important tenants in chief being Odo of Bayeux and Richard de Tonebridge, son of Count Gilbert, afterwards "de Clare." The church also had large possessions in the county, the. abbey of Chertsey being the largest monastic house. Besides these private jurisdictions, there were the large royal parks and forests, with their special jurisdiction. The shire court was almost certainly held at Guildford, where the gaol for both Sussex and Surrey was from as early as 1202 until 1487, when Sussex had its own gaol at Lewes. The houses of Warenne and de Clare were long the two great rival influences in the county; their seats at Reigate and Blechingley being represented in parliament from the time of Edward I. till the Reform bills of the 19th century. At the time of the Barons' Wars their influence was divided - de Clare marching with Montfort, and de Warenne supporting the king. In the Peasants' Rising of 1381, and during Jack Cade's Rebellion in the next century, Southwark was invaded, the prisons broken open and the bridge into London crossed. London was unsuccessfully attacked from the Surrey side in the Wars of the Roses; and was held for three days and pillaged during a rising of the southern counties under Mary. During the fears of invasions from Spain, levies were held in readiness in Surrey to protect London; and it was an even more important bulwark of London in the Civil War, on account of the powder mills at Chilworth and the cannon foundries of the Weald. In common with the south-eastern district generally, Surrey was parliamentarian in its sympathies. Sir Richard Onslow and Sir Poynings More were the most prominent local leaders. Farnham Castle and Kingston, with its bridge, were several times taken and held during the war by the opposing parties, and in the later part of the war, when the parliament and army were treating, three of the line of forts defending London were on the Surrey side, from which the army entered London.

The last serious skirmish south of the Thames took place near Ewell and Kingston, where the earl of Holland and a body of the Royalists were routed. This was the last real fighting in the county, though it was often a centre of riots; the most serious being those of 1830, and of the Chartists in 1848, who chose Kennington Common as their meeting-place. The Mores of Loseley and the Onslows were among the most famous county families under the Tudors, as at the time of the Civil War; the Onslows being even better known later in the person of Sir Arthur Onslow, Speaker of the House under George I.

The earliest industries in Surrey were agricultural. The stone quarries of Limpsfield and the chalk of the Downs were early used, the latter chiefly for lime-making. Fuller's. earth was obtained from Reigate and Nutfield; and the facilities afforded by many small streams, and the excellent sheep pasture, made it of importance in the manufacture of cloth, of which Guildford was a centre. Glass and iron were made in the Weald district, whose forests produced the necessary charcoal for smelting. Chiddingfold is mentioned in 1266 for its glassmaking, and was one of the chief glass-producing districts in late Tudor times. The ironworks of Surrey were of less importance, and much later in development than those of Kent and Sussex, owing to the want of good roads or waterways, but the increasing demand for ordnance in the 16th century led to the spread of the industry northward; the most considerable works in Surrey being those of Viscount Montague at Haslemere. Chilworth, which was famous for its powder mills in the 16th century, remains a seat of the industry. Southwark and its neighbourhood early became a suburb of London and a centre of trades which were crowded out of London. The earliest Delft ware manufactory in England was at Lambeth, which maintains its fame as a centre of earthenware manufacture. The beautiful encaustic tiles of Chertsey Abbey are thought to have been made in English monasteries and date from the 13th century. Although the county was doubtless represented in the representative councils of the reign of Henry III., the first extant returns of two knights of the shire are for the parliament of 1290. The Reform Bill of 1832 gave Surrey four members; dividing the county into east and west divisions. Several boroughs were disfranchized then and in 1867, when East Surrey was again divided into east and mid divisions, on account of the growth of London suburbs, two more members being added at the same time. In 1855 all old boroughs and divisions were superseded; the county being divided into the electoral divisions of Chertsey, Guildford, Reigate, Epsom, Kingston and Wimbledon, each returning one member. Finally, in 1888, the new county of London annexed large portions of Surrey along the northern border.

