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Kingdom of Sweden
Konungariket Sverige
Flag Coat of arms
Motto(Royal) "För Sverige i tiden[a]
"For Sweden – With the Times" 
AnthemDu gamla, Du fria[b]
Thou ancient, thou free
Royal anthemKungssången
The Song of the King
Location of  Sweden  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Stockholm
59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.35°N 18.067°E / 59.35; 18.067
Official language(s) Swedish[c]
Ethnic groups  [d] 82.1% Swedes[1]
5.1% Finns[2] 12.8% other (2008)[3][4]
Demonym Swedish or Swedes
Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch King Carl XVI Gustaf
 -  Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt (M)
 -  Speaker of
the Riksdag
Per Westerberg (M)
Consolidation
 -  Personal union w. Denmark and Norway June 17, 1397 
 -  de facto independent kingdom June 6, 1523 
 -  end of Scandinavian union ratified 1524 
 -  Swedish-Norwegian Union begins November 4, 1814 
 -  Swedish-Norwegian Union ends August 13, 1905 
EU accession 1 January 1995
Area
 -  Total 449,964 km2 (57th)
173,745 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.7
Population
 -  2009 census 9,340,682[5] 
 -  Density 20.6/km2 (192nd)
53.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $342.682 billion[6] (32nd)
 -  Per capita $37,333[6] (17th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $478.961 billion[6] (22nd)
 -  Per capita $52,180[6] (9th)
Gini (2005) 23 (low
HDI (2007) 0.963[7] (very high) (7th)
Currency Swedish krona (SEK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Date formats yyyy-mm-dd,
d/m yyyy,
dd-mm-yyyy,
dd-mm-yy
Drives on the right[e]
Internet TLD .se[f]
Calling code 46
a. ^ För Sverige - I tiden has been adopted by Carl XVI Gustaf as his personal motto.
b. ^ Du gamla, Du fria has never been officially adopted as national anthem, but is so by convention.
c. ^ Since July 1, 2009[8][9] Five other languages are officially recognized as minority languages.[10] They are:
Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish.
d. ^ As of 2008, 18% of the population had foreign origins (13% if excluding Finns and 9% if also excluding other Scandinavians), with 14% foreign-born and another 4% born in Sweden of two foreign-born parents.[11]
See demographics of Sweden.
e. ^ Since 3 September 1967.
f. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. The .nu domain is another commonly used top-level domain ("nu" means "now" in Swedish).
.Sweden (pronounced en-us-Sweden.ogg /ˈswiːdən/ SWEE-dən, Swedish: Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: About this sound Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe.^ Sweden occupies about two-thirds of the Scandinavian peninsula.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

.Sweden has land borders with Norway to the west and Finland to the northeast, and it is connected to Denmark by the Öresund Bridge in the south.^ It shares a border with Norway in the west, Finland in the north-east, and Denmark in the south-west.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

At 450,295 km², Sweden is the third largest country in the European Union in terms of area, with a total population of about 9.2 million. Sweden has a low population density of 21 inhabitants per square kilometre (54 /sq mi) but a considerably higher density in the southern half of the country. About 85% of the population live in urban areas, and it is expected that these numbers will gradually rise as a part of the ongoing urbanization.[12] Sweden's capital is Stockholm, which is also the largest city in the country (population of 1.3 million in the urban area and with 2 million in the metropolitan area).
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages. In the 17th century the country expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire. Most of the conquered territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries. The eastern half of Sweden, present-day Finland, was lost to Russia in 1809. The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Sweden by military means forced Norway into a personal union which lasted until 1905. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.[13]
Today, Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a highly developed economy. It ranks first in the world in The Economist's Democracy Index and seventh in the United Nations' Human Development Index. Sweden has been a member of the European Union since 1 January 1995 and is a member of the OECD.

Contents

Etymology

The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Sweoðeod, which meant "people of the Swedes" (Old Norse Svíþjóð, Latin Suetidi). This word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas (Old Norse Sviar, Latin Suiones). The Swedish name Sverige (a conjunction of the words Svea and Rike - rige still spelt with the letter g in modern Danish) literally means "Kingdom of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland.
Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Icelandic Svíþjóð, and the more notable exception of some Finno-Ugric languages where Ruotsi (Finnish) and Rootsi (Estonian) are used, names commonly considered etymologically related to the English name for Russia, referring to the people, Rus', originally from the coastal areas of Roslagen, Uppland.
The etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own",[14] referring to one's own Germanic tribe.

History

Prehistory

Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød warm period c. 12,000 BC with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province. This period was characterized by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Farming and animal husbandry, along with monumental burial, polished flint axes and decorated pottery, arrived from the Continent with the Funnelbeaker culture in c. 4,000 BC. Sweden's southern third was part of the stock-keeping and agricultural Nordic Bronze Age Culture's area, most of it being peripheral to the culture's Danish centre. The period began in c. 1,700 BC with the start of bronze imports from Europe. Copper mining was never tried locally during this period, and Scandinavia has no tin deposits, so all metal had to be imported.
The Nordic Bronze Age was entirely pre-urban, with people living in hamlets and on farmsteads with single-story wooden long-houses.
In the absence of any Roman occupation, Sweden's Iron Age is reckoned up to the introduction of stone architecture and monastic orders around the 12th century. Much of the period is proto-historical, that is, there are written sources, but most are of low credibility. The scraps of written matter are either much later than the period in question, written in distant areas, or, while local and coeval, extremely brief.
Ale's Stones in Scania, southern Sweden. This ship setting is a Germanic Iron Age burial monument, most likely from the 7th century, raised for the Danish prince Ale the Strong.
The climate took a turn for the worse, forcing farmers to keep cattle indoors over the winters, leading to an annual build-up of manure that could for the first time be used systematically for soil improvement.
A Roman attempt to move the Imperial border forward from the Rhine to the Elbe was aborted in AD 9 when Germans under Roman-trained leadership defeated the legions of Varus by ambush in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. About this time, there was a major shift in the material culture of Scandinavia, reflecting increased contact with the Romans.
Starting in the 2nd century, much of southern Sweden's agricultural land was parcelled out with low stone walls. They divided the land into permanent infields and meadows for winter fodder on one side of the wall, and wooded outland where the cattle grazed on the other side. This principle of landscape organization survived into the 19th century. The Roman Period also saw the first large-scale expansion of agricultural settlement up the Baltic coast of the country's northern two thirds.
Sweden enters proto-history with the Germania of Tacitus in AD 98. In Germania 44, 45 he mentions the Swedes (Suiones) as a powerful tribe (distinguished not merely for their arms and men, but for their powerful fleets) with ships that had a prow in both ends (longships). .Which kings (kuningaz) ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was invented among the south Scandinavian elite in the 2nd century, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artifacts, mainly of male names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages.^ Finnish-speakers have lived in the north of Sweden since before the Swedish state existed.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

In the 6th century Jordanes named two tribes he calls the Suehans and the Suetidi who lived in Scandza. These two names are both considered to refer to the same tribe. The Suehans, he says, has very fine horses just as the "Thyringi" tribe (alia vero gens ibi moratur Suehans, quae velud Thyringi equis utuntur eximiis). Snorri Sturluson wrote that the contemporary Swedish king Adils (Eadgils) had the finest horses of his days. The Suehans were the suppliers of black fox skins for the Roman market. Then Jordanes names the Suetidi which is considered to be the Latin form of Svitjod. He writes that the Suetidi are the tallest of men together with the Dani who were of the same stock. Later he mentions other Scandinavian tribes for being of the same height.
Originating in semi-legendary Scandza, believed to be somewhere in modern Götaland, Sweden, a Gothic population had crossed the Baltic Sea before the 2nd century AD, reaching Scythia at the coast of the Black Sea in modern Ukraine where Goths left their archaeological traces in the Chernyakhov culture. In the 5th and 6th centuries, they became divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, and established powerful successor-states of the Roman Empire in the Iberian peninsula and Italy.[15] Crimean Gothic communities appear to have survived intact in Crimea until the late 18th century. [16]

Viking and Middle ages

The Swedish Viking Age lasted roughly between the eighth and eleventh centuries. During this period, it is believed that the Swedes expanded from eastern Sweden and incorporated the Geats to the south.[17] It is believed that Swedish Vikings and Gutar mainly travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine the Black Sea and further as far as Baghdad. Their routes passed through the Dnieper down south to Constantinople, on which they did numerous raids. The Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the varangian guard. The Swedish Vikings, called "Rus" are also believed to be the founding fathers of Kievan Rus. The Arabic traveller "Ibn Fadlan" described these Vikings as following:
I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy; they wear neither tunics nor caftans, but the men wear a garment which covers one side of the body and leaves a hand free. Each man has an axe, a sword, and a knife, and keeps each by him at all times. The swords are broad and grooved, of Frankish sort.
[18]
The adventures of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece Runestones and the Varangian Runestones. There was also considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commorated on stones such as the England Runestones. The last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serkland, the region south-east of the Caspian Sea. Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar Runestones, none of which mentions any survivor. What happened to the crew is unknown, but it is believed that they died of sickness.
Gamla Uppsala, a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
.It is not known when and how the kingdom of Sweden was born, but the list of Swedish monarchs is drawn from the first kings who ruled Svealand (Sweden) and Götaland (Gothia) as one with Erik the Victorious.^ According to national population statistics, up to the first quarter of 2009, the largest group who immigrated to Sweden were Swedish citizens (3857), followed by Iraqis (2451) and Somali citizens (1305).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

.Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that.^ Sweden’s national post -- or “ Posten ,” as it is known in Sweden -- lost its monopoly privileges on letter mail in 1993, well before all of its European counterparts, with the exception of Finland.
  • Postal Freedom Index > Sweden - Posten 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.postalconsumers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two major trade union organizations in Sweden, the LO and the TCO, representing over 3 million workers (82 percent of the nation's labor force).
  • Working Abroad Career Guide for Sweden 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.overseasdigest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade Conflicts between the Two Nations Trade relations between the United States and Sweden were partially affected by issues on standing in world trade.
  • USA-Sweden Industrial Supply & Trade - Manufacturers, Exporters & Importers Industrial Supplies, Equipment & Machinery 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.foreigntradeexchange.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is not known how long they existed, Beowulf described semi-legendary Swedish-Geatish wars in the 6th century.
During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in Scania and Paviken on Gotland, in present-day Sweden, were flourishing trade centres. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market have been found in Ystad dating from 600–700 AD.[19] In Paviken, an important centre of trade in the Baltic region during the ninth and tenth century, remains have been found of a large Viking Age harbour with shipbuilding yards and handicraft industries. Between 800 and 1000, trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, and according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of this era hoarded more silver than the rest of the population of Scandinavia combined.[19]
St. Ansgar introduced Christianity in 829, but the new religion did not begin to fully replace paganism until the 12th century. During the 11th century, Christianity became the most prevalent religion, and from 1050 Sweden is counted as a Christian nation. The period between 1100 and 1400 was characterized by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms. Swedish kings also began to expand the Swedish-controlled territory in Finland, creating conflicts with the Rus who no longer had any connection with Sweden.[20]
Except for the province of Skane, on the southern most tip of Sweden which was under Danish control during this time, feudalism never developed in Sweden as it did in the rest of Europe.[21] Therefore, the peasantry remained largely a class of free farmers throughout most of Swedish history. Slavery was not common in Sweden, and what slavery there was tended to be driven out of existence by the spread of Christianity, the difficulty in obtaining slaves from the lands east of the Baltic Sea, and by the development of cities before the 16th century[22] Indeed, both slavery and serfdom were abolished altogether by a decree of King Magnus Erickson in 1335. Former slaves tended to be absorbed into the peasantry and some were became laborers in the towns. Still, Sweden remained a poor and economically backward country in which barter was the means of exchange. For instance the farmers of the province of Dalsland would transport their butter to rhe mining districts of Sweden, exchange it their for iron which they would then take down to the coast and trade the iron for fish they needed for food while the iron would be shipped abroad.[23]
Valdemar IV takes control over Swedish Gotland.
In the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death. The population of Sweden was decimated.[24] During this period the Swedish cities also began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the Hanseatic League, active especially at Visby. In 1319, Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus Eriksson, and in 1397 Queen Margaret I of Denmark effected the personal union of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark through the Kalmar Union. However, Margaret's successors, whose rule was also centred in Denmark, were unable to control the Swedish nobility. Real power was held for long periods by regents (notably those of the Sture family) chosen by the Swedish parliament. King Christian II of Denmark, who asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre in 1520 of Swedish nobles at Stockholm. .This came to be known as the “Stockholm blood bath” and stirred the Swedish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June (now Sweden's national holiday) in 1523, they made Gustav Vasa their king.^ Sweden recognizes five national minorities – the Sami, the Swedish Finns, the Tornedalers, the Roma and the Jews.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ On 4 June 2008 a new Discrimination Act was adopted by the Swedish Parliament, which entered into force on 1 January 2009.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[25] This is sometimes considered as the foundation of modern Sweden. Shortly afterwards he rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the Protestant Reformation. Economically, Gustav Vasa broke the monopoly of the Hanseatic League over Swedish Baltic Sea trade.[26]
The Hanseatic League had been officially formed at Lubeck on the northern coast of Germany in 1356. The League sought privileges from the princes and royalty of the countries and cities along the coasts of the Baltic Sea.[27] In exchange they offered a certain amount of protection. Having their own navy the Hansa were able to sweep the Baltic Sea free of pirates.[28] The privileges obtained by the Hansa included assurances that only Hansa citizens would be allowed to trade from the ports where they were located. They also sought agreement to be free of all customs and taxes. With these concessions, Lubeck merchants flocked to Stockholm, Sweden and soon came to dominate the economic life of that city and made the port city of Stockholm into the leading commercial and industrial city of Sweden.[29] Under the Hanseatic trade 2/3rds of Stockholm's imports consisted of textiles and 1/3 of salt. Exports from Sweden consisted of iron and copper.[30]
However, the Swedes began to resent the monopoly trading position of the Hansa (mostly German citizens) and to resent the income they felt they lost to the Hansa. Consequently, when Gustav Vasa or Gustav I broke the monopoly power of the Hanseatic League he was regarded as a hero to the Swedish people. History now views Gustav I as the father of the modern Swedish nation. The foundations laid by Gustave would take time to develop. Furthermore, when Sweden did develop, freed itself from the Hanseatic League and entered its golden era, the fact the peasantry had traditionally been free meant that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class.[31] This was not the case in other countries of Europe like Poland were the peasantry was still bound by serfdom and a strong feudalistic land owning system.

Swedish Empire

The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. Dominions in Prussia, held from 1629 to 1635, do not appear on this map.
     Sweden proper      Kexholm County      Swedish Ingria      Swedish Estonia      Livonia      Swedish Pomerania, Abp Bremen and Bp Verden      Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Gotland and Bohuslän      Trøndelag and Møre og Romsdal      Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna
During the 17th century Sweden emerged as a European great power. Before the emergence of the Swedish Empire, Sweden was a very poor and scarcely populated country on the fringe of European civilization, with no significant power or reputation. Sweden rose to prominence on a continental scale during the tenure of king Gustavus Adolphus, seizing territories from Russia and Poland–Lithuania in multiple conflicts, including the Thirty Years' War.
During the Thirty Years' War, Sweden conquered approximately half of the Holy Roman states. Gustav Adolphus planned to become the new Holy Roman Emperor, ruling over a united Scandinavia and the Holy Roman states, but he died at the Battle of Lützen in 1632. After the Battle of Nördlingen, Sweden's only significant military defeat of the war, pro-Swedish sentiment among the German states faded. These German provinces excluded themselves from Swedish power one by one, leaving Sweden with only a few northern German territories: Swedish Pomerania, Bremen-Verden and Wismar. The Swedish armies may have destroyed up to 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns.[32]
In the middle of the 17th century Sweden was the third largest country in Europe by land area, only surpassed by Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the treaty of Roskilde in 1658.[33][34] The foundation of Sweden's success during this period is credited to Gustav I's major changes on the Swedish economy in the 16th century, and his introduction of Protestantism.[35] In the 17th century, Sweden was engaged in many wars, for example with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with both sides competing for territories of today's Baltic states, with the disastrous Battle of Kircholm being one of the highlights.[36] One-third of the Finnish population died in the devastating famine that struck the country in 1696.[37] Famine also hit Sweden.[38]
The Swedes conducted a series of invasions into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as the Deluge. After more than half a century of almost constant warfare, the Swedish economy had deteriorated. It became the lifetime task of Charles' son, Charles XI, to rebuild the economy and refit the army. His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden Charles XII, was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet. .Sweden's largest threat at this time, Russia, had a larger army but was far behind in both equipment and training.^ There is a far larger population in Norway, and they are also found in Finland and Russia.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ No country in Europe , with exception of Russia , has larger lakes than Sweden.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sweden 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two studies, both at municipalities in the far north of Sweden, have been completed.
  • Sweden2003 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www-pub.iaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After the Battle of Narva in 1700, one of the first battles of the Great Northern War, the Russian army was so severely decimated that Sweden had an open chance to invade Russia. However, Charles did not pursue the Russian army, instead turning against Poland-Lithuania and defeating the Polish king Augustus II and his Saxon allies at the Battle of Kliszow in 1702. This gave Russia time to rebuild and modernize its army. After the success of invading Poland Charles decided to make an invasion attempt of Russia which ended in a decisive Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. After a long march exposed to cossack raids, Russian Tsar Peter the Great's scorched-earth techniques and the cold Russian climate, the Swedes stood weakened with a shattered morale and enormously outnumbered against the Russian army at Poltava. The defeat meant the beginning of the end for the Swedish empire.
The funeral transport of Charles XII. A romanticized painting by Gustaf Cederström, 1884
Charles XII attempted to invade Norway 1716; however, he was shot dead at Fredriksten fortress in 1718. The Swedes were not militarily defeated at Fredriksten, but the whole structure and organization of the Norwegian campaign fell apart with the king's death, and the army withdrew. Forced to cede large areas of land in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, Sweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea. .With Sweden's lost influence, Russia emerged as an empire and became one of Europe's dominant nations.^ Minority policy is shaped by the 1998 National Minorities in Sweden Government Act, by the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

In the 18th century, Sweden did not have enough resources to maintain its territories outside Scandinavia, and most of them were lost, culminating with the 1809 loss of eastern Sweden to Russia which became the semi-autonomous Duchy of Finland in Imperial Russia.
In interest of reestablishing Swedish dominance in the Baltic Sea, Sweden allied itself against its traditional ally and benefactor, France, in the Napoleonic Wars. Sweden's role in the Battle of Leipzig gave it the authority to force Denmark-Norway, an ally of France, to cede Norway to the King of Sweden on 14 January 1814 in exchange for northern German provinces, at the Treaty of Kiel. The Norwegian attempts to keep their status as a sovereign state were rejected by the Swedish king, Charles XIII. He launched a military campaign against Norway on July 27, 1814, ending in the Convention of Moss, which forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden under the Swedish crown, which was not dissolved until 1905. The 1814 campaign was the last war in which Sweden participated as a combatant. Swedish troops partake in peace-keeping missions and currently have forces deployed in Afghanistan and Kosovo.

Modern history

There was a significant population increase during the 18th and 19th centuries, which the writer Esaias Tegnér in 1833 attributed to "the peace, the (smallpox) vaccine, and the potatoes".[39] .Between 1750 and 1850, the population in Sweden doubled.^ Statistics Sweden, SCB (Statistiska Centralbyrån) was established in the mid 1850 in order to measure population.
  • Sweden - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to some scholars, mass emigration to America became the only way to prevent famine and rebellion; over 1% of the population emigrated annually during the 1880s.^ Comparatively low mortality of young people during the 1910s, as well as an end to mass emigration further enhanced the share of the active population.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Sweden – Economic Growth and Structural Change, 1800-2000 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Nevertheless, Sweden remained poor, retaining a nearly entirely agricultural economy even as Denmark and Western European countries began to industrialize.^ In a European perspective Sweden was a rather poor country.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Sweden – Economic Growth and Structural Change, 1800-2000 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All industry and agriculture in Sweden is located in places around the country.
  • Sweden - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 450,000 km2 (173,746 sq mi), Sweden is the third largest country in the European Union in terms of area, and it has a total population of over 9.2 million.

[40][41] .Many looked towards America for a better life during this time.^ At the same time consumer demand shifted towards better foodstuff – such as milk, butter and meat – and towards more fabricated industrial goods.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Sweden – Economic Growth and Structural Change, 1800-2000 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is believed that between 1850 and 1910 more than one million Swedes moved to the United States.^ I cannot tell you the total but it would be much more than that 35 million dollars.
  • Tamils - a Nation without a State- Sweden - சுவீடன் 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 50 per cent of the immigrant population are naturalized Swedes.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ By ERIC PFANNER South Korea and France are also at the top of two lists, and the United States has advanced into one survey’s second-ranked group.
  • Sweden News - Breaking World Sweden News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .In the early 20th century, more Swedes lived in Chicago than in Gothenburg (Sweden's second largest city).^ More than 50 per cent of the immigrant population are naturalized Swedes.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[43] Most Swedish immigrants moved to the Midwestern United States, with a large population in Minnesota. Some Swedes moved to Delaware. Some also moved to Canada and others in smaller numbers to Argentina.
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
Despite the slow rate of industrialization into the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy because of innovations and the large population growth.[44] .These innovations included government-sponsored programs of enclosure, aggressive exploitation of agricultural lands, and the introduction of new crops such as the potato.^ It is hoped that these investigations will give rise to new legislation resolving many of the outstanding issues related to Sami lands and their resources.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[44] Because the Swedish peasantry had never been enserfed as elsewhere in Europe,[45] the Swedish farming culture began to take on a critical role in the Swedish political process, which has continued through modern times with modern Agrarian party (now called the Centre Party).[46] .Between 1870 and 1914, Sweden began developing the industrialized economy that exists today.^ Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a highly developed economy.

^ Industrial engineers are in particularly high demand, and as Sweden's technological development rapidly expands, the need for qualified and educated IT engineers will also increase.
  • Working Abroad Career Guide for Sweden 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.overseasdigest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These immigrants were immensely important to Sweden's early industrial development.
  • Migration Information Source - Sweden: Restrictive Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.migrationinformation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]
Strong grassroots movements sprung up in Sweden during the latter half of the nineteenth century (trade unions, temperance groups, and independent religious groups), creating a strong foundation of democratic principles. In 1889 The Swedish Social Democratic Party was founded. These movements precipitated Sweden's migration into a modern parliamentary democracy, achieved by the time of World War I. As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the twentieth century, people gradually began moving into cities to work in factories and became involved in socialist unions. A socialist revolution was avoided in 1917, following the re-introduction of parliamentarism, and the country was democratized.

World Wars

Swedish soldier during World War II
Sweden remained officially neutral during World War I and World War II, although its neutrality during World War II has been debated.[48][49] Sweden was under German influence for much of the war, as ties to the rest of the world were cut off through blockades.[48] The Swedish government felt that it was in no position to openly contest Germany,[50] and therefore made some concessions.[51] Sweden also supplied steel and machined parts to Germany throughout the war. However, Sweden supported Norwegian resistance, and in 1943 helped rescue Danish Jews from deportation to concentration camps. Toward the end of the war, Sweden began to play a role in humanitarian efforts and many refugees, among them many Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe, were saved partly because of the Swedish involvement in rescue missions at the internment camps and partly because Sweden served as a haven for refugees, primarily from the Nordic countries and the Baltic states.[50] .Nevertheless, internal and external critics have argued that Sweden could have done more to resist the Nazi war effort, even if risking occupation.^ As such concessions demonstrate, what Germany demanded was that Sweden should be responsive to the needs of the German war effort but not that it depart from actual non-belligerency.
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^ This has remained the position of the Swedish government even after it was revealed in 2000 that those who had participated in Nazi atrocities were alive and living in Sweden.
  • Sweden's Refusal to Prosecute Nazi War Criminals: 1986-2002 - Efraim Zuroff 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Socialist Sweden outperforms Ontario: a refederated Ontario could cruise like Sweden or thrive like the more dynamic U.S. states.
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[50]

Cold War

Sweden publicly claimed to be a neutral country and the image was forcefully maintained, but unofficially Sweden's leadership had strong ties with the United States. .In the early 1960s Sweden and the United States agreed to deploy nuclear submarines off the Swedish west coast.^ Finnish-speakers have lived in the north of Sweden since before the Swedish state existed.
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In the same year Sweden made a defense pact with the United States.
.Following the war, Sweden took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Europe.^ Sweden survived the war as a non-belligerent state by following a flexible policy which responded to the political realities of the moment while retaining some freedom of manoeuvre for the future.
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^ Just like over half the country, I took advantage of the social welfare system here in Sweden and received a completely free (you know, if you don’t count all of the taxes I pay) H1N1 vaccine.
  • Alltop - Top Sweden News 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC sweden.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ At its height, over 400,000 Finns lived in Sweden, but following the 1973 energy crisis the unemployment rate in Sweden worsened while steady Soviet trade was to Finland's advantage.
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[52] Sweden was part of the Marshall Plan and participated in the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). During most of the post-war era, the country was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party (in Swedish: Socialdemokraterna). Social democrats imposed corporatist policies: favoring big capitalist corporations and big unions, especially Swedish Trade Union Confederation, affiliated with Social Democrats.[53] The amount of bureaucrats rose from normal levels in the 1960s to very high levels by the 1980s.[53] Sweden was open to trade and pursued an internationally competitive manufacturing sector. Growth was good until 1970s.
Sweden, like countries around the globe, entered a period of economic decline and upheaval, following the oil embargoes of 1973–74 and 1978–79.[54] In the 1980s pillars of Swedish industry were massively restructured. Shipbuilding was discontinued, wood pulp was integrated into modernized paper production, the steel industry was concentrated and specialized, and mechanical engineering was robotized.[55]
Between 1970 and 1990 the overall tax burden rose by over 10%, and the growth was very low compared to most other countries in Western Europe. The marginal income tax for workers reached over 80%. Eventually government spent over half of the country's gross domestic product. Sweden steadily declined from its perennial top five GDP per capita ranking. Since the late 1970s, Sweden's economic policies were increasingly questioned by economists and Ministry of Finance officials.[53]
Carl XVI Gustaf has been Sweden's king and head of state since 1973.

Recent history

The signing of the Maastricht Treaty.
A bursting real estate bubble caused by inadequate controls on lending combined with an international recession and a policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis in the early 1990s.[56] Sweden's GDP declined by around 5%. In 1992, there was a run on the currency, with the central bank briefly jacking up interest to 500%. The response of the government was to cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms to improve Sweden's competitiveness, among them reducing the welfare state and privatizing public services and goods. Much of the political establishment promoted EU membership, and the Swedish referendum passed with 52% in favour of joining the EU on 13 November 1994. Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995.
Sweden remains non-aligned militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to extensive cooperation with other European countries in the area of defence technology and defence industry. Among others, Swedish companies export weapons that are used by the American military in Iraq.[57] Sweden also has a long history of participating in international military operations, including most recently, Afghanistan, where Swedish troops are under NATO command, and in EU sponsored peacekeeping operations in UN protectorate Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Cyprus.

Geography and climate

Situated in Northern Europe, Sweden lies west of the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia, providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. To the west is the Scandinavian mountain chain (Skanderna), a range that separates Sweden from Norway. Finland is located to its northeast. It has maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, and it is also linked to Denmark (southwest) by the Öresund Bridge. .At 449,964 km2 (173,732 sq mi), Sweden is the 55th largest country in the world.^ Sweden is ranked the 55th largest country in the world and it is the largest in Northern Europe and 5th largest in Europe.
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^ Area: 449,964 sq.
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^ Geography Area: 449,964 sq.

.It is the 5th largest in Europe, and the largest in Northern Europe.^ Sweden is ranked the 55th largest country in the world and it is the largest in Northern Europe and 5th largest in Europe.
  • Sweden - Wikiversity 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Original source]

The land area is equal to Uzbekistan with a population in 2008 of over 9.2 million people.
The Swedish Lynx.
The lowest elevation in Sweden is in the bay of Lake Hammarsjön, near Kristianstad at -2.41 m (−7.91 ft) below sea level. The highest point is Kebnekaise at 2,111 m (6,926 ft) above sea level.
Sweden has 25 provinces or landskap (landscapes), based on culture, geography and history; Bohuslän, Blekinge, Dalarna, Dalsland, Gotland, Gästrikland, Halland, Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Jämtland, Lapland, Medelpad, Norrbotten, Närke, Skåne, Småland, Södermanland, Uppland, Värmland, Västmanland, Västerbotten, Västergötland, Ångermanland, Öland and Östergötland. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role for people's self-identification. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands, parts, the northern Norrland, the central Svealand and southern Götaland. The sparsely populated Norrland encompasses almost 60% of the country.
About 15% of Sweden lies north of the Arctic Circle. .Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward.^ Sweden's predominantly agricultural economy shifted gradually from village to private, farm-based agriculture during the Industrial Revolution.
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^ Since then organic farming has been politically accepted and is an increasingly important actor in the national agricultural policy of Sweden, and has entered a period of strongly increased growth and development.

^ Besides sharply increased carbon dioxide emissions, the fallout in Southern Sweden of acidifying substances, such as sulphur and nitrogen, will also increase.
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Around 65% of Sweden's total land area is covered with forests. The highest population density is in the Öresund region in southern Sweden and in the valley of lake Mälaren near to Stockholm. Gotland and Öland are Sweden's largest islands; Vänern and Vättern are its largest lakes. Vänern is the third largest in Europe, after Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in Russia.

Climate

The Scandes.
Most of Sweden has a temperate climate, despite its northern latitude, with four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The country can be divided into three types of climate; the southernmost part has an oceanic climate, the central part has a humid continental climate and the northernmost part has a subarctic climate.[58] However, Sweden is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat further south, mainly because of the Gulf Stream.[59][60] For example, central and southern Sweden has much warmer winters than many parts of Russia, Canada, and the northern United States.[61] Because of its high latitude, the length of daylight varies greatly. North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and it never rises for part of each winter. In the capital, Stockholm, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 6 hours in late December. Sweden receives between 1,100 to 1,900 hours of sunshine annually.[62][63]
Temperatures vary greatly from north to south. Southern and central parts of the country have warm summers and cold winters, with average high temperatures of 20 to 25 °C (68 to 77 °F) to 20 to 25 °C (68 to 77 °F)[64] and lows of 12 to 15 °C (54 to 59 °F)[65] in the summer, and average temperatures of -4 to 2 °C (25 to 36 °F) in the winter,[66] while the northern part of the country has shorter, cooler summers and longer, colder and snowier winters, with temperatures that often drop below freezing from September through May.[67][68] Occasional heatwaves can occur a few times each year, and temperatures above 25 °C (77 °F) occur on many days during the summer, sometimes even in the north. The highest temperature ever recorded in Sweden was 38 °C in Målilla in 1947, while the coldest temperature ever recorded was −52.6 °C (−62.7 °F) in Vuoggatjålme in 1966.[69][70]
On average, most of Sweden receives between 500 and 800 mm (20 and 31 in) of precipitation each year, making it considerably drier than the global average. The southwestern part of the country receives more precipitation, between 1000 and 1200 mm (39 and 47 in), and some mountain areas in the north are estimated to receive up to 2000 mm (79 in). Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March in southern Sweden, from November through April in central Sweden, and from October through May in northern Sweden. Despite northerly locations, southern and central Sweden tend to be virtually free of snow in some winters.[71][72]
Average high and low temperatures in various cities in Sweden (°C)[73]
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Kiruna -10/-16 -8/-15 -4/-13 2/-7 8/0 14/6 17/8 14/6 9/2 1/-4 -5/-10 -8/-15
Östersund -5/-10 -3/-9 0/-6 5/-2 12/3 16/8 18/10 17/10 12/6 6/2 0/-3 -3/-8
Stockholm 1/-2 1/-3 4/-2 11/3 16/8 20/12 23/15 22/14 17/10 10/6 5/2 1/-1
Gothenburg (Göteborg) 2/-1 4/-1 6/0 11/3 16/8 19/12 22/14 22/14 18/10 12/6 7/3 3/-1
Visby 1/-2 1/-3 3/-2 9/1 14/6 18/10 21/13 20/13 16/9 10/6 5/2 2/0
Malmö 3/-1 3/-1 6/0 12/3 17/8 19/11 22/13 22/14 18/10 12/6 8/4 4/1

Government

.Sweden is a constitutional monarchy, in which King Carl XVI Gustaf is head of state, but royal power has long been limited to official and ceremonial functions.^ Sweden has been a constitutional monarchy since 1809.
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[74] The Economist Intelligence Unit, while acknowledging that democracy is difficult to measure, listed Sweden in first place in its index of democracy assessing 167 countries.[75] The nation's legislative body is the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament), with 349 members, which chooses the Prime Minister. .Parliamentary elections are held every four years, on the third Sunday of September.^ POLITICAL CONDITIONS Ordinary general elections to the Swedish Parliament are held every fourth year on the third Sunday in September.
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^ The next elections will be held in September 2006.

^ POLITICAL CONDITIONS Ordinary general elections to the Swedish parliament are held every fourth year on the third Sunday in September.

Sweden municipal borders

Counties and municipalities

Each county has a County Administrative Board or länsstyrelse, which is appointed by the government (the first Swedish County Administrative Board was made up by the Swedish Prime Minister Axel Oxenstierna in 1634). In each county there is also a separate County Council or landsting, which is elected directly by the people.
Each county further divides into a number of municipalities or kommuner, with a total of 290 municipalities in 2004. Municipal government in Sweden is similar to city commission government and cabinet-style council government. A legislative municipal assembly (kommunfullmäktige) of between 31 and 101 members (always an uneven number) is elected from party-list proportional representation at municipal elections, held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.
The municipalities are divided into a total of 2,512 parishes, or församlingar. These have traditionally been a subdivision of the Church of Sweden but still have importance as districts for census and elections. There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.

Political history

Kingdoms of Svear (Swedish) and Götar (Geats) in the tenth century
The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown.[76] It depends mostly on whether Sweden should be considered a nation when the Svear (Swedes) ruled Svealand or if the emergence of the nation started with the Svear and the Götar (Geats) of Götaland being united under one ruler. In the first case, Sweden was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way. However, historians usually start the line of Swedish monarchs from when Svealand and Götaland were ruled under the same king, namely Erik the Victorious and his son Olof Skötkonung in the 10th century. These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden, although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later.
Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden. Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology.
The title Sveriges och Götes Konung was last used for Gustaf I of Sweden, after which the title became "King of Sweden, of the Goths and of the Wends" (Sveriges, Götes och Vendes Konung) in official documentation. Up until the beginning of the 1920s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends". This title was used up until 1973.[77] The present King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, was the first monarch officially proclaimed "King of Sweden" (Sveriges Konung) with no additional peoples mentioned in his title.
The term Riksdag was used for the first time in the 1540s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as 1435, in the town of Arboga.[78] During the assemblies of 1527 and 1544, under King Gustav Vasa, representatives of all four estates of the realm (clergy, nobility, townsmen and peasants) were called on to participate for the first time.[78] The monarchy became hereditary in 1544.
Executive power was historically shared between the King and a noble Privy Council until 1680, followed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the common estates of the Parliament. As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in 1719, followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in 1772, 1789 and 1809, the latter granting several civil liberties. The monarch remains as the formal, but merely symbolic, head of state with ceremonial duties.
The Riksdag of the Estates consisted of two chambers. In 1866 Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years. In 1971 the Riksdag became unicameral. Legislative power was (symbolically) shared between king and parliament until 1975. Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag (parliament).

Modern political system

Constitutionally, the 349-member Riksdag (Parliament) holds supreme authority in modern Sweden. The Riksdag is responsible for choosing the prime minister, who then appoints the government (the ministers). The legislative power is then shared between the parliament and the Prime Minister led government. The executive power is exercised by the government, while the judiciary is independent. Sweden lacks compulsory judicial review, although the non-compulsory review carried out by lagrådet (Law Council) is mostly respected in technical matters but less so in controversial political matters. .Acts of the parliament and government decrees can be made inapplicable at every level if they are manifestly against constitutional laws.^ Constitution: The Swedish Constitution is based on four fundamental laws: the Instrument of Government (originally dating from June 6, 1809), the Act of Succession (1810), the Freedom of the Press Act (1949), and the Riksdag Act.
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^ The Social Democrats ruled a minority government but with any one of the other parties they were able to get a majority in parliament.
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^ Proposals for new laws are presented by the government, which also implements decisions made by the Riksdag.
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However, because of the restrictions in this form of judicial review and a weak judiciary, this has had little practical consequence.
Legislation may be initiated by the cabinet or by members of Parliament. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation for a four-year term. The Constitution of Sweden can be altered by the Riksdag, which requires a simple but absolute majority and two decisions with general elections in between. .Sweden has three other constitutional laws: the Act of Royal Succession, the Freedom of Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression.^ Constitution: The Swedish Constitution is based on four fundamental laws: the Instrument of Government (originally dating from June 6, 1809), the Act of Succession (1810), the Freedom of the Press Act (1949), and the Riksdag Act.
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^ To change a constitutional law, the constitution requires three elections with one governmental election in between.
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^ Sweden is a constitutional monarchy; the crown is hereditary in accordance with the law of primogeniture.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sweden 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The Swedish Head of State
The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after Reformists had confirmed their strength and the revolutionaries left the party. After 1932, the cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. .Only four general elections (1976, 1979, 1991 and 2006) have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in Parliament to form a government.^ Government: the prime minister (today Goran Persson), parliament (Riksdag) with 349 members (Socialists Democratic Party role since 1998, next election in 2002) who are elected to four-year terms.
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^ These four parties - the Centre Party, the Christian Democrats, the Liberal People's Party and the (conservative) Moderate Party - formed the conservative-led Alliance for Sweden ( Allians för Sverige ) coalition and came to power in the September 2006 elections.
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^ POLITICAL CONDITIONS Ordinary general elections to the Swedish Parliament are held every fourth year on the third Sunday in September.
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.However, poor economic performance since the beginning of the 1970s, and especially the crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, have forced Sweden to reform its political system to become more like other European countries.^ Like other industrialized countries, Sweden has a low birth rate.
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^ Polarbears roams the streets sorting out the lesser humans, thats why sweden is supereior too all other countrys in "polarbearhunting", soon to be in the olympics .
  • Sweden - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Failure in the ground telephone system is extremely unusual, and regarding the cell phone system, Sweden is the leading country in the world on Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM 900-1800MHz), which is a Swedish- developed European-Asian-African standard.
  • Sweden - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the 2006 general election the Moderate Party, allied with the Centre Party, Liberal People's Party, and the Christian Democrats, with a common political platform, won a majority of the votes. Together they have formed a majority government under the leadership of the Moderate party's leader Fredrik Reinfeldt. The next elections will be held in September 2010.[79]
Stockholm Palace, the official seat of the Swedish King
Election turnout in Sweden has always been high by international comparison, although it has declined in recent decades, and is currently around 80% (80.11 in 2002, and 81.99% in 2006). Swedish politicians enjoyed a high degree of confidence from the citizens in the 1960s but it has since declined steadily and has a markedly lower level of trust than its Scandinavian neighbours.[80]
Some Swedish political figures that have become known worldwide include Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, former Secretary General of the United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld, former Prime Minister Olof Palme, former Prime Minister and Foreign minister Carl Bildt, former President of the General Assembly of the United Nations Jan Eliasson, and former International Atomic Energy Agency Iraq inspector Hans Blix.

