Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Wikis

  
  

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Coordinates: 78°14′17″N 15°26′50″E / 78.238166°N 15.447236°E / 78.238166; 15.447236

Svalbard Global Seed Vault logo.svg
The entrance to the vault

The Svalbard Global Seed Vault (Norwegian: Svalbard globale frøhvelv) is a secure seedbank located on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen near the town of Longyearbyen in the remote Arctic Svalbard archipelago.[1] The facility was established to preserve a wide variety of plant seeds from locations worldwide in an underground cavern. The seed vault holds duplicate samples, or "spare" copies, of seeds held in genebanks worldwide. The seed vault will provide insurance against the loss of seeds in genebanks, as well as a refuge for seeds in the case of large scale regional or global crises. The island of Spitsbergen is about 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) from the North Pole. The seed vault is managed under terms spelled out in a tripartite agreement between the Norwegian government, the Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT) and the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (also known as NordGen and previously named the Nordic Gene Bank, a cooperative effort of the Nordic countries under the Nordic Council of Ministers).

Construction of the seed vault, which cost approximately 45 million Norwegian Kroner (9 million USD),[2] was funded entirely by the Government of Norway.[2] Storage of seeds in the seed vault is free of charge. Operational costs will be paid by Norway and the Global Crop Diversity Trust.[2] The primary funding of the Trust came from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, United Kingdom, Norway, Australia, Switzerland, and Sweden, though funding has been received from a wide variety of sources including four developing countries: Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, and India.[3]

Contents

History

The Nordic Gene Bank (NGB) has stored a backup of Nordic plant germplasm as frozen seeds in an abandoned coal mine at Svalbard since 1984. The NGB has deposited more than 10,000 seed samples of more than 2,000 cultivars of 300 different species over the years. In addition, seed samples from southern Africa (SADC) have been safely duplicated with the Nordic collection for some years. Both the Nordic and African collections have been transferred to the new Svalbard Global Seed Vault facility. Since January 1, 2008 the Nordic Gene Bank is an integrated part of the newly formed Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen).

Construction

Design of the seed vault as of early 2007
Rendered visualisation of the seed vault

The prime ministers of Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland participated in a ceremonial "laying of the first stone" on 19 June 2006.[citation needed]

The seedbank is constructed 120 metres (390 ft) inside a sandstone mountain at Svalbard on Spitsbergen Island.[4] The bank employs a number of robust security systems. Seeds are packaged in special four-ply packets and heat sealed to exclude moisture. The facility is managed by the Nordic Genetic Resource Center, though there are no permanent staff on-site.

Spitsbergen was considered ideal due to its lack of tectonic activity and its permafrost, which will aid preservation. The location 130 metres (430 ft) above sea level will ensure that the site remains dry even if the icecaps melt.[4] Locally mined coal provides power for refrigeration units that further cool the seeds to the internationally-recommended standard −18 °C (0 °F). [5] Even if the equipment fails, at least several weeks will elapse before the temperature rises to the −3 °C (27 °F) of the surrounding sandstone bedrock.[1]

Prior to construction, a feasibility study determined that the vault could preserve seeds from most major food crops for hundreds of years. Some seeds, including those of important grains, could survive far longer, possibly thousands of years.

The Svalbard Global Seed Vault opened officially on February 26, 2008.[6] Approximately 1.5 million distinct seed samples of agricultural crops are thought to exist. The variety and volume of seeds stored will depend on the number of countries participating – the facility has a capacity to conserve 4.5 million. The first seeds arrived in January 2008.[7] Five percent of the seeds in the Vault, about 18,000 samples with 500 seeds each, come from the Centre for Genetic Resources of the Netherlands (CGN), part of Wageningen University, Netherlands.[8]

Mission

The Svalbard Global Seed Vault's mission is to provide a safety net against accidental loss of diversity in traditional genebanks. While the popular press has emphasized its possible utility in the event of a major regional or global catastrophe, it will certainly be more frequently accessed when genebanks lose samples due to mismanagement, accident, equipment failures, funding cuts and natural disasters. Such events occur with some regularity. In recent years, some national genebanks have also been destroyed by war and civil strife. There are some 1,400 crop diversity collections around the world, but many are in politically unstable or environmentally threatened nations.

Access to seeds

The seed samples stored in the seed vault are copies of samples stored in the depositing genebanks. Researchers, plant breeders and other groups wishing to access seed samples cannot do so through the seed vault; instead they must request samples from the depositing genebanks. The samples stored in the genebanks will, in most cases, be accessible in accordance with the terms and conditions of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture,[9] approved by 118 countries/Parties.[10][11]

The seed vault functions like a safety deposit box in a bank. The bank owns the building and the depositor owns the contents of his or her box. The Government of Norway owns the facility and the depositing genebanks own the seeds they send. The deposit of samples in Svalbard does not constitute a legal transfer of genetic resources. In genebank terminology this is called a "black box" arrangement. Each depositor signs a Deposit Agreement with NordGen, acting on behalf of Norway. The Agreement makes clear that Norway does not claim ownership over the deposited samples and that ownership remains with the depositor, who has the sole right of access to those materials in the seed vault. No one has access to anyone else’s seeds from the seed vault.[11][12] For a list of depositors to the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, see the seed vault online database managed by NordGen.[13]

Seed Storage

The seeds are stored in sealed envelopes in plastic tote containers on metal shelving racks. The storage rooms are kept at minus 18 degrees Celsius. The low temperature and the limited access to oxygen will ensure low metabolic activity and cause a delay in the aging of the seeds. The permafrost surrounding the facility will help maintain the low tempeture of the seeds if the electricity supply should fail.[14] [15]

Global Crop Diversity Trust

The Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT) has played a key role in the planning of the seed vault and is coordinating shipments of seed samples to the Vault in conjunction with the Nordic Genetic Resource Center. The Trust will provide most of the annual operating costs for the facility, and has set aside endowment funds to do so, while the Norwegian government will finance upkeep of the structure itself. With support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other donors, the GCDT is assisting selected genebanks in developing countries as well as the international agricultural research centers in packaging and shipping seeds to the seed vault. An International Advisory Council is being established to provide guidance and advice. It will include representatives from the FAO, the CGIAR, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources and other institutions.