Antiquities

The only ecclesiastical ruins worthy of special mention are the picturesque walls of Newark Priory, near Woking, founded for Augustinians in the time of Richard Coeur de Lion; and the Early English crypt and part of the refectory of Waverley Abbey, the earliest house of the Cistercians in England, founded in 1128. The church architecture is of a very varied kind, and has no peculiarly special features. Among the more interesting churches are Albury (the old church), near Guildford, the tower of which is of Saxon or very early Norman date; Beddington, a fine example of Perpendicular, containing monuments of the Carew family; Chaldon, remarkable for its fresco wall-paintings of the 12th century, discovered during restoration in 1870; Compton, which, though mentioned in Domesday, possesses little of its original architecture, but is worthy of notice for its two-storeyed chancel and its carved wooden balustrade surmounting the pointed transitional Norman arch which separates the nave from the chancel; Leigh, Perpendicular, possessing some very fine brasses of the 15th century; Lingfield, Perpendicular, containing ancient tombs and brasses of the Cobhams, and some fine stalls (the church was formerly collegiate); Ockham, chiefly Decorated, with a lofty embattled tower, containing the mausoleum of Lord Chancellor King (d. 1734), with full-length statue of the chancellor by Rysbrack; Stoke d'Abernon, Early English, with the earliest extant English brass, that of Sir John d'Abernon, 1277, and other fine examples. Churches at Guildford, Reigate and Woking are also noteworthy. Of old castles the only examples are Farnham, occupied as a palace by the bishops of Winchester, originally built by Henry of Blois, and restored by Henry III.; and Guildford, with a strong quadrangular Norman keep. Of ancient domestic architecture examples include Beddington Hall (now a female orphan asylum), the ancient mansion of the Carews, rebuilt in the reign of Queen Anne, and in modern times, but retaining the hall of the Elizabethan building; Crowhurst Place, built in the time of Henry VII., the ancient seat of the Gaynesfords, and frequently visited by Henry VIII.; portions of Croydon Palace, an ancient seat of the archbishops of Canterbury; the gate tower of Esher Place, built by William of Waynflete, bishop of Winchester, and repaired by Cardinal Wolsey; Archbishop Abbot's hospital, Guildford, in the Tudor style; the fine Elizabethan house of Loseley near Guildford; Smallfield Place near Reigate, now a farmhouse, once the seat of Sir Edward Bysshe (c. 1615-1679), garter king-at-arms; Sutton Place near Woking, dating from the time of Henry VIII., possessing curious mouldings and ornaments in terra-cotta; and Ham House, of red brick, dating from 1610.

See Topley's Geology of the Weald and Whitaker's Geology of London Basin, forming part of the Memoirs of Geological Survey of United Kingdom (London, 1875); J. Aubrey, Natural History and Antiquities of Surrey (5 vols., London, 1718-1719); D. Lysons, Environs of London (5 vols., London, 1800-1811); Baxter, Domesday Book of Surrey (1876); O. Manning and W. Bray, History and Antiquities of Surrey (3 vols., London, 1804-1814); E. W. Brayley, Topographical History of Surrey (5 vols., London, 1841-1848); another edition, revised by E. Walford (London, 1878); Archaeological Collections (Surrey Archaeological Society; London, from 1858); Eric Parker, Highways and Byways in Surrey (London, 1908).


<< Henry Howard, earl of Surrey

Surrogate >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also surrey

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Surrey

Plural
-

Surrey

  1. An inland county of England bordered by London, Buckinghamshire, Middlesex, Kent, Sussex and Berkshire.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

This article requires significantly more historical detail on the particular phases of this location's historical development. The ideal article for a place will give the reader a feel for what it was like to live at that location at the time their relatives were alive there..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..
Surrey
File:EnglandSurrey.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county

<tr><th>Origin</th><td>Historic</td></tr>

Region South East England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 35th
1,663 km² (642.1 sq mi)
Ranked 31st

<tr><th>Admin HQ</th><td class="label">Kingston
(extraterritorially)</td></tr><tr><th>ISO 3166-2</th><td>GB-SRY</td></tr>

ONS code 43
NUTS 3 UKJ23
Demographics
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 13th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
1,085,400
650/km² (1,683.5/sq mi)
Ranked 5th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Ethnicity 95.0% White
2.2% S. Asian
Politics
File:Escut Surrey.png
Surrey County Council
http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/

<tr><th>Executive</th><td>Conservative </td></tr>

Members of Parliament
Districts
File:SurreyNumbered.png
  1. Spelthorne
  2. Runnymede
  3. Surrey Heath
  4. Woking
  5. Elmbridge
  6. Guildford
  7. Waverley
  8. Mole Valley
  9. Epsom and Ewell
  10. Reigate and Banstead
  11. Tandridge

Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire, and Berkshire. The historic county town is Guildford.[1] Surrey County Council sits at Kingston upon Thames, although this has been part of Greater London since 1965.