Political movements

Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" (Folkrörelser), the most notable being trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the temperance movement, the women's movement and more recently the sports and intellectual property pirate movements.
Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system.[81] The Global Gender Gap Report 2006 ranked Sweden as the number one country in terms of gender equality.[82]

Law, law enforcement, and judicial system

The Supreme Court of Sweden is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Councillors of Justice or justitieråd which are appointed by the government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, and the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court.
Law enforcement in Sweden is carried out by several government entities. The Swedish Police Service is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The National Task Force is a national SWAT unit within the National Criminal Investigation Department. Swedish Security Service's responsibilities are counter-espionage, anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people.
According to a victimization survey of 1,201 residents in 2005, Sweden has above average crime rates compared to other EU countries. Sweden has high or above average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare.[83]

Foreign policy

Throughout the twentieth century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.[52] ."Sweden's government was left to pursue an independent course based on a foreign policy defined as nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war."^ Government Debt (1.0) Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole twentieth century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits.
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^ FOREIGN RELATIONS Swedish foreign policy is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying out of military alliances in peacetime in order to remain neutral in the event of war.
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^ FOREIGN RELATIONS Swedish foreign policy is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain neutral in the event of war.

Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in 1814. During World War II Sweden joined neither the allied nor axis powers. This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods,[48][50] especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.[50][84]
During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment with a low profile in international affairs, although it also pursued a security policy based on strong national defence to deter attack.[85] .At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with the Western bloc, especially in the realm of intelligence exchange.^ The nation was permanently separated from Rome , consequently it is only necessary here to treat the later history of the country very briefly, especially as during the period of the "great powers" it is closely connected with that of Europe .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sweden 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1952, a Swedish DC-3 was shot down over the Baltic Sea by a Soviet MiG-15 jet fighter. Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO.[86] Another plane, a Catalina search and rescue plane, was sent out a few days later and shot down by the Soviets as well. Olof Palme, the former prime minister of Sweden, visited Cuba during the 1970s and showed his support for Cuba in his speech.
.Beginning in the late 1960s, Sweden for a period attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations.^ In the 16th century, Gustav Vasa fought for an independent Sweden, crushing an attempt to restore the Kalmar Union and laying the foundation for modern Sweden.
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^ Swedish politicians, however, are still deeply divided on the issue of neutrality, as to whether Sweden should be playing a more active role in the European Union (EU).
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^ Up to the late 1960s, there was a focus on hydro electricity to power Sweden's industrial growth.
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This involved significant activity in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World. Since the assassination of Olof Palme in 1986 and the end of the Cold War, this has been significantly toned down, although Sweden remains comparatively active in peace keeping missions and maintains a generous foreign aid budget.
In 1981 a Soviet Whiskey class submarine ran aground close to the Swedish naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country. It has never been clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if it was a matter of espionage against Swedish military potential. .The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union.^ The union's final disintegration in the early 16th century brought on a long-lived rivalry between Norway and Denmark on one side and Sweden and Finland on the other.
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Since 1995 Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.

Military

The JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
Försvarsmakten (Swedish Armed Forces) is a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden. .The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.^ Sweden suffered further territorial losses during the Napoleonic wars and was forced to cede Finland to Russia in 1809.
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^ In 2002 Sweden redefined its security position from neutral to one of non-alignment in peacetime with the ability to cooperate with military alliances in peacekeeping and peace-building missions.
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^ The donation supports the One Big Thing in the short term with teaching and research projects and in the long term by establishing linkages between universities and scholars.
  • Sweden (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The armed forces are divided into Army, Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander (Överbefälhavaren, ÖB), the most senior officer in the country. Up to 1974 the head of state (=the King) was pro forma Commander-in-Chief, but in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader. When King Gustav V asserted his right to decide and bypass the government in military matters just before the First World War ("borggårdskrisen", the Castle Court Crisis) it was seen as a deliberate provocation against established terms of how the country would be ruled. The office of an appointed Supreme Commander was set up in 1939; before that date, from the late 19th century onwards, the leading men of the army and navy would report directly to the cabinet (and the king), and no fully unified command existed in the professional military sphere itself.
Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. .Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service.^ The fact that those levels in 1990 were only 60% of those of the 1970s was due to nuclear energy replacing most oil for electricity generation.
  • Nuclear Energy in Sweden : WNA 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Swedes have the day off, including those working in the civil service, banks, public transport, hospitals, shops, and the media.
  • Sweden (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In 1975 the total number of conscripts was 45,000. By 2003 it was down to 15,000. After the Defence Proposition of 2004, the number of troops in training will decrease even more to between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The need to recruit only the soldiers later prepared to volunteer for international service will be emphasized. The total forces gathered would consist of about 60,000 men. This could be compared with the 80s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,000,000 men.
Swedish units have taken part in peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, Lebanon, Afghanistan and Chad.
Currently, one of the most important tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces has been to form a Swedish-led EU Battle Group to which Norway, Finland, Ireland and Estonia will also contribute.[87] The Nordic Battle Group (NBG) had a 10-day deployment readiness during the first half of 2008 and, although Swedish led, had its Operational Headquarters (OHQ) in Northwood, outside London.

Economy

Gross Regional Product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2004).
Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy featuring a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labour force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Sweden's engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Agriculture accounts for 2 percent of GDP and employment.
The 20 largest (by turnover in 2007) companies registered in Sweden are Volvo, Ericsson, Vattenfall, Skanska, Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, Electrolux, Volvo Personvagnar, TeliaSonera, Sandvik, Scania, ICA, Hennes & Mauritz, Nordea, Preem, Atlas Copco, Securitas, Nordstjernan, and SKF.[88] Sweden's industry is overwhelmingly in private control; unlike some other industrialized Western countries, such as Austria and Italy, publicly owned enterprises were always of minor importance.
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006.
Some 4.5 million residents are working, out of which around a third with tertiary education. GDP per hour worked is the world's 9th highest at 31 USD in 2006, compared to 22 USD in Spain and 35 USD in United States.[89] According to OECD, deregulation, globalization, and technology sector growth have been key productivity drivers.[89] GDP per hour worked is growing 2½ per cent a year for the economy as a whole and trade-terms-balanced productivity growth 2%.[89] Sweden is a world leader in privatized pensions and pension funding problems are relatively small compared to many other Western European countries.[90] The Swedish labor market has become more flexible, but it still has some widely acknowledged problems.[89] The typical worker receives 40% of his income after the tax wedge. The slowly declining overall taxation, 51.1% of GDP in 2007, is still nearly double of that in the United States or Ireland. The share of employment financed via tax income amounts to a third of Swedish workforce, a substantially higher proportion than in most other countries. Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms in the early 1990s, especially in manufacturing.[91]
The World Economic Forum 2009-2010 competitiveness index ranks Sweden the 4th most competitive economy in the world.[92] Sweden is ranked 9th in the IMD Competitiveness Yearbook 2008, scoring high in private sector efficiency.[93] According to the book, The Flight of the Creative Class, by the U.S. economist, Professor Richard Florida of the University of Toronto, Sweden is ranked as having the best creativity in Europe for business and is predicted to become a talent magnet for the world's most purposeful workers. The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.[94]
Swedes have rejected the euro in a popular vote, and Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona (SEK). The Swedish Riksbank—founded in 1668 and thus making it the oldest central bank in the world—is currently focusing on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. According to the Economic Survey of Sweden 2007 by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mid-1990s, largely because of deregulation and quick utilization of globalization.[89]
The largest trade flows are with Germany, the United States, Norway, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Finland.

Energy and transport infrastructure

Sweden's energy market is largely privatized. The Nordic energy market is one of the first liberalized energy markets in Europe and it is traded in Nord Pool. In 2006, out of a total electricity production of 139 TWh, electricity from hydropower accounted for 61 TWh (44%), and nuclear power delivered 65 TWh (47%). At the same time, the use of biofuels, peat etc. produced .13 TWh (9%) of electricity, while wind power produced 1 TWh (1%).^ Total domestic electricity production of 144.708 TWh for 2007 comprises: hydro: 65.591 TWh (45.3%); nuclear: 64.279 TWh (44.4%); conventional thermal: 13.406 TWh (9.3%); wind: 1.432 TWh (1.0%).
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^ Nuclear power produced 77.5 billion kWh in 2004 - 51% of total electricity production - and 61.3 billion kWh (42%) in 2008.
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^ Total domestic electricity production of 145.9 TWh for 2008 comprises: hydro: 68.4 TWh (46.9%); nuclear: 61.3 TWh (42.0%); conventional thermal: 14.2 TWh (9.7%); wind: 2.0 TWh (1.4%).
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.Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.^ Sweden's electricity imports have normally balanced exports, with a small net flow in from Norway and out to Finland.
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^ In addition Sweden had net imports of 6.05 TWh (17.547 TWh imported and 11.497 TWh exported) in 2006.
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^ In addition Sweden had net imports of 1.315 TWh (16.051 TWh imported and 14.736 TWh exported) in 2007.
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[95] Biomass is mainly used to produce heat for district heating and central heating and industry processes.
On the other hand, Sweden has proposed ban gasoline fossil fuel-driven vehicles by 2025.[96]
The 1973 oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power. .The use of nuclear power has been limited, however.^ Non-power uses of nuclear energy .
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^ After an advisory referendum in 1980, Parliament decided that the use of nuclear power should be phased out by 2010.
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^ All Rights Reserved 'Promoting the peaceful worldwide use of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource' .
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Among other things, the accident of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (US) prompted the Swedish parliament to ban new nuclear plants. .In March 2005, an opinion poll showed that 83% supported maintaining or increasing nuclear power.^ This total support had risen to 83% in March 2005, with a similar proportion saying that limiting greenhouse gas emissions should be the top environmental priority.
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^ The total support for maintaining or increasing nuclear power thus was 80% as the government tried to negotiate a phase out.
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^ An April 2008 independent poll in both communities (N=900 in each) showed that 83% of Oskarshamn residents and 77% of those in Östhammar supported having the future repository in their own locality.
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[97] Politicians have made announcements about oil phase-out in Sweden, decrease of nuclear power, and multi-billion dollar investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency.[98][99] The country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular.[98]
Sweden has 162,707 km of paved road and 1,428 km of expressways. Motorways run through Sweden, Denmark and over the Öresund Bridge to Stockholm, Gothenburg, Uppsala and Uddevalla. The system of motorways is still under construction and a new motorway from Uppsala to Gävle was finished on October 17, 2007. Sweden had left-hand traffic (Vänstertrafik in Swedish) from approximately 1736 and continued to do so well into the 20th century. Voters rejected right-hand traffic in 1955, but after the Riksdag passed legislation in 1963 changeover took place in 1967, known in Swedish as Dagen H.
The rail transport market is privatized, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, many operators are still owned by state or municipalities. Operators include SJ, Veolia Transport, Connex Group, Green Cargo, Tågkompaniet, Inlandsbanan, and a number of regional companies. Most of the railways are owned and operated by Banverket.
The largest airports include Stockholm-Arlanda Airport (17.91 million passengers in 2007) 40 km north of Stockholm, Gothenburg-Landvetter Airport (4.3 million passengers in 2006), and Stockholm-Skavsta Airport (2.0 million passengers). Sweden hosts the two largest port companies in Scandinavia, Port of Göteborg AB (Gothenburg) and the transnational company Copenhagen Malmö Port AB.

Public policy

Sweden has always provided solid support for free trade (except agriculture) and strong property rights. After World War II a succession of governments increased the welfare state and the tax burden, and Sweden's GDP per capita ranking fell from the 4th to 14th place in a few decades.[100] However during this time Sweden radically changed from a divided and often extremely unequal society into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life - to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development - far ahead of some much wealthier countries (for example the United States).[101]
Sweden started to move away from this model in the 1980s, and according to the OECD and to McKinsey, Sweden has recently been relatively fast in liberalization compared to countries such as France. Deregulation-induced competition helped Sweden to halt the economic decline and restore strong growth rates in the 2000s.[89][102] The current Swedish government is continuing the trend to pursue moderate reforms.[89][103] Growth has been higher than in many other EU-15 countries.
Sweden even adopted market-oriented agricultural policies in 1990. Since the 1930s, the agricultural sector had been controlled by an "iron triangle" of special interest farming organizations, politicians, and bureaucrats. This coalition formed a top-down administration that controlled prices and restricted competition, consequently hurting consumers. In the 1980s, a group of economists managed to get agricultural policy on the public agenda. Two prominent publications, The Political Economy of the Food Sector: The Case of Sweden and War Preparedness or Protectionism?, fueled the debate. An alliance with the Ministry of Finance and public choice analysis exposed the "iron triangle". In June 1990, the Parliament voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift to a freer price system coordinated by competition. As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalizations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened.”[104]
Since the late 1960s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota (as percentage of GDP) in the industrialized world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries. Sweden has a two step progressive tax scale with a municipal income tax of about 30% and an additional high-income state tax of 20–25% when a salary exceeds roughly 320,000 SEK per year. Payroll taxes amount to 32%. In addition, a national VAT of 25% is added to many things bought by private citizens, with the exception of food (12% VAT), transportation, and books (6% VAT). Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e.g. electricity, petrol/diesel and alcoholic beverages. As of 2007, total tax revenue was 47.8% of GDP, the second highest tax burden among developed countries, down from 49.1% 2006.[105] Sweden's inverted tax wedge – the amount going to the service worker's wallet – is approximately 15% compared to 10% in Belgium, 30% in Ireland, and 50% in United States.[100] Public sector spending amounts to 53% of the GDP. State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries. Only Denmark has a larger public sector (38% of Danish workforce). Spending on transfers is also high.
Eighty percent of the workforce is organized through the trade-unions which have the right to elect two representatives to the board in all Swedish companies with more than 25 employees.[106] Sweden have a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: the average worker loses 24 days due to sickness.[91] In December 2008, the number employed in age group 16–64 was 75.0%. The employment tendency was very strong in 2007. The positive trend continued during the first half of 2008, but the rate of increase slackened. According to Statistics Sweden, the unemployment rate in December 2008 was at 6.4%.[107]

Education

Uppsala University (est. 1477)
Children aged 1–5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten (Swedish: förskola or, colloquially, dagis). Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Swedish 15-year-old pupils score close to the OECD average.[108] After completing the 9th grade, about 90% of the students continue with a three-year upper secondary school (gymnasium), which can lead to both a job qualification or entrance eligibility to university. The school system is largely financed by taxes. The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally[109] by introducing education vouchers in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world after The Netherlands. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, which usually includes one or two different kinds of hot meals, a meal for vegetarians, salad bar, fruit, bread, and milk and/or water for drink. Some schools, especially kindergartens and middle schools, even serve breakfast for free to those who want to eat before school starts.
There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden, the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala, Lund, Gothenburg and Stockholm. Only a few countries such as Canada, the United States, Japan and South Korea have higher levels of tertiary education degree holders.[citation needed] Along with several other European countries, the government also subsidises tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Swedish institutions, although there has been talk of this being changed.[110]

Demographics

Stockholm is the capital and largest city in Sweden
Of the 2007 population, 13.4% (1.23 million) were born abroad.[111] .This reflects the inter-Nordic migrations, earlier periods of labour immigration, and later decades of refugee and family immigration.^ This reflects the Nordic immigration, earlier periods of labor immigration, and later decades of refugee and family immigration.

^ This reflects Nordic immigration, earlier periods of labor immigration, and more recent refugee and family immigration.
  • Sweden (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twenty years later, only some 20 percent lived on the countryside.” Sweden’s culture is diverse due to the immigration at the end and after the glacial period.
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Sweden has been transformed from a nation of emigration ending after World War I to a nation of immigration from World War II onwards. In 2008, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 101,171 people moving to Sweden.[112]
A Sami family around 1900
As of 2008, the largest immigrant groups living in Sweden consists of people born in Finland (175,113), Iraq (109,446), the former Yugoslavia (72,285), Poland (63,822), Iran (57,663), Bosnia and Herzegovina (55,960), Denmark (44,310), Norway (44,310), Chile (28,118), Thailand (25,858), Somalia (25,159) and Lebanon (23,291). In the last decade most immigrants have come from Iraq, Poland, Thailand, Somalia and China.[113]
Immigration from the Nordic countries reached a peak of more than 40,000 per year in 1969–70 when immigration law introduced in 1967 had made it more difficult for immigrants from outside the Nordic region to settle in Sweden for labour market policy reasons. Immigration by refugees and immigrating relatives of refugees from outside the Nordic region increased drastically during the late 1980s, with many of the immigrants arriving from Asia and the Americas, especially from Iran and Chile. .During the 1990s and onwards another large immigrant group came from former Yugoslavia and the Middle East.^ During the 1970s and 1980s, many refugees came from the Middle East.
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^ The immigrant groups are Finns, Iraqis, ex-Yugoslavia nationals, Somalis, Iranians, Norwegians, Danes, and Poles.
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^ According to Statistics Sweden, the country received 208,700 asylum seekers between 1989 and 1993, of which 115,900 (56 percent) were from the former Yugoslavia and 43,000 (21 percent) were from the Middle East.
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[114] On December 15, 2008 new labour immigration rules came into effect making it easier to immigrate from outside of the European Union for labour market reasons. Most labour-market immigrants so far are IT specialists and engineers from India, China and the United States.[115]
During the period between 1820–1930 approximately 1.3 million Swedes, a third of the country's population, emigrated to North America and most of them to the United States. There are more than 4.4 million Swedish Americans according to a 2006 U.S. Census Bureau estimate.[116] In Canada, the community of Swedish ancestry is 330,000 strong.[117]

Largest cities

As of 2009, the total population of Sweden was estimated to be 9,325,429.[118] The population exceeded 9 million for the first time on approximately 12 August 2004 according to Statistics Sweden. The population density is only 20.6 people per km² (53.3 per square mile) and it is substantially higher in the south than in the north. About 85% of the population live in urban areas.[12] The capital city Stockholm has a population of about 800,000 (with 1.3 million in the urban area and 2 million in the metropolitan area). The second and third largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö.

Language

Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
The official language of Sweden is Swedish, a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than the Norwegians. Sweden Finns are Sweden's largest linguistic minority, comprising about 3% of Sweden's population and Finnish is recognised as a minority language. Four other minority languages are also recognised (Meänkieli, Sami, Romani, and Yiddish). Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July 2009, when a new language law was implemented.[9] The issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language has been raised in the past, and the parliament voted on the matter in 2005—but the proposal narrowly failed.[119]
In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English thanks to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier. English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late 1940s.[120] Depending on the local school authorities, English is currently a compulsory subject between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying English for at least another year. Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) German, French, and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers.

Religion

Before the 11th century, Swedes adhered to Norse paganism, worshiping Æsir gods, with its centre at the Temple in Uppsala. With Christianization in the 11th century, the laws of the country were changed, forbidding worship of other deities into the late 19th century.
After the Protestant Reformation in the 1530s, a change significantly affected by Martin Luther's Swedish associate Olaus Petri, the Church and state were separated and the authority of Roman Catholic bishops abolished, allowing Lutheranism to prevail. This process was completed by the Uppsala Synod of 1593. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran Orthodoxy, small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen, the Moravian Church and Walloons or French Huguenots from Belgium, played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile. The Sami originally had their own shamanistic religion, but they were converted to Lutheranism by Swedish missionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Church of Sweden[121]
Year Population Church members Percentage
1972 8,146,000 7,754,784 95.2 %
1980 8,278,000 7,690,636 92.9 %
1990 8,573,000 7,630,350 89.0 %
2000 8,880,000 7,360,825 82.9 %
2005 9,048,000 6,967,498 77.0 %
2006 9,119,000 6,893,901 75.6 %
2007 9,179,000 6,820,161 74.3 %
2008 9,262,000 6,751,952 72.9 %
Not until liberalization in the late 18th century, however, were believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism, allowed to openly live and work in Sweden, and it remained illegal until 1860 for Lutheran Swedes to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches, and, towards the end of the century secularism, leading many to distance themselves from Church rituals. Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of 1860, but only under the provision of entering another denomination. The right to stand outside any religious denomination was established in the Law on Freedom of Religion in 1951.
At the end of 2008, 72.9% of Swedes belonged to the Church of Sweden (Lutheran); this number has been decreasing by about 1% a year for the last two decades. Church of Sweden services are sparsely attended (hovering in the single digit percentages of the population).[122] At least 45% and up to 85% of the population can be classified as atheist or agnostic. Sweden is known to be the most secular country in the world. The reason for the large number of inactive members is partly that until 1996, children became members automatically at birth if at least one of the parents was a member. Since 1996, only children that are christened become members. Some 275,000 Swedes are today members of various free churches (where congregation attendance is much higher), and, in addition, immigration has meant that there are now some 92,000 Roman Catholics and 100,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians living in Sweden.[123] Because of immigration, Sweden also has a significant Muslim population. Almost half a million are Muslims by tradition, but approximately 5% (25,000) of these actively practise Islam (in the sense of attending Friday prayer and praying five times a day).[124] Åke Sander stated in 2004 that «we do not think it unreasonable to put the figure of religious Muslims in Sweden at the time of writing at close to 150 000».[125] (See Islam in Sweden.)

Health

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality. It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option. The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.

Science and technology

Being an advanced industrial nation, research plays a key role for economic development as well as for society at large, Sweden's high-quality scientific and technological development is renowned throughout the world.
Altogether, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate nearly four per cent of GDP to research & development (R&D), which makes Sweden one of the countries that invest most in R&D in terms of percentage of GDP. The standard of Swedish research is high and Sweden is a world leader in a number of important fields. Sweden tops Europe in comparative statistics both in terms of research investments as a percentage of GDP and in the number of published scientific works per capita.[126]
Though a relatively small country, Sweden has long been at the forefront of research and development. For several decades, the Swedish government, committed to strengthening R&D, has set high priorities on scientific and R&D activities. This strong engagement has helped make Sweden a leading country in terms of innovation.
For many years, Sweden has been a leading player among OECD countries in terms of its investments in and use of advanced technology. In international comparison, Swedish high-technology manufacturing is relatively large in all high-technology segments, and particularly in telecommunications and pharmaceuticals.
Statistics show that during the entire period 1970–2003, the Swedish national innovation system was among the leading countries in the OECD in terms of generating technological inventions, measured as international patenting in relation to population size. The statistics evaluating countries in terms of triadic patenting, i.e. patents assigned in the three patenting areas USA, EU and Japan, were even more outstanding. Only Switzerland reported a higher rate of triadic patenting.
Furthermore, Sweden ranked either as the first or second country publishing the highest number of scientific publications in the fields of medical science, natural science and engineering in 2001. Sweden was world-leading in medical science and second only to Switzerland in natural science and engineering in terms of the number of publications in relation to its population size.
In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterized by a large knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector, an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector, and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organisations both in manufacturing and services dominate the Swedish economy.[127]

Inventions

Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize.
In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from professionals who had immigrated from mainland Europe. In 1739, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carolus Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members. From the 1870s, engineering companies were created at an unmatched rate and engineers became heroes of the age. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers are still internationally familiar. Gustaf Dalén founded AGA, and received the Nobel Prize for his sun valve. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.[128]
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak is an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Håkan Lans invented the Automatic Identification System, a worldwide standard for shipping and civil aviation navigation. Losec, an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by AstraZeneca. .A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.^ Large companies are buying and selling electricity in many other countries besides their original homelands.
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[128]
Sweden has a total of 33,523 patents as of 2007, according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and only ten other countries have more patents than Sweden.[129]

Culture

Traditional Swedish rural house, painted in the traditional Swedish Falu red.
Sweden has many authors of worldwide recognition including August Strindberg, Astrid Lindgren, and Nobel Prize winners Selma Lagerlöf and Harry Martinson. In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. The nation's most well-known artists are painters such as Carl Larsson and Anders Zorn, and the sculptors Tobias Sergel and Carl Milles.
Swedish twentieth-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström. In the 1920s–1980s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema. More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström have received international recognition.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the "sexual revolution", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.[130] .At the present time, the number of single people is one of the highest in the world.^ PEOPLE Sweden has one of the world's longest life expectancies and lowest birth rates.
  • Sweden (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Envisa uphold the tradition and have one foot rooted in it, but they are also of their own times, willingly succumbing to present influences, and strive for the unpredictable in their break-neck improvisations.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

The early Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow) (1967) reflected a liberal view of sexuality, including scenes of love making that caught international attention, and introduced the concept of the "Swedish sin". Sweden has also become, in recent decades, fairly liberal regarding homosexuality, as is reflected in the popular acceptance of films such as Show Me Love, which is about two young lesbians in the small Swedish town of Åmål. Since 1 May 2009, Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage, [131] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Cohabitation (sammanboende) by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread although in recent years it has become administratively problematic with regard to proof in claims of "spousal" social security. Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.[132]

Music

Midsummer's Eve by Anders Zorn.
Sweden has a rich musical tradition, ranging from medieval folk ballads to hip hop music. .The music of the pre-Christian Norse has been lost to history, although historical re-creations have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites.^ Katzen Kapell - Katzen Kapell - 17.99 Katzen Kapell say they have invented a musical style of their own, in an unusual combination of instruments certainly creates an original sound.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

The instruments used were the lur (a sort of trumpet), simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. .It is possible that the Viking musical legacy lives on in some of the old Swedish folk music.^ Lars Karlsson - 17.99 A collection from earlier productions by the Swedish diatonic accordionist Lars Karlsson includes tradtional and newly composed folk music, as well as some surprises (like Hank William's "Jambalya") .
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

^ This is their third recording, and it continues their explorations of traditional and newly composed Swedish folk music.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

^ Salta - Salta - temp out of stock-17.99 This Swedish quartet effortlessly skirts the boundaries of jazz, folk and classical music.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

Sweden has a significant folk-music scene, both in the traditional style as well as more modern interpretations which often mix in elements of rock and jazz. Väsen is more of a traditionalist group, using a unique, traditional Swedish instrument called the nyckelharpa while Garmarna, Nordman, and Hedningarna have more modern elements. There is also Sami music, called the joik, which is actually a type of chant which is part of the traditional Saami animistic spirituality but has gained recognition in the international world of folk music. Sweden has a major market for new age and ecologically or environmentally aware music, as well a large portion of pop and rock music having liberal and left-wing political messages[citation needed].
Agnetha Fältskog of Swedish band ABBA performing in 1977.
.Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition, deriving in part from the cultural importance of Swedish folk songs.^ A unique and powerful re-imagining of traditional Swedish 'folk chorales'.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

^ Songs Of Torndalen - Folk Music in Sweden series, volume 12 - 18.99 Swedish Tornedalen has long had a rich song tradition which was alive and vigorous even into the 1970s - thanks, in large measure, to Laestadianism, a religious movement where worldly things such as radio and television were seen as sinful and therefore prohibited.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

^ Chorales and Wedding Music From Run - Folk Music in Sweden series, volume 24 - 18.99 For 600 years, right up to the beginning of the 1940s, a Swedish settlement existed on the island of Run, off the coast of Estonia.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

In fact, out of a population of 9.2 million, it is estimated that five to six hundred thousand people sing in choirs.[133]
Sweden is the third largest music exporter in the world, with over 800 million dollars in 2007 years revenue, surpassed only by the US and the UK.[134] ABBA was one of the first internationally well-known popular music bands from Sweden, and still ranks among the most prominent bands in the world, with about 370 million records sold. .With ABBA, Sweden entered into a new era, in which Swedish pop music gained international prominence.^ Parlor fran Swin 2 - Flaskvartetten - 16.99 Swedish string quartet+percussion, tackles a new musical world of ambient noise, lush layered pop and edgy rock, mixing the strings and percussion into a rich electro-acoustic landscape that escapes easy classification.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

^ The local A great news site about Sweden, the Swedes and anything Swedish - all written in English.
  • Alltop - Top Sweden News 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC sweden.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Join their exploration of traditional and new music from Scotland and Sweden, the sound of Scottish harp and Swedish nyckelharpa.
  • The Music of Sweden at cdRoots 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdroots.com [Source type: General]

There have been many other internationally successful bands since, such as Roxette, Ace of Base, Europe, A-teens, The Cardigans and The Hives, to name some of the biggest, and recently there has been a surge of Swedish Indie pop bands such as Loney, Dear, Shout Out Louds and The Radio Dept.. One of the biggest bands in Sweden is the rockband Kent.
Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal (mostly death metal and melodic death metal ) as well as progressive- and power metal bands. Some of the most popular being In Flames, HammerFall, Opeth, and Meshuggah. The renowned neoclassical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden.
Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. .During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.^ It has been substantially expanded during the last years.
  • Sweden2003 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www-pub.iaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The average fee during the last five years has been 0.02 SEK per kW·h nuclear power.
  • Sweden2003 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www-pub.iaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mergers and acquisitions have gradually reduced the number of large producers during the last 20 years.
  • Sweden2003 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www-pub.iaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Centre for Swedish Folk Music and Jazz Research has published an overview of jazz in Sweden by Lars Westin.[135]

Media

Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter (liberal), Göteborgs-Posten (liberal), Svenska Dagbladet (liberal conservative) and Sydsvenska Dagbladet (liberal). The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet (social democratic) and Expressen (liberal). The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International, was originally founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local (liberal).
The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden. Licence funded radio broadcasts started in 1925. A second radio network was started in 1954 and a third opened 1962 in response to pirate radio stations. Non-profit community radio was allowed in 1979 and in 1993 commercial local radio started.
The licence funded television service was officially launched in 1956. A second channel, TV2, was launched in 1969. These two channels (operated by Sveriges Television since the late '70s) held a monopoly until the 1980s when cable and satellite television became available. The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in 1987. It was followed by Kanal 5 in 1989 (then known as Nordic Channel) and TV4 in 1990.
In 1991 the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network. TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in 1992, becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.
Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in 1999 and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in 2007.

Literature

The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök Runestone, carved during the Viking Age circa 800 AD. With the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages, during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin. Therefore there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardized in the 16th century, a standardization largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541. This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.
Writer and playwright August Strindberg.
With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation, the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further. Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm (17th century), who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren (18th century), the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman (late 18th century), the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg (late 19th century), a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame. The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf, (Nobel laureate 1909), Verner von Heidenstam (Nobel laureate 1916) and Pär Lagerkvist (Nobel laureate 1951).
In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou. The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking, Emil, and others. In 2008, the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson, whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.[136] Larsson drew heavily on the work of Lindgren by basing his central character, Lisbeth Salander, on Longstocking.[137]

Holidays

Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden.
Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays, Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice; Walpurgis Night (Valborgsmässoafton) on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations. The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia, 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season. 6 June is the National Day of Sweden and, as of 2005, a public holiday. Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor (crayfish dinner parties). Martin of Tours Eve is celebrated in Scania in November with Mårten Gås parties, where roast goose and svartsoppa ('black soup', made of goose stock, fruit, spices, spirits and goose blood) are served. The Sami, one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on February 6 and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July.

Cuisine

Swedish knäckebröd (crisp bread).
Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway and Finland), was traditionally simple. Fish (particularly herring), meat and potatoes played prominent roles. Spices were sparse. Famous dishes include Swedish meatballs, traditionally served with gravy, boiled potatoes and lingonberry jam; pancakes, lutfisk, and Smörgåsbord, or lavish buffet. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage, and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance. The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming (a fermented fish) in Northern Sweden and eel in Scania in Southern Sweden.

Film

Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years, several successful Swedish Hollywood actors can be mentioned: Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo, Max von Sydow, Dolph Lundgren, Lena Olin, Britt Ekland, Maud Adams, Stellan Skarsgård, Peter Stormare, Izabella Scorupco, Pernilla August, Ann-Margret, Anita Ekberg, Alexander Skarsgård, Harriet Andersson, Bibi Andersson, Ingrid Thulin, Malin Åkerman and Gunnar Björnstrand. Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned: Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson, and Lasse Hallström.

Fashion

Interest in fashion is big in Sweden and the country is headquartering famous brands like Hennes & Mauritz (operating as H&M), J. Lindeberg (operating as JL), Acne, Gina Tricot, Tiger of Sweden, Odd Molly, Cheap Monday, Dr. Denim, Gant, Resteröds, Nudie Jeans, WESC, WAX, Uniforms for the Dedicated, Filippa K, Nakkna and Fifth Avenue Shoe Repair within its borders. These companies, however, are comprised largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbors.

Sports

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating, much thanks to the heavy government subsidies of sport associations (föreningsstöd). The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners, mostly women. Thereafter follow golf, athletics, and the team sports of handball, floorball, basketball and bandy.
The Swedish ice hockey team Tre Kronor is regarded as one of the very best in the world and has won the World Championships eight times, which makes them third in the medal count. They won Olympic gold medals in 1994 and 2006. In 2006, as the first nation in history, they won both the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in 1958, and third twice, in 1950 and 1994.
Ullevi is a stadium in Gothenburg. The stadium is also the biggest in Scandinavia.
Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years, such as: Carolina Klüft, Stefan Holm, Christian Olsson, Patrik Sjöberg, Johan Wissman, Kajsa Bergqvist.
Sweden is also the eighth most successful country in the Olympic games in history.
In schools, on meadows and in parks, the game brännboll, a sport similar to baseball, is commonly played for fun. Other leisure sports are the historical game of kubb, and boules among the older generation.
Sweden hosted the 1912 Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup in 1958. Other big sports events held here include 1992 UEFA European Football Championship, FIFA Women's World Cup 1995, and several championships of ice hockey, curling, athletics, skiing, bandy, figure skating and swimming.