First anniversary deposits

As part of the vault's one year anniversary, more than 90,000 food crop seed samples were placed into storage, bringing the total number of seed samples to 400,000.[16] Among the new seeds includes 32 varieties of potatoes from Ireland's national gene banks and 20,000 new samples from the U.S. Agricultural Research Service.[17] Other seed samples came from Canada and Switzerland, as well as international seed researchers from Colombia, Mexico and Syria.[18] This 4-tonne (3.9 LT; 4.4 ST) shipment brought the total number of seeds stored in the vault to over 20 million.[16] The vault now contains samples from one-third of the world's most important food crop varieties. Also part of the anniversary, experts on food production and climate change met for a three-day conference in Longyearbyen.[19]

Other events

  • Japanese sculptor Mitsuaki Tanabe presented to Svalbard Global Seed Vault a sculpture named The seed 2009 – Momi in Situ conservation [20].
  • Svalbard Global Seed Vault ranked #6 on Time's Best Inventions Of 2008[21].
  • On 10 March 2010 the seed count at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault passed half a million samples. Each sample can contain up to 500 seeds so the total number of seeds presently being stored is approximately 250 million individual seeds.[22] [23]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Charles, Daniel (2006-06-23). "A 'Forever' Seed Bank Takes Root in the Arctic". Science 312: pp. 1730–1731. doi:10.1126/science.312.5781.1730b. PMID 16794050. 
  2. ^ a b c "Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Frequently Asked Questions". Royal Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
  3. ^ "Donors". Global Crop Distribution Trust.
  4. ^ a b Modern Marvels: Deep Freeze. The History Channel.
  5. ^ "From safety in permafrost to optimal conditions". Regjeringen.no. 2008-05-20. http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/lmd/campain/svalbard-global-seed-vault/news/svalbard-global-seed-vault-from-safety-i.html?id=512006&epslanguage=EN-GB. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  6. ^ "'Doomsday' seed vault opens in Arctic". boston.com/Associated Press. 26 February 2008. http://www.boston.com/news/world/europe/articles/2008/02/26/doomsday_seed_vault_opens_in_arctic/. 
  7. ^ "'Doomsday' seeds arrive in Norway". BBC News Online. 31 January 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7217821.stm. 
  8. ^ Aarden, Marieke (2008-02-26). "Opslag met miljarden zaden, voor tijden van oorlog". de Volkskrant. p. 6. 
  9. ^ francisco lopez. "International Treaty on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture". Planttreaty.org. http://www.planttreaty.org. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  10. ^ International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources. List of Contracting Parties. http://www.planttreaty.org/members_en.htm
  11. ^ a b Fowler C. 2008. "The Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Securing the Future of Global Agriculture" Published online at http://www.croptrust.org/main/arctic.php?itemid=211
  12. ^ Royal Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Svalbard Global Seed Vault. Management and Operations. http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/lmd/campain/svalbard-global-seed-vault/management-and-operations.html?id=462223
  13. ^ "Svalbard Global Seed Vault, SGSV, data portal". Nordgen.org. 2009-02-24. http://www.nordgen.org/sgsv/index.php?app=data_unit&unit=sgsv_by_depositor&PHPSESSID=3b1td0arodcnhufcvf6p5mv8h7. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  14. ^ http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/lmd/campain/svalbard-global-seed-vault/management-and-operations.html?id=462223
  15. ^ http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/lmd/campain/svalbard-global-seed-vault/frequently-asked-questions.html?id=462221
  16. ^ a b Walsh, Bryan (2009-02-27). "The Planet's Ultimate Backup Plan: Svalbard". Time. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1882288,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  17. ^ "ARS ships more seeds to genebank facility in Norway". High Plains Journal. 2009-02-25. http://www.hpj.com/archives/2009/mar09/mar2/ARSshipsmoreseedstogenebank.cfm?title=ARS%20ships%20more%20seeds%20to%20genebank%20facility%20in%20Norway. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  18. ^ Young, Linda (2009-02-26). "Global Seed Vault Marks First Anniversary; 20 Million Seeds From One-Third Of Earth's Food Crops Now Stored In Case Of Disaster". All Headline News. http://www.allheadlinenews.com/articles/7014225215. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  19. ^ "More seeds for 'doomsday vault'". BBC News. 2009-02-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7912543.stm. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  20. ^ Japanese wild rice in Svalbard (Norway - the official site in Japan)
  21. ^ 6. The Global Seed Vault - TIME's Best Inventions of 2008 - TIME
  22. ^ MacDougall, Ian (2010-03-10). "Norway doomsday seed vault hits 1/2 million mark". Associated Press. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100311/ap_on_re_eu/eu_norway_doomsday_vault. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  23. ^ [http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/lmd/campain/svalbard-global-seed-vault/frequently-asked-questions.html?id=462221 Svalbard Global Seed Vault FAQ "How many seeds will be stored in Svalbard Global Seed Vault?" ]

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