Surrey is divided into 11 boroughs and districts: Elmbridge, Epsom and Ewell, Guildford, Mole Valley, Reigate and Banstead, Runnymede, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge, Waverley, Woking. After the elections of 3 May 2007, the Conservatives are in control of nine out of 11 councils in Surrey.[2]

On 3 August 2007 it was announced that foot-and-mouth disease had been discovered near Guildford.[3] This was the first outbreak in the UK since 2001.

Contents

Settlements and communications

File:Leith hill tower.JPG

See also list of places in Surrey.

Surrey has a population of approximately one million people. The historic county town was Guildford, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893. The county council's headquarters have been outside the county's boundaries since 1 April 1965 when Kingston and other areas were included within Greater London by the London Government Act 1963.[4] Recent plans to move the offices to a new site in Woking have now been abandoned.[5] Due to its proximity to London there are many commuter towns and villages in Surrey, the population density is high and the area is more affluent, on average, than other parts of the UK. Surrey is the most densely populated shire county in England, and the most densely populated ceremonial county after Greater London, the metropolitan counties and Bristol. Much of the north east of the county forms part of the Greater London Urban Area.[6] In the west, there is a conurbation straddling the Hampshire/Surrey border, including in Surrey Camberley and Farnham.

Most English counties have nicknames for people from that county, such as a Tyke from Yorkshire and a Yellowbelly from Lincolnshire; the traditional nickname for people from Surrey is 'Surrey Capon', as it was well known in the later Middle Ages as the county where chickens were fattened up for the London meat markets.

Physical geography

File:Boxhill surrey viewfromtop.jpg

Surrey contains a good deal of mature woodland (reflected in the official logo of Surrey County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves). Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newland's Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. It is the most wooded county in Great Britain, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8%[7] and as such is one of the few counties to not include new woodlands in their strategic plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in the UK, one of the oldest in Europe.

Much of Surrey is in the Green Belt and is rolling downland, the county's geology being dominated by the chalk hills of the North Downs. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides much in the way of rural leisure activities, with a very large horse population. Towards the north of the county, the land is largely flat around Staines and bi-sected by the River Thames.

The highest point in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking at 965 ft (294 m) above sea level.

History

British and Roman Surrey

File:Stane Street.JPG Before Roman times the area today known as Surrey was very probably governed by the Atrebates tribe centred at Calleva Atrebatum in the modern county of Hampshire. They were known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from Roman documents describing the nature of tribal relations between them and the powerful Catuvellauni on the north banks. In about 42AD King Cunobelinus or Cynfelin ap Tegfan of the Catuvellauni died and war broke out between his sons and between King Verica of the Atrebates. The Catuvellauni invaded the Atrebatean lands, probably crossing the River Thames near modern Staines where the river could be forded. The Atrebates were defeated in the conflict, their capital captured and their lands made subject to the Catuvellauni now led by Togodumnus ruling from Camulodunum. Verica fled to Gaul and appealed for Roman aid. The Atrebates were allies with Rome during their invasion of Britain in 43AD. The territory of Surrey was traversed by Stane Street and other less well known Roman roads.

After the Romans left Britain in c.410AD the territory of modern Surrey was officially part of Britannia Prima but was probably ruled by the successor realm of the Atrebates tribe. It has long been speculated that Guildford may have been the Astolat of Arthurian renown, however the legendary city is more likely to have been Calleva (modern day Silchester), the capital of the Atrebates, which resisted the Anglo-Saxons for many years.

The Saxon tribes and the sub-kingdom

From around 480 AD Saxons from the south and Jutes from east invaded and began settling in the area and establishing a sub-kingdom probably with Middle Saxon overlords. The name Surrey is Saxon, and is a shortened form of "South Ridge", referring to its position on the South bank of the Thames. At this time the Surrey area was sparsely populated and almost entirely forested. There was a local truce recorded in c.500 (possibly as a result of the Battle of Badon Hill) and only north and east Surrey were retained by the Anglo-Saxons. The westward expansion into British territory continued from c.550AD with some local British communities becoming marooned within the confines of Saxon Surrey, probably around Walton-on-Thames. From 568 the eastern border of Surrey and Kent is agreed and marked by a ditch. Local tribes named Æschingas, Godhelmingas (around Godalming), Tetingas (around Tooting), Woccingas (between Woking and Wokingham), Basingas (the Blackwater Valley) and Sonningas (around Sonning) are known to have existed.