International rankings

Rankings
Name Year Place Out of # Reference
Institute for Economics and Peace [9]-Global Peace Index 2009 6th 144 [10]
CIA World FactbookGDP per capita (PPP) 2008 26th 229 [11]
CIA World Factbooklife expectancy 2008 10th 223 [12]
World Economic Forum – Enabling Trade Index ranking 2008 3rd 118 [13]
Yale University / Columbia UniversityEnvironmental Performance Index 2008 3rd 149 [14]
The Economist Intelligence Unite-readiness 2008 3rd 70 [15]
The Economist Intelligence UnitGlobal Peace Index 2008 13th 140 [16]
United States Patent and Trademark Office's list of patents by country 2007 11th 172 [17]
Save the Children – Mother's Index Rank 2007 1st 141 [18]
Save the Children – Women's Index Rank 2007 1st 141 [19]
Save the Children – Children's Index Rank 2007 4th 141 [20]
Wall Street Journal / The Heritage FoundationIndex of Economic Freedom 2007 27th 157 [21]
United NationsHuman Development Index 2007 6th 177 [22]
World Economic Forum – Global Competitiveness Report 2007–2008 2007 4th 131 [23]
World Economic Forum – The Global Gender Gap Report 2007 2007 1st 128 [24]
World BankEase of Doing Business Index 2007 14th 178 [25]
Reporters Without BordersWorldwide Press Freedom Index 2007 5th 169 [26]
Transparency InternationalCorruption Perceptions Index 2008 1st 180 [27]
The Economist Intelligence UnitIndex of Democracy 2007 1st 167 [28]
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOfficial Development Assistance by country as a percentage of GNI 2006 1st 34 [29]
Privacy InternationalPrivacy index (EU and 11 other selected countries) 2006 28th 36 [30]
New Economics FoundationHappy Planet Index 2009 53rd 143 [31]
The Economist Intelligence UnitQuality-of-life index 2005 5th 111 [32]
Save the Children – % seats in the national government held by women 2004 1st (47%) 141 [33]
World Health Organizationsuicide rates by country 31st 100 [34]
NationMaster's index of civil and political liberties 13th 140 [35]
NationMaster's index of asylum seekers (per capita) 2001 4th 28 [36]
NationMaster's index of economic aid (donor, per capita) 5th 24 [37]
NationMaster's index of total tax wedge (single worker) 4th 29 [38]
NationMaster's index of technological achievement 3rd 68 [39]

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Befolkningsstatistik". www.scb.se. http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____25785.aspx?produktkod=BE0101&displaypressrelease=true&pressreleaseid=257212. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  2. ^ See Sweden Finns.
  3. ^ "Summary of Population Statistics 1960 - 2008 (corrected version 2009-05-13)". www.scb.se. 2009-05-13. http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____26041.aspx. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  4. ^ Note that Swedish-speaking Finns or other Swedish-speakers born outside Sweden might self-identify as Swedish despite being born abroad. Moreover, people born within Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes.
  5. ^ "Befolkningsstatistik". Statistiska centralbyrån. http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____287608.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Sweden". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=144&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=54&pr.y=8. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  7. ^ Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  8. ^ "Språklagen" (in Swedish). Språkförsvaret. 2009-07-01. http://www.sprakforsvaret.se/sf/fileadmin/PDF/spraklagen_200509.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  9. ^ a b Landes, David (2009-07-01). "Swedish becomes official 'main language'". The Local. thelocal.se. http://www.thelocal.se/20404/20090701/. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  10. ^ "Är svenskan också officiellt språk i Sverige?" (in Swedish). Språkrådet (Language Council of Sweden). 2008-02-01. http://www.sprakradet.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=2119#item100400. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  11. ^ Summary of Population Statistics 1960 - 2008 - Statistics Sweden (proportion of foreign background, including foreign-born and Swedish-born with two foreign-born parents)
  12. ^ a b Statistics Sweden. Yearbook of Housing and Building Statistics 2007. Statistics Sweden, Energy, Rents and Real Estate Statistics Unit, 2007. ISBN 978-91-618-1361-2. Available online in PDF format
  13. ^ U.S. State Department Background Notes: Sweden
  14. ^ Hellquist, Elof (1922). Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Stockholm: Gleerups förlag. p. 915. 
  15. ^ Goth (people). Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  16. ^ GOTHIC: an extinct language of Ukraine
  17. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05
  18. ^ Quoted from: Gwyn Jones. A History of the Vikings. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-280134-1. Page 164.
  19. ^ a b Sawyer, Birgit and Peter Sawyer (1993). Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800–1500. University of Minnesota Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8166-1739-2, pp. 150–153.
  20. ^ Bagge, Sverre (2005) "The Scandinavian Kingdoms". In The New Cambridge Medieval History. Eds. Rosamond McKitterick et al. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-36289-X, p. 724: "Swedish expansion in Finland led to conflicts with Rus', which were temporarily brought to an end by a peace treaty in 1323, dividing the Karelian peninsula and the northern areas between the two countries."
  21. ^ Franklin D. Scott, Sweden: The Nation's History (University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 1977) p. 58.
  22. ^ Scott, p. 55.
  23. ^ Scott, pp. 55-56.
  24. ^ Scott, pp. 56-57.
  25. ^ Scott, p. 121.
  26. ^ Scott, p. 132.
  27. ^ Robert S. Hoyt & Stanley Chodorow, Europe in the Middle Ages (Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, Inc.: New York, 1976) p. 628.
  28. ^ John B. Wolfe, The Emergence of European Civilization (Harper & Row Pub.: New York, 1962) pp. 50-51.
  29. ^ Scott, p. 52.
  30. ^ Scott
  31. ^ Scott, pp. 156-157.
  32. ^ "Population". History Learningsite. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/population_thirty_years_war.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  33. ^ "A Political and Social History of Modern Europe V.1./Hayes..." Hayes, Carlton J. H. (1882–1964), Title: A Political and Social History of Modern Europe V.1., 2002-12-08, Project Gutenberg, webpage: Infomot-7hsr110.
  34. ^ However, Sweden's largest territorial extent lasted from 1319 to 1343 with Magnus Eriksson ruling all of the traditional lands of Sweden and Norway.
  35. ^ "Gustav I Vasa – Britannica Concise" (biography), Britannica Concise, 2007, webpage: EBConcise-Gustav-I-Vasa.
  36. ^ Battle of Kircholm 1605
  37. ^ Finland and the Swedish Empire. Source: U.S. Library of Congress
  38. ^ Agricultural Yields and Years of Famine - Sweden. Hans Högman.
  39. ^ Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Minnesota Press. 1998. p. 1220. ISBN 0-8020-2938-8. 
  40. ^ a b Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989). Modern Welfare States: Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia. Praeger Publishers, p.9: "Though Denmark, where industrialization had begun in the 1850s, was reasonably prosperous by the end of the nineteenth century, both Sweden and Norway were terribly poor. Only the safety valve of mass emigration to America prevented famine and rebellion. At the peak of emigration in the 1880s, over 1% of the total population of both countries emigrated annually."
  41. ^ Koblik, Steven (1975). Sweden's Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750–1970, University of Minnesota Press, p.8–9, "In economic and social terms the eighteenth century was more a transitional than a revolutionary period. Sweden was, in light of contemporary Western European standards, a relatively poor but stable country. [...] It has been estimated that 75–80% of the population was involved in agricultural pursuits during the late eighteenth century. One hundred years later, the corresponding figure was still 72%."
  42. ^ Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989), p.8.
  43. ^ Ulf Beijbom, "European emigration", The House of Emigrants, Växjö, Sweden.
  44. ^ a b Koblik, pp. 9–10.
  45. ^ Sweden: Social and economic conditions (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 19 February 2007.
  46. ^ Koblik, p. 11: "The agrarian revolution in Sweden is of fundamental importance for Sweden's modern development. Throughout Swedish history the countryside has taken an unusually important role in comparison with other European states."
  47. ^ Koblik, p. 90. "It is usually suggested that between 1870 and 1914 Sweden emerged from its primarily agrarian economic system into a modern industrial economy."
  48. ^ a b c Koblik, pp. 303–313.
  49. ^ Nordstrom, p. 315: "Sweden's government attempted to maintain at least a semblance of neutrality while it bent to the demands of the prevailing side in the struggle. Although effective in preserving the country's sovereignty, this approach generated criticism at home from many who believed the threat to Sweden was less serious than the government claimed, problems with the warring powers, ill feelings among its neighbours, and frequent criticism in the postwar period."
  50. ^ a b c d e Nordstrom, pp. 313–319.
  51. ^ Zubicky, Sioma (1997) (in Swedish). Med förintelsen i bagaget. Stockholm: Bonnier Carlsen. p. 122. ISBN 91-638-3436-7. 
  52. ^ a b Nordstrom, pp. 335–339.
  53. ^ a b c Globalization and Taxation: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State. By Sven Steinmo.
  54. ^ Nordstrom, p. 344: "During the last twenty-five years of the century a host of problems plagued the economies of Norden and the West. Although many were present before, the 1973 and 1980 global oil crises acted as catalysts in bringing them to the fore."
  55. ^ Krantz, Olle and Lennart Schön. 2007. Swedish Historical National Accounts, 1800–2000. Lund: Almqvist and Wiksell International.
  56. ^ Englund, P. 1990. "Financial deregulation in Sweden." European Economic Review 34 (2–3): 385–393. Korpi TBD. Meidner, R. 1997. "The Swedish model in an era of mass unemployment." Economic and Industrial Democracy 18 (1): 87–97. Olsen, Gregg M. 1999. "Half empty or half full? The Swedish welfare state in transition." Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology, 36 (2): 241–268.
  57. ^ The Local. "New Swedish weapon in Iraq". http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=3013&date=20060207. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  58. ^ Česky. "Climate classification". En.wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6ppen_climate_classification. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  59. ^ "BBC Climate and the Gulf Stream". http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/impact/gulf_stream.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  60. ^ "The Gulf Stream Myth". http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/div/ocp/gs/. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  61. ^ "Global Climate Maps". http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/EIdirect/climate/EIsp0002.htm. 
  62. ^ "Number of hours with sunshine (map)". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7608&a=21429&l=sv. 
  63. ^ "Normal solskenstid för ett år | SMHI" (in (Swedish)). Smhi.se. http://www.smhi.se/klimatdata/meteorologi/stralning/1.3052. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  64. ^ "July average high temperature map". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21614&l=sv. 
  65. ^ "July average low temperature map". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21654&l=sv. 
  66. ^ "January daily average temperature map". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21572&l=sv. 
  67. ^ "Date of first autumn frost (map)". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21704&l=sv. 
  68. ^ "Date of last spring frost (map)". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21706&l=sv. 
  69. ^ "Low temperature extremes". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7522&a=20978&l=sv. 
  70. ^ "High temperature extremes". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7522&a=20974&l=sv. 
  71. ^ "Annual precipitation map". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7618&a=21516&l=sv. 
  72. ^ "Sweden's climate". Swedish Meteorological Institute. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=5441.  (in Swedish, see also the Google-translated version)
  73. ^ weather. "Local, National, and International Weather - Forecasts, Radar Maps, Video, and News". Msn.com. http://www.msn.com/weather. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  74. ^ "Sweden in Brief/A Political Society". Sweden.se. http://www.sweden.se/templates/cs/CommonPage____2713.aspx. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  75. ^ "Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 2007. http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/DEMOCRACY_TABLE_2007_v3.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  76. ^ Hadenius, Stig; Nilsson, Torbjörn; Åselius, Gunnar (1996) Sveriges historia: vad varje svensk bör veta. Bonnier Alba, Borås. ISBN 91-34-51857-6 (in Swedish) (1996:13):
      Hur och när det svenska riket uppstod vet vi inte. Först under 1100-talet börjar skriftliga dokument produceras i Sverige i någon större omfattning [...]   How and when the Swedish kingdom appeared is not known. It is not until the 12th century that written document begin to be produced in Sweden in any larger extent [...]
  77. ^ Kungl. Maj:ts kungörelse med anledning av konung Gustaf VI Adolfs frånfälle. SFS 1973:702. Justitiedepartementet L6, 19 September 1973.
  78. ^ a b The Swedish Parliament. The history of the Riksdag. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
  79. ^ The Official Website of the Swedish Election Authority. "Val till riksdagen". http://www.val.se/val/val2006/slutlig/R/rike/roster.html. 
  80. ^ Sören Holmberg (1999). Pippa Norris. ed. Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government. Oxford University Press. pp. 103–123. ISBN 0198295685. 
  81. ^ European Commission Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs And Equal Opportunities, Report On The Equality Between Men And Women,http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/publications/2006/keaj06001_en.pdf February 2006
  82. ^ "Nordic countries rank highest in gender equality". Norden.org. http://www.norden.org/webb/news/news.asp?lang=6&id=6605. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  83. ^ van Dijk, Jan; Robert Manchin, John van Kesteren, Sami Nevala, Gergely Hideg (2005). "EUICS report, The Burden of Crime in the EU, A Comparative Analysis of the" (PDF). http://www.gallup-europe.be/downloads/EUICS%20-%20The%20Burden%20of%20Crime%20in%20the%20EU.pdf. 
  84. ^ Nordstrom p. 302: "In fact, the plans were mostly a ruse to establish control of the crucial Norwegian port of Narvik and the iron mines of northern Sweden, which were vitally important to the German war efforts."
  85. ^ Nordstrom, p 336: "As a corollary, a security policy based on strong national defenses designed to discourage, but not prevent, attack was pursued. For the next several decades, the Swedish poured an annual average of about 5% of GDP into making their defenses credible."
  86. ^ National Geographical News, web article, Cold War Spy Plane Found in Baltic Sea[1] 10 November 2003.
  87. ^ Swedish Ministry of Defence (2008-01-08). "The EU Battlegroup Concept and the Nordic Battlegroup". Government Offices of Sweden. http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/9133/a/82276. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  88. ^ 20 largest companies in Sweden
  89. ^ a b c d e f g Economic survey of Sweden 2007
  90. ^ Pension Reform in Sweden: Lessons for American Policymakers by Goran Normann, Ph.D. and Daniel J. Mitchell, Ph.D. June 29, 2000.
  91. ^ a b OECD Economic Surveys: Sweden - Volume 2005 Issue 9 by OECD Publishing
  92. ^ "World Economic Forum - Global Competitiveness Report". Weforum.org. 2009-11-25. http://www.weforum.org/en/initiatives/gcp/Global%20Competitiveness%20Report/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  93. ^ IMD Competitiveness Yearbook 2008
  94. ^ "Sweden most creative country in Europe & top talent hotspot, Invest in Sweden Agency, 25 June 2005.
  95. ^ Kraftläget i Sverige, Vattensituationen
  96. ^ "Sweden: ban gasoline fossil fuel-driven vehicles by 2025". Trollhattansaab.net. http://www.trollhattansaab.net/archives/2008/11/sweden-ban-gasoline-driven-vehicles-by-2025.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  97. ^ "Nuclear Power in Sweden". World Nuclear Association. September 2009. http://world-nuclear.org/info/inf42.html. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  98. ^ a b Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sweden. Agenda 21 - Natural Resource Aspects - Sweden. 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997.
  99. ^ Vidal, John. Sweden plans to be world's first oil-free economy. The Guardian, 2/8/06. Retrieved 2/13/07.
  100. ^ a b EU versus USA, Fredrik Bergström & Robert Gidehag
  101. ^ [2], Richard Wilkinson & Kate Pickett
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  103. ^ Moderate revolution, The Economist Sep 13th 2007
  104. ^ Lindberg, Henrik. "The Role of Economists in Liberalizing Swedish Agriculture" (May 2007). [3]
  105. ^ Westerlund, Kenneth (2008-03-11). "Danmark har högsta skattetrycket". DN. http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=3130&a=750879. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  106. ^ The Swedish Parliament
  107. ^ Unemployment rate in December 2008 (SCB, Statistics Sweden, central government authority for official statistics)
  108. ^ PISA results for Sweden
  109. ^ The Swedish model, The Economist
  110. ^ "Fees and costs - study in Sweden". http://www.studyinsweden.se/templates/cs/CommonPage____4962.aspx. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  111. ^ Statistics Sweden. [4] Befolkningsstatistik i sammandrag 1960-2007. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  112. ^ Statistics Sweden. [5] Befolkningsutveckling; födda, döda, in- och utvandring, gifta, skilda 1749 - 2007
  113. ^ Statistics Sweden. Utrikes födda efter region, ålder i tioårsklasser och kön. År 2001-2007.[6]. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
  114. ^ Nordstrom, p. 353. (Lists Former Yugoslavia and Iran as top two countries in terms of immigration beside "Other Nordic Countries," based on Nordic Council of Ministers Yearbook of Nordic Statistics, 1996, 46–47)
  115. ^ Migrationsverket.[7]. Many IT specialists and engineers among the new labour immigrants, 6 February 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
  116. ^ "U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&-_caller=geoselect&-format=. Retrieved 2008-04-13. 
  117. ^ "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census". http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/pages/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  118. ^ Statistics Sweden.Preliminary Population Statistics, by month, 2004–2006. Population statistics, 1 January 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
  119. ^ Svenskan blir inte officiellt språk, Sveriges Television, 2005-12-07. Retrieved on July 23, 2006. (in Swedish)
  120. ^ "English spoken - fast ibland hellre än bra" (in Swedish). Lund University newsletter 7/1999. http://www3.lu.se/info/lum/LUM_07_99/01_engelska.html. 
  121. ^ (Swedish)Svenska Kyrkan Statistiek pagina Medlemmar 1972-2008 excel file
  122. ^ Church of Sweden, Members 1972–2006, Excel document in Swedish
  123. ^ Statistics about free churches and immigration churches from Swedish Wikipedia - in Swedish
  124. ^ Sydsvenskan (a Swedish newspaper) - in Swedish
  125. ^ Åke Sander (2004), “Muslims in Sweden”, in Muhammad Anwar, Jochen Blaschke and Åke Sander, State Policies Towards Muslim Minorities: Sweden, Great Britain and Germany, Berlin : Parabolis; p.218
  126. ^ "Embassy of Sweden New Delhi - Science & Technology". Swedenabroad.se. http://www.swedenabroad.se/Page____50008.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  127. ^ "Doing Business Abroad - Innovation, Science and Technology". Infoexport.gc.ca. http://www.infoexport.gc.ca/science/nordics_sweden_report-en.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  128. ^ a b "Swedish inventions and discoveries" (PDF). Fact Sheet FS 91 e. Swedish Institute. January 2007. http://www.sweden.se/upload/Sweden_se/english/factsheets/SI/SI_FS91e_Swedish_inventions_and_discoveries/Swedish_inventions_and_discoveries_FS91e_Hires.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  129. ^ Patents By Country, State, and Year - All Patent Types (December 2007)[8]
  130. ^ "The Swedish Myths: True, False, or Somewhere In Between?". Sweden.se. http://www.sweden.se/templates/cs/Article____12355.aspx. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  131. ^ "Sweden passes new gay marriage law". The Local. 2009-04-02. http://www.thelocal.se/18608/20090402/. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  132. ^ "Babyboom i Sverige?". http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____231102.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  133. ^ Durant, Colin (2003). Choral Conducting: philosophy and practice, Routledge, pp. 46–47. ISBN 0-415-94356-6: "Sweden has a strong and enviable choral singing tradition. [..] All those interviewed placed great emphasis on the social identification through singing and also referred to the importance of Swedish folk song in the maintenance of the choral singing tradition and national identity."
  134. ^ "Consulate General of Sweden Los Angeles - Export Music Sweden at MuseExpo". Swedenabroad.com. http://www.swedenabroad.com/Page____59218.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  135. ^ Lars Westin: Jazz in Sweden - an overview
  136. ^ Bestselling fiction authors in the world for 2008, 15 January 2009, www.abebooks.com. Retrieved on 5 August 2009.
  137. ^ Poisoned Legacy Left By The King Of Thrillers, www.buzzle.com. Retrieved on 5 September 2009.

Bibliography

External links

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General information
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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Scandinavia : Sweden
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Location
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Flag
Image:Sw-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Stockholm
Government Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy
Currency Swedish Krona (SEK)
Area 450,295 km2
Population 9,067,049 (March 2006)
Language Swedish, large Finnish speaking minority (470 000, RUAB 2005), most people speak English
Religion 23% theist (mainly Lutheran with muslim and catholic minorities), 76% nontheist (including 23% atheist)
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +46
Internet TLD .se
Time Zone UTC +1
For other places with the same name, see Sweden (disambiguation).
Sweden [1] is the largest of the Nordic countries in Northern Europe, with a population of about 9,3 million. It borders Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark via the bridge of Öresund (Öresundsbron). The Baltic Sea lies to the east of Sweden, as well as the Gulf of Bothnia, which separates Sweden from most of Finland.

Understand

Although having been a military power and spanning about three times its current size during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. Having long remained outside military alliances (including both World Wars), the country has a high peace profile, with internationally renowned names such as Raoul Wallenberg, Dag Hammarskjöld, Olof Palme and Hans Blix. Sweden is a monarchy by constitution, but king Carl XVI Gustaf has no executive power. The country has a long tradition of Lutheran-Protestant Christianity, but today's Sweden is a secular state with few church-goers.
Sweden has a capitalist system and is a developed post-industrial society with an advanced welfare state. The standard of living and life expectancy rank among the highest in the world. Sweden joined the European Union in 1995, but decided by a referendum in 2003 not to commit to the European Monetary Union and the euro currency. Leadership of Sweden has for the larger part of the 20th century been dominated by the Social Democratic Party, which started out at the end of the 19th century as a labor movement, but today pursues a mix of socialism and social-liberalism. Since the most recent election, a coalition of center-right liberal/conservative parties has come into power.
Sweden has a strong tradition of being an open, yet discreet country. Citizens sometimes appear to be quite reserved at first, but once they get to know who they are dealing with, they'll be as warm and friendly as you'd wish. Privacy is regarded as a key item and many visitors, for example mega-stars in various lines of trade, have many times realized that they mostly can walk the streets of the cities virtually undisturbed.
Sweden houses the Nobel Prize [2] committee for all the prizes except the peace prize which is hosted in Oslo, a memento of the Swedish-Norwegian union that was dissolved just over 100 years ago.
Regions of Sweden
Regions of Sweden
Norrland
the sparsely populated, northern part of the country (about two-thirds of the total area), with nine provinces. Lots of wilderness, with forests, lakes, big rivers, enormous marshes and high mountains along the border to Norway. Great for hiking. Largest cities are Gävle, Sundsvall, Umeå and Luleå.
Svealand
the central part of the country, includes Stockholm, Uppsala and the provinces of Dalarna, Närke, Värmland, Södermanland, Uppland and Västmanland.
Götaland
comprised of the ten provinces in the southern part of the country, including the islands (and provinces) of Öland and Gotland. The largest cities in Götaland are Gothenburg in Västergötland and Malmö in Skåne.
Major cities
  • Stockholm - The capital, spread out over a number of islands.
  • Gothenburg (Göteborg in Swedish) - On the west coast.
  • Linköping - The 5th most populous city of Sweden. University city.
  • Kiruna - a mining town in Lappland, and the northernmost city in Sweden.
  • Luleå - Industrial city in northern Norrland, with a technical university.
  • Malmö - Down south, not far from the Danish capital Copenhagen.
  • Umeå - University city in Norrland.
  • Uppsala - lively pretty old university city. Fourth largest city in Sweden.
  • Örebro - Old shoe manufacturing center, halfway between Stockholm and Oslo.
The ruins of the Brahehus castle at Gränna
The ruins of the Brahehus castle at Gränna
  • Åre - One of Sweden's largest ski resorts, with 44 lifts.
  • Esrange - A rocket launching facility near Kiruna.
  • Gotland - Sweden's largest island, as well as the largest island of the Baltic Sea, situated in the Baltic Sea. Its capital Visby is on UNESCO's World's heritage list. It's a common vacation spot for Swedes from the mainland.
  • Kebnekaise - Sweden's highest mountain surrounded by vast wilderness areas and a popular trail to Abisko National Park.

Get in

Sweden is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.
Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks. Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.
Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

For arrival and departure times, as well as lots of other information about flights and airports in Sweden, visit Luftfartsverket - Swedish Airports and Air Navigation Services[3]
Major airports:
  • Stockholm Arlanda (IATA: ARN) (ICAO: ESSA)[4] - serves most major airlines. Check the Stockholm page for information on transfer between the airport and Stockholm City.
  • Göteborg Landvetter (IATA: GOT) (ICAO: ESGG) [5] - serves several international airlines and provides convenient bus transfer (~20 min) to central Gothenburg.
  • Copenhagen Kastrup (Denmark) (IATA: CPH) (ICAO: EKCH) [6] - serves most major airlines. Located on an island between Copenhagen and Malmö and is ideal for travelling in southern Sweden. Train connections leave from the airport to both cities.
Smaller airports:
  • Stockholm Skavsta (IATA: NYO) (ICAO: ESKN) [7] - airport for low fares airlines like Ryanair [8] and Wizzair [9]. Located quite a distance (about 100 km) from Stockholm, near the town of Nyköping.
  • Stockholm Västerås (IATA: VST) (ICAO: ESOW) [10] - international flights to/from Copenhagen and London. Also about 100 km from Stockholm.
  • Göteborg City Airport (IATA: GSE) (ICAO: ESGP) [11] - situated just 14 kilometers from central Gothenburg, this airport is used by Ryanair, Wizzair and Germanwings [12].
  • Malmö-Sturup (IATA: MMX) (ICAO: ESMS) [13] - serves domestic flights and low fares flights. Located about 30 km from Malmö.
Most airports can be reached by Flygbussarna - Airport coaches [14] for tickets around 70 to 100 SEK. Copenhagen airport is best reached by train. See Skånetrafiken [15] for schedules.

By train

You can reach Sweden by train from three countries at present:
  • Denmark: Trains depart Copenhagen and Copenhagen's airport for Malmö every 20 minutes, and cost only about SEK 100 ("Öresundståg / Øresundstog" regional trains). The train goes over the magnificent Öresund Bridge to get to Sweden in less than 30 minutes. Furthermore direct trains (X2000) leave from Copenhagen to Stockholm. The Elsinore-Helsingborg connection, known as one of the busiest ferry routes in Europe, might also be used (change to ship).
  • Germany: Berlin to Malmö with "Berlin Night Express". There are also several trains per day from Hamburg to Copenhagen, and night trains from München, Basel, Köln and Amsterdam to Copenhagen. See Denmark section about how to get from Copenhagen to Sweden.
  • Finland: Travel via Kemi-Tornio-Haparanda-Luleå / Boden by bus. Interrail tickets are valid on that bus. There's no train connection as Finland and Sweden use different gauge.

By bus

Get into Sweden by "Eurolines" [16] or "Säfflebussen" [17]. All connections here go via Copenhagen.
Buses from and to the Western Balkans are also operated by Toptourist, [18]. Call + 46 (0 ) 42 18 29 84 for more info
Baltic Sea cruises
"Our level of drunkenness was normal for a cruise of this kind." The managing director of shipping company Tallink gave an interesting quote after his and the entire board's drunken rampage on one of Tallink's cruise ships in 2006. (The accusations against the VIP's included sexual harassment against female staff, beating up a bartender and causing a fire by putting a fish in a toaster.) The director's explanation clearly shows the main PR problem about the cruise ships on the Baltic Sea: they have a reputation as trashy booze boats, far from the glamor of other international cruises. This is largely due to the fact that the tickets can be dirt cheap - sometimes less than 50 SEK - and that tax-free alcohol shopping is among the main attractions. Still, some of the new ships are really pretty, and it is an easy and cheap way to get a glimpse of a country on the other side of the Baltic Sea. Also, not all cruises include obnoxious drunks trying to toast fish. Stockholm is the main port in Sweden for the cruises, and the main destinations are Helsinki, Åland and Turku in Finland, Tallinn in Estonia and Riga in Latvia. Ships are operated by Silja Line [19], Viking Line [20], Birka Cruises [21] and, of course, Tallink [22], MSC cruises [23]. To get the cheapest tickets, try to go on a weekday in low season, share a four-bed cabin with some friends and make sure to keep your eyes peeled for last minute offers.
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Belgium

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

Latvia

Germany

Norway

Poland

Russia

UK

Get around

By plane

Although Sweden is a fairly large country, most of the action takes place in the southern parts where the distances are not huge. Domestic flights are mainly for travellers with little time or much money, however if you are heading for the far north you may want to consider it. There are also low-price tickets, but they must be bought well in advance.
The most important domestic airlines:
  • SAS [41] - the international airline has many domestic routes as well.
  • Skyways [42] - the largest number of domestic routes, several from Copenhagen.
  • Nextjet [43] - has many domestic routes to smaller places, has taken over some of Skyways routes.
  • Direktflyg [44] - several domestic routes and also flights to Norway.
  • Norwegian [45] - several domestic and a few international destinations.
  • Malmö Aviation [46] - serves domestic destinations, Brussels and Nice.
  • Gotlandsflyg [47] - connects Stockholm and the island of Gotland.

By train

Sweden has an extensive railway network. Most major lines are controlled by the government-owned company SJ. To buy a railway ticket, or to obtain information, phone +46 771 75 75 75 or check their website [48]. As of summer 2009, the cheapest SJ tickets are released exactly 90 days before departure, so time your online ticket purchases carefully if your itinerary is set and don't buy tickets earlier than 90 days before your trip. SJ recently started auctioning last minute tickets on the Swedish eBay site Tradera [49] (site only in Swedish), available from 48 until 6 hours before departure. Swedish Rail passes [50] are also available for International guests to Sweden.
The national public transport authority is called Rikstrafiken [51], and it has online timetables in English, which include schedules for trains, buses and ferries. The service is called Resplus [52].
Regional public transport is usually operated by companies contracted by the counties. For instance, when travelling regionally in the province of Scania (Skåne in Swedish), one should refer to Skånetrafiken [53]. For travelling in the region of [Mälardalen] (the "Lake Mälaren Valley"), you can check all train and bus operators on a mutual website, Trafik i Mälardalen [54]. This regional traffic cooperation includes many of Sweden's major cities, such as Stockholm, Uppsala, Västerås, Linköping, Norrköping, Örebro and Eskilstuna, and reaches more than three million people. Connex [55] provides affordable railroad transportation up north. If you're on a tight schedule, be aware that trains, especially those bound for far destinations (i.e. the Connex and SJ Norrland trains), sometimes have quite significant delays (up to 1-2 hours).

By bus

Swebus Express [56] runs a number of bus lines in the southern third of the country, Götaland and Svealand. They tend to be a little cheaper than going by train if you can't take advantage of SJ's youth discounts. Y-buss [57] and Härjedalingen [58] operate between Stockholm and Norrland. Swebus Express also operates from Stockholm and Göteborg to Oslo. At the county or län level, buses are a good method for traveling short distances from town to town (as they are more frequent and cheaper than trains). It is best to check with the local transportation authority for routes and schedules.

By car

In Svealand and Götaland driving takes you quickly from one place to the other. In Norrland the distances tend to be bigger between the different sites so the time spent driving may be long. Unless you really like driving, it is often more convenient to take the train or fly to the sites, particularly in Northern Norrland. Traveling by night can be dangerous due to unexpected animals on the roads and the cold nights during the winter. Collisions with moose, roe deer, or other animals are a not uncommon cause of car accidents. See also Driving in Sweden and Winter driving.

By thumb

Sweden has a reputation for being a pretty difficult country to hitch in, though it's still quite possible to hitchhike (but not assured to be risk-free). Ordinary people are often reluctant to pick up strangers... Truck drivers are probably most likely to pick up hitchhikers, so target them. Asking at gas stations works pretty well. Bus stops are common places to attract attention, position yourself before the actual bus stop so the vehicle can stop at the stop. This works best if the road is widened at the bus stop, allowing cars to pull off easily.

By bike

Most Swedish cities have excellent bike paths, and renting a bike can be a quick and healthy method of getting around locally.

By foot

Cars are by law required to stop at any unattended crosswalks (zebra stripes in the road without red-lights) to let pedestrians cross the road. But keep in mind that you are required to make eye contact with the driver so that they know that you are about to cross the street.

The Stockholm Card

Travelling around Stockholm and visiting various places can easily turn quite expensive. Therefore, Stockholm offers a card called The Stockholm Card. With it you can ride with trains, busses, ferries and the tram for free. It also offers free admission to over 75 museums and attractions. [59]
This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward, give it your attention and help it improve!
  • Credit card. Nearly all stores and all ATMs accept VISA and MasterCard, as well as Maestro (Switch). PIN-pads are widely used instead of signatures (even for credit cards), so if your card has a PIN, memorize it before you leave home. Don't expect stores to accept foreign currency, apart from close to the borders, where usually only the neighbour currency is accepted (i.e. danish krona, norwegian krona or euro).
  • Passport or EU national identity card as identification. A driver's license might work but that is not guaranteed. You will frequently be asked to prove age or identity - for instance when using your credit card, when buying alcohol, when renting accommodation or when entering bars and clubs. Banks accept only Swedish identity documents. Swedish bureaucracy is efficient but rigid.
  • Warm clothes and extra shoes. Weather in Sweden is unpredictable. It can get cold and/or wet, but almost never too hot.
  • If you plan on staying in Sweden for an extended period of time pack some rain clothes. If you don't own any, they can be bought in many stores across Sweden - but can be somewhat expensive.
  • Mobile phone. Swedish GSM and 3G coverages are great, at least in populated areas but don't expect it to work everywhere. In rural areas the state-owned operator Telia might be the only one available. If you have another operator you may only place SOS calls. Official figures say that 60-70% of the country has GSM coverage and about 40% for 3G. The number of public phones are going down a lot because most Swedes have a mobile phone.
  • Powerplug adapters, if you come from the UK or North America. Sweden follow European standard 230 volt 50Hz and uses Schuko plugs.
  • European Health Service card, if you are an EU/EES citizen.
  • In forests and mountains, use mosquito repellant, myggmedel, which is available in most food stores.
  • Cash money from your home country - see above.
  • Tear gas or pepper spray for self-defence. These require authorization to be carried in Sweden, and you will probably not have use for them either way.

Talk

Swedish is the national language of Sweden, but you will find that people, especially those born since 1945, also speak English very well - an estimated 89% of Swedes can speak English, according to the Eurobarometer. Swedish is a North Germanic language which is mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Danish, so speakers of these languages should be able to get along. German and Dutch if spoken slowly, are also understood by many people due to their similarity to Swedish, but do not count on that to 100 % - some words are very different and the understanding of related languages varies drastically between different people. If you're going to speak German or Dutch, stick to native Swedes - chance is almost zero that, for one, a Somalian bus driver will understand a word. There is also a significant number of Swedes that speaks German, as it is optionally taught in schools alongside French and Spanish. Finnish is the biggest minority language. Regardless of what your native tongue is, Swedes greatly appreciate any attempt to speak Swedish and beginning conversations in Swedish, no matter how quickly your understanding peters out, will do much to ingratiate yourself to the locals.
Hej (hay) is the massively dominant greeting in Sweden, useful on kings and bums alike. You can even say it when you leave. The Swedes most often do not say "please" (snälla), instead they are generous with the word tack (tuck), meaning "thanks". If you need to get someones attention, either it's a waiter or you need to pass someone one in a crowded situation, a simple "ursäkta" ("excuse me") will do the trick. You will find yourself pressed to overuse it, and you sometimes see people almost chanting it as a mantra when trying to exit a crowded place like a bus or train.
Many Swedish people are over-confident with their English skills. One problem can be excessive swearing (accepted in colloquial Swedish, and augmented by Hollywood movies), but also some false cognates can be shocking for a native English-speaker; some examples are fack ("trade union" or "compartment"), fart ("speed"), prick ("spot") kock ("chef") and slut ("end" or "sold out"). Be sure to forgive such misunderstanding.
Some things get English names that do not correspond to the original English word. Some examples are light which is used for diet products, and freestyle which means "walkman". In the context of distance, the Swedish colloquial expression mil, "mile", is 10 kilometers, not an English statute mile.
Swedish people learn British English at school, affecting their vocabulary, but also watch films and TV programs in American English. Whether they use British or American standards in speech varies from person to person.
Where are the Vikings?
Many tourists from English-speaking countries wonder where they can see real Vikings. Unfortunately, they have not been around for a thousand years. "Viking" is not the name of a separate tribe or nation - it is simply a word meaning "sailor" or "navigator of the fjords". Some Swedish, Norwegian and Danish men (and in a few cases women) gave up farming or fishing to join expeditions of trade, exploration and piracy, reaching as far as present-day Canada, Morocco and the Caspian Sea. As the pagan Scandinavians were christened around AD 1000, the Viking raids declined. There are still traces from the Viking age, such as runestones and burial mounds, everywhere in Sweden. Some good places to see Viking artifacts are The Museum of National Antiquities ("Historiska museet") [60] in Stockholm, Gamla Uppsala in Uppsala and Birka and Adelsö just west of Stockholm.
The Viking heritage has been contorted through history - romanticized during the 19th century, abused by neo-Nazis, but more truthfully re-enacted by neo-pagans and live-action roleplayers. Most Swedes are proud of their Viking roots, though they don't take it very seriously.
Sweden is great for outdoor life - skiing, skating, hiking, canoeing, cycling and berry-picking depending of season. Stockholm and Gothenburg have great nightlife and shopping opportunities. Most cities have well-preserved pre-industrial architecture.

The year in Sweden

Swedish weather is best during the summer (late May to early September). If you like snow, go to Norrland or Dalarna in November to April.
Be aware that daylight varies greatly during the year. In Stockholm, the sun sets at 3 PM in December. North of the Arctic Circle one can experience the midnight sun and Arctic night. However, even at Stockholm's latitude, summer nights exist only in the form of prolonged twilight during June and July.
The major holidays are Easter, Midsummer (celebrated from the eve of the Friday between June 19 - 25), Christmas (Christmas Eve, Christmas Day and Boxing Day are all considered holidays), and the "industrial vacation" throughout July. Expect closed establishments, heavy traffic (for the holidays) and crowded tourist resorts (for July).
Note that most Swedish holidays are celebrated on the day before (Midsummer's Eve, Christmas Eve etc), while Swedish people do hardly anything on the holiday proper.

Buy

The national currency is the Swedish krona (SEK, plural kronor). 1 USD is about 7.08 SEK, 1 EUR is about 10.21 SEK and 1 GBP is about 11,35 SEK as of January 2010. Current exchange rates can be found at XE.com [61]. Automatic teller machines take major credit cards. Most stores, restaurants and bars accept all major credit cards, although in some cases there is a SEK 5 fee or a lowest purchase limit (between 50 - 100 SEK). You usually need an ID card or a passport when shopping with a credit card, regardless of the amount involved, though ususally not in supermarkets and such where PIN code is king.
It is not common to bargain in shops but it might work in some instances, especially when buying more expensive products. Bargaining is also okay at flea markets and in antique shops. When dining out, a service charge is often included in the bill, and there is generally no reason to tip, unless you're very satisfied with the service.
Most shops, at least downtown, are open all week, even on Sundays. Closing times are rigid, most often on the minute.
Many Swedes translate the word krona, which means crown. For example, instead of saying 50 kronor they might say 50 crowns.

Costs

Sweden is considered by some to be a relatively expensive country to live in, though you can find cheap alternatives if you look around. House prices are probably amongst the cheapest in Western Europe and recently opened discount stores such as "Lidl", "Netto" and "Willy's" offer a wide range of items, why not buy a sewing machine while doing the weekend grocery shopping? Accommodation and dining out is cheaper in Stockholm than in most other West European capitals.
An example of a Dala Horse
An example of a Dala Horse
  • An unofficial national symbol, the Dala Horse (Swedish: dalahäst) is the souvenir of souvenirs to bring from Sweden. Named after their origin, the province of Dalarna, these small wooden horses have been around since the 17th century. They are normally painted orange or blue with symmetrical decorations. They are fairly expensive: expect to pay around SEK 100 for a very small one or several hundred crowns for bigger versions. The horses can be bought in souvenir shops all over Sweden. If you want to know more about how the horses are made, visit Dalarna and the municipality of Mora where the horses are carved and painted in workshops open for tourists. And if driving towards Mora from Stockholm, keep your eyes open when you pass the town of Avesta where the world's largest (13 meters high) Dala Horse overlooks the highway.
  • Swedish glass is world famous for its beauty. Several skilled glass artists have contributed to this reputation through innovative, complex (and expensive) art creations, but mass-produced Swedish table glass has also been an international success. Part of the province of Småland, between the towns of Växjö and Kalmar, is known as the Kingdom of Crystal[62]. 15 glassworks are packed into this small area, the most famous being Orrefors, Kosta and Boda. Tourists are welcome to watch the glass blowers turn the glowing melt into glittering glass, and you can even give it a try yourself.
  • Exclusive wines from Systembolaget.
The world's stinkiest fish dish
Adventurous diners might want to try surströmming, which is (coastal) central and northern Sweden's entry in the revolting-foods-of-the-world contest. It's herring which is fermented in a tin can until the can starts to bulge and almost bursts. It all gets so foul-smelling that the fish is only eaten outdoors to keep it from stinking up the house, although it has been known for unsuspecting visitors from other countries to be "treated" to an indoor surströmming experience for more intensity.
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It is considered bad manners not to notify (or invite) the neighbors before having a surströmmingsskiva, a party where the delicacy is consumed. It is claimed that the best way to get over the smell is to take a deep breath of it just when you open the can, to as quickly as possible knock out your smelling sense. Surströmming season peaks in August.
Swedish cuisine is mostly hearty meat or fish with potatoes, derived from the days when men needed to chop wood all day long. Besides the ubiquitous potatoes, modern Swedish cuisine is to a great extent based on bread. Traditional everyday dishes are called husmanskost (pronounced whos-mans-cost). They include:
  • Meatballs (köttbullar), the internationally most famous Swedish dish. Served with potatoes, brown sauce and lingonberry jam.
  • Hash (pytt i panna) consisting of meat, onions and potatoes, all diced and fried. Sliced beetroots and a fried egg are mandatory accessories.
  • Pea soup (ärtsoppa) with diced pork, followed by thin pancakes afterwards. Traditionally eaten on Thursdays since medieval times when the servants had half the day off as it is an easy meal to prepare.
  • Pickled herring (sill), available in various types of sauces. Commonly eaten with bread or potatoes for summer lunch or as a starter.
  • Blodpudding, a black sausage made by pig's blood and flour. Slice it, fry it and eat it with lingonberry jam.
  • Gravlax, a widely known and appreciated cold appetizer made by thin slices of salmon cured in salt, sugar and dill.
  • Falukorv, a big baloney from Falun. Sliced, fried and eaten with ketchup and mashed potatoes.
  • Sweden has more varieties of bread than most other countries. Many of them are whole-grain or mixed grain, containing wheat, barley, oats, compact and rich in fiber. Some notable examples are tunnbröd (thin wrap bread), knäckebröd (hard bread - might not be an interesting experience, but is nearly always available), and different kinds of seasoned loaves. Bread is mostly eaten as simple sandwiches, with thin slices of cheese or cold cuts. Some more exotic spreads are messmör (whey cheese) and leverpastej (liver paté).
  • Tunnbrödrulle, a fast food dish, consisting of a bread wrap with mashed potatoes, a hot dog and some vegetables.
  • Kroppkakor Potato dumpling stuffed with diced pork.
Other Swedish favorites:
  • Soft whey butter (messmör), breadspread with a sweetish, hard-to-describe taste.
  • Caviar, not the expensive Russian or Iranian kind but a cheaper version made from cod roe, sold in tubes and used on sandwiches. The most famous brand is Kalles Kaviar.
  • Julmust, stout-like Christmas soft drink that every year annoys The Coca-Cola Company in Sweden by lowering Coke's sales figures by 50%.
  • Crayfish (kräftor), hugely popular around August, when Swedes feast on them at big crayfish parties (kräftskivor). Silly paper hats and lots of alcohol included.
  • Semla, a cream-filled pastry eaten around Fat Tuesday.
  • Rabarberkräm/Rabarberpaj rhubarbcream or rhubarbpie with vanilla sauce ( other cakes or pies on fresh blueberries, apples, or just strawberries with cream or ice cream are also very popular in the summer)
  • Spettekaka A local cake from Skåne in south Sweden, made of eggs, sugar, and potatoflour.
  • Smörgåstårta A cold Sandwich layer cake, often with salmon, eggs, and shrimps. (Also often with tuna or roast beef) Swedish people often eat it at New Year's Eve, or birthdays and parties.
Typical Swedish "gourmet" restaurants serve steaks or other grilled dishes garnished with fragrant herbs such as dill, and vegetables such as Broccoli and red bell peppers. Most famous swedish steak is called Planka, or plank steak. It is Beef fillet, duchess potatoes, asparagus wrapped in bacon, huge amounts of bearnaise sauce, tomatoes and for some strange reason orange segments, and is decandently good!
As in most of Europe, inexpensive pizza and kebab restaurants are ubiquitous in Swedish cities, and are also to be found in almost every small village. Sushi and Thai food are also quite popular. The local hamburger chain Max [63] is recommended before McDonald's and Burger King, for tasteful Scandinavian furnishing, clean restrooms, no trans fats and free coffee with meals. In parts of Norrland it is customary to eat hamburgers with fork and knife - available at Max. Another type of fast food establishment is the gatukök ("street kitchen"), serving hamburgers, hot dogs and tunnbrödrulle (se above).
Highway diners, vägkrogar, have generous meals, but might be of poor quality, greasy and overpriced. If you have time, a downtown restaurant is preferable. Gas stations offer decent packed salads and sandwiches.
You can get a "cheap" lunch if you look for the signs with "Dagens rätt" (meal of the day). This normally costs about 50-70 SEK and almost everywhere includes a bottle of water; soft drink; or light beer, bread & butter, some salad and coffee afterwards. Dagens rätt is served Monday to Friday.
The world famous furniture retailer IKEA has stores at the outskirts of 15 Swedish cities. These have great diners, which offer well-cooked Swedish meals for as little as 40 SEK, and the store exit usually has a café selling hot dogs for as little as 5 SEK. (They hope that you spend some money on shopping too.) Great if you happen to pass by. Expect crowds at rainy weather.
If you're on a tight budget, self-catering is the safest way to save your money.
Vegetarian and vegan lifestyles are accepted in cities, less common in the countryside but you should be able to find a falafel in every smaller town.