In 661 the sub-kingdom took Mercia as its overlord. In 675 Surrey became one of the last portions of England to convert to Christianity when its sub-King Frithuwold and his son were baptised. The name of the area at this time is recorded as Sudergeona or "southern region". In 685 Surrey changed allegiance and took Wessex as its overlord. In 690 the western border of Surrey was settled with Wessex; the tribal territories of the Sonningas became part of Berkshire and the Basingas became part of Hampshire. In 705 Surrey was transferred from the Middle Saxon diocese of London to the West Saxon diocese of Winchester. After 771 Surrey came under the rule of Offa of Mercia and was so until 823 when Surrey reverted to Wessex and so remained. Some historians have also speculated that the Nox gaga and the Oht gaga tribes listed in the Mercian Tribal Hidage refers to two distinct groups living in Surrey. They were valued together at 7,000 hides.

Sub Kings and Eorldermen of Surrey

  • Frithuwold (c.673 - 675)
  • Frithuric (675 - c.686)

an unknown series of sub regulus until;

  • Brorda (c.775)

an unknown series of Eorldermen until;

  • Wulfherd (c.823)
  • Huda (c.853)

an unknown series of Eorldermen until;

  • Æðelwerd (late 10th century)
  • Æðelmær (? - 1016) son

The West Saxon shire

The territory of Surrey was formally annexed by Wessex in 860 and became a Shire under the same model as the other counties of Wessex. It is around this time that the wars between the Ænglecynn and the Danes reach their height with Surrey becoming the arena for a number of key battles; most notably at the Battle of Ockley in 851 and the Battle of Farnham in 894.

After the death of King Alfred the Great in 899 his son, King Eadweard I was crowned on the King's Stone at Kingston upon Thames. The use of this stone before 902 is unknown but it seems likely that it would have been something of ancient spiritual or political significance. After him another six kings of England from the House of Wessex were crowned here, the last being Æþelræd II in 978.

In 1011 it is recorded that Surrey was over-run by Danish forces led by Canute the Great before all of England submitted to them in 1016.

In 1035, Canute died and during the uncertainty that followed the heirs of former Anglo-Saxon rulers attempted to restore the House of Wessex to the throne of Ænglalond. Ælfred Æþling the younger of the two heirs (his older brother being the future Eadweard III) landed on the coast of Sussex with a Norman mercenary body guard and attempted to make his way to London. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle there is an account of this fateful encounter:

"As Ælfred and his men approached the town of Guildford in Surrey, thirty miles south-west of London, they were met by the powerful Earl Godwin of Wessex, who professed loyalty to the young prince and procured lodgings for him and his men in the town. The next morning, Godwin said to Ælfred: "I will safely and securely conduct you to London, where the great men of the kingdom are awaiting your coming, that they may raise you to the throne." This he said in spite of the fact that the throne was already occupied by the son of Knud, Harold Harefoot, and he was actually in league with King Harold to lure the young prince to his death."

File:North downs way seen from puttenham.jpg

"Then the earl led the prince and his men over the hill of Guildown (called today The Hog's Back and is the route of the A31), which is to the west of Guildford, on the road to Winchester, not London. Perhaps the prince had insisted on continuing his journey to his original destination, his mother’s court in Winchester, in any case, Godwin repeated his tempting offer; showing the prince the magnificent panorama from the hill both to the north and to the south, he said: "Look around on the right hand and on the left, and behold what a realm will be subject to your dominion." Ælfred then gave thanks to God and promised that if he should ever be crowned king, he would institute such laws as would be pleasing and acceptable to God and men. At that moment, however, he was seized and bound together with all his men. Nine tenths of them were then murdered. And since the remaining tenth was still so numerous, they, too, were decimated."
"Ælfred was tied to a horse and then conveyed by boat to the monastery of Ely. As the boat reached land, his eyes were put out. For a while he was looked after by the monks, who were fond of him, but soon after he died, probably on February 5, 1036."

Interestingly, during the 1920s the remains of several hundred soldiers, probably Normans, were found to the west of Guildford. They were bound and had been executed. The grave was dated to c.1040. It is likely that they were the guards of poor Prince Ælfred.