Drink

Coffee

Swedish people drink plenty of coffee, kaffe. Drinking coffee at home or in a café, an act called fika, is a common Swedish social ritual, used for planning activities, dating, exchanging gossip or simply spending time and money. Swedish coffee is slightly stronger than American one. Italian varieties (espresso, cappuccino, caffe latte) are available at most city cafés.

Alcoholic beverages

The most famous Swedish alcoholic beverage is Absolut Vodka, which is considered one of the world's most famous vodkas. There are several brands of distilled, and usually seasoned, liquor, called brännvin or akvavit. When served in a shot glass with a meal it is called snaps (not to confuse with the German "Schnapps").
Sweden does produce some outstanding beers, and have in the recent years seen a rise in the numbers of microbreweries. If you are looking for great local beer keep an eye out for breweries like "Närke kulturbryggeri", "Jämtlands ångbryggeri" and "Dugges Ale- & Porterbryggeri". You may have some truble finding them, unless you go to a bar specialized in providing uncommon beer, or one of the well stocked "Systembolag", but you will find a few of them in every major city. Despite this the most common beer is the rather plain "international lager". The beer you get in normal food shops is called folköl and has 2.8 or 3.5% alcohol. You are able to find a varieties of different brands of beers in food stores, Swedish, English and even Czech beer. Wine is popular, but the Swedish production is very modest.

Systembolaget

Access to alcoholic beverages is, as in Norway, Finland and Iceland, quite restricted and expensive. The only place to buy strong alcohol including starköl (beer which contains more than 3.5% alcohol ABV) over the counter is in one of the state owned shops called Systembolaget [64]. They have limited hours of operation, usually 10-6 Mon-Wed, 10-7 Thurs-Fri, and 10-3 on Saturdays, with long queues on Fridays and Saturdays. Closed on Sundays. Most shops are of supermarket style. The assortment is very good, and the staff usually has great knowledge. Please note that Systembolaget does not serve customers under the age of 20. You will most likely be asked for identification. This also applies to your companion, regardless of them buying anything.
Liquor is very expensive at Systembolaget (vodka is 300 SEK a liter), but the monopoly has brought some perks - Systembolaget is one of the world's largest bulk-buyers of wine, and as such gets some fantastic deals which it passes on to the consumers. Mid-to-high-quality wines, and exclusive spirits, are quite often cheaper in Sweden than even in the country of origin; sometimes even cheaper than if you were to buy the wine directly from the vineyard. This does NOT apply to low-quality wines, however, due to the volume-based tax on alcohol.
If you want beer, choose a variety of microbrews. All brands are treated equally and there is no large-pack discount. Beverages are not refrigerated.

Bars and nightclubs

The age limit is 18 to bars and beers in shops (to prevent teenage drunkenness, some shops have decided to have a 20 age limit for 3.5% beer as well), but 20 in Systembolaget. Many bars have an age limit of 20, but some (especially downtown in weekends) have age limits as high as 23 or 25. Bring passport or ID.
Some clubs mandate dress code, vårdad klädsel. For male guests, proper shoes (not sneakers or sandals), long-legged trousers (not blue jeans) and a dress shirt is usually good enough.
Age or dress rules are not rigid, and doormen have the right to accept or reject any patron for any reason other than gender, sexual orientation, creed, disability or race. Though illegal, nightclubs are infamous to reject "immigrants", which usually means anyone with hair and skin darker than the average Swede, by pretexts such as "members only" or "too drunk"; men of Middle Eastern or African origin are most troubled. You might avoid this problem by dressing properly, behaving well and/or going out with white friends.
Sweden has enforced non-smoking in all bars, pubs and restaurants, save outdoor areas such as terraces, and designated smoking rooms (where drinks are not allowed).
The prices at clubs/bars are often expensive compared to other countries, a large beer (half a liter) costs usually as much as 45-55 SEK (~US$7), but many low-profile bars advertise stor stark (0.4 L of draft lager) for as little as 25 SEK. A long drink costs around 60-110 SEK. For that reason many Swedes have a small pre-party ("förfest") before they go out, to get started on their buzz before they hit the town and go to nightclubs.
Large clubs can require an entrance fee of about 100 SEK (or more at special performances). They usually offer a rubber stamp on your hand so you can re-enter as you like.
Be aware that you often have to stand in line to get into a bar or a club. Many places deliberately make their customers wait in line for a while, since a long queue indicates a popular club. At the very fanciest places in the major cities the queue is replaced by a disorganized crowd, and the doorman simply points to indicate who gets in and who does not (to be sure to get in either be famous, very good-looking or a friend of the doorman. Or simply a regular).
In the cold season it is often mandatory to hand in your jacket at the club's wardrobe for a fee, usually around 20 SEK.
Authorized security guards carry a badge saying Ordningsvakt, see #Stay safe.
Moonshine (hembränt) is popular in the countryside, though illegal. Though some shipments can be as good as legal vodka, most are disgusting and some even lethally dangerous, so you should stick to the real thing.

Learn

All education in Sweden is free for residents, except for a mandatory Students' Union membership (usually a fee of less than 500 SEK) at universities and other tertiary education institutions. Although the government has subsidized schools and classes, there also exist many private alternatives where a tuitition fee is required.
As a foreigner wishing to study at a Swedish university or school of higher education, you do not have to pay tuition fees. However, the current center-right government is currently considering introducing tuition fees for non EU-/EES- citizens.
Some important university cities:
If you are a student there is something known as an "academic quarter" where classes and school related events will start 15 minutes past the hour. At some schools after 18:00 this becomes a "double quarter" where events commence 30 minutes past the hour. Students are expected to be punctual and show up at the appropriate time.
You can find more useful information about studying in Sweden on the Study in Sweden website. [65]

Work

EU and EEA citizens are allowed to work in Sweden without a permit. Citizens of other countries need a work permit, and getting one is quite a hassle, however, Working Holiday Visas are available for Australian and New Zealand citizens aged between 18-30. Swedes, foreign citizens already living in Sweden, and EU/EEA citizens have preference over others in obtaining work in Sweden. Also, if the offer of work is for more than three months you will also require a Swedish residence permit. More information about the paperwork is found on the government website swedenabroad.com [66].
As for finding a job you could try the public "Arbetsförmedlingen" ('The Job Agency') and give it a try, it might work! However, you can also buy a lottery ticket, you will have roughly the same chance to get an income that way. Usually jobs are better provided by certain knowledges and luck.
Risks in Sweden
Crime/violence: Low
Alcohol-related violence, petty theft
Authorities/corruption: Low
Security guards might be rude
Transportation: Low to Moderate
Wild animal crossings everywhere, and slippery roads in the winter
Health: Low
Tick and mosquito bites
Nature: Low to Moderate
Blizzards and avalanches in the northern mountains
Sweden enjoys a comparatively low crime rate and is generally a safe place to travel. Use common sense at night, particularly on weeknights when people hit the streets to drink, get drunk, and in some unfortunate cases look for trouble. Mind that it is likely that your home country is less safe than Sweden, so heed whatever warnings you would do in your own country and you will have no worries.
If involved in an argument, try to leave before the person becomes aggressive. If you see a street fight and want to stop it, be sure to have a friend. There have been reports on people injured or even killed when they've tried to stop a street fight. Young people, drunk people, or people who have taken drugs can be dangerous so use common sense. Don't feel bad if you don't do anything: there is a reason why many tend to do that, unfortunately. Do not argue with security guards, they might be upset, and could be violent. Don't report a security guard for violence, since they are likely to accuse you of violence, which might result in a prison sentence, as courts tend to believe uniformed people.
Pickpockets are rare but not unheard of. They usually work in tourist-frequented areas, such as airports, large rail stations, shopping areas and festivals. Most Swedes carry their wallets in their pockets or purses and feel quite safe while doing it. Still, almost all stores and restaurants accept most major credit cards so there is no need to carry a lot of cash around. If you have a bike, do lock it or you may lose it.
Be sure to watch for cars in the road junctions. There is a law in Sweden called "The Zebra law" which means that cars must stop at zebra crossings. Many Swedes believe that all the drivers do that. By watching for cars you may save not only your life but also a friend's, since reported injuries have increased because of the law. If you do drive then follow the law, police cars may not be seen everywhere but you never know when they appear.
The E6 between Helsingborg and Norway is haunted by robbers, known as "road pirates". If sleeping in your vehicle during nighttime, consider a guarded camping area.
Counterfeit Swedish banknotes or other documents are very uncommon. Newer 50, 100, 500 and 1000 SEK notes have holograms. Older 100 and 500 SEK banknotes without a hologram are invalid, but older 50 and 1000 SEK banknotes without a hologram are still valid.
Driving in Sweden is among the safest in Europe. It doesn't mean that there are no dangers in the roads; wild animals like moose, deer and boar sometimes stray onto highways. The moose is a big and heavy animal (up to 700 kg and 2,1 m shoulder height) so a collision can be violent and endanger your life even if you wear a seatbelt.
Wearing a seatbelt is mandatory for everyone who is in the car. Some motorways have traffic signs that warn about wild animals and it's mostly seen in the northern areas of Sweden, although they can be spotted in the south as well. Motorway driving is a lot less aggressive than in Denmark or mainland Europe, although this may not apply to drivers who are not Swedish. There are long distances. Take rests if you are tired; it is dangerous to fall asleep when driving.

In Case of Emergency

112 is the phone number to dial in case of fire, medical or criminal emergency. It does not require an area code, regardless of what kind of phone you're using. The number works on any mobile phone, with or without a SIM card, even if it's keylocked.
Police officers are rarely on patrol, and might be too busy to head out for minor crimes.
Nightclubs and shopping centers usually have security officers with a chest badge saying ordningsvakt, authorized to use force, and infamous to do so. These should be respected. Officers with other labels ("Security" or "Entrévärd") have no special privileges, but are still notoriously violent (as they are usually recruited from the street, without background check). Don't argue with them.

Stay healthy

Since November 2009, the pharmacy business has been de-regulated. Certified pharmacies carry a green cross sign and the text Apotek. For small medical problems the pharmacy is sufficient. Major cities carry one pharmacy open at night. Many supermarkets carry non-prescription supplies such as band aid, antiseptics and painkillers.
Swedish health care is usually of a very high quality, but can be quite challenging to receive. Virtually all medical clinics are state-owned, and have problems with funding. Therefore, getting a time within a week at a medical center is very rare. In case of a medical emergency, most provinces (and of course, the major cities) have a regional hospital with an around-the-clock emergency ward. However, if you are unlucky you can expect a long wait before getting medical attention.
Tap water in Sweden is of great quality, and contains close to zero bacteria. Water in mountain resorts might contain rust, and water on islands off the coast might be brackish, but it is still safe to drink. There is no real reason for buying bottled water in Sweden. Also, there is bottled water that doesn't meet the requirements to be used as tap water in Sweden.
There are few serious health risks in Sweden. Your primary concern especially in wintertime will be the cold, particularly if trekking or skiing in the northern parts. Northern Sweden is sparsely populated and, if heading out into the wilderness, it is imperative that you register your travel plans with a friend or the authorities so they can come looking for you if you fail to show up. Dress warmly in layers and bring along a good pair of sunglasses to prevent snow blindness, especially in the spring. In snowy mountains, avalanches might be a problem.

Dangerous animals

A serious nuisance in summer are mosquitoes (mygg), hordes of which inhabit Sweden (particularly the north) in summer, especially after rain. While they do not carry malaria or other diseases, Swedish mosquitoes make a distinctive (and highly irritating) whining sound, and their bites are very itchy. As usual, mosquitoes are most active around dawn and sunset — which, in the land of the Midnight Sun, may mean most of the night in summer. There are many types of mosquito repellents available which can be bought from almost any shop. Other summer nuisances are gadflies (bromsar), whose painful but non-poisonous bites can leave a mark lasting for days, and wasps (getingar) whose stings can be deadly if you're allergic. To minimize trouble from insects, use mosquito repellent, ensure your tent has good mosquito netting and bring proper medication if you know that you're allergic to wasp stings.
In southern Sweden and in northern coastal regions there are ticks (fästingar) which appear in summertime. They can transmit Lyme's disease (borreliosis) and more serious TBE (tick-borne encephalitis) through a bite. The risk areas for TBE are mainly the eastern parts of lake Mälaren and the Stockholm archipelago. Although incidents are relatively rare and not all ticks carry diseases, it's advisable to wear long trousers rather than shorts if you plan to walk through dense and/or tall grass areas (the usual habitat for ticks). You can buy special tick tweezers (fästingplockare) from the pharmacy that can be used to remove a tick safely if you happen to get bitten. You should remove the tick from your skin as quickly as possible and preferably with the tick tweezers to reduce the risks of getting an infection. If the tick bite starts to form red rings on the skin around it or if you experience other symptoms relating to the bite, you should go visit a doctor as soon as possible. Since ticks are black, they are more easily found if you wear bright clothes.
There's only one type of venomous snake in Sweden: the European adder (huggorm), which has a distinct zig-zag pattern on its back. The snake is not very common, but lives all over Sweden except for the mountains in the north and farmlands in the south. Although its bite hardly ever is life-threatening (except to small children and allergic people), one should be careful in the summertime especially when walking in the forests or on open fields. If you are bitten by a snake, seek medical assistance. All reptiles in Sweden, including adders, are protected by law and must not be harmed.
There aren't any really dangerous marine animals in Sweden, although when bathing in the sea one should watch out for Greater weevers (Fjärsing); this is a small fish that hides in the sand near beaches, its back has several spikes that are poisonous and will hurt a lot if stepped on. The poison of the Greater Weever is to be considered about as dangerous as that of the European adder and will likely cause more pain (this can be quite severe) than damage. There are also types of poisonous jellyfish that can be quite common near beaches. These are distinguished from normal non-poisonous types by their bright blue or red color. These types of jellyfish aren't really dangerous but their venom will hurt. There are no large predatory fish that pose a lethal threat to humans in Sweden, but in extreme cases the Pike (gädda), a common fish in Sweden's many lakes has been known to bite people when threatened. You probably run a higher risk of being struck by lightning than a Pike bite though!
As for other dangerous wildlife, there's not much more than a few extremely rare encounters with brown bear (brunbjörn) and wolf (varg) in the wilderness. Both of these animals are listed as protected species. Contrary to popular belief abroad, there are no polar bears in Sweden, let alone polar bears walking city streets. If you encounter a brown bear in the woods, walk slowly away from it while talking loudly - the bear is most likely to feel threatened if you surprise it. In the unlikely event of a brown bear attacking you should play dead, protect your head and make yourself as small as possible. Or the opposite, there have been people surviving a brown bear encounter by screaming as loud as possible, jumping, and making oneself as big as possible. Bears are most likely to attack if they are injured, provoked by a dog, going to hibernate or protecting their cubs.
Bears in Sweden have killed no more than a handful of people since 1900. Swedish wolves have not killed a human being since 1821. In general, one shouldn't worry about dangerous encounters with wild beasts in Sweden.

Respect

Most Swedes have liberal, cosmopolitan, secular, egalitarian and environmentalist values by Anglo-Saxon standards. This spares Western tourists from cultural clashes which might be imminent in other countries. However, some strict rules of etiquette are almost unique to Swedish people.
Sweden - a country of numbers
Swedish people are reputed to be rigid and organized. Almost everything has a number. Swedish people have a ten-digit personal identity number (starting by date of birth in the form YYMMDD) used in contact with all kinds of government authorities, usually mentioned before the name. Customers in Swedish shops or bank need to take a queue number note from a machine to be served in order. Each product at Systembolaget is known for its product number (which is often easier to keep track of than foreign-sounding names), and the most important feature in selection is the alcohol content (often divided by price to find the most cost-efficient product). If you order a drink in the bar, be prepared to tell how many centiliters of liquor you want. Most grocers provide milk in four or more fat content levels (plus an organic version of each, barista milk and low lactose milk, not to mention filmjölk, yoghurt and all other milk products). Before going outdoors, Swedes check air temperature, and before bathing in open water, they check water temperature. Many Swedes also own barometers, hygrometers and rain gauges to support the eternal conversation about weather with statistics. In conversation about housing, Swedes define their flats by number of rooms (En trea - "a three" - is simply a three-room-and-kitchen flat) and usually ask each other about the area by square meter. They have week numbers running from 1 to 52.
  • Though narcotics are not unheard of, most Swedes, old and young, are strongly opposed to them, and the criminal penalties are harsh by Swedish standards. This also applies to cannabis and other "soft drugs".
  • When it comes to alcohol, Swedes are as double-natured as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Before work or driving, one beer is one too many, and drunk driving is a crime genuinely despised in Sweden. However, drunkenness can be a regular part of many Swedish traditions (e.g. Midsommar, Valborg, etc.) - keep this in mind if you abstain from alcohol. Some Swedes frown on people being sober at a party and reject excuses other than driving or pregnancy - though no formal policy exists that would force one to drink against their own will.
  • Salespeople, waiters and other service employees are usually less attentive than their colleagues in other countries, to respect customers' privacy, except a short "hej" to entering customers. Customers are supposed to call for attention.
  • Always ask if you should remove your shoes or not when entering a Swedish home. In most homes it is customary to remove your shoes, but some Swedes prefer if their guests keep their shoes on. Most Swedish homes have wood flooring - wall-to-wall carpets are uncommon. Should you be dressed up and the host asks you to take your shoes off (or if you do not like to take off your shoes when indoors), bring a pair of clean indoor shoes.
  • Though rumors of the "Swedish sin", Swedish people are generally not accepting of public nudity except at approved nudist beaches. Don't go skinny-dipping in public beaches, if you are more than four years old. Female toplessness is uncommon (and prohibited at many public baths), but breastfeeding in public is accepted. Male toplessness is accepted in the countryside and at the beach, but might be frowned upon in urban areas.
  • Greetings between men and women who know each other (e.g. are good friends, relatives, etc.) is often in the form of a hug.
  • Show up on the minute for meetings and meals, preferably five minutes before set time. There is no "fashionably late" in Sweden.
  • In regards to homosexuality, Sweden is quite tolerant to gays. In fact, as of May 2009, same-sex marriages have legal standings in Sweden. The chance of facing extreme criticism or homophobia is low in Sweden, as the country has anti-discrimination and hate crimes laws. Violence against gays and lesbians is relatively rare.
  • Around payday, on the 25th of each month, stores and bars can get very crowded.
  • Smoking is not allowed in restaurants, bars or any other indoor establishments (except outdoor terraces and designated smoking rooms). Smoking in someone's home is usually out of the question; if you ask kindly you might be allowed to light up on the balcony or the porch. Relatively few Swedes smoke daily, but many men and women "snus" (snuff), a tobacco pouch inserted into the upper lip. It comes in a wide variety of different styles and flavors and in both loose and portion form. Portions are more popular and generally reccomended for public events, as loose snus can be very messy when removed. Unlike American oral tobaccos, it is not usually necessary to spit if the snus is properly placed. Most bars and clubs will have snus receptacles instead of ashtrays on the tables. Be warned, however, that snus can seem very harsh to first time users, with a nicotine level several times that of cigarettes.

Contact

Sweden's international calling code number is +46. Payphones are available, with older models only accepting cards (special smartchip phone cards as well as credit cards), and newer models that accept coins (Swedish as well as Euros). Collect calls are possible by dialing 2# on a pay phone.
Sweden has excellent wireless GSM and 3G/UMTS coverage, even in rural areas except in the central and northern interior parts of the country. The major networks are Telia, Tele2/Comviq, Telenor and 3 (Tre). Swedish GSM operates on the European 900/1800 MHz frequencies (Americans will need a triband phone), with 3G/UMTS on 2100 MHz (currently with 7.2-14.4 Mbit HSDPA speeds). Only the Telia network supports EDGE. Some operators may ask for a Swedish personnummer (or samordningsnummer) to get a number, although with most operators you can get prepaid without any, "personnummer" or ID and these are sold and refillable at most supermarkets and tobacco stores
Sweden is the world's second most Internet connected country (second to Iceland). The Swedish postal system ("Posten AB") is often considered efficient and reliable, with locations placed inside of supermarkets and convenience stores (look for the yellow horn logo). Stamps for ordinary letters (to anywhere in the world) are 12 SEK and the letter usually needs 2 days within EU. Stamps can be purchased in most supermarkets, ask the cashier.
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Part of the Comparative law and justice Wikiversity Project
Scale of justice 2 new.jpeg Subject classification: this is a law resource .
14:49, 15 October 2009 Bdylan823
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Flag of Sweden.svg

Contents

Basic Information

Demographic Characteristics

Sweden's population is 9,059,651 people as of July 2009.
Age/gender structure (2009 est)
  • 0-14 years: 15.7% (male 733,597/female 692,194)
  • 15-64 years: 65.5% (male 3,003,358/female 2,927,038)
  • 65 years and over: 18.8% (male 753,293/female 950,171)[1]

Geography

Sweden is located in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway. The area is 450,295 sq km ((173,746 sq mi) which is slightly larger than California. Sweden is ranked the 55th largest country in the world and it is the largest in Northern Europe and 5th largest in Europe. The capital is Stockholm and it is divided into 21 counties; Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastamanlands and Vasta Gotalands. The climate in the south is temperate with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers. The North has a subarctic climate. The terrain is mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands with mountains in the west. The lowest point is the reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon located near Kristianstad in the South at -2.41 m (−7.91 ft) below sea level. The highest point is Kebnekaise at 2,111 m (6,926 ft) above sea level. There are over 100,000 lakes and rivers which make up nearly one third of the country's area. Forests cover more than half of the land area.

Religion

The Swedes are mostly Protestant, and it is every child's birthright to be a member in the state church, the Church of Sweden. 87% are Lutheran and the other 13% include Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist.

Ethnic Groups

Sweden's indigenous population is mostly Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities. .The foreign-born or first generation immigrants include Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks and Turks.^ Minority groups include Finns 450,000 (5%), Roma 35,000–40,000, Jews 25,000 and Sami 15,000–20,000 and other ethnic groups such as former Yugoslavs, Iranians, Kurds, Roma, Turks.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Language

Sweden's official languages is Swedish, with Sami- and Finnish-speakers in the minority.

Economic Development

Due to the peace and neutrality during the 20th century, Sweden has obtained a comfortable standard of living. The people live under capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydro power, and iron ore makeup the resource base of an economy that relies heavily on foreign trade. 90% of industrial output is based on privately owned firms, of which the engineering sector is 50% of output and exports. Agriculture is only 1% of GDP and of employment. Until 2008, Sweden was in the midst of an economic upswing, due to increased domestic demand and strong exports. Sweden was not immune to the recession even with strong finances, deteriorating global conditions, reduced export demand and consumption were all factors. Sweden's GDP is $344.3 billion (2008, ranked 33 in the world).[2] The GDP per capita is 183.1 billion (2008, ranked 24 in the world). Sweden exports commodities that include Machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products and chemicals. Sweden imports $165.3 billion (2008, ranked 26 in the world) and the commodities include machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel, foodstuffs, and clothing.[3]

Health and Education

The average life expectancy at birth is ranked number ten in the world. Males are estimated to live up to 78.59 years and females 83.26 years at an average of 80.6 years for the total population. The fertility rate is 1.67 children born per women while the infant mortality rate is a total of 2.75 deaths per 1,000 live births. This is ranked 222 in the world; males are 2.91 deaths per 1,000 live births and females are 2.58 deaths per 1,000 live births.(2009) The literacy rate is 99% of the population. This means that 99% of both males and females over the age of 15 can read and write.

Brief History

Sweden has received influence from many countries abroad, with mostly German influences during the middle-ages and French influences during the 18th century and later a revive in German influence during the 19th century. From 1750 to 1850 modernization of agriculture occurred. “Around 1930, the area used for agricultural production had reached its maximum, and 50 percent of the population were engaged in agriculture. .Twenty years later, only some 20 percent lived on the countryside.” Sweden’s culture is diverse due to the immigration at the end and after the glacial period.^ In total 389 Afghans immigrated during the first quarter of the year, which is nearly twice as many as during the same period in 2008.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ In previous years, Sweden’s refusal to recognize Sami legal and resource rights has made Sami culture and identity vulnerable.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Their culture is also influenced foreign cultures through TV, music, fashion and food.[4]
The Kingdom of Sweden (Sweden as the conventional short form) received its Independence on June 6, 1523 when Gustav Vasa gained support and was elected king as Gustav I. During the 17th century Sweden was a military power, but in the past two centuries has not participated in any wars and remained an armed neutrality for both World Wars.[5]

Governance

Sweden is a Constitutional Monarchy, but is really a parliamentary democracy, because all political power is elected by the people. The current Head of State of Sweden is Carl XVI. He has held this position since 1973. He is merely a representative of the country and only has ceremonial duties. The Head of State has no political powers and does not participate in politics. The Swedish monarchy is purely based on the tradition of the Constitution. Since 1980, succession to the title of Head of State has been given to the first-born child, in this case Crown Princess Victoria who was born in 1977.[6]
Sweden has three levels of government: national, regional and local. In addition, Sweden entered the EU which has caused an increased importance for governing at the European level.[7]
  • National Level
The people are represented by Sweden's Parliament (the Riksdag), which has legislative powers. Proposals for new laws are presented by the Government which also implements decisions taken by the Riksdag. The Government is assisted by the Government Offices, comprising of a number of ministries, and some 300 central government agencies and public administrations.[8] The Government offices, EU policy, constitutional policy, and election issues are coordinated by The Prime Minister. Other ministries include, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Defense etc.[9]
  • Regional Level
Sweden is divided into 21 counties. The county councils and administrative boards (governing bodies of the counties) are in charge with the political tasks at this level. Some public authorities work at regional and local levels.[10]
  • Local Level
Sweden has 290 municipalities with an elected assembly for each municipality(the municipal council.) Their job is to take decisions on municipal matters. The municipal council leads and coordinates work which is appointed by the municipal executive board.[11]
  • European Level
Since entering the EU in 1995 Sweden has acquired another level of government: the European level. As a member of the Union, Sweden is subject to the EU acquis communautaire and takes part in the decision-making process when new rules are drafted and approved. Sweden is represented by its Government in the European Council of Ministers which is the EU's principle decision-making body.[12]

Constitution

The Swedish Constitution defines the relationship between decision-making and executive power. The 1992 Swedish Local Government Act regulates the divisions into municipalities and the organization and powers of the municipalities and county councils. It also contains rules for elected representatives, municipal councils, executive boards and committees. The division of tasks between central government and municipalities has changed over the years. For Democratic purposes, activities have chiefly been transferred from central government to municipal bodies. In municipalities contact between decision-makers and private individuals are much easier to maintain. The Committee on Public Sector Responsibilities is instructed to look into the division of responsibility between different levels of government.[13] Sweden has four fundamental laws which together make up the Constitution: the Instrument of Government, the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression.
  • Instrument of the Government
The basic principles of governing are outlined in The Instrument of Government. This include how the Government works, fundamental freedoms and rights of the people and how the Riksdag elections are to be executed. This was adopted in 1974 which drastically reduced the powers of the monarchy. The position of Head of State remained with the King but all political powers were stripped away. The Speaker of the Riksdag was given the role of appointing the new prime minister.[14]
  • The Act of Succession
The succession to the King or Queen is presented here. Enacted in 1810 and up until 1979, succession went through the male line. The Riksdag decided both males and females could be Head of State.[15]
  • The Freedom of the Press Act
Sweden was the first in the world to give people freedom of press by law (1766.) 1949’s Freedom of the Press Act gave the right to distribute information in printed form but with accountability before the law and gives citizens right to study public documents and access to official documents.[16]

Elections

Elections are held every four years for Parliament and municipal and county council. Voters have the responsibility to elect those who are to decide how Sweden is governed and administered. County council are elected by citizens of the specific county. Any Swedish citizen who is 18 and a resident or a previous resident of the country may vote(not mandatory) in general elections and referendums. If you are a member of the EU states of Norway and Iceland and are registered as a resident of Sweden and are 18 than you are eligible to vote in municipal and county elections. All non-Swedish citizens must be registered as a resident in Sweden for more than three years in a row before election day to be able to vote in municipal and county elections.[17]

Judicial Review

"If a court or other public body finds that a provision conflicts with a rule of fundamental law or other superior statute, or finds that a procedure laid down in law has been disregarded in any important respect when the provision was made, the provision shall not be applied. If the provision has been approved by the Riksdag or by the Government, however, it shall be waived only if the error is manifest."[18]

Courts and Criminal Law

There are two types of courts, general and general administrative. General courts deal with criminal and civil cases while general administrative deal with cases involving Sweden's public administration. General Courts are what is called a three-tired hierarchy consisting of courts of appeal, district courts, and the Supreme Court. General Administrative Courts are organized into county administrative courts, administrative courts of appeal and the Supreme Administrative Court.[19] There are also special courts and tribunal designed to hear specific issues, they include the Labor Court, the Market Court and the Rent and Leasehold Tribunals.[20] The Swedish legal system is accusatorial because there is a prosecutor representing the state and a defense attorney representing the defendant. The trials occur without juries, but include a judge and three to five lay judges who cast a vote on the fate of the accused. Higher courts employ only professional judges to hear cases.[21]

Legal Personnel

Judges

To qualify as a Judge, one needs to obtain a Master's of Law Degree. A path of law starting from graduation is taken by most candidates. One would first be a law clerk at district or county administrative court for two years. After this step it is common for most people to be reporting clerks at a court of appeals or administrative court of appeals. Following one year of service there, the person in training would then go back to a district Court for another two years. Then the trainee goes into a period of probation in which he or she will co-opt the bench for one year at the court of appeal or administrative court of appeal. The reporting clerk is then appointed an associated judge. Associated judges and reporting clerks are considered non-permanent judges until appointed by the Government in which they will hold a permanent position. Permanent Judges can be employed to a variety of different positions which include any one of the following; district or county administrative court judges or as judges of appeal at a court of appeal or administrative court of appeal.[22]

Lay Judges

Lay judges work in the district court, court of appeal, county administrative court and administrative court of appeal. “The lay judges are appointed by the municipal council in the municipalities under the territorial jurisdiction of each district court and by the county council assembly in the counties under the jurisdiction of the county administrative court, the administrative court of appeal or the court of appeal.”[23] Each lay judge serve four years in which they use their one vote in taking part in the adjudication of specific important issues and other matters of law.

Prosecutor

Once the pre-investigation has been finished, the prosecutor looks at the evidence and then determines if charges should be filed. If there is enough evidence where a guilty verdict would be most likely achieved then the person is taken to court. The role of the prosecutor is to prove those accused of a crime are guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. In Sweden there is no plea bargaining, everyone who is prosecuted must stand trial. The accused do not have the burden of proving their innocence and can only be prosecuted once they have been informed and allowed to comment on the charges against them. The prosecutor also decides if someone should remain under arrest for the pre-trial appearance, detention is made mainly for crimes involving the possible punishment of jail time. "Twelve hours is the maximum period for which a suspect can be held without a warrant of arrest. The statuary maximum time for arrest is 48 hours. A request for a pre-trial detention order is normally made the same day as the arrest but in extreme cases this time may be extended to, but no longer than, the third day after the arrest. The prosecutor can also decide if special measures need to be taken for the accused. They can get social services involved to deal with the case or a forensic psychiatric examination for the mentally disturbed. ”[24]

Defense Counsels

A defense counsel is appointed when necessary by the court. The counsel must be a member of the Swedish Bar Association and a trained lawyer. Public funds pay for this assistance. If the defendant is well off than he or she may appoint their own private counsel, in that case the private counsel does not have to have any legal training.

Punishment

Once the court discusses the case and considers only and all the evidence presented at the main hearing, the decision and punishment are announced immediately. Special considerations are made for people with diagnosed mental disorders, like psychiatric treatment with or without special consideration of discharge. Children and young people, along with addicts and mentally disturbed people may receive special treatment.
Prison sentences range from 14 days to 10 years. Sentences going up to 16 years are for more sever crimes. “Life imprisonment is usually converted to a specific length of punishment of around 14-16 years.”[25] Sanctions are based on seriousness of the crime, age and mental state of the perpetrator. “One general principle is that imprisonment should be avoided as far as possible. Thus, it is not possible in any unified manner to say that the normal punishment for a certain crime is a certain type of sanction.”[26] Sweden now has conditional release; once a prisoner has served 2/3 of his sentence he or she will be released. Between July 1, 1983 and July 1, 1993 conditional release was applied for after completion of half of the sentence. Anyone under 18 may not be sentenced to prison unless it’s an extreme case.
Psychiatric treatment is given for crimes in which the defendant suffers from a serious mental disorder and the crime needs to be punished more sever than just a fine. Probation is given as a sanction for crimes worthy of more than just a fine and may be combined with community service or contract care. Conditional sentencing maybe perceived as a compromise with a trial period combined with a fine. Anyone under 21 at the time of sentencing may be placed in the care of social services combined with a fine. If a person commits a crime and is a drug abuser who may be in danger to himself or a relative, the sanction could not lead to a more sever punishment than one year imprisonment may be sentenced to treatment under the care of alcoholics and drug abusers act.[27]
A person’s financial status and severity of the crime determines the amount of a day-fine. These fines are given out based on a magnitude scale from no less than 30 and no more than 150 or a joint punishment for several crimes with a maximum of 200 on the scale. The amount of the fine is from 30 SEK to 1000 SEK. Police can only give a maximum of 1,200 SEK for a fine. Summary punishment is a fine that is issued by the prosecutor if the defendant admits to the crime. This eliminates court proceedings but is only used for simple crimes that would lead to a fine or in some cases six months in prison. Young people are typically not prosecuted. Forfeiture on property usually occurs for tools of crime, profits of crime or objects produced by means of crime. Anyone not a Swedish national may be forced to leave the country and never return, this is called expulsion. If private property is destroyed or personal injury occurs the accused may pay damages to the plaintiff. Finally, serious driving offenses or repeated offenses require the person’s license to be taken away in administrative court.[28]
Number and type of Sanctions for 1993
  • Prison: 15,872
  • Psychiatric treatment: 372
  • Probation: 6,274
    • with contract care, 620
    • with community service program: 310
  • Conditional sentence: 11,916
  • Treatment within the social services: 1,480
  • Fines: 111,560
    • Day and monetary fines: 35,808
    • Summary punishment: 75,752
  • Failure to prosecute: 13,942
  • Other sanctions: 2,964
  • Total persons sanctioned or prosecuted: 164,380
    • Additional On-the-spot fines: 199,144
The death penalty was abolished in Sweden in 1921 for peace time and in 1973 also for war time.
The data on sanctions was provided by THE WORLD FACTBOOK OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS[29]
The majority of crimes and offenses, in particular traffic offenses, are sanctioned by police officers or prosecutors in the form of summary fines. Fines are used for less serious crimes, and range from the minimum of 100 and a maximum of 2,000 SEK. Prisons in Sweden are divided on the national and local level. There are a total of 77 prisons. People with sentences longer than one year or require extra security go to the national level. Local institutions are for those with sentences up to one year. There are 17 national prisons with 1,904 beds and 60 local prisons with 2,885 beds in 1994. “The average number of prisoners for the fiscal year 1992/1993 was 3,830.”[30] The number of annual admissions for the year 1992 was 13,836. As of March 1, 1993, 26.8 % of the prisoners were foreign citizens and 5% were female.[31]
Crime and Annual Admissions
  • Violent crimes: 2,368 (17.1%)
  • Sex crimes: 270 (2.0%)
  • Property crimes: 3,139 (22.7%)
  • Robbery: 417 (3.0%)
  • Fraud: 1,139 (8.2%)
  • Drunken driving: 2,562 (18.5%)
  • Other traffic: 532 (3.8%)
  • Drug offenses: 1,298 (9.4%)
  • Other: 2,111 (15.3%[32]

Law Enforcement

The Justice System is organized into the Government and the Ministry of Justice, the National Police Board and the National Forensic Laboratory along with county administrative boards, county police commissioners and police authorities/areas. The policing system is a central administrative authority ran by the National Police Board which dictates the Government’s priorities and guidelines for operations as well as ensures appropriate police procedures along with the overall proper functioning of police work. The National Police Board includes The National Police Board’s central administrative authority, The National Criminal Investigation Department, and The National Police College. The National Forensic Laboratory (SKL, the central Swedish lab of forensic investigations) is also operating under the National Police Board.[33]
Serious crimes with national or international consequences are managed by the National Police Board (RPS). The National Criminal Investigation Department manages police activities carried on by RPS. The National Investigation Department provides reinforcements for local police organizations. This department provides assistance with investigations work in connection with murder investigations and other violent crimes, drug offenses, and car theft for export. UN police activities and Interpol activities are also done by the National Investigation Department.[34]
New police officers are trained by the National police Board at The Police College. There, people are trained to become police officers, along with courses on police management, contracts, and research and development work. Two careers are pursued at this college and those are for uniformed police officers and criminal investigators. To qualify as a recruit one needs to be a Swedish citizen, obtain a high school education, work for one year outside of police work, have a drivers license, be at least twenty years old and have the ability to swim well. Training is a three year program which includes ten months of basic training and eighteen months training in one of the police districts and finished off with five months final training back at the Police College. Of 5,812 applicants for police officer training in 1994 only 191 were accepted of which 51 were female.[35] To become a criminal investigator a little more work is required in the form of a University degree in law. Training for police commissioner recruits lasts three years which includes courses on theoretical studies in police work, analysis and planning, administration and workplace psychology. Training in all areas of criminal justice such as police, courts and prosecutors is mandatory. 700 people applied for police commissioner training and only 30 were accepted in 1991.[36]
All complaints about police work are sent to a police authority thus helping in the prevention of Corruption. There, an investigation will ensue not by the police but the public prosecutor. If the matter is not severe it will be sent beck to the police authority where discipline will or will not be handed out by the personnel disciplinary board. In 1993 a total of 1,048 reports against police authorities were made and of these 162 were of ill treatment.[37] “During this period just under 40,000 persons were deprived of their freedom in accordance with the investigative routine. Recently the Stockholm police have been trying out a system of citizen witnesses, i.e. laymen who observe work at the police station.”[38]
The Swedish Armed Forces (Försvarsmakten, is an agency that maintains peace, trains and deploys military forces abroad and defends the country in war. This is a completely different agency from justice and has no connection. There are special areas of the police that involve marine policing. This section maintains safety and order at sea. They work with the coast guard and customs to guard the coast and restricted areas. The marine police also help assisting in rescue assignments.[39]

Crime Rates and Public Opinion

INTERPOL Data for Sweden containing the seven crimes on the FBI's crime Index(murder, forcible rape, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft) show that Sweden's crime rate is relatively high compared with other modern nations. INTERPOL data for 2001 for murder was 10.01 per 100,000 population for Sweden. The statistic for rape was 23.39 and for robbery was 95.83 and 667.42 for aggravated assault. The larceny rate was 6,988.81 and 495.21 for motor vehicle theft. The rate for all index offenses is 9,604.57. Sweden has a low crime rate in regard to murder and major assault, a medium crime rate in regard to rape and robbery, and an exceedingly high rate in regard to property crimes (burglary, larceny, and auto theft).[40] The majority of Sweden's crime is against property. The number of property crimes was slightly over 560,000 making it 41% of the crime reported in 2008. These offenses consist of burglary, car theft and various other forms of robbery.[41]
Data taken from the World Values Survey show that 12.5% of people have a "great deal of confidence in the police", while 65.3% of people have "quite a lot", 19.7% have "not very much", and 2.5% have "none at all". Another World Values Survey question that asked what is second most important issues for Sweden with choices such as "a stable economy", "progress toward a less impersonal and more humane society", "ideas count more than money", "the fight against crime". With 36.2% of the vote, "the fight against crime" was determined to be the second most important issue for the people of Sweden. Sweden's confidence in the justice system had 15.1% for "a great deal", 59.2% for "quite a lot", 21.7% for "not very much" and 4.0% for none at all"[42]

Rights

Family Law

Family Law in Sweden is mainly from the Marriage code which was adopted in 1988 and the code pertaining to parents, guardians, and children adopted in 1949. The Marriage code makes the spouses equal. "The general principle is that each spouse is the owner of her or his property and is solely responsible for her or his debts."[43] Spouses are treated as individuals except in rules on property taxes and parts of social security and pension law.[44] A spouse does have some legal restrictions on what they can do to his or her common home without the consent of the other spouse. If a pre-nuptial agreement was not signed then pre-marital wealth and inheritance can be distributed amongst the former spouses. Inherited assets or gifts are excluded if an agreement is made where it does not become marital property.[45] Inheritance property is given to the surviving spouse and surviving children once the spouse has died.[46] Adoption in Sweden is a very common practice. Recently inter-country adoption has become common. In the past thirty years, more than 40,000 children have been adopted from other countries. Around 800 children come into the country each year from all parts of the world. Adopted children in Sweden have the same rights as biological children, and adoptive parents have the same rights as biological parents. Sweden’s social security system allows for paid paternity leave for 480 days along with sickness and unemployment benefits.[47] All children in Sweden get free medical care including operations and dental care until the age of twenty. Parents must be approved by the Social Welfare Board in order to adopt a child. For inter-country adoption parents visit a compulsory parental education to get information about the needs of the adopted children.[48] As of May 1, 2009 same sex marriages are allowed in Sweden. The law was past with great support. "Of 349 members of parliament, 261 voted in favour, 22 were opposed to the proposal, 16 abstained and 50 were absent."[49] This law gives same sex couples all of the legal and social

Human Rights

The fundamental rights of the people of Sweden are outlined in the Instrument of the Government. The first article states "All public power in Sweden proceeds from the people. Swedish democracy is founded on the free formation of opinion and on universal and equal suffrage. It shall be realized through a representative and parliamentary polity and through local self-government."[50] Article two states "Public power shall be exercised with respect for the equal worth of all and the liberty and dignity of the private person."[51] Chapter two of the Instrument of the Government outlines the fundamental rights being protected.
"Art. 1. Every citizen shall be guaranteed the following rights and freedoms in his relations with the public institutions:
1. Freedom of expression: that is, the freedom to communicate information and express thoughts, opinions and sentiments, whether orally, pictorially, in writing, or in any other way;

2. Freedom of information: that is, the freedom to procure and receive information and otherwise acquaint oneself with the utterances of others;

3. Freedom of assembly: that is, the freedom to organize or attend a meeting for the purposes of information or the expression of opinion or for any other similar purpose, or for the purpose of presenting artistic work;

4. Freedom to demonstrate: that is, the freedom to organize or take part in a demonstration in a public place;

5. Freedom of association: that is, the freedom to associate with others for public or private purposes;

6. Freedom of worship: that is, the freedom to practice one’s religion alone or in the company of others."[52]
.On January 1, 2009 The Anti Discrimination Act went into play.^ On 4 June 2008 a new Discrimination Act was adopted by the Swedish Parliament, which entered into force on 1 January 2009.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sweden : Sweden Overview 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

This fights discrimination based on, trans-gender identity or expression, age, (these are the only two differences from other anti-discrimination laws in the past) ethnicity, religion or other form of belief, one's disability, and or sexual orientation. This act applies to most areas of society, including one's work life, education, social insurance system, health care, military service, public appointments, goods and other services.
There are many acts and policies designed to fight discrimination amongst women (The UN Charter, The CEDAW Convention, The European Union, Second Chapter of the Instrument of the Government, and The UN CEDAW Committee), disabled people (The Swedish Disability Policy) and minorities (Sami (an indigenous people), the Swedish Finns, the Tornedalers, the Roma and the Jews are all minorities that are specially recognized because of the length of time existing within the culture of Sweden so are therefore nationally recognized.)[53]

Works Cited

  1. Central Intelligence Agency. 2009. The World Factbook, "Country Comparison: Area." Website accessed 09/18/2009,https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html
  2. Central Intelligence Agency. 2009. The World Factbook, "Country Comparison: Area." Website accessed 09/18/2009,https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html
  3. Central Intelligence Agency. 2009. The World Factbook, "Country Comparison: Area." Website accessed 09/18/2009,https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html
  4. Sweden. "Culture: A Short History of Sweden" Website Accessed 11/12/2009. http://www.sverigeturism.se/smorgasbord/smorgasbord/culture/short-history/
  5. Central Intelligence Agency. 2009. The World Factbook, "Country Comparison: Area." Website accessed 09/18/2009,https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html
  6. Government offices of Sweden, "Head of State." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2853/a/21785
  7. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  8. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  9. Government offices of Sweden, "The Government offices including ministries." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/576
  10. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  11. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  12. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  13. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  14. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  15. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  16. Government offices of Sweden, "Swedish Model of Government Administration." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
  17. Government offices of Sweden, "General Elections." Website Accessed: 10/15/2009, http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

'SWEDEN' [Sverige], a kingdom of northern Europe, occupying the eastern and larger part of the Scandinavian peninsula. It is bounded N.E. by Finland (Russian Empire), E. by the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea, S.W. by the Cattegat and Skagerrack, and W. by Norway. It extends from 69° 3' 21" to 55° 20' 18" N., and from 11° 6' 19" E. on the south-west coast to 24° 9' II" E. on the Finnish frontier, the extreme length being about 990 m., the extreme breadth (mainland) about 250 m., and the total area estimated at 173,547 sq. m. Out of a detailed total estimate of the boundary line at 6too m., 4737 m. are coastal, the Norwegian frontier is 1030 m., and the Finnish 333 m.
Table of contents

Physical Features

The backbone of the Scandinavian peninsula is a range, or series of masses, of mountains (in Swedish Kolen, 1 the keel) extending through nearly the whole length of the peninsula towards the western side. The eastern or Swedish flank has, therefore, the slighter slope. This range forms, in a measure, a natural boundary between Sweden and Norway from the extreme north to the north of Svealand, the central of the three main territorial divisions of Sweden (Norrland, Svealand and Gotaland); though this boundary is not so well markd that the political frontier may follow it throughout. Sweden itself may be considered in four main physical divisions - the mountains and highland district, covering all Norrland and the western part of Svealand; the lowlands of central Sweden; the so-called Sma.land highlands, in the south and southeast; and the plains of Ska.ne, occupying the extreme southward projection of the peninsula.
The first district, thus defined, is much the largest, and includes the greatest elevations in the country and the finest scenery. The highest mountains are found in the north, the bold peak of Kebnekaise reaching 7005 ft., Sarjektjacko, 6972 ft., being the loftiest point of a magnificent group including the Sarjeksfjall, Alkasfjall and Partefjall, which range from 6500 ft. upwards; and, farther south, Sulitelma, 6158 ft., long considered the highest point in Scandinavia. Elevation then decreases slightly, through Stuorevarre (5787 ft.) and Areskutan (4656 ft.), to the south of which the railway from Trondhjem in Norway into Sweden crosses the fine pass at Storlien. South of this again, before the main chain passes into Norway, are such heights as Helagsfjall (5896 ft.) and Storsylen (5781 ft.); and a group of mountains in the northern part of the province of Dalecarlia (Dalarnel ranges from 3600 to 4500 ft. in height. The neighbourhood of Areskutan and the Dalarne highlands, owing to the railway and the development of communications by steamer on the numerous lakes, are visited by considerable numbers of travellers, both Swedish and foreign, in summer; but the northern heights, crossed only by a few unfrequented tracks, are known to few, and to a considerable extent, indeed, have not been closely explored. From the scenic standpoint the relatively small elevation of these mountains finds compensation in the low snow-line, which ranges from about 3000 ft. in the north to 5500 ft. in the south of the region. All the higher parts are thus snow-clad; and glaciers, numerous in the north, occur as far south as the Helagsfjall. The outline of the mountains is generally rounded, the rocks having been subjected to erosion from a very early geological age, but hard formations cause bold peaks at several points, as in Kebnekaise and the Sarjeksfj ?,ll.
1 In Swedish the definite article (masc. and fem. en, neut, et) is added as a suffix to the substantive (when there is no epithet). Geographical terms are similarly suffixed to names, thus Dalelfven, the river Dal. The commonest geographical terms are: elf, strom, river; sjo, lake; o, island; holm, small island; fjall, mountain, group or range; dal, valley; vik, bay. In Norrland the following terms are common: a, river, often attached to the names of the large rivers, as Torne5., Lulea. (although properly it means a smaller river than elf); the names of towns at their mouths always following this form; treisk (local, properly meaning marsh), jaur (Lapp), afva, lake (provincial Swedish, properly a kind of creek opening from a river). A is pronounced o.
From the spinal mountain range a series of large rivers run in a south-easterly direction to the Gulf of Bothnia. In their upper of parts they drain great lakes which have resulted from Rivers North. the formation of morainic dams, and in some cases the perhaps from the incidence of erratic upheaval of the land. All lie at elevations between 900 and 1300 ft. All are narrow in comparison with their length, which is not infrequently magnified to view when two lakes are connected by a very short stretch of running water with a navigable fall of a few feet, such as those between Hornafvan, Uddjaur and Storafvan on the Skellefte river. The following are the principal rivers from north to south: The Tome, which with its tributary the Muonio, forms the boundary with Finland, has a length of 227 m., and drains lake Tome (Tornetrdsk), the area of which is 126 sq. m. The Kalix is 208 m. in length. The Lule is formed of two branches, Stora and Lilla (Great and Little) Lule; the length of the main stream is 193 m. The Stora Lule branch drains the Langas and Stora Lule lakes (Langasjaur, Luletrask), which have a length together exceeding 5 o m., a fall between them of some 16 ft. and a total area of only 87 sq. m., as they are very narrow. Below Stora Lule lake the river forms the Harsprang (hare's leap; Njuommelsaska of the Lapps), the largest and one of the finest cataracts in Europe. The sheer fall is about 100 ft., and there is a further fall of 150 ft. in a series of tremendous rapids extending for 14 m. Farther up, at the head of Langasjaur, is the Stora Sjofall (great lake fall; Lapp, Atna Muorki Kartje), a fall of 130 ft. only less grand than the Harsprang. Both are situated in an almost uninhabited country and are rarely visited. Following the Pite river (191 m.), the Skellefte (205 m.) drains Hornafvan and Storafvan, with a fall of 20 ft., and an area together of 275 sq. m. Hornafvan is a straight and sombre trough, flanked by high hills of unbroken slope, but Storaf van and the intervening Uddjaur are broad, throwing off deep irregular inlets, and picturesquely studded with numerous islets. The Ume (237 m.) receives a tributary, the Vindel, of almost equal length, on the north bank some 20 m. from its mouth, and among several lakes drains Stor Uman (64 sq. m.). The further principal rivers of this region are the Angerman (242 m.), Indal (196 m.), draining the large lakes Kallsjo and Storsjo, Ljusnan (230 m.), Dal and Klar. Of these the two last rise in the southernmost part of the mountain region described, but do not as a whole belong to the region under consideration. The Angerman receives the waters of a wider system of streams and lakes than the rivers north of it, and has thus a drainage area of 12,591 sq. m., which is exceeded only by that of the Tome (16,690 sq. m.), the average of the remaining rivers named being about 7700 sq. m.
Beyond the Harsprang and the Stora Sjofall the northern rivers do not generally form great falls, though many of the rapids are grand. The Indal, by changing its course in 1796 near Bispgarden on the northern railway, has left bare the remarkable bed of a fall called Doda (dead) Fall, in which many " giant's caldrons " are exposed. In the uplands above the chain of lakes called Stromsvattudal, which are within the drainage area on the Angerman, the Hailing stream forms the magnificent Hdllingsa Fall. In the southern mountain valleys of the region there are several beautiful falls, such as the Tannfors, not far from Areskutan, the Storbo, Handol and Rista.
Eastward from the main mountain range the highland region is divided into two belts: a middle belt of morainic deposits and marshes, and a coastal belt. The middle belt is gently undulating; viewed from rare eminences the landscape over the boundless forests resembles a dark green sea, through which the great rivers flow straight between steep, flat-topped banks, with long quiet reaches broken by occasional rapids. The few lakes they form in this belt are rather mere widenings in their courses; but the tributary streams drain numerous small lakes and peat-mosses. In the extreme north this belt is almost flat, a few low hills standing isolated and conspicuous; and the rivers have serpentine courses, while steep banks are absent. The middle belt merges into the coastal belt, covered by geologically recent marine deposits, reaching an extreme height of 700 to 800 ft., and extending inland some 60 to 80 m. in the north and 40 m. in the south. Small fertile plains are characteristic, and the rivers have cut deep into the soft deposits of sand and clay, leaving lofty and picturesque bluffs (nipor). The orographical division of the central lowlands bears comparison in formation with the coastal belt of marine deposits to the north. Here are flat fertile plains of clay, well Central Lowlands. wooded, with innumerable lakes, including the four Low great lakes, Vener, Vetter, Malar and Hjelmar. These, except the last, far exceed in area any of the northern lakes, and even Hjelmar (185 sq. m.) is only exceeded by Hornafvan-Storafvan. The areas of the other three lakes are respectively 21 49, 733 and 449 sq. m. Vener, Vetter and Hjelmar are broad and open; Molar is very irregular in form, and of great length. Molar, Vener and Hjelmar contain many islands; in Vetter there are comparatively few. None of the lakes is of very great depth, the deepest sounding occurring in Vetter, 390 ft. In Hjelmar, which measures 38 m. from east to west, and is 12 m. in extreme width, the greatest depth is only 59 ft., but as its flat shores were formerly subject to inundation its level was sunk 6 ft. by deepening the navigable channel through it and clearing out various waterways (the Eskilstuna river, Hjelmar canal, &c.) in 1878-1887. The scenery of these lakes, though never grand, is always quietly beautiful, especially in the case of Molar, the wooded shores and islands of which form a notable feature in the pleasant environs of the city of Stockholm. The elevation of the central lowlands seldom exceeds 300 ft., but a few isolated heights of Silurian rock appear, such as Kinnekulle, rising 988 ft. above sea-level on the south-eastern shore of Vener, Billingen (978 ft.) between that lake and Vetter, and Omberg (863 ft.) on the eastern shore of Vetter. Noteworthy local features in the landscape of the central lowlands are the eskers or gravel-ridges ((tsar), traversing the land in a direction from N.N.W. to S.S.E., from zoo to 200 ft. in height above the surrounding surface. Typical instances occur in the cities of Stockholm (Brunkebergsasen) and Upsala (Upsala-i sen).
South of the central lowlands the so-called Smaland highlands extend over the old province of Smaland in the south-east, and lie roughly south of Lake Vetter and of Gothenburg, S m aland where. they reach the south-west coast. The general elevation of this region exceeds 300 ft., and in the eastern part 600 ft.; the principal heights are Tomtabacken (1237 ft.) and Ekbacken (11.75 ft.), about 25 m. respectively south-east and west of the town of Jonkoping at the southern extremity of Lake Vetter. Gentle forest-clad undulations, many small lakes and peat-mosses, are characteristic of the region; which, in fact, closely resembles the middle belt of the northern highland region. The Smaland highlands abut southward upon the plains of Skane, the last of the main orographical divisions, which coincides, roughly with the old province of Skane (Scania). Level plains, with rich open meadows and cultivated lands, the monotony of which is in some parts relieved by beech woods, are separated by slight ridges with a general direction from N.W. to S.E., such as Hallandsasen in the north-west, with an extreme elevation of 741 ft.
The hydrographical survey may now be completed. The Dal river, which enters the Gulf of Bothnia near Gefle, is formed of the union of eastern and western branches (Oster Dal, Rivers of Vester Dal) not far from the town of Falun. The eastern the South. branch drains various small lakes on the Norwegian frontier, and in its lower course passes through the beautiful Lake Siljan. The length of the whole river including the eastern as the main branch is 283 m. The Klar river (228 m.) rises as the Faeinund river in Faemundsjo, a large lake in Norway close west of the sources of the Dal. The Klar flows south into Lake Vener, which is drained to the Cattegat by the short Gota river, on which, not far below the lake, are the celebrated falls of Trollha:ttan. Lake Vetter drains eastward by the Motala to the Baltic, Lake Malar drains in the same direction by a short channel at Stockholm, the normal fall of which is so slight that the stream is sometimes reversed. The Smaland highlands are drained to the Baltic and Cattegat by numerous rivers of less importance. Excepting Finland no country is so full of lakes as Sweden. About 14,000 sq. m., nearly one-twelfth of the total area, are under water.
The coast of Sweden is not indented with so many or so deep fjords as that of Norway, nor do the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic and the Cattegat share in the peculiar Coast.. grandeur of the North Sea coast. All, however, have a common feature in the fringe of islands which, throughout nearly the entire length, shelters the coast of the mainland from the open sea. This " skerry-fence " (in Swedish, skeirg(Ird) is only interrupted for any considerable distance (in the case of Sweden) round the southern shore off the flat coast of Skane, between the towns of Varberg on the west and Ahus on the east. Between it and the mainland lies a connected series of navigable sounds of the greatest advantage to coastwise traffic, and also of no little importance as a natural defence. The skargard of the Cattegat, north of Varberg, is bald and rugged. The two largest islands are Orust and Tjorn, north of Gothenburg. Off the south-east coast the place of the skdrgard is in a measure taken by the long narrow island of Oland, but north of this the skrgard begins to widen, and the most considerable fjords are found, such as Bravik, which penetrates the land for 35 m. nearly up to the town of Norrkoping. The island belt is widest (some 45 m.) off the city of Stockholm, the approach to which from the sea is famous for its beauty. Farther north, a narrow sound (Glands Haf) intervening on the Swedish side, the vast Aland archipelago, belonging to Russia, extends across to the Finnish coast. The sk,rgard of the Gulf of Bothnia is less fully developed than that of either the Baltic or the Cattegat. The islands of the skargard as a whole are rugged and picturesque, though never lofty like many of those off the Norwegian coast. In the Baltic many are well wooded, but the majority are bare or heathclad, as are those of the Gulf of Bothnia. Of the large islands in the Baltic and Cattegat, besides Oland, only Gotland is Swedish.

Geology

The fundamental rocks of Sweden belong to the Azoic or pre-Cambrian formation, and consist of crystalline rocks. Three divisions are distinguished by some authors - the grey gneiss, the red iron gneiss and the granulite.
The grey gneiss predominates in the northern and eastern parts of the country, from Vesternorrland down to the province of Kalmar. The rock has a prevalent grey colour, and contains as characteristic minerals garnet and in some parts graphite.
The red iron gneiss prevails in western Sweden in the provinces of Vermland, Skaraborg, Elfsborg, and down to the province of Kristianstad. The formation is very uniform in its character, the gneiss having a red colour and containing small granules of magnetite, but, nevertheless, not a single iron mine belongs to this region. The red gneiss contains in many places beds or masses of hyperite.
The granulite, also called eurite and halleflinta, is the most important of the Pre-Cambrian formation, as it contains all the metalliferous deposits of Sweden. It prevails in the middle part of the country, in Kopparberg, , Vestmanland, Upsala and parts of Vermland. It occurs also in Ostergotland, Kalmar and Kronoberg. The rock is a very compact and fine-grained mixture of felspar, quartz and mica, often graduating to mica schist, quartzite and gneiss. With these are often associated limestones, dolomites and marbles containing serpentine (Kolmarden). The metalliferous deposits have generally the form of beds or layers between the strata of granulite and limestone. They are often highly contorted and dislocated.
The iron deposits occur in more or less fine-grained gneiss or granulite (Gellivara, Grangesberg, Norberg, Striberg), or separated from the granulite by masses of augitic and amphibolous minerals (gronskarn), as in Persberg and Nordmark. Sometimes they are surrounded by halleflinta and limestone, as at Dannemora, Langban, Pajsberg, and then carry manganiferous minerals. Argentiferous galena occurs at Sala in limestone, surrounded by granulite, and at Guldsmedshytta (province of Orebro) in dark halleflinta. Copper pyrites occur at Falun in mica-schists, surrounded by halleflinta. Zinc-blende occurs in large masses at Ammeberg, near the northern end of Lake Vetter. The cobalt ore consists of cobalt-glance (Tunaberg in the province of Soderrnanland) and of linneite (at Gladhammar, near Vestervik). The nickel ore of Sweden is magnetic pyrites, containing only a very small percentage of nickel, and generally occurs in diorite and greenstones. Besides the crystalline gneiss and halleflinta there are also sedimentary deposits which are believed to be of pre-Cambrian age. The most important of these are the Dala Sandstone (chiefly developed in Dalarne), the Almasakra and Visingso series (around Lake Vetter) and the Dalsland formation (near Lake Vener).
Large masses of granite are found in many parts of Sweden, in Kronoberg, Orebro, Goteborg, Stockholm, &c. Sometimes the granite graduates into gneiss; sometimes (as north of Stockholm) it encloses large angular pieces of gneiss. Intrusions of hyperite, gabbro (anorthite-gabbro at Radmanso in the province of Stockholm) and diorite are also abundant.
The Cambrian formation generally occurs along with the Ordovician, and consists of many divisions. The oldest is a sandstone, in which are found traces of worms, impressions of Medusae, and shells of Mickwitzia. The upper divisions consist of bituminous limestones, clay-slates, alum-slate, and contain numerous species of trilobites of the genera Paradoxides, Conocoryphe, Agnostus, Sphaerophthalmus, Peltura, &c. The Ordovician formation occurs in two distinct facies - the one shaley and containing graptolites; the other calcareous, with brachiopods, trilobites, &c. The most constant of the calcareous divisions is the Orthoceras limestone, a red or grey limestone with Megalaspis and Orthoceras. The subdivisions of the system may be grouped as follows: (I) Ceratopyge Limestone; (2) Lower Graptolite Shales and Orthoceras Limestone; (3) Middle Graptolite Shales, Chasmops and other Limestones, Trinucleus beds. The Cambrian and Ordovician strata occur in isolated patches in Vesterbotten, Jemtland (around Storsjo), Skaraborg, Elfsborg, Orebro, Ostergotland and Kristianstad. The whole of the island of Oland consists of these strata. The deposits are in most places very little disturbed and form horizontal or slightly inclined layers. South of Lake Vener they are capped by thick beds of eruptive diabase (called trapp). North of Lake Siljan (province of Kopparberg), however, they have been very much dislocated. The Silurian has in Sweden almost the same character as the Wenlock and Ludlow formation of England and consists partly of graptolite shales, partly of limestones and sandstones. The island of Gotland consists entirely of this formation, which occurs also in some parts of the province of Kristianstad. In the western and northern alpine part of Sweden, near the boundaries of Norway, the Silurian strata are covered by crystalline rocks, mica schists, quartzites, &c., of an enormous thickness, which have been brought into their present positions upon a thrust-plane. These rocks form the mass of the high mountain of Areskutan, &c.
The Triassic formation (Rhaetic division) occurs in the northern part of Malmohus. It consists partly of sandstones with impressions of plants (cycads, ferns, &c.), and partly of clay-beds with coal.
The Cretaceous formation occurs in the provinces of Malmohus and Kristianstad and a few small patches are found in the province of Blekinge. Only the higher divisions (Senonian and Danian) of the system are represented. The deposits are marls, sandstones and limestones, and were evidently formed near the shore-line.
The most recent deposits of Sweden date from the Glacial and Post-Glacial periods. At the beginning of the Glacial period the height of Scandinavia above the level of the sea was greater than at present, Sweden being then connected with Denmark and Germany and also across the middle of the Baltic with Russia. On the west the North Sea and Cattegat were also dry land. On the elevated parts of this large continent glaciers were formed, which, proceeding downwards to the lower levels, gave origin to large streams and rivers, the abundant deposits of which formed the diluvial sand and the diluvial clay. In most parts of Sweden these deposits were swept away when the ice advanced, but in Slane they often form still, as in northern Germany, very thick beds. At its maximum the inland ice not only covered Scandinavia but also passed over the present boundaries of Russia and Germany. When the climate became less severe the ice slowly receded, leaving its moraines, called in Sweden krosstenslera and krosstensgrus. Swedish geologists distinguish between bottengrus (bottom gravel, bottom moraine) and ordinary krossgrus (terminal and side moraine). The former generally consists of a hard and compact mass of rounded, scratched and sometimes polished stones firmly embedded in a powder of crushed rock. The latter is less compact and contains angular boulders, often of a considerable size, but no powder. Of later origin than the krosstensgrus is the rullstensgrus (gravel of rolled stones), which often forms narrow ranges of hills, many miles in length, called (Isar. During the disappearance of the great inland ice large masses of mud and sand were carried by the rivers and deposited in the sea. These deposits, known as glacial sand and glacial clay, cover most parts of Sweden south of the provinces of Kopparberg and Vermland, the more elevated portions of the provinces of Elfsborg and Kronoberg excepted. In the glacial clay shells of Yoldia arctica have been met with in many places (e.g. near Stockholm). At this epoch the North Sea and the Baltic were connected along the line of Vener, Vetter, Hjelmar and Malar. On the other side the White Sea was connected by Lakes Onega and Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic. In the depths of the Baltic and of Lakes Vener and Vetter there actually exist animals which belong to the arctic fauna and are remnants of the ancient ice-sea. The glacial clay consists generally of alternate darker and lighter coloured layers, which give it a striped appearance, for which reason it has often been called hvarfvig lera (striped clay). The glacial clay of the Silurian regions is generally rich in lime and is thus a marl of great fertility. The deposits of glacial sand and clay are found in the southern part of Sweden at a height ranging from 70 to 550 ft. above the level of the sea, but in the interior of the country at a height of 400 ft. above the sea.
On the coasts of the ancient ice-sea, in which the glacial clay was deposited, there were heaped-up masses of shells which belong to species still extant around Spitzbergen and Greenland. Most renowned among these shell-deposits are the Kapellbackarne near Uddevalla. With the melting of the great ice-sheet the climate became milder, and the southern part of Sweden was covered with shrubs and plants now found only in the northern and alpine parts of the country (Salix polaris, Dryas octopetala, Betula nana, &c.). The sea fauna also gradually changed, the arctic species migrating northward and being succeeded by the species existing on the coasts of Sweden. The Post-Glacial period now began. Sands (mosand) and clays (akerlera and fucuslera) continued to be deposited on the lower parts of the country. They are generally of insignificant thickness. In the shallow lakes and enclosed bays of the sea there began to be formed and still is in course of formation a deposit known by the name gyttja, characterized by the diatomaceous shells it contains. Sometimes the gyttja consists mainly of diatoms, and is then called bergmjiil. The gyttja of the lakes is generally covered over by peat of a later date. In many of the lakes of Sweden there is still in progress the formation of an iron ore, called sjomalm, ferric hydroxide, deposited in forms resembling peas, coins, &c., and used for the manufacture of iron. (P. LA.) Climate. - The climate of the Scandinavian peninsula as a whole is so far tempered by the warm Atlantic drift from the south-west as to be unique in comparison with other countries of so high a latitude. The mountains of the Keel are not so high as wholly to destroy this effect over Sweden, and the maritime influence of the Baltic system has also to be considered. Sweden thus occupies a climatic position between the purely coastal conditions of Norway and the purely continental conditions of Russia; and in some years the climate inclines to the one character, in others to the other. As a result of the wide latitudinal extent of the country there are also marked local variations to be contrasted. About one-seventh of the whole country is north of the Arctic Circle. The mean annual temperature ranges from 26.6° F. at Karesuando on the northern frontier to 44.8° at Gothenburg and 44.6° at Lund in the south (or 29.5° to 45° reduced to sea-level). Between these extremes the following actual average temperatures have been observed at certain stations from north' to south which are appropriately grouped for the purpose of comparison (heights above sea-level following each name) Jockmock (850 ft.), at the foot of the lake-chain on the Little Lule River-29.7°; and Haparanda (30 ft.), at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia-32.4°.
Stensele (1076 ft.), at the foot of the lake-chain on the Ume31;8°; and Umea. (39 ft.) at its mouth on the Gulf of Bothnia-34.9° Ostersund (1056 ft.) on Storsjo-35.2°; and Hernosand (49 ft.) on the Gulf of Bothnia-37.8°.
Karistad (180 ft.) at the head of Lake Vener-43.3°; Orebro (102 ft.) at the west of Lake Hjelmar-41 4°: and Stockholm (144 ft.) - 42 I°.
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FLORA AND FAUNA]
Boundaries of Provinces County (Linn) boundaries Capitals of Counties Railways Canals r6° St. = Stora, great; Slrt. = Sankt, Saint; C. = Canal; G. = Ganda, old; Ytt, = Ytter, outer; iR° Il° Bornholm B Longitude East 14° of Greenwich Map Scale, I:2,7:S0,000 English Miles ?o 60 at the south of lake Vetter-42.4°; and Vestervik (43 ft.) on the Baltic-43.2°.
But the local variations thus indicated are brought out more fully by a consideration of seasonal, and especially winter, temperatures. In Sweden July is generally the hottest month, the average temperature ranging from about 51° to 62°. In January, however, it ranges from 4° to 32° (February is generally a little colder). Moreover, there are two well-marked centres of very low winter temperature in the inland parts. The one is in the mountainous region of the south of Jemtland and the north of Dalarne, extending into Norway and thus lying in the middle of the peninsula about 62° N. Here the average temperature in January is 8.5°, whereas at Ostersund it is over 15°. The other and more strongly marked centre is in the far north, extending into Norway and Finland, where the average is 3.8°. The effect of the spinal mountain range in modifying oceanic conditions is thus illustrated. The same effect is well shown by the linguiform isotherms. In January, for example, the isotherm of 14°, after skirting the north coast of the Scandinavian peninsula, turns southward along the Keel, crossing the upper part of the district of the great northern lakes. It continues in this direction as far as the northern end of Lake Mjosen in Norway (61° N.), then turns sharply north-north-eastward, runs west of Lake Siljan and bends north-east to strike the Bothnian coast near Skelleftea. In July, on the other hand, the isotherms show an almost constant temperature all over the country, and the linguiform curves are wanting.
The relative length of the seasons shows contrasts similar to those of temperature. In the north spring begins in May, summer in the middle of June and autumn in the middle of August. In the south and south-west spring begins in March, summer in the middle of May and autumn in October. At Karesuando the last frost of spring occurs on an average on the 15th of June, and the first of autumn on the 27th of August, though night frosts may occur earlier; while at Stockholm 41 months are free of frost. Ice forms about October in the north, in November or December in the midlands and south, and breaks up in May or June and in April respectively. Ice covers the lakes for 100 to 115 days annually in the south, 150 in the midlands and 200 to 220 in the north. A local increase of the ice period naturally takes place in the upper parts of the Smaland highlands; and in the case of the great lakes of Norrland, the western have a rather shorter ice period than the eastern. As to the seas, the formation of ice on the west and south coasts is rare, but in the central and northern parts of the Baltic drift-ice and a fringe of solid ice along the coast arrests navigation from the end of December to the beginning of April. Navigation in the southern part of the Gulf of Bothnia is impeded from the end of November to the beginning of May, and in the north the gulf is covered with ice from November to the last half of May. Snow lies 47 days on an average on the plains of Skane, while in the north it lies from 140 to 190 days.
The northern summers find compensation for brevity in duration of sunshine and light. At Karesuando in 68° 26' N. and 1093 ft. above sea-level the sun is seen continuously above the horizon from the 26th of May to the 18th of July; at Haparanda for 23 hours, at Stockholm for 181 hours and at Lund for 171 hours at the summer solstice. Atmospheric refraction causes the sun to be visible for periods varying from south to north for a quarter to half an hour after it has actually sunk below the horizon. With the long twilight, perhaps the most exquisite period of a season which provides a succession of beautiful atmospheric effects, daylight lasts without interruption from the 16th to the 27th of June as far south as Hernosand (62° 38' N.).
The average annual rainfall for Sweden is 19.72 in., locally increasing on the whole from north to south, and reaching a maximum towards the south-west, precipitation on this coast greatly exceeding that on the south-east. Thus the average in the north of Norrland is 16.53 in., in the south of Norrland 22.6 in. At Boras, midway between the south end of Lake Vetter and the Cattegat, the average is 35.08 in., and 45.82 in. were registered in 1898. At Kalmar, however, on the Baltic opposite Oland, the average is 14.6 in. This is an extreme instance for the locality, but the minimum for all Sweden is found at Karesuando, with 12.32 in. The period of maximum is generally the latter half of summer, and the minimum in February and March; but the maximum occurs in October at coast stations in Skane and in the island of Gotland. The proportion of total precipitation which falls as snow ranges from 36% in the north to 9% in the south.

Flora

In the preceding physical description indications are given of the vast extent of forest in Sweden. The alpine treeless region occupies only the upper flanks of the spinal mountain-range above an elevation varying from 1800 ft. in the north to 3000 ft. in the south. It is belted by a zone of birch woods, with occasional mountain-ash and aspen, varying in width from about 20 m. in the north to a fraction of a mile in the south. Below this extends a great region of firwood covering the whole country north-east of Lake Vener and north of the Dal River. The fir (Pinus sylvestris) and pine (Pinus abies) are the predominating trees Spruce is common, and even predominates in the higher parts (between the great valleys and immediately below the birch-belt) in the north of Norrland. South of the southern limit indicated, in the midland district of the great lakes, the oak (Quercus pedunculata) appears as well as pine and fir; and, as much of this area is under cultivation, many other trees have been introduced, as the ash, maple, elm and lime. South of a line running, roughly, from the foot of Lake Vener to Kalmar on the Baltic coast the beech begins to appear, and in Sickle and the southern part of the Cattegat seaboard becomes predominant in the woods which break the wide cultivated places. Of wild flowering plants only a very few are endemic species (though more are endemic varieties); the bulk are immigrants after the last glacial epoch. Of these most are common to arctic lands, or occur as alpine plants in lower latitudes. The number of species decreases according to geographical distribution from south to north; thus while upwards of 1000 are found in Skane, there are only about 700 in the midlands, 500 in the lower parts of southern Norrland and less than 200 in the extreme north.