After the Anglo-Saxon restoration through the accession of Eadweard III in 1042 Surrey remained unmolested until the Norman Conquest in 1066.

Few remains of the ancient British, the Roman, or the Saxon periods in Surrey exist. There is an Iron Age hillfort at Holmbury Hill, and only remnants of the Roman roads Stane Street and Ermine Street remain. Roman and celtic relics, of no great significance, have been found at various locations.

Medieval Surrey

File:Hundreds.gif In 1088, William II granted William de Warenne the title of Earl of Surrey as reward for Warenne's loyalty during the rebellion that followed the death of William I of England. The chief subsequent event connected with it was the signing of the great charter at Runnymede, and other public events were mostly intertwined with the history of the metropolis. However, Guildford Castle was captured by forces supporting Prince Louis of France in 1216, and in June 1497 the county was overrun by as many as 15,000 Cornish rebels heading for London. This would have been the first Brythonic army to move through Surrey for nearly 900 years. There was a brief battle just outside Guildford at Gil Down before the Cornish rebels marched north east through Banstead and right across Wallington and Brixton Hundreds as far as Blackheath in Kent where they were eventually routed by an English army.

Specimens of monastic buildings of early English date occur in Chertsey Abbey, Waverley Abbey and Newark Priory. These were all destroyed during the Reformation. It was also the home of the Merton Priory from 1114 until 1538. From the Saxon period up until Victorian times Surrey was divided into the 14 hundreds of Blackheath, Brixton, Copthorne, Effingham Half-Hundred, Elmbridge, Farnham, Godalming, Godley, Kingston, Reigate, Tandridge, Wallington, Woking and Wotton.

Modern history

Surrey
Administration
Status: Administrative county
HQ: Newington 1889 - 1893, Kingston upon Thames from 1893
File:Surrey arms 1934.png
History
Created: 1889
Abolished: 1974
Succeeded by: Surrey
Population
1891: 452,218[8]
1971: 1,002,832[9]


The Local Government Act 1888 reorganised county-level local government throughout England and Wales. Accordingly, the administrative county of Surrey was formed in 1889 when the Provisional Surrey County Council first met, consisting of 19 aldermen and 57 councillors. The county council assumed the administrative responsibilities previously exercised by the county's justices in quarter sessions. The county had revised boundaries, with the north east of the historic county bordering the City of London becoming part of a new County of London. These areas now form the London Boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and Wandsworth, and the Penge area of the London Borough of Bromley. At the same time, the borough of Croydon became a county borough, outside the jurisdiction of the county council.

For purposes other than local government the administrative county of Surrey and county borough of Croydon continued to form a "county of Surrey" to which a Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum (Chief Magistrate) and a High Sheriff were appointed.

Surrey had been administered from Newington since the 1790s, and the county council was initially based in the sessions house there. As Newington was included in the County of London it lay outside the area administered by the council, and a site for a new county hall within the administrative county was sought. By 1890 six towns were being considered: Epsom, Guildford, Kingston, Redhill, Surbiton and Wimbledon.[10] A decision to build the new County Hall at Kingston was made in 1891, and the building opened in 1893.[11]

The boundaries of the administrative county were little altered until 1965, the only significant changes being the extension of Croydon county borough's area on a number of occasions.

By the 1930s most of the north of the county had been built over, becoming outer suburbs of London, although continuing to form part of Surrey administratively. In 1960 the report of the Herbert Commission recommended that much of north Surrey (including Croydon) be included in a new "Greater London". The recommendations of the report were enacted in highly modified form in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963. The areas that now form the London Boroughs of Croydon, Kingston, Merton, Sutton and that part of Richmond south of the River Thames were transferred from Surrey to Greater London. At the same time part of the county of Middlesex, which had been abolished by the legislation, was added to Surrey. This area now forms the borough of Spelthorne.

Further local government reform under the Local Government Act 1972 took place in 1974. The 1972 Act abolished administrative counties and introduced non-metropolitan counties in their place. The boundaries of the non-metropolitan county of Surrey were similar to those of the administrative county with the exception of Gatwick Airport and some surrounding land which was transferred to West Sussex. It was originally proposed that the parishes of Horley and Charlwood would become part of West Sussex, however fierce local opposition led to a reversal of this under the Charlwood and Horley Act 1974.