Fauna

The effects of the great latitudinal range of Sweden on its climate and flora has its parallel to a modified extent in the case of fauna. Only a few animals are common to the entire country, such as the hare (Lepus timidus) and the weasel; although certain others may be added if the high mountain region be left out of consideration, such as the squirrel, fox and various shrews. Among large animals, the common bear and the wolf have been greatly reduced in numbers even within later historic times. These and the lynx are now restricted to the solitary depths of the northern forests. Characteristic of the high mountainous region are the arctic fox, the glutton and the lemming, whose singular intermittent migrations to the lowlands have a considerable temporary influence on the distribution of beasts and birds of prey. There may also be mentioned the wild reindeer, which is rare, though large domesticated herds are kept by the Lapps. The elk, carefully preserved, haunts the lonely forests from the Arctic Circle even to the Smaland highlands. The roe-deer and red-deer are confined to the southern parts; though the first is found in the south of the midland plains. In these plains the fox is most abundant, and the badger and hedgehog are found. Martens and otters are to some extent hunted for their skins. A white winter fur is characteristic of several of the smaller animals, such as the hare, fox and weasel. The common and grey seals are met with in the neighbouring seas, and Phoca foetida is confined to the Baltic. Among birds by far' the greater proportion is migrant. Characteristic types common to the whole country are the teal, snipe, golden plover and wagtail. In the northern mountains the ptarmigan is common, and like other creatures assumes a white winter dress; ducks and other water-fowl frequent the lakes; the golden eagle, certain buzzards and owls are found, and among smaller birds the Lappland bunting (Plectrophanes laponicus) may be mentioned. In the coniferous forests the black grouse, hazel grouse and willow grouse, capercailzie and woodcock are the principal game birds; the crane is found in marshy clearings, birds of prey are numerous, and the Siberian jay in the north and the common jay in the south are often heard. But in the northern forests small birds are few, and even in summer these wilds give a strong general impression of lifelessness. In the midlands the partridge is fairly common, though not readily enduring the harder winters; and ring-doves and stock-doves occur. The lakes are the homes of a variety of aquatic birds. On the coasts a number of gulls and terns are found, also the eider-duck and the sea-eagle, which, however, is also distributed far over the land. The species of reptiles and amphibians are few and chiefly confined to the southern parts. There are three species of snake, including the viper; three of lizard; and eleven of batrachians. The rivers and lakes are generally well stocked with fish, such as salmon, trout of various species, gwyniad and vendace (especially in the north), pike, eels, perch of various species, turbot, bream and roach. The few sportsmen who have visited the higher parts of the great northern rivers have found excellent trout-fishing, with pike, perch, char and grayling, the char occurring in the uppermost parts of the rivers, and the grayling below them. The fisheries, both fresh-water and sea, are important, and fall for consideration as an industry. The herring, cod, flatfish, mackerel and sprat are taken in the seas, and also great numbers of a small herring called striimnaing. In the brackish waters of the east coast sea fish are found, together with pike, perch and other fresh-water forms. The crayfish is common in many places in central and southern Sweden. Pearls are sometimes found in the fresh-water mussel (Margaritana margaritifera); thus a tributary of the Lilla Lule River takes its name, Perle River, from the pearls found in it. Among the lower marine animals a few types of arctic origin are found, not only in the Baltic but even in Lakes Vener and Vetter, having remained, and in the case of the lakes survived the change to fresh water, after the disappearance of the connexion with the Arctic seas across the region of the great lakes, the Baltic, and north-east thereof. The molluscan fauna is fairly rich, and insect fauna much more so, even in the north. In summer in the uplands and the north the mosquito is sufficiently common to cause some little annoyance.

People

The population of Sweden in 1900 was 5,136,441. The census is taken in an unusual manner, being drawn up from the registries of the clergy according to parishes every ten years. Approximate returns are made by the clergy annually. The following table shows the distribution of population in that year through the lan or administrative districts. The first column shows the older divisions of the county into provinces, the names and boundaries of which differ in many cases from the lan. These names, as appears elsewhere in this article, remain in common use. The distribution of provinces and loin between the three main territorial divisions, Norrland (northern), Svealand (central) and Gdtaland (southern) is also indicated.
Old Provinces.
Lan.
Area
sq. m.
Pop.
1900.
Norrland-
Lappland, Norrbotten .
Norrbotten .
40,867
134,769
Lappland, Vesterbotten .
Vesterbotten .
22 ,77 1
143,735
Angermanland, Medel-
pad
Vesternorrland
9,8 55
232,311
Jemtland, Herjedal. .
Jemtland. .
19,6 75
111, 39 1
Helsingland, Gestrik-
land. .. .. .
Gefleborg. .
7,615
238,048
Svealand-
Dalarne (Dalecarlia). .
Kopparberg .
11,524
217,708
Vermland
Vermland .
7,459
254,284
Orebro .
3,511
194,924
Vestmanland 1
Vestmanland .
2,612
148,271
Nerike I
Sodermanland .
2,631
167,428
Sodermanland. .
Upsala.. .
2,051
123,863
Uppland
Stockholm dist.
3,015
172,852
Stockholm, city
13
300,624
Gotaland-
Ostergotland
Ostergotland .
4,264
279,449
Vestergotland. .
Skaraborg. .
3, 2 73
241,069
Dal
Elfsborg .
4,912
279,514
Bohuslan
Goteborg och
Halland
Halland. .
i,90o
337,175
Jonkoping
4
036
Smaland
Kronoberg
3,825 825
203159,,
124
Kalmar. .
4,456
227,625
Blekinge
Blekinge .
1,164
146,302
Skane. .. ,
Kristianstad .
2,488
219,166
Malmohus
1,864
409,304
O Gotland
Gotland'. .
1,219
52,781
land 2
-
-
-
Total. .
172,8 75 3
5,136, 44 1
The population in 1908 was about 5,429,600. In 1751 it was 1, 802 ,373, and in 1865, 4,114,141. The average annual increase was 7.86 per thousand in the 19th century, reaching a maximum of 10.39 in 1841-1860, before the period of extensive emigration set in. Emigrants numbered 584,259 men and 424,566 women between 1851 and 1900, these figures helping to account for the considerable excess of women over men in the resident population, which in 1900 was as 1049 to 1000. The periods of greatest emigration were1868-1873and 1879-1893; the decline in later years is regarded as a favourable sign. The United States of America receive a large majority of the emigrants, and only a very small percentage returns. The Swedish people belong to the Scandinavian branch, but the population includes in the north about 20,000 Finns and 7000 Lapps. Other foreigners, however, are few, and the population is as a whole homogeneous. Immigrants in the period1851-1900numbered only 165,357.
Population is naturally denser in the south than in the north, and densest of all in the districts along the southern coasts; thus Malmohus Lan has about 220 persons per sq. m., Goteborg och Bohus Lan 174 and Blekinge 127. In Norrland as a whole, however, there are less than 9 persons per sq. m., in Norrbottens Lan less than 4, and in the uplands of this division and Vesterbottens Lan much less than this. However, the annual increase per thousand has been greater in Norrland than elsewhere. The annual excess of births over deaths is high, the proportion being as 1.68 to 1. The birth-rate between 1876 and 1900 averaged 28.51 per thousand; the death-rate between 1891 and 1900 was 16.36 per thousand, the lowest ever recorded over such a period for any European country. The lowest mortality is found in the districts about Lakes Vener and Vetter; the highest in Norbotten, the east midland districts, Skane, and Goteborg och Bohus Lan.
The percentage of illegitimacy is rather high (though it decreased ' The island and adjacent islets.
2 Island included in Kalmar Lan.
Including the four great lakes, Vener, Vetter, Malar Hjelmar, 35 16 sq. m.
[[[People]] during the second half of the nineteenth century); one cause of this may be found in the fact that the percentage of married persons is lower than in most European countries. As regards social evils generally, however, the low, though undoubtedly improving, standard of Sweden has had one of its chief reasons in the national intemperance. In 1 775 Gustavus III. made the sale of spirits (brcinnvin) a government monopoly, and the drinking habit was actually fostered. About 1830 this evil reached its highest development, and it is estimated that nine gallons of spirits were then consumed annually per head of the population. Mainly through the efforts of Peter Wieselgren, dean of Gothenburg (1800-1877), a strong temperance reform movement set in, and in 1855 important liquor laws were passed to restrict both production and sale of intoxicating liquors. The so-called Gothenburg System, providing for municipal control of the sale of intoxicants (see LIQuoR Laws), came into full operation in Gothenburg in 1865. The temperance movement has had its reward; the average of consumption of beer and spirits in Sweden is considerably lower than in Europe as a whole, though the effect of intoxicants is sometimes very apparent.
A marked difference of temperament is noticeable between the Swedes and Norwegians, the Swedes being the more lighthearted and vivacious. In some of the more remote parts of the country old customs are maintained and picturesque local costumes still worn, as in Dalecarlia (q.v.). The Lapps moreover retain their distinctive dress. In other cases early costumes are preserved only as a historical reminiscence at festivities. Although the characteristic celebrations at weddings or periodical festivals are, as elsewhere, decreasing in favour, there are certain occasions which are observed as holidays with much ceremony. Such are Christmas Day, and, not unnaturally in this northern land, Midsummer (June 23 and 24). The food of the people in the midlands and south is plentiful and good; in the remoter parts of the north an unfavourable summer is followed by a winter of scarcity or even famine; and in these parts meat is little used. Rye is extensively employed in the rural districts for the making of a hard bread in flat cakes (knackebriid). A prevalent custom among the better classes is that of beginning meals with a selection of such viands as anchovies, smoked salmon or slices of meat, of which a number of small dishes are provided (smorgasbord). These are taken with bread and butter and a glass of spirits. The more characteristic Swedish sports are naturally those of the winter. These include ski-running (skidlopning), skating and skate-sailing, tobogganing and sledging. The numerous inland waters and sheltered channels within the skargard have caused the high development of sailing as a summer sport, the Royal Swedish Yacht Club having its headquarters in Stockholm. Athletic sports are in high favour, especially such winter sports as snow-shoeing (ski), and, among ball games, lawn-tennis, and to some extent football, together with the game of park, peculiar to Gotland, are played.
Towns.-In the first half of the 19th century the percentage of urban population remained nearly stationary at a little less than 10. In 1880 it was 15.12, and in 1900 21.49. The towns with a population exceeding 15,000 in 1900 are Stockholm (300,624), Gothenburg (130,609), Malmo (60,857), Norrkoping (41,008), Gefle (29,522), Helsingborg (24,670), Karlskrona (23,955), Jonkoping (23,143), Upsala (22,855), Orebro (22,013), Lund (16,621), Boras (15,837), Halmstad (15,362).
Swedish towns, though rarely of quite modern foundation, generally appear so, for the use of brick in building is mainly of modern introduction, and is still by no means general, so that the partial or total destruction of a town by fire is now only less common than formerly. The rectangular method of laying out streets is general, and legislation has been directed against narrow streets and buildings of excessive height. The common material of the characteristic domestic architecture in rural districts is wood, except in Skane, where stone is available and has been used from early times. Some of the old wooden farm-buildings, especially in Dalarne, such as are preserved in Skansen Museum at Stockholm, are extremely picturesque. Another notable form in old wooden building is the belfry (klokstapel) of some village churches, examples of which are seen at Habo near Jonkoping and Hasjo in Jemtland on the northern railway. In the midlands and south fine castles and manor houses of the 16th and 17th centuries are fairly numerous, and there are a few remains of previous date. The fortified dwelling-house at Glimmingehus in the extreme south near Simrishamn is a good early example. Several of the southern ports have old citadels. That of Kalmar, on its island, is specially fine, while those at Vestervik (Stakkholm), Malrno, Falkenberg and Varberg may also be mentioned. Among country palaces or mansions that of Gripsholm is notable, overlooking Lake Malar, the shores of which are specially rich in historic sites and remains In ecclesiastical architecture Sweden possesses the noble cathedrals of Lund, Upsala and Linkoping; while that of Skara, near the southern shore of Lake Vener, dates originally from 1150, and that of Strengn: s on Lake Molar was consecrated in 1291. There is a remarkably perfect Romanesque church, with aisles, eastern apse and ambulatory, at Varnhem in Skaraborg Lan, and there are a few village churches of the same period in this district and in Skane. The monastic church at Vadstena on Lake Vetter is a beautiful example of Gothic of the 14th and 15th centuries. But the richest locality as regards ancient ecclesiastical architecture is the island of Gotland (q.v.).

Travel and Communications

As a resort for foreign travellers and tourists Sweden lacks the °,:markable popularity of Norway. The Gota canal route, however, is used by many; the uplands of Dalecarlia (Dalarne) are frequented; and the railway through the Jemtland highlands to Trondhjem gives access to a beautiful region, where numerous sanatoria are in favour with the Swedes themselves. The northern railway offers a land route to the Arctic coast of Norway. Along the southern coasts there are many watering-places. Marstrand near Gothenburg is one of the most fashionable; Stromstad, Lysekil and Varberg on the same coast, Ronneby on the Baltic, with its chalybeate springs, Visby the capital of Gotland, and several villages in the neighbourhood of Stockholm may also be noted. The headquarters of the Swedish Touring Club (Svenska Turistf oreningen) are in Stockholm, but its organization extends throughout the country, and is of special value to travellers in the far north.
The first railway in Sweden was opened for traffic in 1856, and the system has developed extensively; more so, in fact, in proportion to population, than in any other European country.
About 8000 m. of railway are open, but extensions are constantly in progress. About two-thirds are private lines and onethird government lines. The central administration of the government lines is in the hands of a board of railway directors, and there are local administrative bodies for each of five districts. A railway council, created in 1902, acts as an advisory body on large economical questions and the like. Private railways are controlled by the regulations of the board, while a joint traffic union has as its object the provision of uniformity of administration, tariff, &c. The government has made grants towards the construction of some of the private lines, and has in a few cases taken over such lines. The railways form a network over the country as far north as Gefle and the district about Lake Siljan. The government works the trunk lines from Stockholm to Malmo, to Gothenburg and to Christiania as far as the Norwegian frontier, and other important through routes in the south. The great northern line is also worked by the government. It runs north from Stockholm roughly parallel with the east coast, throwing off branches to the chief seaports, and also a branch from Bracke to Ostersund and Storlien, where it joins a line from Trondhjem in Norway. At Boden the main line joins a line originally built to connect the iron-mines of Gellivara with the port of Lulea; the system is continued past Gellivara to Narvik on the Ofoten Fjord in Norway, this being far north of the Arctic Circle, and the line the most northerly in the world. The gauge of all the government lines and about 66% of the private lines is 1 '435 metres (4 ft. 82 in.). Nearly all the lines are single. Passenger travelling is slow, but extremely comfortable. The principal connexions with the south are made across the sound from Malmo to Copenhagen, and from Trelleborg to Sassnitz in Germany.
The extensive system of natural waterways, especially in central Sweden, has been utilized to the full in the development of internal navigation, just as the calm waters within the skargard afford opportunity for safe and economical coastwise, traffic. The earliest construction of canals dates from the 15th century, the patriot Engelbrekt and King Gustavus Vasa both foreseeing its importance. The theories of construction remained rudimentary until early in the 19th century, when the Gota (q.v.) canal was opened. The total length of the canalized water-system of Sweden is a little over 700 m., though wholly artificial waterways amount only to 115 m. out of this total. A large local traffic is carried on by steam launches on the lakes during the season of open navigation; and vessels have even been introduced on some of the lakes and rivers of the far north, principally in connexion with the timber trade. Posting, which is of importance only in the highland districts and the valley roads of Norrland, is carried on by posting-stations (skjutsstation) under government regulations; similar regulations apply when, as in the upper valleys of the great northern rivers, rowing boats on the lakes form the only means of travel. The condition of the high roads is fair as a whole, and has been much improved by increased state grants towards their upkeep; but in Norrland they are naturally not of the best class. The postal and telegraph system is efficacious, and the telephone service, maintained partly by the state and partly by companies, is very fully developed. About twenty telephones are in use per thousand of population, and a system of trunk-lines between the important towns has been established since 1889.

Agriculture

Of the total land area of Sweden only about is arable or meadow land, but the percentage varies greatly in different parts, as will be understood from a recollection of the main physical divisions. Thus in Skane nearly 60% of the land is under cultivation; in the midlands about 30%; in the north from 4.5% in xXVi.
southern Norrland to 3% in northern Norrland. Almost exactly half the total area is under forest, its proportion ranging from 25% in Skane to upwards of 7 0% in the inland parts of Svealand and in the south of Norrland. Land which is neither cultivable nor under forest (marsh land or, in the northern mountainous districts, land above the upper limit of the forests) amounts to 61% in the far north and 36% in the Smaland highlands, but only to 15% in the central plains and in Skane. In the more highly cultivated districts_of the south reclamation of such lands is constantly proceeding. Agriculture and cattle-breeding employ over one-half the whole population. The average size of farms is 25 acres of cultivated land; only 1% exceeds 250 acres, whereas 23% are of 5 acres or less. The greater part of the land has always been held by small independent farmers (only about 15% of the farms are worked by tenants), but until late in the 18th century a curious method of parcelling the land resulted in each man's property consisting of a number of detached plots or strips, the divisions often becoming so minute that dissension was inevitable. Early in the 19th century various enactments made it possible for each property to become a coherent whole. A legal parcelling (lager skifte) was introduced in 1827 and slowly carried out in the face of considerable local opposition; indeed, in the island of Gotland the system could not be enforced until 1870-1880. Roughly about 48.5% of the total cultivated area is under cereals, 33.8 under fodder plants, 5.8 under root-crops, and 11. 8 fallow, this last showing a steady decrease. Oats, rye, barley, mixed grain and wheat are the grain-crops in order of importance. During the 19th century the percentage under wheat showed a general tendency to increase; that under oats increased much in the later decades as livestock farming became common, rye maintained a steady proportion, but barley, formerly the principal grain-crop, decreased greatly. This last is the staple crop in Norrland, becoming the only grain-crop in the extreme north; in the richer agricultural lands of the midlands and south rye is predominant in the east, oats in the west. The high agricultural development of the plains of Skane appears from the fact that although that province occupies only one-fortieth of the total area of Sweden, it produces 30% of the entire wheat crop, 33% of the barley, 18% of the rye and 13% of the oats. A system of rotation (cereal, roots, grass) is commonly followed, each division of land lying fallow one year as a rule; not more than two ripe grain-crops are commonly taken consecutively. Potatoes occupy 4.4% of the total area, and other root-crops 1.4%. These include the sugar-beet, the profitable growing of which is confined to Skane and the islands of Oland and Gotland. The sugar industry, however, is very important. Orchards and gardens occupy about i % of the cultivated area. Fruit-trees are grown, mainly in the south and midlands; northward (as far as Hernosand) they flourish only in sheltered spots on the coast. Between 1850 and 1900 the total head of livestock increased from 4,500,000 to 5,263,000, and the great advance of cattle-farming is evident from the following proportions. Whereas in1870-1875imported cattle and cattlefarming produce exceeded exports as to 7, in 1900 the value of exports was nearly double that of imports; and it may be added that whereas as late as1870-1880the exports of agricultural produce exceeded imports in value, in1896-1900they were less than onetenth. The principal breeds of cattle are the alpine in Norrland, and Ayrshire, short-horn, and red-and-white Swedish in the midlands and south. The Gotland, an old native light yellow breed, survives in the island of Gotland. Oxen, formerly the principal draught animals, have been replaced by horses. Cattle, especially cows, and pigs form the bulk of the livestock, but sheep and goats have greatly decreased in numbers. The Lapps own upwards of 230000 head of reindeer. Dairy-farming is profitable, England and Denmark being the principal foreign consumers of produce, and the industry is carefully fostered by the government. A board of agriculture had been in operation for many years when in 1900 a separate department of agriculture was formed. There are one or more agricultural societies in each lan, and there are various state educational establishments in agriculture, such as the agricultural high schools at Ultuna near Upsala, and at Alnarp near Lund in Skane, an important agricultural centre, with dairy schools and other branch establishments. Finally, there are numerous horticultural societies, large nurseries and gardening schools at Stockholm, Alnarp and elsewhere, and botanical gardens attached to the universities of Lund and Upsala.

Forests and Forestry

Of the forests about one-third are public; the majority of these belong to the Crown, while a small proportion belongs to hundreds and parishes. The remainder is in private hands. The public forests are administered by the office of Crown lands through a forest service, which employs a large staff of forestmasters and rangers. The private forests are protected from abuse chiefly by the important legislation of 1903, which prescribes penalties for excessive lumbering and any action liable to endanger the regrowth of wood. The administration of the law devolves upon local forest conservancy boards. In the great fir forests of the north the limit set in respect of cutting down living trees for sawing and export is a diameter of the trunk, without bark, of 84 in. at 152 ft. from the base. Members of the forest service undergo a preliminary course of instruction at a school of forestry, and a further course at the Institute of Forestry, Stockholm, which dates from 1828. There are very numerous sawmills, using waterpower, steam and electricity; they are situated chiefly in the coast districts of the Gulf of Bothnia, from Gefle northwards, especially in the neighbourhood of Sundsvall and along the Angerman River, and in the neighbourhood of all the ports as far north as Lulea and Haparanda. There are also upland mills in Dalarne and Vermland, and a considerable number in the neighbourhood of Gothenburg. The wood-pulp industry centres in the districts west and north of Lake Vener and south of Lake Vetter. In the north vast quantities of timber are floated down the great rivers, and the lesser streams are used as floating-ways by the provision of flumes and dams. The millowners either own forests, or lease the right of cutting, or buy the timber when cut, in the Crown or private forests. Among the special articles exported may be mentioned railway-sleepers, pitprops, and wood-pulp.

Fisheries

The sea-fisheries, which are prosecuted principally in the calm waters within the skargard, are a variable source of wealth. For example, in 1894 nearly 2,000,000 cwt. of fresh fish (principally herring) were exported, but in subsequent years the fisheries were much less prolific; in 1900 only 80,000 cwt. were exported, and in 1903 less than 150,000 cwt. As a rule each crew jointly owns its boat and tackle. The fishery is of ancient importance; at the old towns of Falsterbo and SkanOr, south of Malmo, thousands of fishermen were employed until the harbours became choked in 1631, and the fish were a valuable item in the Hanseatic commerce. There are rich salmon-fisheries in the lower parts of the great northern rivers, especially the Tome, Kalix, Lule, Angerman and Indal; in the Dal, the Klar and GOta, and several of the lesser rivers of the south. In the majority of rivers no special necessity has been found to protect the fishing. As a general rule the owner of the shore owns the riverfishing. The chief inspector of fisheries is a member of the board of agriculture.

Mining

The iron-mining industry is of high importance, the output of iron ore forming by far the largest item in the total output of ores and minerals. Thus in 1902 the total output was nearly 32 million tons, of which 2,850,000 tons were iron ore. The output of iron ore has greatly increased; in1870-1880it averaged annually little more than one-quarter of the amount in 1902. The deposits of iron ore are confined almost wholly to the extreme north of Norrland, and to a midland zone extending from the south of the Gulf of Bothnia to a point north of Lake Vener, which includes the Dannemora ore fields in the eastern part. In Norrland the deposits at Gellivara have long been worked, with the assistance of a railway to the Bothnian port of Lulea, but in 1903 the northern railway was completed across the Norwegian frontier to Narvik on Ofoten Fjord, and the vast deposits at the hills of Kirunavara and Luossavara began to be worked. These deposits alone are estimated to have an extent exceeding one-quarter of the total ore fields worked in the country. The deposits are generally in pockets, and the thickness of the beds ranges from 100 to nearly 500 ft. at Kirunavara, up to 230 ft. at Gellivara, and in the midland fields generally from 40 to 100 ft., although at the great field of Grangesberg, in Kopparberg and Orebro Lan, a thickness of nearly 300 ft. is found. Nearly all the ore is magnetite, and in the midlands it is almost wholly free of phosphorus. The percentage of iron in the ore is high, as much as 66% in the Kirunavara-Luossavara ore; and little less in that of Grangesberg; this far exceeds other European ores, though it is equalled by some in America. Sweden possesses little coal, and pig-iron is produced with charcoal only; its quality is excellent, but Sweden's proportion to the world's produce is hardly more than I %, whereas in the 17th and 18th centuries, before the use of coal elsewhere, it was much greater. As an industry, however, the production both of pig, iron and of wrought iron and steel is increasingly prosperous. The ironworks and blast-furnaces are almost wholly in the midland districts. Copper has been mined at Falun since the 14th century; it is also produced at Atvidaberg in Ostergotland. The production, however, has greatly decreased. A little gold and silver are extracted at Falun, and the silver mines at Sala in Vestmanlands Lan have been worked at least since the 16th century, but here again the output has decreased. Lead is produced at Sala and Kafveltorp, and zinc ore at Ammeberg. Coal is found in small beds in Skane, east and north of Helsingborg, at Billesholm, Bjuf and HOganas; but the amount raised, although increasing, is only some 300,000 tons annually. Mining administration is in the charge of a special bureau of the board of trade. The Iron Institute (Jdrnkontoret) was established in 1748 as a financial institution, in which the chief iron-mining companies have shares, for the advancement of advantageous loans and the promotion of the industry generally. It maintains a special education and investigation fund. There are schools of mining at Stockholm (the higher school), Falun and Filipstad in Vermland.

Manufactures

If the total value of the output of the manufacturing industries in Sweden be taken as 100, the following are the most important of those industries, according to the approximate percentage of each to the whole: iron industries 18.3, and mechanical works 4; saw-milling 12.5 and wood-pulp works 2.5; cloth-factories and spinning-mills 8; flour-mills 6.4; sugar-refining and beet-sugar works 6; spirit distilling and manufacture 4.7, and brewing 2.6; dairy products 4.4; papermaking 1.6; leaving a remainder of 29% for other industries. The total annual value of the output is about £72,000,000. The great mechanical works are found at or near Malmo, Stockholm, JOnkoping, Trollhattan, Motala on Lake Vetter, Lund, Gothenburg, Karlstad, Falun and Eskilstuna, which is especially noted for its cutlery. A few other establishments including both mechanical workshops and ore-extraction works may be mentioned: Domnarfvet, on the Dal River, near Falun; Sandviken, near Gefle; and Bofors in Orebro Lan. The principal centres of the textile industry are Norrkoping in Ostergotland and Boras in Elfsborg Lan, where there are weaving schools; and the industry is spread over Elfsborg Lan and the vicinity of Gothenburg. There is a linen industry in Smaland and in the south of Norrland. One of the most notable special industries of Sweden is match-making, for which there are large works at Jonkoping, Tidaholm in Skaraborg Lan and in the neighbourhood of Kalmar. The centre of the beetsugar industry is Skane, but it is also carried on in the island of Gotland; its great access of prosperity is chiefly owing to the existence of a protective duty on imported sugar. Spirit distillation centres in Kristianstad Lan. Among other industries may be mentioned the earthenware works at Hoganas at the north end of the Sound, the cement works of Lomma in this vicinity, and the pottery works of Rorstrand in, and Gustafsberg near, Stockholm; where beautiful ware is produced. Stone is worked chiefly in Goteborg och Bohus and Blekinge Lan.

Commerce

Exports approach £30,000,000 and imports £40,000,000 in average annual value.
Of the total exports that of timber, wrought and unwrought, represents 50%; the other principal exports with approximate percentage are: iron and steel 13.5, iron ore 3.6, machinery and implements 3.2, and other iron and steel goods 2.7; butter Io; paper 3.4; carpentry work 3; matches 2.3. The principal imports with percentage to the whole are: coal and coke 15, grain 8, coffee 4.6, machinery 4, wool, yarn, thread, cotton and woollen goods 9'4; hides and skins 2.5. Oil and fish are also important. The principal countries trading with Sweden are the United Kingdom (exports from Sweden 38.2%, imports to Sweden 25.7), Germany (exports 16%, imports 39) and Denmark (exports 14%, imports 12.5). Other countries with which Sweden has mainly an export trade are France, the Netherlands and Norway. With Russia on the other hand the trade is principally import. In the case of the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and Norway, the transit trade forms an important proportion of the whole. The coal imported (which forms over 90% of the whole consumed) comes mainly from Great Britain; while most of the colonial produce, such as coffee and tobacco, comes through Germany. The match and paper export trade is principally with the United Kingdom. Between 1865 and 1888 Sweden employed a modified system of free trade, but various enactments in 1888 and 1892 reintroduced methods of protection. Shipping. - The total number of vessels in the Swedish commercial fleet is about 3000 of 650,000 tons register; of which steamers represent about 380,000 tons. On an average about 73,000 vessels, of an aggregate tonnage of 17,500,000, enter and clear the ports. The principal ports of register are Gothenburg, Stockholm, Helsingborg and Gefle, in order; though the principal commercial ports are Stockholm; Gothenburg and Malmo. Owing to the natural configuration of the coast and the skargard excellent natural harbours are almost without number. Artificial harbours are consequently few, but those at Helsingborg, Malmo, Halmstad, Ystad and Kalmar may be mentioned. The principal docks are at Gothenburg, Stockholm, Malmo, Oskarshamn and Norrkoping, besides the naval docks at Karlskrona; and the principal ports where large vessels can be accommodated on slips are Malmo, Gothenburg, Stockholm, Karlskrona and Gefle. A list of the chief ports may be conveniently classified. On the west coast north of Gothenburg are Stromstad, near the Norwegian frontier, and Uddevalla, on a deep inlet behind the island of Orust, 35 m. from the open Cattegat. South of Gothenburg on the open coast are Varberg and Halmstad; and on the Sound are the three large ports of Helsingborg, Landskrona and Malmo. Passing to the Baltic, Trelleborg and Ystad lie on the southernmost coast of the country, and Simrishamn, !thus the outport of Kristianstad, Karlshamn, Ronneby and Karlskrona on the wide Hano Bay. On Kalmar Sound are Kalmar and Oskarshamn; and continuing northward, Vestervik, Soderkoping at the head of the inlet Slatbaken, Norrkoping, similarly situated on Braviken, and Stockholm, far within the skargard. On the Bothnian coast there is a port at or near the mouth of each great river, where the timber floated down from the interior is both worked and exported. The chief ports here, from south to north, are: Gefle, SOderhamn, Hudiksvall, Sundsvall, Hernosand, Ornskoldsvik, Umea, Skelleftea, Pita. and Lulea, the last exporting the ore from the northern iron-mines.

Banks

The first Swedish bank, called the Palmstruch bank after its founder, Johan Palmstruch, was incorporated in 1656. It began to issue notes in 1661. It was shortly afterwards bankrupt, and in 1668 the Bank of Sweden (Sveriges Riksbank) succeeded it. This is managed by a board of seven delegates, the chairman being elected by the government, while the Riksdag (parliament) elects the remainder. It began to issue notes in 1701. This ability was shared by private banks with solidary responsibility until 1903, but under a reform of 1897 the riksbank took over, from 1904, the whole right of issuing paper currency, which is in wide use. The capital of the riksbank is 50,000,000 kronor (£2,250,000). The other banks are joint-stock banks and savings-banks, of which the first was opened at Gothenburg in 1820. The post office savings bank was opened in 1884.

Coinage

The counting unit in the Swedish coinage is the krona, equal to i i shilling. The monetary unit is io kronor gold, and gold pieces, not widely met with in circulation, are struck of 20, 10 and 5 kronor. The krona equals Ioo Ore. Silver pieces of 2 and i krona, 50, 25 and 10 Ore are struck, and bronze pieces of 5, 2, 'and i ore. Sweden, Norway and Denmark have the same monetary system.

Finance

In the budget for 1910 revenue and expenditure were estimated at £12,674,300. The principal sources of income in the ordinary revenue are railways, forests, telegraphs and rent from Crown lands; and those in the revenue voted (bevillningar), which is about seven-eighths of the whole, customs, the taxes on spirits and beetsugar, and income from the post office. The departments to which the bulk of expenditure is devoted are those of the army, the interior, the navy and education. A large proportion of the army expenditure was formerly defrayed by a system of military tenure on certain lands. Land-taxes, however, were finally abolished in 1904, and their place was taken by an increased taxation on real estate, revised triennially, and by an income tax arranged on a sliding scale, up to 4% of the income (9.6 pence in the £), settled according to individual declaration. The national debt was practically nil until c. 1855, and the debt contracted thereafter owes its existence almost wholly to railway construction. It increased from about £2,300,000 in 1860 to £6,400,000 in 1870 and £18,600,000 in 1900. In 1904 it exceeded £19,000,000. The greater proportion of communal revenue comes from income and property tax, the sale of spirits under the Gothenburg System, and contributions from the treasury. Primary education, poor relief, and Church purposes form the principal items of expenditure.

Constitution and Government

Sweden is a limited monarchy, the constitution resting primarily on a law (regerings-formen) of the 6th of June 1809. The king is irresponsible, and executive power is vested in him alone. All his resolutions, however, must be taken in the presence of the cabinet (statsrad) . The cabinet councillors are appointed by the king and are responsible to the parliament (Riksdag) . They are eleven in number, one being prime minister, two others consultative ministers, and the remaining eight heads of the departments of administration, which are justice, foreign affairs, land defence, naval defence, home affairs, finance, public works, agriculture. The councillors must be of Swedish birth and adherents of the Lutheran confession. The appointment of the majority of public officials is vested in the king, who can himself dismiss cabinet ministers and certain others, whereas in most cases a judicial inquiry is necessary before dismissal. The king shares legislative powers with the Riksdag, (parliament or diet), possessing the rights of initiation and absolute veto. He has also, in certain administrative and economic matters, a special legislative right.
The Riksdag consists of two chambers. The members of the first chamber are elected by the landsthing, or representative bodies of the lan, and by the municipal councils of some of the larger towns. They number 150, and are distributed among the constituencies in proportion to population; the distribution being revised every tenth year. Eligibility necessitates Swedish birth, an age of at least 35 years, and the possession, at the time of election and for three years previously, either of real property to the value of 80,000 kronor (£4400), or an annual income on which taxes have been paid of 4000 kronor (£220). Members are unpaid. The members of the second chamber number 230, of whom 150 are elected from rural constituencies and 80 from towns. The members receive a salary of 1200 kronor (£66), and are elected for a period of three years by electors, or directly, according to the resolution of the electoral district. If a member retires during that period, or if the chamber is dissolved, succeeding members are elected for the remainder of the three years, and thus the house is wholly renewed at regular intervals, which is not the case with the first house. The franchise was for long extremely limited in comparison with other countries, but in 1907 universal manhood suffrage was introduced, after protracted dissension and negotiation between the two houses. Eligibility to the lower house necessitates possession of the elective franchise, an age of at least 25 years, and residence within the constituency. Both chambers have in theory equal power. Before bills are discussed they may be prepared by committees, which play an important part in the work of the house. The agreement of both chambers is necessary before a bill becomes law, but when they differ on budget questions the matter is settled by a common vote of both, which arrangement gives the second chamber a certain advantage from the greater number of its members. By revisers elected annually the Riksdag controls the finances of the kingdom, and by an official (justitieombudsman) elected in the same way the administration of justice is controlled; he can indict any functionary of the state who has abused his power. The bank of the kingdom is superintended by trustees elected by the Riksdag, and in the same way the public debt is administered through an office (riksgaldskontoret), whose head is appointed by the Riksdag.

Local Government

For the purposes of local government Sweden is divided into 25 administrative districts called lan, a list of which is given in the paragraph dealing with population. The elected representative body in each is the landsthing, which deliberates on the affairs of the lan and has a right to levy taxes. The chief official of the lan is the landshi fding, under whom are secretarial and fiscal departments. Privileged towns, receiving their privileges from the government (not necessarily on the basis of population), are under a mayor (borgmastare) and aldermen (radman), the aldermen being elected by the citizens, while the mayor is appointed by the government from the first three aldermen on the poll, is paid, and holds office for life. Gothenburg has two mayors, and the city of Stockholm (q.v.), a lan in itself, has a special form of government. The major rural divisions are the fOgderier, under bailiffs, a subdivision of which is the lansmansdistrikt under a lansman. Justice. - Justice is administered by tribunals of three instances.
(1) There are 119 rural judicial districts (domsagor), which may be subdivided into judicial divisions (tingslag). Each tingslag has a court (hciradsratt), consisting of a judge and twelve unpaid assessors (namndeman), of whom seven form a quorum, elected by the people. These, if unanimously of a different opinion to the judge, can outvote him. The town-courts in the privileged towns are called radstufvuratter, and consist of the mayor and at least two aldermen.
(2) There are three higher courts (hofratter), in Stockholm, J&nkiiping and Kristianstad. (3) The Supreme Court (HOgsta Domstolen) passes sentences in the name of the king, who is nominally the highest judicial authority. The court has a membership of 18 justices (justitierad), two of whom are present in the council of state when law questions are to be settled; while the body also gives opinion upon all proposed changes of law.
Army and Navy. - General military service is enforced. Every Swedish man belongs to the conscripts (varnpligtige) between the age of 21 and 40, during which time he serves eight years in the first levy, four in the second, and eight in the reserves. The conscripts were formerly trained for 90 days, but according to the law of 1901, the conscript is bound to serve in time of peace - in the infantry, position artillery, fortress artillery, fortress engineers, and the army service corps a total of 240 days; and in the cavalry, field artillery, field engineers, and field telegraph corps a total of 365 days. The permanent cadres number about 22,000, and about 85,000 men are annually trained as recruits or recalled for further training. The organization of the army in time of peace is as follows: 82 battalions of infantr y (28 regiments), 50 squadrons of cavalry, 71 field artillery and 7 position artillery batteries, Io fortress artillery, 16 engineer, and 18 army service corps companies. There are six divisions, quartered at Helsingborg, Linkoping, Skofde, Stockholm (two), and Hernosand; in addition to the Gotland troops quartered at Visby. A division in time of war would probably consist of 2 battalions of infantry (4 regiments, 12 battalions), with 4 squadrons of cavalry, 1 artillery regiment, I company of engineers, &c. A cavalry division would consist of 2 brigades of 8 squadrons each, and 1 brigade of horse artillery. It is estimated that 500,000 n:en are available for service in the various capacities in case of war. There are fortresses at Stockholm (Vaxholm and Oscar-Fredriksborg), Boden on the northern railway near the Russian frontier, Karlsborg on Lake Vetter, and Karlskrona; and there are forts at Gothenburg and on Gotland. The reforms of 1901 abolished the indelta, a body including both infantry and cavalry who lived in various parts of the country, in some cases having their houses provided for them. This peculiar system of military tenure (indelningsverket) originated in the 17th century, when certain landowners were exempt from other military obligations if they provided and maintained armed men. The navy is small, including 1 i ironclads of 3100 to 3650 tons. The personnel consists of a cadre, reserve and about 17,000 conscripts. It also includes two coast-artillery regiments, with headquarters at Vaxholm and Karlskrona. The principal naval station is Karlskrona, and there is another at Stockholm.
[HISTORY

Religion

More than 99% of the total population belong to the Swedish Lutheran Church, of which the king is the supreme head. Sweden is divided into 12 dioceses and 186 deaneries, the head of the diocese of Upsala being archbishop. The parish is an important unit in secular as well as ecclesiastical connexions. The rector presides over the local school board, which is appointed by the church assembly (kyrkostdmman), and thus an intimate relation between the church and education has long been maintained. A peculiar duty of the clergy is found in the husfOrhOr or meetings designed to enable the priest to test and develop the religious knowledge of his parishioners by methods of catechism. It was formerly enjoined upon the clergy to visit parishioners for this purpose, and the system is still maintained in the form of meetings, which have in some cases, however, acquired a character mainly devotional. The parishes number 2556, but one living may include more than one parish. In the sparsely inhabited districts of the north the parish is sometimes of enormous extent, thus that of Gellivara has an area of about 6500 sq. m. In such cases the priest often makes protracted journeys from farm to farm through his parish, and on certain occasions the congregation at his church will include many, both Swedes and Lapps, who have travelled perhaps for several days in order to be present. Dissenters are bound to contribute to the maintenance of the Swedish Church, in consideration of the secular duties of the priests.