Economy

Surrey is a prosperous county with a service based economy closely tied to that of London.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Surrey at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.[12]

Year Regional Gross Value Added[13] Agriculture[14] Industry[15] Services[16]
1995 12,177 116 2,414 9,647
2000 19,811 103 3,288 16,420
2003 22,790 99 3,394 19,297

Waste management

File:Albury landfill.jpg

There are two active landfill sites in Surrey. One is at Albury near Guildford. This site is managed by SITA.

Major towns

See List of places in Surrey

The largest town in Surrey is Guildford with 66,773; Woking is a close second with a population of 62,796. The third largest town is Ewell with 39,994 people to the north of the county and the fourth is Camberley with 30,155 people in the west of the county. Towns with between 25,000 and 30,000 are Ashford, Epsom, Farnham and Redhill.[17]

Education

Surrey has a comprehensive secondary education system with 53 state schools (not including sixth form colleges), but there are also 41 independent schools—a high proportion of school children in Surrey go to independent school. Most have sixth forms although Reigate, Spelthorne, Woking and Waverley districts tend to have separate sixth forms colleges. In England, on average 45.8% of pupils gain five good GCSEs including English and Maths; for Surrey's 10,300 pupils taking GCSE at 16 it is 52.7%: one of the highest in South East England (second after Buckinghamshire). The best performing state school is Gordon's School in Woking. The worst is the Jubilee High School in Addlestone. At A level, the county performs slightly under the England average. The best performing state school is The Ashcombe School in Dorking. The best schools overall at A level are the independent Guildford High School and Royal Grammar School in Guildford. The independent schools generally perform better than state schools.

GCSE results in 2006 by district council

The following is the a list of the percentage of students who achieve 5 A-C grades at GCSE including English and Maths, by district council; compare this table to average house price by district.

  • Elmbridge 55.9%
  • Epsom and Ewell 57.4%
  • Guildford 53.3%
  • Mole Valley 55.7%
  • Reigate and Banstead 48.5%
  • Runnymede 54.1%
  • Spelthorne 44.0%
  • Surrey Heath 66.0%
  • Tandridge 51.8%
  • Waverley 54.5%
  • Woking 55.5%

Higher Education

File:RoyalHollowayFoundersLondon-Seabhcan.jpg

See also [[Wikipedia:List of schools in the South East of England#Surrey|]] and Category:Education in Surrey.

Places of interest

Significant landscapes in Surrey include Box Hill just north of Dorking; the Devil's Punch Bowl at Hindhead; Frensham Common is home to a variety of plant, animal and birdlife; Frensham Great Pond houses assorted sailing activities whilst Frensham Little Pond provides places for picnics. Leith Hill to the south west of Dorking is the highest point in south-east England. Witley CommonNational Trust is heathland south of Godalming and is run by the National Trust and Surrey Hills is an area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB). File:Lawns at Wisley.jpg Manicured landscapes can be seen at Claremont Landscape Garden, south of Esher. The gardens here date from 1715. There is also Winkworth Arboretum south east of Godalming which was created in the 20th century. Wisley is home to the royal horticultural society gardens.

Surrey has important country houses such as Clandon ParkHistoric House, an 18th century Palladian mansion in West Clandon to the east of Guildford. Nearby there is Hatchlands ParkHistoric House in East Clandon, east of Guildford, was built in 1758 with Robert Adam interiors and a fine keyboard collection. Polesden LaceyHistoric House south of Great Bookham is a regency villa with extensive grounds. On a smaller scale, Oakhurst Cottage in Hambledon near Godalming is a restored 16th century worker's home. Furthermore there is a museum the Rural Life Centre which remembers this time.

The county is linked with the River Wey and the Wey and Godalming Navigations. Dapdune Wharf in Guildford commemorates this and is home to a restored Wey barge, the Reliance. Furthermore on the River Tillingbourne, Shalford Mill is an 18th century water-mill which may be visited.

There are many typical English villages including Holmbury St Mary which lies in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, close to the Greensand Way and North Downs Way. It was developed in the 19th century and still has a mainly Victorian character as on the whole no new building is allowed. The youth hostel, constructed in the village in 1935, was the first purpose-built by the Youth Hostels Association. File:Runnymede-meadow-eghamend.jpg Historically Runnymede at Egham should not be overlooked. This is the site of the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215. Waverley and Chertsey Abbeys were very significant in medieval Surrey.