Education

The connexion between the church and education is so close that the control of both is vested in a single department of the government. Primary education is carried on in common schools of different grades, under both local and state inspection, the parish being the school district. Seminaries are maintained for common school teachers, with a four years' course. At Haparanda and Mattisudden in Norbotten there are special institutions for teachers for the Finnish and Lapp population respectively. Wide attention was attracted to Swedish educational methods principally by the introduction of the system of Sloyd (slojd), initiated at the Naas seminary near Gothenburg, and concerned with the teaching of manual occupations, both for boys and for girls. The higher education of the people is provided by people's high schools in the rural districts, especially for the peasantry, maintained by the county councils, agricultural societies and the state, and providing a two years' course both in general education and in special practical subjects according to local needs. The men's course is held in winter; and a women's course, in some instances, in summer. The workmen's institutes in the towns have a similar object. A system of university extension has been developed on the English pattern, summer courses being held at Upsala and Lund. In connexion with the army reform of 1901 a system of army high schools was proposed for conscripts while serving. Technical education is provided in higher schools at Stockholm, Gothenburg and certain other large industrial centres; and in lower schools distributed throughout the country, in which special attention is given to the prevailing local industries. The agricultural and forestry schools have been mentioned in the paragraphs on these subjects. Public schools for boys are provided by the state, each bishop being superintendent (eforus) of those in his diocese. In the three lowest classes (out of a total of nine) a single system of instruction is practised; thereafter there are classical and scientific sides. Greek is taught only in a section of the upper classical classes. Of modern languages, German is taught throughout; English in all classes of the scientific side, and the upper classical classes. Much attention is paid to singing, drill and gymnastics. The school terms together occupy 341 weeks in the year. At the schools examinations are held for entrance to the universities and certain higher special schools. Owing to the high development of state public schools, private schools for boys are few; but higher schools for girls are all private, excepting the higher seminary for teachers and the state normal school at Stockholm. The state universities are at Upsala and Lund, and with these ranks the Caroline Medical Institution at Stockholm. There are universities (founded by private individual benefactions, but under state control) at Stockholm and Gothenburg. The faculties at Upsala and Lund are theology, law, medicine and philosophy (including both art and science). The courses are long, ranging from six to nine years; and the degrees are those of candidate, licentiate and doctor. The students, who are distinguished by their white caps, are divided for social purposes into " nations " (landskap) of ancient origin, based upon the distinctions between natives of different parts.