Guildford Cathedral is a post-war cathedral built from bricks made from the clay hill on which it stands.

Brooklands Museum recognises the motoring past of Surrey. The county is also home to Thorpe ParkAmusement Park, a sister theme park of Alton Towers; and Legoland WindsorAmusement Park.

Culture, arts and sport

File:BrooklandsPoster.jpg The first known record of cricket was in Guildford, Surrey (see History of English cricket to 1696). Currently, the Surrey County Cricket Club represents the historic county of Surrey, although its largest ground, The Oval, which was once in Surrey, has been made part of Greater London. Surrey has numerous football teams (mainly non-League) including Woking F.C., Kingstonians, AFC Wimbledon, Weybridge F.C. and Guildford City F.C..

Surrey in film and books

File:Woking tripod.JPG Surrey has been mentioned in literature: in the Harry Potter series, Harry's only living relatives, the Dursleys, live in Little Whinging, a fictional town located in Surrey. The character Ford Prefect from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy claimed to be from Guildford in Surrey, but in actuality he was from a small planet somewhere in the vicinity of Betelguese. Interestingly much of the central plot of Good Omens by Neil Gaiman and Terry Pratchett takes place in Dorking. Surrey was mentioned often in Aldous Huxley's novel Brave New World. Much of H. G. Wells's 1898 novella The War of the Worlds is set in Surrey with many specific towns and villages identified. The martians first land on Horsell Common on the north side of Woking, outside the Bleak House pub, now called Sands.

Interestingly the late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman mentions Camberley in his poem "A Subaltern's Lovesong". In contrast, Carshalton forms the literary backdrop to many of the poems by James Farrar.

The county has also been used as a film location. Part of the movie The Holiday was filmed in Surrey: Kate Winslet's character Iris lived there and Cameron Diaz's character Amanda switched houses with her as part of a home exchange. In the 1976 film The Omen, the scenes at the cathedral were filmed at Guildford Cathedral.[18] The film I Want Candy follows two hopeful lads from Leatherhead trying to break into the movies. Surrey woodland represented Germany in the opening scene of Gladiator, starring Russell Crowe; it was filmed at Tilford near Farnham in Surrey.[19]

County Emergency Services

Surrey is served by these emergency sevices.

References

  1. ^ Medieval Guildford—"Henry III confirmed Guildford's status as the county town of Surrey in 1257". Guildford Borough Council. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  2. ^ "Surrey councils see Tory success", BBC News, 4 May 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-16. 
  3. ^ "Farm infected with foot-and-mouth", BBC News, 4 August 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-16. 
  4. ^ Relationships / unit history of Surrey. Vision of Britain. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  5. ^ Surrey County Council press release January 17, 2006
  6. ^ Usual resident population (XLS). KS01. Office for National Statistics (2001). Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  7. ^ Surrey's woodlands. Surrey County Council. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  8. ^ Census of England and Wales 1891, General Report, Table III: Administrative counties and county boroughs
  9. ^ Surrey, Vision of Britain, accessed October 17, 2007
  10. ^ The Times, March 27, 1890
  11. ^ David Robinson, History of County Hall, Surrey County Council
  12. ^ Regional Gross Value Added (PDF). Office for National Statistics (21 December 2005). Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  13. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  14. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  15. ^ includes energy and construction
  16. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  17. ^ 2001 Census: Town/villages in Surrey with population more than 1000 (PDF). Surrey County Council. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  18. ^ "Church fears return of Omen curse", {{subst:#ifexist:The Observer|[[The Observer|]]|[[Wikipedia:The Observer|]]}}, 4 June 2004. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  19. ^ Gory glory in the Colosseum. KODAK: In Camera (July 2000). Retrieved on 2006-12-31.

External links


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Surrey. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

This article uses material from the "Surrey" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

For the city in British Columbia, see Surrey, British Columbia. [[File:|right|thumb|200px|A map of England showing the position of Surrey]] Surrey is a county in southern England. The size of Surrey is about 1,663 km² and it has about 1,059,000 people (2002). It is near London. Surrey's largest town is Guildford. In Guildford there is also a university. The River Thames forms part of Surrey's north border.

Surrey is commonly mentioned in War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells (Woking, Leatherhead in particular).


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message