Scientific Institutions

Among the scientific and literary societies are to be noted the Swedish Academy, consisting of 18 members, which was instituted in 1786 by Gustavus III., after the pattern of the Academie Frangaise, for the cultivation of the Swedish language and literature; and the Academy of Science, founded in 1739 by Linnaeus and others for the promotion of the natural sciences. The first distributes one and the second two of the prizes of the Nobel Foundation. A fourth prize is distributed by the Caroline Institution at Stockholm. There may be mentioned further the Royal Academies of Literature, History and Antiquities (1786), of Agriculture (1811), of Arts (1735) and of Music (1771). The principal museums and art and other collections are in Stockholm, Upsala and Lund, and Gothenburg. The Royal Library in the Humlegard Park at Stockholm, and the university libraries at Upsala and Lund are entitled to receive a copy of every publication printed in the kingdom. Certain of the large towns have excellent public libraries, and parish libraries are widely distributed.
See Sweden, its People and its Industry, a government publication (ed. G. Sundbarg) dealing with the land and people in every aspect (Eng. vers., Stockholm, 1904); Bidrag till Sveriges officiela statistik (Stockholm, 1857 seq.); Statistisk Tidskrift, periodically from 1862; Publications (year-book, guides, &c.) of the Svenska Turistforeningen (Swedish Touring Club) Stockholm; periodical Bulletin of the Geological Institute of Upsala University, in which may be noted K. Ahlenius, Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der Seenkettenregion in SchwedischLappland, No. v. (1900); Also Dahlman, Inledning til Sveriges physikalska geografi (Stockholm, 1857); Statistiskt Lexicon ofrer Sverige (Stockholm, 1859-1870); M. Hojer, Konungariket Sverige (Stockholm, 1875-1883); C. Almqvist, La Suede, ses progres sociaux (Stockholm, 1879); P. B. Du Chaillu, The Land of the Midnight Sun (London, 1881); C. M. Rosenberg, Geografiskt-statistiskt handlexicon ofrer Sverige (Stockholm, 1882-1883); W. W. Thomas, Sweden and the Swedes (Chicago and New York, 1891); Healey, Educational Systems of Sweden, Norway and Denmark (London, 1893); Nystrom, Handbok i Sveriges geografi (Stockholm, 1895), and Sveriges rike (Stockholm, 1902); G. Andersson, Geschichte der Vegetation Schwedens (Leipzig, 1896); K. Ahlenius, Sverige, geografisk, topografisk, statistisk beskrifning (Stockholm); and for geology, A. G. Nathorst, Sveriges geologi (Stockholm). For more detailed accounts of the various districts see the publications of the Sveriges Geologiska Undersakning, and also the volumes of the Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar. (0. J. R. H.) History Remains dating from the Stone Age are found scattered over the southern half of Sweden, but it is only along the south coast and in the districts bordering on the Cattegat that they occur in any considerable quantity. The antiquities of the Bronze Age are much more widely distributed and reach as far as the north of Helsingland. It is evident that the country must at this time have been fairly populous. So far as can be judged from the human remains found the population in general in both the Stone and Bronze Ages seems to have been similar in type to that of the present day, and there is no clear evidence for the advent of a new race. The Iron Age probably began in the south of Sweden at any rate some three or four centuries before the beginning of the Christian era. (See further Scandi Navian Civilization.) The first historical notice relating to Sweden is contained in Tacitus, Germania, cap. 44. This book was probably published in A.D. 98 or 99 and in the passage mentioned we find the name of the chief people of the peninsula, the Early Swedes proper, Suiones (0. N. Sviar, Swed. Races and Svear, A. S. Son), who eventually gave their Divisions. we name to the whole country. According to Tacitus they were governed by a king whose power was absolute and comprehensive, and possessed a strong fleet which secured them from the fear of hostile incursions. Hence arms were not borne in times of peace but stored away under charge of a slave, and Tacitus suggests in explanation that the royal policy did not commit this trust to noble, freeman or freedman. Their original territories lay on both sides of the Malar, in the provinces later known as Upland, Sodermanland and Westmanland. Tacitus mentions another tribe, the Sitones, which he places next to the Suiones, but they have not been identified, and it is not clear from his description whether they lived within the peninsula or not. The only information he gives about them is that they were ruled over by a woman. Other early Roman writers, Mela and Pliny, mention the country under the name Scandinavia (Skane), a name which in native records seems always to have been confined to the southernmost district in the peninsula. Little information, however, is given by these authorities with regard to the inhabitants.
The people next in importance to the Suiones in the peninsula (Swed. Gotar, O. N. Gautar, A. S. Geatas) are first mentioned by Ptolemy (under the form Goutai for Gautoi), together with a number of other tribal names, most of which unfortunately cannot be identified, owing to the corrupt state of the text. Ptolemy puts the Gotar in the southern part of the country, and from the earliest historical times their name has been given to the whole region between the Cattegat and the Baltic, exclusive of the provinces of Halland and Skane which down to the 17th century always belonged to Denmark. The coast of the Cattegat north of the Gota El y was reckoned in Norway. Gotaland consisted of the provinces of Vestergotland and Ostergotland divided from one another by Lake Vetter, together with Srrialand. In early times Vestergotland seems to have been by far the most important.
Vermland, the district to the north of Lake Vener and the whole of the country to the north of Svealand seem to have been of small importance. Jamtland was always considered a part of Norway. After the time of Ptolemy we Account of hear no more of Sweden until the 6th century, Jordanes. 3'?
a surprisingly full account of its peoples is given by the Gothic historian Jordanes. He mentions both the Svear (Swethans) and the Gotar together with other peoples, the names of several of which can be recognized in the district - names of later times, in spite of the numerous corruptions of the text. He praises the horses of the Svear and speaks of their great trade in furs of arctic animals which were transferred from merchant to merchant until they reached Rome. About the other peoples of Sweden he gives a few details, chiefly of physical or moral characteristics, commenting upon the warlike nature of the Visigauti, the mildness of the Finns, the lofty stature of the Vinovii and the meat and egg diet of the Rerefennae. Jordanes's statement regarding the prevalence of trade with Sweden is corroborated by the fact that many coins and bracteates of the period have been found in the country. Of these the coins are chiefly Roman and Byzantine gold pieces of the 5th century, the bracteates copies of Roman coins of the same period.
Procopius, the contemporary of Jordanes (Gothica, ii. 15) likewise gives an account of Sweden, which he calls Thule, but the only tribes which he names are the Skrithephinnoi Beowulf. (A. S. Scriaefinnas), a wild people of Finnish stock, and the Gotar (Gautoi) whom he describes as a " nation abounding in men." For the same period we derive a considerable amount of information with regard to Swedish affairs from the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf. The hero himself belonged to the Greatas (i.e. in all probability Gotar, though the identification is disputed by some scholars), his mother being the daughter of their king Hrethel. Haethcyn, the son and successor of this Hrethel, is said to have perished in a disastrous battle against the Svear, but his fall was avenged by his brother Hygelac in a subsequent engagement in which the Swedish king Ongentheow was killed. This Hygelac is clearly identical with that Chochilaicus wrongly described as a Danish king by Gregory of Tours (iii. 3) who made a piratical expedition to the lower Rhine which ended in his defeat and death in a battle with the Franks under Theodberht about A.D. 520. The poem contains several allusions to this disaster. We learn further that about the time of Hygelac's death strife broke out in the royal family of the Svear, between Onela, the son and successor of Ongentheow, and Eanmund and Eadgils, the sons of his brother Ohthere. The latter fled for protection to the Guar and the war which ensued cost the lives of Eanmund and of Heardred the son and successor of Hygelac. According to the poem Beowulf himself now became king of the Gotar and assisted Eadgils in a campaign which resulted in the death of Onela and the acquisition of the throne by his nephew. What is said in the poem with regard to the end of Beowulf belongs to the realm of myth, and for three centuries after this time we have no reference to Swedish affairs in English or other foreign authorities. Moreover after the time of Beowulf and Jordanes there are very few references to the kingdom of the Gotar and in Olaf Sktittkonung's time it was merely an earldom. The kingdom must have come to an end between the 6th and 10th centuries A.D., and probably quite early in that period.
The Ynglingatal, a poem said to have been composed by Th1060lfr of Hvin, court-poet of Harold Fairhair, king of Norway, The gives a genealogy of Harold's family, which it carries Ynglingatals back to the early kings of the Svear. Snorri Stur- and Tag- luson (1178-1241) the Icelandic author using this linga Saga. poem as a basis and amplifying it from other sources, wrote the Ynglinga Saga, which traces back the history of the family, generation by generation, to its beginning. In this saga AOils (the Eadgils of Beowulf), son of Ottarr is one of the most prominent figures. The account given of him agrees in general with the statements in Beowulf, though the nature of his relations with Ali (Onela) has been misunderstood. The decisive battle between the two kings is said to have taken place on the frozen surface of Lake Wener. Ongentheow appears to have been entirely forgotten in Norse tradition and his place is taken by a certain Egill. The saga further states that Aails was an enthusiastic horse-breeder and that he met with his death through a fall from his horse. This point is of interest in connexion with the notice of Jordanes, mentioned above, with regard to the horses of the Svear. Other northern authorities such as Saxo and the Hrolfs Saga Kraka represent Aails in a very unfavourable light as niggardly and addicted to sorcery.
The Ynglingatal and Ynglinga Saga enumerate Aail's ancestors to no less than seventeen generations, with short accounts of each. We have no means of checking the genealogy from other sources, and the majority of the characters are probably to be regarded as mythical. The origin of the family is traced to the god Frey, son of Niorar, who is said to have founded Upsala, the ancient capital of Sweden. His reign is represented as a golden age of peace and prosperity and the great wealth of the sanctuary is said to have taken its beginning from the offerings at his tomb. His full name appears to have been Yngvifreyr or Ingunar Freyr and his descendants are collectively termed Ynglingar, though we also occasionally meet with the name Skilfingar, which corresponds with the name Scilfingar borne by the Swedish royal family in Beowulf. After the time of Aails the Ynglingar remained in possession of Upsala for four generations according to the saga. Ultimately the treachery and the murderous disposition of the king named Ingialdr led to his overthrow by a prince from Skane, called Ivarr Viafaami. His son Olafr Tretelgia withdrew to Vermland, which he brought into a state of cultivation, though he was subsequently sacrificed by his subjects in a time of famine. It is stated in the saga that the Swedish kings were believed to have control over the seasons like their ancestor, the god Frey, and traces of this belief seem to have lingered in the country down to the times of Gustavus Vasa. The sons of Olafr Tretelgia moved westward into Norway, and if we may trust the saga, the Swedish kingdom never again came into the possession of their family.
The subsequent kings of Sweden are said to have been descended from Ivarr Viifaami. The most prominent figures in this family are Haraldr Hildittinn Ivarr's grandson and his Introduc- nephew Sigurar Hringr. The story of the battle tion of between these two at Bravik, in which Haraldr lost Christianity. his life, is one of the most famous in northern literature. But the position of these kings with regard to Sweden is far from clear. Their home is probably to be placed on the Cattegat rather than on the Baltic. The same is true also of Ragnarr Labrok, who is said to have been the son of Sigurar Hringr. About the year 830 the missionary bishop Ansgar made his first expedition to Sweden. He made his way to Birca on the Malar. The king whom he found reigning there is called Bjorn (Bern) and is generally identified with the king Bjorn for whom Bragi the Old composed the poem called Ragnarsdrapa. On his subsequent journeys to Sweden Ansgar encountered kings called Olafr and Onundr. He appears to have met with considerable immediate success in his missionary enterprises, although there is no evidence to show that the churches he founded long survived his death, and no serious mission seems to have been attempted for more than a century afterwards.
[HISTORY
During the 9th century extensive Scandinavian settlements were made on the east side of the Baltic, and even as early as the reign of Louis I. we hear of piratical expedi- scandi- tions on the Black Sea and on the Caspian. The navian famous expeditions of Rurik and Askold which Settlements resulted in the origin of the Russian monarchy in Russia. appear to have taken place towards the middle of the 9th century, but it has not been found possible to connect these names with any families known to us from Swedish tradition. Proofs of extensive Scandinavian settlement in Russia are to be found partly in the Russian names assigned to the Dnieper rapids by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, partly in references to this people made by foreign representatives at the court of Byzantium. The fact that many of the names which occur in Russian chronicles seem to be peculiarly Swedish suggests that Sweden was the home of the settlers, and the best authorities consider that the original Scandinavian conquerors were Swedes who had settled on the east coast of the Baltic.
In the time of Harold Fairhair, probably about the beginning of the 10th century, we hear of a king named Eric the son of Kings in Emund at Upsala, whose authority seems to have the 10th reached as far as Norway. Later in the century Century. there is record of a king named Bjorn a Haugi who is said to have been the son of Eric and to have reigned fifty years. B jorn's sons and successors were Olaf and Eric the Victorious. Styrbiorn Starki, the son of Olaf, being refused his share of the government by Eric after his father's death, made himself a stronghold at Jomsborg in Pomerania and spent some years in piratical expeditions. Eventually he betook himself to Harold Bluetooth, then king of Denmark, and endeavoured to secure his assistance in gaining the Swedish throne by force of arms. Although he failed in this attempt he was not deterred from attacking Eric, and a battle took place between the two at the Fyrisa (close to Upsala) in which Styrbiorn was defeated and killed. Eric himself died ten years after this battle, apparently about 993. According to the story he had obtained victory from Odin in return for a promise to give himself up at the end of ten years. Under his son and successor Olaf, surnamed Establish- Skottkonung, Christianity was fully established in ment of Sweden. Olaf Tryggvason, the king of Norway, Christi- had married his sister Ingibiorg to Ragnvald, earl anity. of Vestergotland, on condition that he should receive baptism, and the Swedish king's wife was also a Christian, though he himself was not baptized until 1008 by Sigfrid at Husaby. A quarrel arose in the last years of the 10th century between Olaf Skottkonung and Olaf Tryggvason. The latter had applied for the hand of Sigr16, the widow of Eric the Victorious, but had insulted her on her refusal to become a Christian. In the year 1 000, when the Norwegian king was in Pomerania, a coalition was formed between the king of Sweden, Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark, and earl Eric of Lade, and the allies waylaid their enemy off the coast near Riigen and overthrew him in Reign of the great sea-battle of Svolder. Under Olaf Skott- Olaf Skott- konung Sweden became the mightiest of the king- konung. doms of the north, in spite of the king's own inactivity. She lost her lands east of the Baltic, but received as compensation in Norway part of Trondhjem and the district now called Bohiislan. These lands Olaf handed over to Earl Sweyn, brother of Earl Eric (whose father Haakon had governed Norway), as a marriage portion for his daughter HolmfriO. Some years later we hear of hostilities between Olaf Skottkonung and another Norwegian prince, Olaf Haraldsson (the Fat), who raided Sweden and was besieged in the Malar by the Swedish king. In 1014, the year of Earl Eric's departure to England with Canute, Olaf Haraldsson, returning to Norway as king, put an end to the Swedish and Danish supremacy, and in 1015 he forced Earl Sweyn to leave the country. Trifling border-quarrels followed, but in 1017 a truce was arranged between Norway and Vestergotland, where Earl Ragnvald was still in power. Olaf of Norway now sent his marshal Bjorn to Ragnvald to arrange a peace. Ragnvald brought him to a great assembly at Upsala in February 1018. At this meeting Bjorn, supported by the earl, asked for peace, and Olaf was compelled by the pressure of the lawman Thorgny to agree to this and also to promise his daughter Ingeger6 in marriage to the Norse king. The marriage, however, never got beyond the betrothal stage, and at Earl Ragnvald's suggestion Astrid, her half-sister, was substituted, contrary to the will of Olaf Skottkonung. Such was the anger of the king that Ragnvald was forced to accompany Ingeger5 to Russia, where she was married to the grand-duke Jaroslav at Novgorod. In Sweden, however, both the Vestgotar and the Upland Sviar were discontented, the former on account of the breaking of the king's promise to Olaf of Norway and the latter on account of the introduction of the new religion, and their passions were further inflamed by the lawman Anund of Skara. A rising in Upland compelled Olaf to share his power with his son Jacob, whose name was changed to Anund by the leaders of the revolt. A meeting was then arranged between the kings of Norway and Sweden at Kongelf in ioz9, and this resulted in a treaty. The death of Olaf Skiittkonung is assigned by Snorri Sturluson to the winter of 1021-1022. His grave is still shown at Husaby in Vestergotland.
Anund, now sole king, early in his reign allied himself with Olaf Haraldsson against Canute of Denmark, who had demanded the restitution of the rights possessed by his father King Anund, Sweyn in Norway. The allies took advantage of C.1022 the Danish king's absence to harry his land. On C.1050.
his return an indecisive battle was fought at Helgi A, and Anund returned to Sweden. Olaf was driven from Norway by the Danes, but returning in 1030 he raised a small army in Sweden and marched through Jamtland to Trondhjem only to meet his death at the battle of Stiklestad. After death he was worshipped in Sweden, especially in Gotland. We hear from Adam of Bremen that Anund was young in years but old in wisdom and cunning; he was called Kolbrannea because he had the houses of evildoers burnt. Like Olaf Skottkonung he caused coins to be struck at Sigtuna, of which a few remain. The moneyers' names are English. The coins of Anund surpass all that were struck during the next two centuries. He appears to have died about 1050, according to Adam of Bremen. He was succeeded by his brother Emund the Old, who Emund the had been previously passed over because his mother old, 1050 was unfree, the daughter of a Slav prince and 1060. captured in war. This king had become a Christian, but soon quarrelled with Adalhard, archbishop of Bremen, and endeavoured to secure the independence of the Swedish church, which was not obtained for another century. Emund, who was given the name Slemme, had territorial disputes with Denmark in the early part of his reign. These disputes were settled by a rectification of boundaries which assigned Blekinge to Denmark.
With the death of Emund, which took place in 1060, the old family of Swedish kings dies out. The successor of Emund the Old was a king named Steinkel who had married the daughter of his predecessor. He was the son of a certain Ragnvald, perhaps connected with the Vestergotland Ragnvald, of the reign of Olaf Skottkonung. Steinkel was born in Vestergotland and was warmly attached to the Christian religion. The Adalhard who had quarrelled with Emund the Old now sent a bishop, Adalhard the younger, to Scara. Christianity was by this time firmly established throughout most of Sweden, its chief strength being in Vestergotland. The Uplanders, however, still held out against it, and Adalhard, though he succeeded in destroying the idols in his own district Vestergotland, was unable to persuade Steinkel to destroy the old sanctuary at Upsala. During his reign grants of land in Vermland made by the king to the Norse earl Haakon Ivarsson led to a successful invasion of Gotaland by Harold Hardrada of Norway. Steinkel also had disputes with Denmark. On his death in 1066 a civil war broke out in which the leaders were two obscure princes named Eric. Probably the division of feeling between Vestergotland and Upland in the matter of religion was the real cause of this war, but nothing is known of the details, though we hear that both kings as well as the chief men of the land fell in it.
A prince called Haakon the Red now appears as king of Sweden and is said to have occupied the throne for thirteen years. In the Vestergotland regnal lists he appears Haakon the before Steinkel and it is possible that the authority Red, 1066- of that king was not regularly acknowledged in 10:9 ?
the province. In 1081 we find the sons of Steinkel, Inge and Halstan, reigning in Sweden. Inge's attachment to Christianity caused him to be expelled after a short time by his brother-in-law Sweyn or Blotsweyn, so called Holston, from his revival of the old sacrifices. Sweyn retained Inge and the kingship only for three years. After that Blotsweyn. interval Inge returned and slew him, and his fall marks the final overthrow of the old religion.
The interesting account of Upsala preserved by Adam of Steinke ], 1060-1066. Bremen in his History (iv. 26) apparently dates from the period immediately preceding these events. He describes the temple as one of great splendour and covered with gilding.
Temple at In it stood the statues of the three chief deities Upsala. Thor, Odin and Fricco (by whom he probably means Frey). Every nine years a great festival was held there to which embassies were sent by all the peoples of Sweden. A large number of animals and even men were sacrificed on such occasions. In the neighbourhood of the temple was a grove of peculiar sanctity in which the bodies of the victims were hung up. After the introduction of Christianity the importance of Upsala began steadily to decline, and owing to its intimate associations with the old religion the kings no longer made it their residence.
Authorities For Early History. - Tacitus, Germania, cap. 44; Claudius Ptolemaeus, Geographica ii. II ad fin.; Jordanes, De origine actibusque Getarum, cap. 3; Procopius, De bello gothico, ii. 15; Beowulf, Rimbertus, Vita S. Ansgarii in monumenta Germaniae historica, ii. 683-725 (Hanover, 1829); King Alfred's translation of Orosius i. 1; Adam of Bremen, Gesta hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum iii. and iv.; Ynglinga Saga, with the poem Ynglingatal contained in the Heimskringla; Olafs Sagan Tryggvasonar and Olafs Saga hins Helga, both contained in Heimskringla and in Fornmanna sogur; Saxo grammaticus, gesta Danorum; a collection of later Swedish Chronicles contained in Rerum suecicarum scriptores, vol. iii. (ed. Annerstedt, Upsala, 1871 and 1876); Sveriges historic., vol. i. (Montelius & Hildebrand, Stockholm, 18 751$ 77); Thomsen, The Relations between Ancient Russia and Scandinavia and the Origin of the Russian State (Oxford and London, 1877). 1877).
(F. G. M. B.) Under Blotsweyn's grandson, King Sverker (1134-1155), who permanently amalgamated the Swedes and Goths (each Organiza. of the two nations supplying the common king tion of the alternately for the next hundred years), Sweden Kingdom. began to feel the advantage of a centralized monarchical government. Eric IX. (1150-1160) organized the Swedish Church on the model prevalent elsewhere, and undertook a crusade against the heathen Finlanders, which marks the beginning of Sweden's overseas dominion. Under Charles VII.,1 the archbishopric of Upsala was founded (1164). But the greatest medieval statesman of Sweden was Earl Birger, who practically ruled the land from 1248 to 1266. To him is attributed the foundation of Stockholm; but he is best known as a legislator, and his wise reforms prepared the way for the abolition of serfdom. The increased dignity which the royal power owed to Earl Birger was still further extended by King Magnus Ladulas (1275-1290). Both these rulers, by the institution of separate and almost independent duchies, attempted to introduce into Sweden a feudal system similar to that already established elsewhere in Europe; but the danger of thus weakening the realm by partition was averted, though not without violent and tragic complications. Finally, in 1319, the severed portions of Sweden were once more reunited. Meanwhile the political development of the state was of the steadily proceeding. The formation of separate Estates. orders, or estates, was promoted by Magnus Ladulas, who extended the privileges of the clergy and founded an hereditary nobility (Ordinance of Alsno, 1280). In connexion with this institution we now hear of a heavily armed cavalry as the kernel of the national army. The knights too now Nobles and became distinguishable from the higher nobility. g g } To this period belongs the rise of a prominent burgess class, as the towns now began to acquire charters. At the end of the 13th century, and the beginning of the 14th too, provincial codes of laws appear and the king and his council execute legislative functions.
The first union between Sweden and Norway occurred in 1319, when the three-year-old Magnus, son of the Swedish royal duke First Union with who had inherited the throne of Norway from his Norway. grandfather Haakon V., was in the same year elected king of Sweden (Convention of Oslo). A long minority weakened the royal influence in both countries, and Magnus lost both his 1 A legendary list of kings gives to this Charles six predecessors of the same name. Subsequent kings of Sweden have always given this Charles the title of Charles VII.
kingdoms before his death. The Swedes, irritated by his misrule, superseded him by his nephew, Albert of Mecklenburg (1365). In Sweden, Magnus's partialities' and necessities led directly to the rise of a powerful landed aristocracy, and, indirectly, to the growth of popular liberties. Forced by the unruliness of the magnates to lean upon the middle classes, the king summoned (1359) the first Swedish Riksdag, on which occasion representatives from the towns were invited to appear along with the nobles and clergy. His successor, Albert, was forced to go a step farther and, in 1371, to take the first coronation oath. In 1388, at the request of the Swedes themselves, Albert was driven out by Margaret, regent of Denmark Union of and Norway; and, at a convention of the repre- Kalmar, sentatives of the three Scandinavian kingdoms held 1397. at Kalmar (1397), Margaret's great-nephew, Eric of Pomerania, was elected the common king, but the liberties of each of the three realms were expressly reserved and confirmed. The union was to be a personal, not a political union.
Neither Margaret herself nor her successors observed the stipulation that in each of the three kingdoms only natives should hold land and high office, and the efforts First of Denmark (at that time by far the strongest Breach of member of the union) to impose her will on the the union, weaker kingdoms soon produced a rupture, or, 1436. rather, a series of semi-ruptures. The Swedes first broke away from it in 1434 under the popular leader Engelbrecht, and after his murder they elected Karl Knutsson Bonde their king under the title of Charles VIII. (1436). In 1441 Charles VIII had to retire in favour of Christopher of Bavaria, who was already king of Denmark and Norway; but, on the death of Christopher (1448), a state of confusion ensued in the course of which Charles VIII. was twice expelled and twice reinstated. Finally, on his death in 1470, the three kingdoms were reunited under Christian I. of Denmark, the prelates and higher nobility of Sweden being favourable to the union, though the great majority of the Swedish people always detested it as a foreign usurpation. The national party was represented by the three great Riksfdrestandare, or presidents of the realm, of the Sture family (see Sture), who, with brief intervals, from 1470 to 1520 successively defended the independence of Sweden against the Danish kings and kept the national spirit alive. But the presidentship was too casual and anomalous an institution to Election of rally the nations round it permanently, and when Gustavus the tyranny of Christian II. became intoler- Vasa, 1523. able the Swedish people elected Gustavus Eriksson Vasa, who as president had already driven out the Danes (see Denmark: History), king of Sweden at Strengnas (June 6, 1523).
The extraordinary difficulties of Gustavus (see Gustavus I.) were directly responsible for the eccentric development, both political and religious, of the new kingdom which hisenius created. So precarious was the position Gustavus L, genius p p 1523-1560. of the young king, that he was glad to make allies wherever he could find them. Hence his desire to stand well with the Holy See. Only three months after his accession, he addressed letters to the pope begging him to appoint new bishops " who would defend the rights of the Church without detriment to the Crown." He was especially urgent for the confirmation of his nominee Johannes Magni as primate, in the place of the rebellious archbishop Gustavus Trolle, who as a convicted traitor had been formally deposed by the Riksdag and was actually an outlawed exile. If the pope would confirm the elections of his bishops, Gustavus promised to be an obedient son of the Church. Scarcely had these letters been despatched when the king received a papal bull ordering the immediate reinstatement of Gustavus Trolle. The action of the Curia on this occasion was due to its conviction of the imminent triumph of Christian II. and the instability of Gustavus's position. It was a conviction shared by the rest of Europe; but, none the less, it was another of the many blunders of the Curia at this difficult period. Its immediate effect was the loss of the Swedish Church. Gustavus could not accept as primate an open and Eric and of the Norwegian princess Ingeborg, determined traitor like Trolle. He publicly protested, in the sharpest language, that unless Johannes Magni were recognized at Rome as archbishop of Upsala, he was determined, Breach with of his own royal authority, henceforward to order Rome. ? y?
the affairs of the Church in his realm to the glory of God and the satisfaction of all Christian men. But the Holy See was immovable, and Gustavus broke definitely with Rome. He began by protecting and promoting the Swedish reformers Olavus and Laurentius Petri, and Laurentius Andreae. The new teaching was allowed to spread, though at first unostentatiously and gradually. A fresh step in the direction of Lutheran- Progress of ism was the translation of the New Testament into Swedish, which was published in 1526. Simulmation. taneously, a systematic attack was made upon the religious houses, beginning with the sequestration of the monastery of Gripsholm in January 1526. But the affair caused such general indignation that Gustavus felt obliged, in May, to offer some justification of his conduct. A few months later there was an open rupture between the king and his own primate, who ultimately was frightened into exile by a sudden accusation of treason. But the other bishops were also against Gustavus, and, irritated by their conscientious opposition, the king abandoned the no longer tenable position of a moderator and came openly forward as an antagonist. In 1526 the Catholic printing-presses were suppressed, and two-thirds of the Church's tithes were appropriated to the payment of the national debt. On the 18th of February 1527 two bishops, the first martyrs of Catholicism in Sweden, were gibbeted at Stockholm after a trial which was a parody of justice. This act of violence, evidently designed to terrorize the Church into submission, was effectual enough, for at the subsequent Riksdag of Vesteras (June, 1527), the bishops durst not even present a protest which they had privately prepared, and the assembly Recess and itself was bullied into an absolute submission to the Ordinance royal will. The result was the Vesteras Recess of which transferred all ecclesiastical property to the 1527. Crown. By the subsequent Vesteras Ordinance the Swedish Church was absolutely severed from Rome. Nevertheless, the changes so made were mainly administrative. There was no modification of doctrine, for the general resolution that God's Word should be preached plainly and purely was not contrary to the teaching of the ante-Tridentine Church. Even at the synod of Orebro, summoned in February 152 9, "for the better regulation of church ceremonies and discipline according to God's Word," there was no formal protest against Rome; and the old ritual was retained for two years longer, though it was to be explained as symbolical. Henceforth the work of the Reformation continued uninterruptedly. In 1531 Laurentius Petri was elected the first Protestant primate of Sweden. Subsequently matters were much complicated by the absolutist tendencies of Gustavus. From 1539 onwards there was a breach between him and his own prelates in consequence of his arbitrary appropriation of the Church's share of the tithes, in direct violation of the Vesteras Recess. Then Gustavus so curtailed the power of the bishops (ordinances of 1539 and 1540) that they had little of the dignity left but the name, and even that he was disposed to abolish, for after 1543 the prelates appointed by him, without any pretence of previous, election by the cathedral chapters, were called ordinaries, or superintendents. Finally, at the Riksdag of Vesteras, in 1544, though no definite confession of faith was formulated, a final breach was made with the traditions of the old religion.
Thus the Reformation in Sweden was practically the work of one strong man, acting (first from purely political and latterly from purely economical reasons) for the good of the state as he understood it. In this Gustavus acted contrary to the religious instincts of the vast majority of the Swedish nation; for there can be no doubt at all that the Swedes at the beginning of the 16th century were not only still devoted to the old Church, but violently anti-Protestant. This popular Romanism was the greatest of all Gustavus's difficulties, because it tended to alienate the Swedish peasants.
For the last hundred years the peasants had been a leading factor in the political life of the land; and perhaps in no other contemporary European state could so self-reliant The a class of yeomen have been found. Again and Peasants. again they had defended their own and the national liberties against foreign foes. In the national assemblies, too, their voice had always been powerful, and not infrequently predominant. In a word, they were the sound kernel of the still but partially developed Swedish constitution, the democratic safeguard against the monarchical tendency which was enveloping the rest of Europe. Gustavus's necessities had compelled him to break with the ecclesiastical traditions of Sweden; and they also compelled him, contrary to his masterful disposition, to accept constitutionalism, because without it his footing in his own kingdom would have been insecure. The peasants therefore were his natural allies, but, from the nature of the case, they tended to become his most formidable rivals. They prided themselves on having " set King Gus in the high seat," but they were quite ready to unseat him if his rule was not to their liking, and there were many things with which they were by no means contented. This anomalous state of things was responsible for the half-dozen peasant risings with which Gustavus had to contend from 1525 to 15 4 3. In all these rebellions the religious difficulty figured largely, though the increasing fiscal burdens were undoubtedly grievous and the peasants had their particular grievances besides. The wholesale seizure and degradation of Church property outraged them, and they formally protested against the introduction of " Luthery." They threatened, more than once, to march upon and destroy Stockholm, because the Reformers had made of it " a spiritual Sodom." They insisted on the restoration of the ancient Catholic customs, and would have made neglect of fasting and other sins of omission penal offences. Though he prevailed in the end, Gustavus was obliged to humour the people throughout. And thus, though he was strong enough to maintain what he had established and finish what he had begun, he was not strong enough to tamper seriously with the national liberties or to crush altogether Catholic aspirations. At the time of his death the Riksdag was already a power in the state, and a Catholic reaction in Sweden was by no means an impossibility, if only the Catholics had been able to find capable leaders.
Gustavus's foreign policy at first aimed at little more than self-preservation. Only with the pecuniary assistance of the wealthy merchants of Lubeck had he been able to Foreign establish himself originally; and Lubeck, in return, Policy of had exploited Sweden, as Spain at a later day Gustavus. was to exploit her American colonies. When, with the aid of Denmark, Gustavus at last freed himself from this greedy incubus (see Denmark; Gustavus I.; CHRISTIAN III.) by the truce of the 28th of August 1537, Sweden for the first time in her history became the mistress of her own waters. But even so she was but of subordinate importance in Scandinavian politics. The hegemony of Denmark was indisputable, and Gustavus regarded that power with an ever-increasing suspicion which augured ill for peace in the future. The chief cause of dispute was the quartering by the Danish king of the three crowns of Sweden on the Dano-Norwegian shield, which was supposed to indicate a claim of sovereignty. Still more offensive was the attitude of Sweden's eastern neighbour Muscovy, with whom the Swedish king was nervously anxious to stand on good terms. Gustavus attributed to Ivan IV., whose resources he unduly magnified, the design of establishing a universal monarchy round the Baltic.
Nevertheless events were already occurring which ultimately compelled Sweden to depart from her neutrality and lay the foundations of an overseas empire. In the last year of Gustavus's life (1560), the ancient military ofs weden. order of the Sword, amalgamated, since 1237, with the more powerful order of the Teutonic Knights, had by the secularization of the latter order into the dukedom of Prussia (1525) become suddenly isolated in the midst of hostile Slavonians. It needed but a jolt to bring down the crazy anachronism, and the jolt came when, in 1558-60, floods of Muscovites poured over the land, threatening the whole province with destruction. In his despair the last master of the order, Gotthard von Kettler, appealed to all his more civilized neighbours to save him, and his dominions were quickly partitioned between Poland, Denmark and Sweden. Sweden's original share of the spoil was Reval, which, driven to extremities, placed itself beneath the protection of the Swedish crown in March 1561. From the moment that Sweden got a firm footing in Esthonia by the acquisition of Reval she was committed to a policy of combat and aggrandisement. To have retreated would have meant the ruin of her Baltic trade, upon which the national prosperity so much depended. Her next-door neighbours, Poland and Russia, were necessarily her competitors; fortunately they were also each other's rivals; obviously her best policy was to counterpoise them. To accomplish this effectually she required to have her hands free, and the composition' of her longoutstanding differences with Denmark by the Treaty of Stettin on the 13th of December 1570 (see Denmark: History), which put an end to the Dano-Swedish war of 1563-1570, the chief political event of the reign of Eric XIV. (1560-1568), the eldest son and successor of Gustavus Vasa, was therefore a judicious act on the part of the new king of Sweden, John III. (1568-1592). Equally judicious was the anti-Russian league with Stephen Bathory, king of Poland, concluded in 1578. The war between Russia and Sweden for the possession of Esthonia and Livonia (1571-77) had been uninterruptedly disastrous to the latter, and, in the beginning of 1577, a countless Russian host sat down before Reval, Sweden's last stronghold in those parts. The energetic intervention of Bathory, however, speedily turned the scales in the opposite direction. Six months after his humiliating peace with the Polish monarch, Ivan IV. was glad to conclude a truce with Sweden also on a uti possidetis basis at Pliusa (Aug. 5, 1582).
The amicable relations between Sweden and Poland promised, at first, to be permanent. Sixteen years before his accession to the throne, John III., then duke of Finland, had wedded Catherine Jagiellonica, the sister of Sigis somewhat of a theological expert, was largely influenced by these " middle " views. As soon as he had mounted the throne he took measures to bring the Swedish Church ff1. back to " the primitive Apostolic Church and the Catholic faith "; and, in 1574, persuaded a synod Church. assembled at Stockholm to adopt certain articles framed by himself on what we should call a High Church basis. In February 1 575 a new Church ordinance, approximating still more closely to the patristic Church, was presented to another synod, and accepted thereat, but very unwillingly. In 1576 a new liturgy was issued on the model of the Roman missal, but with considerable modifications. To a modern High Anglican these innovations seem innocent enough, and, despite the opposition of Duke Charles and the ultra-Protestants, they were adopted by the Riksdag of 1577. These measures greatly encouraged the Catholic party in Europe, and John III. was ultimately persuaded to send an embassy to Rome to open negotiations for the reunion of the Swedish Church with the Holy See. But though the Jesuit Antonio Possevino was sent to Stockholm to complete John's " conversion," John would only consent to embrace Catholicism under certain conditions which were never kept, and the only result of all these subterraneous negotiations was to incense the Protestants still more against the new liturgy, the use of which by every congregation in the realm without exception was, nevertheless, decreed by the Riksdag of 1582. At this period Duke Charles and his Protestant friends were clearly outnumbered by the promoters of the via media. Nevertheless, immediately after King John's death, a synod summoned to Upsala by Duke Charles rejected the new liturgy and drew up an anti-Catholic confession of faith (March 5, 1593). Holy Scripture and the three primitive creeds were declared to be the true foundations of Christian faith, and the Augsburg Confession was adopted. That Sigismund, now the lawful king of Sweden, should regard the summoning of Civil War. the synod of Upsala without his previous knowledge and consent as a direct infringement of his pre- Sigismund rogative was only natural. On his arrival in Sweden, however, he tried to gain time by provisionally confirming what had been done; but the aggressiveness of the Protestant faction and the persistent usurpations of Duke Charles (the Riksdag of 1595 proclaimed him regent though the king had previously refused him that office) made a civil war inevitable. The battle of Stangabro (Sept. 25, 1598) decided the struggle in favour of Charles - and Protestantism. Sigismund fled from Sweden, never to return, and on the 19th of March 1600 the Riksdag of Linkoping proclaimed the duke king Proclama- under the title of Charles IX. Sigismund and his posterity were declared to have forfeited the Swedish crown which was to pass to the heirs male of Charles. 1600. Not till the 6th of March 1604, however, after Duke John, son of John III., had formally renounced his hereditary right to the throne, did Charles IX. begin to style himself king. At the Riksdag of the same year, the estates committed themselves irrevocably to Protestantism by excluding Proscription Catholics from the succession to the throne, and o prohibiting them from holding any office or dignity in Sweden. Henceforth, too, every recusant was to be deprived of his estates and banished the realm.
It was in the reign of Charles IX. that Sweden became not only a predominantly Protestant, but also a predominantly military monarchy. This momentous change, which was to give a martial colouring to the whole policy of Sweden for the next hundred and twenty years, Regular dates from a decree of the Riksdag of Linkoping Army. establishing, at the urgent suggestion of Charles, a regular army; each district in the country being henceforward liable to provide and maintain a fixed number of infantry and cavalry for the service of the state. The immediate enemy was War with Poland, now dynastically as well as territorially opposed to Sweden. The struggle took the shape of a Russia. contest for the possession of the northern Baltic provinces. Esthonia was recovered by the Swedes in 1600, but their mund king of Poland (Oct. 4, 1562). Duke Sigismund, the fruit of this union, was brought up by his mother in the Catholic religion, and, on the 19th of August 1587, he was elected king of Poland. Sixteen days later the Articles of Kalmar, signed by John and Sigismund, regulated the future relations between the two countries when, in process of time, Sigismund should succeed his father as king of Sweden. The two kingdoms were to be in perpetual alliance, but each of them was to retain its own laws and customs.
1587. Sweden was also to enjoy her religion, subject to such changes as a general council might make; but neither pope nor council was to claim or exercise the right of releasing Sigismund from his obligations to his Swedish subjects. During Sigismund's absence from Sweden that realm was to be ruled by seven Swedes, six elected by the king and one by his uncle Duke Charles of Sudermania, the leader of the Swedish Protestants. No new tax was to be levied in Sweden during the king's absence, but Sweden was never to be administered from Poland. Any necessary alterations in these articles were only to be made with the common consent of the king, Duke Charles, the senate and the gentry of Sweden.
The endeavours of Swedish statesmen to bind the hands of their future king were due to their fear of the rising flood of the Catholic reaction in Europe. Under Eric XIV. the Catholic the Reformation in Sweden had proceeded on much the same lines as during the reign of his father, retaining all the old Catholic customs not considered contrary to Scripture. Naturally, after 1544, when the Council of Trent had formally declared the Bible and tradition to be equally authoritative sources of all Christian doctrine, the contrast between the old and the new teaching became more obvious; and in many countries a middle party arose which aimed at a compromise by going back to the Church of the Fathers. King John III., the most learned of the Vasas, and xxvi. 7a determined efforts (1601-9) to gain a foothold in Livonia were frustrated by the military ability of the grand hetman of Lithuania, Jon Karol Chodkiewicz. In 1608 hostilities were transferred to Russian territory. At the beginning of that year Charles had concluded an alliance with Tsar Basil IV. against their common foe, the Polish king; but when, in 1611, Basil was deposed by his own subjects and the whole tsardom seemed to be on the verge of dissolution, Sweden's policy towards Russia changed its character. Hitherto Charles had aimed at supporting the weaker Slavonic power against the stronger; but now that Muscovy seemed about to disappear from among the nations of Europe, Swedish statesmen naturally sought some compensation for the expenses of the war before Poland had had time to absorb everything. A beginning was made by the siege and capture of Kexholm in Russian Finland (March 2, 1611); and, on the 16th of July, Great Novgorod was occupied and a convention concluded with the magistrates of that wealthy city whereby Charles IX.'s second son Philip was to be recognized as tsar, unless, in the meantime, relief came to Great Novgorod from Moscow. But now, when everything depended on a concentration of forces, Charles's imprudent assumption of the title of " King of the Lapps of Nordland," which people properly belonged to the Danish Crown, involved him in another war with Denmark, a war known in Scandinavian history as the war of Kalmar because the Swedish fortress of Kalmar was the chief theatre of hostilities. Thus the Swedish forces were diverted from their real objective and transferred to another field where even victory would have been comparatively unprofitable. But it was disaster, not victory, which Charles IX. reaped from this foolhardy enterprise. Still worse, the war of Kalmar, prudently Peace of concluded by Charles's son, Gustavus Adolphus, Knared, in the second year of his reign, by the peace of Knared 1613. (Jan. 20, 1613) imposed such onerous pecuniary obligations and such intense suffering upon Sweden as to enkindle into a fire of hatred, which was to burn fiercely for the next two centuries, the long smouldering antagonism between the two sister nations of Scandinavia which dated back to the bloody days of Christian II.
The Russian difficulty was more easily and more honourably adjusted. When Great Novgorod submitted provisionally to Peace of the suzerainty of Sweden, Swedish statesmen had Stolbova, believed, for a moment, in the creation of a Trans- 1617 baltic dominion extending from Lake Ilmen northwards to Archangel and eastwards to Vologda. The rallying of the Russian nation round the throne of the new tsar, Michael Romanov, dissipated, once for all, this ambitious dream. By the beginning of 1616, Gustavus had become convinced of the impossibility of partitioning reunited Muscovy, while Muscovy recognized the necessity of buying off the invincible Swedes by some cession of territory. By the Peace of Stolbova (Feb. 27, 1617), the tsar surrendered to the Swedish king the provinces of Kexholm and Ingria, including the fortress of NOteborg (the modern Schliisselburg), the key of Finland. Russia, furthermore, renounced all claims upon Esthonia and Livonia, and paid a war indemnity of 20,000 roubles. In return for these concessions, Gustavus restored Great Novgorod and acknowledged Michael Romanov as tsar of Muscovy.
The same period which saw the extension of the Swedish Empire abroad, saw also the peaceful development of the Swedish Rule of constitution at home. In this, as in every other Gustavus matter, Gustavus himself took the initiative. Adolphus. Nominally the Senate still remained the dominant power in the state; but gradually all real authority had been transferred to the crown. The Riksrdd speedily lost its ancient character of a grand council representing the semi- Coming,- feudal landed aristocracy, and became a bureau tional cracy holding the chief offices of state at the good Changes. pleasure of the king. The Riksdag also changed its character at the same time. Whilst in every other European country except England, the ancient popular representation by estates was about to disappear altogether, in Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus it grew into an integral portion of the constitution. The Riksdag ordinance of 1617 first converted a turbulent and haphazard mob of " riksdagmen," huddling together like a flock of sheep " or drunken boors," into a dignified national assembly, meeting and deliberating according to rule and order. One of the nobility (first called the Landtmarskalk), or marshal of the Diet, in the Riksdag ordinance of 1526) was now regularly appointed by the king as the spokesman of the Riddarhus, or House of Nobles, while the primate generally acted as the talman or president of the three lower estates, the clergy, burgesses and peasants, though at a later day each of the three lower estates elected its own talman. At the opening of every session, the king submitted to the estates " royal propositions," or bills, upon which each estate proceeded to deliberate in its own separate chamber. The replies of the estates were delivered to the king at a subsequent session in congress. Whenever the estates differed amongst themselves, the king chose whatever opinion seemed best to him. The rights of the Riksdag were secured by the KonungafOrsakran, or assurance given by every Swedish king on his accession, guaranteeing the collaboration of the estates in the work of legislation, and they were also to be consulted on all questions of foreign policy. The king possessed the initiative; but the estates had the right of objecting to the measures of the government at the close of each session. It is in Gustavus's reign, too, that we first hear of the Hemliga Utskott, or " secret committee " for the transaction of extraordinary affairs, which was elected by the estates themselves. The eleven Riksdags held by Gustavus Adolphus were almost exclusively occupied in finding ways and means for supporting the ever-increasing burdens of the Polish and German wars. And to the honour of the Swedish people be it said that, from first to last, they showed a religious and patriotic zeal which shrank from no sacrifice. It was to this national devotion quite as much as to his own qualities that Gustavus owed his success as an empire-builder.
The wars with Denmark and Russia had been almost exclusively Scandinavian wars; the Polish war was of world-wide significance. It was, in the first place, a struggle for the Baltic littoral, and the struggle was intensified war with Poland. by the knowledge that the Polish Vasas denied the right of Gustavus to the Swedish throne. In the eyes of the Swedish king, moreover, the Polish War was a war of religion. Gustavus regarded the Scandinavian kingdoms as the two chief pillars on which the Evangelical religion reposed. Their disunion, he argued, would open a door in the north to the Catholic league and so bring about the destruction of Denmark and Sweden alike. Hence his alliance with Denmark to defend Stralsund in 1628. There is much of unconscious exaggeration in all this. As a matter of fact the Polish republic was no danger whatever to Protestantism. Sigismund's obstinate insistence upon his right to the Swedish crown was the one impediment to the conclusion of a war which the Polish Diet heartily detested and very successfully impeded. Apart from the semi-impotent Polish court, no responsible Pole dreamed of aggrandisement in Sweden. In fact, during the subsequent reign of Wladislaus IV. (1632-1648), the Poles prevented that martial monarch from interfering in the Thirty Years' War on the Catholic side. Gustavus, whose lively imagination was easily excited by religious ardour, enormously magnified clerical influence in Poland and frequently scented dangers where only difficulties existed.
For eight years (1621-29) the exhausting and expensive Polish war dragged on. By the beginning of 1626 Livonia was conquered and the theatre of hostilities was transferred to the Prussian provinces of Poland (see Gustavus Adolphus; [[Koniecpolski [Stanislaus]]]). The fertile and easily defensible delta of the Vistula was now occupied and Gustavus treated it as a permanent conquest, making his great minister Axel Oxenstjerna its first governor-general. But this was the limit of the Swedish advance. All Gustavus's further efforts were frustrated by the superior strategy of the Polish grandhetman Koniecpolski, War of Kalmar. and, in June 1629, the king gladly accepted the lucrative truce of Altmark. By this truce Sweden was, for six years, to retain possession of her Livonian conquests, besides holding Elbing, the Vistula delta, Braunsberg in West, and Pillau and Memel in East Prussia, with the right to levy tolls at Pillau, Memel, Danzig, Labiau and Windau. From these tolls Gustavus derived, in 1629 alone, 500,000 rix-dollars, a sum equivalent to the whole of the extraordinary subsidies granted to him by the Riksdag. Thus Sweden held, for a time, the control of the principal trade routes of the Baltic up to the very confines of the empire; and the increment of revenue resulting from this commanding position was of material assistance to her during the earlier stages of the war in Germany, whither Gustavus transferred his forces in June 1630.
The motives of Gustavus in plunging into the Thirty Years' War and the details of the struggle as regards Sweden are else- Sweden where set forth (see Gustavus Ii.; Oxenstjerna Thirty [A XEL]; [[Baner [Johan]]]; [[Torstensson [Lennart]]]). Here the only point to be insisted upon is the extreme precariousness of the Swedish position from first to last - a precariousness due entirely to inadequacy of material resources. In 1632 all Germany lay at the feet of Sweden; two years later a single disaster (N6rdlingen) brought her empire to the verge of ruin. For the next seven years the German War as regards Sweden was a struggle for existence. She triumphed in the end, it is true, but it was a triumph due entirely to a lucky accident - the possession, during the crisis, of the greatest statesman and the greatest captain of the age. It was the exploits of Oxenstjerna and Baner which alone enabled Sweden to obtain even what she did obtain at the great Westphalian peace congress in 1648. Her original demands were Silesia (she held most of the fortresses there), Pomerania (which had been in her possession for nearly twenty years), and a war indemnity of 20,000,000 rixdollars. What she actually got was (1) Upper Pomerania, with the islands of Riigen and Usedom, and a strip of Lower Pomerania on the right side of the Oder, including the towns of Stettin, Garz, Damm and Gollnow, and the isle of Wollin, with the right of succession to the rest of Lower Pomerania in the case of the extinction of the Brandenburg Hohenzollerns; (2) the town of Wismar with the districts of Poel and Neukloster; (3) the secularized bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; and (4) 5,000,000 rix-dollars. These German possessions were to be held as fiefs of the empire; and in respect thereof Sweden was to have a vote in the imperial Diet and to " direct " the Lower Saxon Circle alternately with Brandenburg. France and Sweden, moreover, became joint guarantors of the treaty with the emperor, and were entrusted with the carrying out of its provisions, which was practically effected by the executive congress of Ntiremberg in 1650.
Sweden's reward for the exertions and sacrifices of eighteen years was meagre, almost paltry. Her newly won possessions were both small and scattered, though, on the other hand, she had secured the practical control of the Position of three principal rivers of north Germany - the Oder, the Elbe and the Weser - and reaped the full advantage of the tolls levied on those great commercial arteries. The jealousy of France and the impatience of Queen Christina were the chief causes of the inadequacy of her final recompense. Yet, though the immediate gain was small, she had not dissipated her blood and treasure altogether in vain. Her vigorous intervention had saved the cause of religious liberty in Europe; and this remains, for all time, her greatest political achievement. Henceforth till her collapse, seventy years later, she was the recognized leader of Continental Protestantism. A more questionable benefit was her rapid elevation to the rank of an imperial power, an elevation which imposed the duty of remaining a military monarchy, armed cap-d-pie for every possible emergency. Every one recognizes now that the poverty and sparse population of Sweden unfitted her for such a tremendous destiny. But in the middle of the 1 7th century the incompatibility between her powers and her pretensions was not so obvious. All her neighbours were either decadent or exhausted states; and France, the most powerful of the Western powers, was her firm ally.
For the moment, however, Sweden held the field. Everything depended upon the policy of the next few years. Very careful statesmanship might mean permanent dominion on the Baltic shore, but there was not much margin Christina, for blundering. Unfortunately the extravagance 1644=1654. of Gustavus Adolphus's two immediate successors, Christina' and Charles X., shook the flimsy fabric of his empire to its very base. Christina's extravagance was financial. At the time of her abdication the state was on the verge of bankruptcy, and the financial difficulty had superinduced a serious political agitation. The mass of the Swedish people was penetrated by a justifiable fear that the external, artificial greatness of their country might, in the long run, be purchased with the loss of their civil and political liberties. In a word, the natural equilibrium of Swedish society was seriously threatened by the preponderance of the nobility; and the people at large looked to the new king to redress the balance. A better arbiter between the various estates than Charles X. it would have been difficult to find. It is true that, primarily a soldier, his whole ambition was directed towards military glory; but he was also an unusually sharp-sighted politician. He affected to believe that only by force of arms could Sweden retain the dominion which by force of arms she had won; but he also grasped the fact that there must be no disunion at home if she were to continue powerful abroad. The most pressing question of the day, the so-called Reduktion, or restitution of the alienated crown lands, was adjusted provisionally at the Riksdag of 1655. The king proposed that the actual noble holders of crown property should either pay an annual sum of 200,000 rix-dollars, to be allowed for out of any further crown lands subsequently falling in to them, or should surrender a fourth of the expectant property itself to the estimated amount of 600,000 rix-dollars. The nobility attempted to escape taxation as cheaply as possible by stipulating that the 6th of November 1632, the day of Gustavus Adolphus's death, should be the extreme limit of any restrospective action on the part of the crown in regard to alienated crown property, and that the present subsidy should be regarded as " a perpetual ordinance " unalterably to be observed by all future sovereigns - in other words, that there should be no further restitution of alienated crown property. Against this interpretation of the subsidy bill the already over-taxed lower estates protested so energetically that the Diet had to be suspended. Then the king intervened personally; not to quell the commons, as the senate insisted, but to compel the nobility to give way. He proposed that the whole matter should be thoroughly investigated by a special committee before the meeting of the next Riksdag, and that in the meantime a contribution should be levied on all classes proportionately. This equitable arrangement was accepted by the estates forthwith.
Charles X. had done his best to obviate the effects of the financial extravagance of Christina. It may well be doubted, however, whether his own extravagant desire for military glory was not equally injurious to his W country. In three days he had succeeded in per suading the Swedish estates of the lucrative expediency of his unnecessary and immoral attack on Poland (see Poland: History); but when he quitted Stockholm for Warsaw, on the 10th of July 1654, he little imagined that he had embarked on an adventure which was to contribute far more to his glory than to the advantage of his country. How the Polish War expanded into a general European war; how Charles's miraculous audacity again and again ravished favours from Fortune and Nature (e.g. the passage of the Belts) when both those great powers combined against him; how, finally, he emerged from all his difficulties triumphant, indeed, but only to die of sheer exhaustion 1 Christina's reign dates, properly, from 1644 when she attained her majority. From 1632 to 1644 Axel Oxenstjerna was virtually the ruler of Sweden.
[HISTORY
Charles X., in his thirty-eighth year - all this has elsewhere been described (see Charles X., king of Sweden; [[Czarniecki [Stephen]]]; FREDERICK III., king of Denmark). Suffice it to say that, immediately after his death, the regency appointed to govern XI. Sweden during the minority of his only son and successor, Charles XI., a child four years old, hastened to come to terms with Sweden's numerous enemies, which now included Russia, Poland, Brandenburg and Denmark.
The Peace of Oliva (May 3, 1660), made under F rench mediation ut an end to the lon feud with P g Poland and, at the same time, ended the quarrel between Sweden on the one side, and the emperor and the elector of Brandenburg on the other. By this peace, Sweden's possession of Livonia, and the elector of Brandenburg's sovereignty over east Prussia, were alike confirmed; and the king of Poland renounced all claim to the Swedish crown. As regards Denmark, the Peace of Oliva signified the desertion of her three principal allies, Poland, Brandenburg and the emperor, and thus compelled her to reopen negotiations with Sweden direct. The differences between the two states were finally adjusted by the peace of Copenhagen (May 27, 1660), Denmark ceding the three Scanian provinces to Sweden but receiving back the Norwegian province of Trondhjem and the isle of Bornholm which she had surrendered by the peace of Roskilde two years previously. Denmark was also compelled to recognize, practically, the independence of the dukes of HolsteinGottorp. The Russian War was terminated by the Peace of Kardis (July 2, 1661), confirmatory of the Peace of Stolbova, whereby the tsar surrendered to Sweden all his Baltic provinces - Ingria, Esthonia and Kexholm.
Thus Sweden emerged from the war not only a military power of the first magnitude, but also one of the largest states of as Europe, possessing about twice as much territory as modern Sweden. Her area embraced 16,800 geographical square miles, a mass of land 7000 sq. m. larger than the modern German Empire. Yet the Swedish Empire was rather a geographical expression than a state with natural and national boundaries. Modern Sweden is bounded by the Baltic; during the 17th century the Baltic was merely the bond between her various widely dispersed dominions. All the islands in the Baltic, except the Danish group, belonged to Sweden. The estuaries of all the great German rivers (for the Niemen and Vistula are properly Polish rivers) debouched in Swedish territory, within which also lay two-thirds of Lake Ladoga and one-half of. Lake Peipus. Stockholm, the capital, lay in the very centre of the empire, whose second greatest city was Riga, on the other side of the sea. Yet this vast empire contained but half the population of modern Sweden - being only 2,500,000, or about 140 souls to the square mile. Further, Sweden's new boundaries were of the most insecure description, inasmuch as they were anti-ethnographical, parting asunder races which naturally went together, and behind which stood powerful neighbours of the same stock ready, at the first opportunity, to reunite them.
Moreover, the commanding political influence which Sweden had now won was considerably neutralized by her loss of moral prestige. On Charles X.'s accession in 1655, Sweden's neighbours, though suspicious and uneasy, were at least not adversaries, and might have been converted into allies of the new great power who, if she had mulcted them of territory, had, anyhow, compensated them for the loss with the by no means contemptible douceur of religious liberty. At Charles X.'s death, five years later, we find Sweden, herself bled to exhaustion point, surrounded by a broad belt of desolated territory and regarded with ineradicable hatred by every adjacent state. To sink in five years from the position of the champion of Protestantism to that of the common enemy of every Protestant power was a degradation not to be compensated by any amount of military glory. Charles's subsequent endeavour, in stress of circumstances, to gain a friend by dividing his Polish conquests with the aspiring elector of Brandenburg was a reversal of his original policy and only resulted in the establishment on the southern confines of Sweden of a new rival almost as dangerous as Denmark, her ancient rival in the west.
In 1660, after five years of incessant warfare, Sweden had at length obtained peace and with it the opportunity of organizing and developing her newly won empire. Unfor tunatel the regency which was to govern her during mmnority of Y? g Y g the next fifteen years was unequal to the difficulties of a situation which might have taxed the resources of the wisest statesmen. Unity and vigour were scarcely to be expected from a many-headed administration composed of men of mediocre talent whose contrary opinions speedily gave rise to contending factions. There was the high-aristocratic party with a leaning towards martial adventure headed by Magnus de la Gardie, and the party of peace and economy whose ablest representative was the liberal and energetic Johan Gyllenstjerna. After a severe struggle, de la Gardie's party prevailed; and its triumph was marked by that general decline of personal and political morality which has given to this regency its unenviable notoriety. Sloth and carelessness speedily invaded every branch of the administration, destroying all discipline and leading to a general neglect of business. Another characteristic of the de la Gardie government was its gross corruption, which made Sweden the obsequious hireling of that foreign power which had the longest purse. This shameful "subsidy policy" dates from the Treaty of Fontainebleau, 1661, by a secret paragraph of which Sweden, in exchange for a considerable sum of money, undertook to support the French candidate on the first vacancy of the Polish throne. The complications ensuing from Louis XIV.'s designs on the Spanish Netherlands led to a bid for the Swedish alliance, both from the French king and his adversaries. After much hesitation on the part of the Swedish government, the anti-French faction prevailed; and in April 1668 Sweden acceded to the Triple Alliance, which finally checkmated the French king by bringing about the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. For the next four years Sweden remained true to the principles of the Triple Alliance; but, in 1672, Louis XIV. succeeded in isolating the Dutch republic and regaining his ancient ally, Sweden. By the Treaty of Stockholm (April 14, 1672), Sweden became, for the next ten years, a "mercenarius Galliae," pledging with France. herself, in return for 400,000 crowns per annum in peace and 600,000 in war-time, to attack, with 16,000 men, any German princes who might be disposed to assist Holland. In 1674 Louis XIV. peremptorily called upon Sweden to fulfil her obligations by invading Brandenburg. In the course of May 1675 a Swedish army advanced into the Mark, but on the 18th of June was defeated at Fehrbellin, and hastily retreated to Demmin. The Fehrbellin affair was a mere skirmish, the actual casualties amounting to less than 600 men, but it rudely divested Sweden of her nimbus of invincibility and was the signal for a general attack upon her, known as the Scanian War.
The In the course of the next three years her empire warS seemed to be crumbling away everywhere. In 1675 Pomerania and the bishopric of Bremen were overrun by the Brandenburgers, Austrians and Danes. In December 1677 the elector of Brandenburg captured Stettin. Stralsund fell on the 15th of October 1678. Greifswald, Sweden's last possession on the Continent, was lost on the 5th of November. A defensive alliance with Sobieski (August 4, 1677) was rendered inoperative by the annihilation of Sweden's sea-power (battle of Oland, June 17, 1676; battle of Fehmarn, June 1677) and the difficulties of the Polish king.
Two accidents at this crisis alone saved Sweden from ruin - the splendid courage of the young king who, resolutely and successfully, kept the Danish invaders at bay (see Charles Xi., king of Sweden), and the diplomatic activity of Louis XIV. In March 1677 a peace congress began its sessions at Nijmwegen; and in the beginning of April 1678 the French king dictated the terms of a general pacification. One of his chief conditions was the complete restitution of Sweden. A strong Sweden was necessary to the accomplishment of his plans. He suggested, however, that Sweden should rid herself of her enemies by making some " small cession " to them. This Charles XI. refused to do, whereupon Louis took it upon himself to conclude peace on Sweden's account without consulting the wishes of Treaty of the Swedish king. By this Treaty of Nijmwegen Ni/mwegen, (Feb. 7) and of St Germain (June 29, 1679) 1679. Sweden virtually received full restitution of her German territory. On the 2nd of September by the Peace of Fontainebleau (confirmed by the subsequent Peace of Lund, Oct. 4, 1679), Denmark was also forced to retrocede her conquests. It is certain that Sweden herself could never have extorted such favourable terms, yet " the insufferable tutelage " of France on this occasion inspired Charles XI. with a personal dislike of the mighty ruler of France and contributed to reverse the traditional diplomacy of Sweden by giving it a strong anti-French bias (see Charles Xi.; Oxenstjerna, Benedict).
The remainder of the reign of Charles XI. is remarkable for a revolution which converted the government of Sweden into XI. a semi-absolute monarchy. The king emerged from Charles and the the war convinced that if Sweden were to retain her Swedish position as a great power she must radically reform Constitu- her whole economical system, and, above all, cir tion. cumscribe the predominant and mischievous influence of an aristocracy which thought far more of its privileges than of its public duties. He felt that he could now draw upon the confidence and liberality of the lower orders to an unlimited extent, and he proceeded to do so. The Riksdag which assembled in Stockholm in October 1680 begins a new era of Swedish history. On the motion of the Estate of Peasants, which had a long memory for aristocratic abuses, the question of the recovery of the alienated crown lands was brought before the Riksdag, and, despite the stubborn opposition of the magnates, a resolution of the Diet directed that all countships, baronies, domains, manors and other estates producing an annual rent of more than 70 per annum should revert to the Crown. The same Riksdag decided that the king was not bound by any particular constitution, but only by law and the statutes. Nay, they added that he was not even obliged to consult the council of state, but was to be regarded as a sovereign lord, responsible to God alone for his actions, and requiring no intermediary between himself and his people. The council thereupon acquiesced in its own humiliation by meekly accepting a royal brief changing its official title from Riksrdd (council of state) to Kungligarc d (royal council) - a visible sign that the senators were no longer the king's colleagues but his servants.
Thus Sweden, as well as Denmark, had become an absolute monarchy, but with this important difference, that the right of the Swedish people, in parliament assembled, to be consulted on all important matters was recognized and acted upon. The Riksdag, completely overshadowed by the throne, was during the reign of Charles XI. to do little more than register the royal decrees; but nevertheless it continued to exist as an essential part of the machinery of government. Moreover, this transfer of authority was a voluntary act. The people, knowing the king to be their best friend, trusted him implicity and cooperated with him cheerfully. The Riksdag of 1682 proposed a fresh Reduktion, and declared that the whole question of how far the king was empowered by the law of the land to bestow fiefs, or, in case of urgent national distress, take them back again, was exclusively his majesty's affair. In other words, it made the king the disposer of his subjects' temporal property. Presently this new principle of autocracy was extended to the king's legislative authority also, for, on the 9th of December 1682, all four estates, by virtue of a common declaration, not only confirmed him in the possession -of the legislative powers enjoyed by his predecessors, but even conceded to him the right of interpreting and amending the common law.
The recovery of the alienated crown lands occupied Charles XI. for the rest of his life. It was conducted by a commission which was ultimately converted into a permanent department of state. It acted on the principle that the titles of all private landed estate might be called in question, inasmuch as at some time or other it must have belonged to the Crown; and the burden of proof of ownership was held not to lie with the Crown which made the claim, but with the actual owner of the property. The amount of revenue accruing to the Crown from the whole Reduktion it is impossible to estimate even approximately; but by these means, combined with the most careful management and the most rigid economy, Charles XI. contrived to reduce the national debt from £2,567,000 to £700,000.
These operations represent only a part of Charles XI.'s gigantic activity. Here we have only space sufficient to glance at his reorganization of the national armaments. Reorganiza- Charles XI. re-established on a broader basis the tion of indelningsverk introduced by Charles IX. - a system Armaments. of military tenure whereby the national forces were bound to the soil. Thus there was the rusthall tenure, under which the tenants, instead of paying rent, were obliged to equip and maintain a cavalry soldier and horse, while the knektkallarer supplied duly equipped foot soldiers. These indelning soldiers were provided with holdings on which they lived in times of peace. Formerly, ordinary conscription had existed alongside this indelning, or distribution system; but it had proved inadequate as well as highly unpopular; and, in 1682, Charles XI. came to an agreement with the peasantry whereby an extended indelning system was to be susbstituted for general conscription. The navy, of even more importance to Sweden if she were to maintain the dominion of the Baltic, was entirely remodelled; and, the recent war having demonstrated the unsuitability of Stockholm as a naval station, the construction of a new arsenal on a gigantic scale was simultaneously begun at Karlskrona. After a seventeen years' struggle against all manner of financial difficulties, the twofold enterprise was completed. At the death of Charles XI. Sweden could boast of a fleet of forty-three three-deckers (manned by 1l,000 men and armed with 2648 guns) and one of the finest arsenals in the world.
Charles XI. had carefully provided against the contingency of his successor's minority; and the five regents appointed by him, if not great statesmen, were at least practical politicans who had not been trained in his austere Charles XIL, pl 1697-1718. school in vain. At home the Reduktion was cautiously pursued, while abroad the successful conclusion of the great peace congress at Ryswick was justly regarded as a signal triumph of Sweden's pacific diplomacy (see Oxenstjerna Family). The y oung king was full of promise, and had he been permitted gradually to gain experience and develop his naturally great talents beneath the guidance of his guardians, as his father had intended, all might have been well for Sweden. Unfortunately, the sudden, noiseless revolution of the 6th of November 1697, which made Charles XII. absolute master of his country's fate in his fifteenth year (see Charles Xii.), and the league of Denmark, Saxony and Russia, formed two years later to partition Sweden (see Patktl, Johann Reinhold; Peter The Great; Charles Xii.), precipitated Sweden into a sea of troubles in which she was finally submerged.
[HISTORY
From the very beginning of the Great Northern War Sweden suffered from ,the inability of Charles XII. to view the situation from anything but a purely personal point of view. Great His determination to avenge himself on enemies Northern overpowered every other consideration. Again and War. again during these eighteen years of warfare it was in his power to dictate an advantageous peace. After the dissipation of the first coalition against him by the peace of Travendal (Aug. 18, 1700) and the victory of Narva (Nov. 20, 1700), the Swedish chancellor, Benedict Oxenstjerna, rightly regarded the universal bidding for the favour of Sweden by France and the maritime powers, then on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, as a golden opportunity of " ending this present lean war and making his majesty the arbiter of Europe." But Charles, intent on dethroning Augustus of Poland, held haughtily aloof. Subsequently in 1701 he rejected a personal appeal from William III. to conclude peace on his own terms. Five years later (Sept. 24, 1706) he did, indeed, conclude the Polish War by the peace of Altranstadt, but as this treaty brought no advantage to Sweden, not even compensation for the expenses of six years of warfare, it was politically condemnable. Moreover, two of Sweden's Baltic provinces, Esthonia and Ingria, had been seized by the tsar, and a third, Livonia, had been. well-nigh ruined. Yet even now Charles, by a stroke of the pen, could have recovered nearly everything he had lost. In 1707 Peter was ready to retrocede everything except St Petersburg and the line of the Neva, and again Charles preferred risking the whole to saving the greater part of his Baltic possessions (for details see Charles Xii.; Peter The Great). When at last, after the catastrophe of Poltava (June 1709) and the flight into Turkey, he condescended to use diplomatic methods, it was solely to prolong, not to terminate, the war. Even now he could have made honourable terms with his numerous enemies. The resources of Sweden were still very far from being exhausted, and, during 1710 and 1711, the gallant Magnus Stenbock upheld her military supremacy in the north. But all the efforts of the Swedish government were wrecked on the determination of Charles XII. to surrender nothing. Thus he rejected advantageous offers of mediation and alliance made to him, during 1712, by the maritime powers and by Prussia; and, in 1714, he scouted the friendly overtures of Louis XIV. and the emperor, so that when peace was finally concluded between France and the Empire, at the congress of Baden, Swedish affairs were, by common consent, left out of consideration. When, on the 14th of September 1714, he suddenly returned to his dominions, Stralsund and Wismar were all that remained to him of his continental possessions; while by the end of 1715 Sweden, now fast approaching the last stage of exhaustion, was at open war with England, Hanover, Russia, Prussia, Saxony and Denmark, who had formed a coalition to partition her continental territory between them. Nevertheless, at this the eleventh hour of ter opportunities, Sweden might still have saved something from the wreck of her empire if Charles had behaved like a reasonable being (see CHARLES Peter The Great; Gortz, Georg Heinricii Von; Osterman, Andrei); but he would only consent to play off Russia against England, and his sudden death before Fredrikshald (Dec. i 1, 1718) left Sweden practically at the end of her resources and at the mercy of her enemies. At the beginning of 1719 pacific overtures were made to England, Hanover, Prussia and Denmark. By the treaties of Treaties of Stockholm (Feb. 20, 1719,and Feb. I, 1 20 Hanover Stockholm > 7) and obtained the bishoprics of Bremen and Verden for Frederiks- herself and Stettin for her confederate Prussia.
burg, 1719 By the treaty of Frederiksborg or Copenhagen and 1720. (July 3, 1720) peace was also signed between Denmark and Sweden, Denmark retroceding Riigen, Further Pomerania as far as the Peene, and Wismar to Sweden, in exchange for an indemnity of 600,000 rix-dollars, while Sweden relinquished her exemption from the Sound tolls and her protectorate over Holstein-Gottorp. The prospect of coercing Russia by means of the British fleet had alone induced Sweden to consent to such sacrifices; but when the last demands of England and her allies had been complied with, Sweden of was left to come to terms as best she could with Peace Nystad, the tsar. Negotiations were reopened with Russia at 1721. Loss Nystad, in May 1720, but peace was not concluded of the Baltic till the 30th of August 1721, and then only under Provinces. Early in 1720 Charles XII.'s sister, Ulrica Leonora, who had been elected queen of Sweden immediately after his death, was permitted to abdicate in favour of her hus- Frederick I. band the prince of Hesse, who was elected king 1720-17.51. under the title of Frederick I.; and Sweden was, The Limited at the same time, converted into the most limited Monarchy. of monarchies. All power was vested in the people as represented by the Riksdag, consisting, as before, of four distinct estates, nobles, priests, burgesses and peasants, sitting and deliberating apart. The conflicting interests and mutual jealousies of these four independent assemblies made the work of legislation exceptionally difficult. No measure could now become law till it had obtained the assent of three at least of the four estates; but this provision, which seems to have been designed to protect the lower orders against the nobility, produced evils far greater than those which it professed to cure. Thus, measures might be passed by a bare majority in three estates, when a real and substantial majority of all four estates in congress might be actually against it. Or, again, a dominant action in any three of the estates might enact laws highly detrimental to the interests of the remaining estate - a danger the more to be apprehended as in no other country in Europe were class distinctions so sharply defined as in Sweden.
Each estate was ruled by its talman, or speaker, who was now elected at the beginning of each Diet, but the archbishop was, ex officio, the talman of the clergy. The landtConstitumarskalk, or speaker of the House of Nobles, presided tion of the when the estates met in congress, and also, by Estates. virtue of his office, in the hemliga utskott, or secret committee. This famous body, which consisted of 50 nobles, 25 priests, 25 burgesses, and, very exceptionally, 25 peasants, possessed during the session of the Riksdag not only the supreme executive but also the surpeme judicial and legislative functions. It prepared all bills for the Riksdag, created and deposed all ministries, controlled the foreign policy of the nation, and claimed and often exercised the right of superseding the ordinary courts of justice. During the parliamentary recess, however, the executive remained in the hands of the rad, or senate, which was responsible to the Riksdag alone.
It will be obvious that there was no room in this republican constitution for a constitutional monarch in the modern sense of the word. The crowned puppet who possessed a casting vote in the real, of which he was the nominal president, and who was allowed to create peers once in his life (at his coronation), was rather a state decoration than a sovereignty.
At first this cumbrous and complicated instrument of government worked tolerably well under the firm but cautious control of the chancellor, Count Arvid Beernhard Horn Political (q.v.). In his anxiety to avoid embroiling his country Parties. abroad, Horn reversed the traditional policy of Hats and Sweden by keeping France at a distance and draw- caps. ing near to Great Britain, for whose liberal institutions he professed the highest admiration. Thus a twenty years' war was succeeded by a twenty years' peace, during which the nation recovered so rapidly from its wounds that it began to forget them. A new race of politicians was springing up. Since 1719, when the influence of the few great territorial families had been merged in a multitude of needy gentlemen, the first estate had become the nursery and afterwards the stronghold of an opposition at once noble and democratic which found its natural leaders in such men as Count Carl Gyllenborg and Count Carl Gustaf Tessin. These men and their followers were never weary of ridiculing the timid caution of the aged statesman who sacrificed everything to perpetuate an inglorious peace and derisively nicknamed his adherents " Night-caps " (a term subsequently softened into " Caps "), themselves adopting the sobriquet " Hats," from the threecornered hat worn by officers and gentlemen, which was considered happily to hit off the manly self-assertion of the opposition. These epithets instantly caught the public fancy and had already become party badges when the estates met in 1738. This Riksdag was to mark another turning-point in Swedish the direst pressure. By the peace of Nystad Sweden ceded to Russia Ingria and Esthonia, Livonia, the Finnish province of Kexholm and the fortress of Viborg. Finland west of Viborg and north of Kexholm was restored to Sweden. She also received an indemnity of two millions of thalers and a solemn undertaking of non-interference in her domestic affairs.
It was not the least of Sweden's misfortunes after the Great Northern War that the new constitution, which was to compensate her for all her past sacrifices, should contain within it the elements of many of her future calamities.
history. The Hats carried everything before them; and the aged Horn was finally compelled to retire from a scene where, for three and thirty years, he had played a leading part.
The policy of the Hats was a return to the traditional alliance between France and Sweden. When Sweden descended to her natural position as a second-rate power the French alliance became too costly a luxury.
Horn had clearly perceived this; and his cautious neutrality was therefore the soundest statesmanship. But the politicians who had ousted Horn thought differently. To them prosperity without glory was a worthless possession. They aimed at restoring Sweden to her former position as a great power. France, naturally, hailed with satisfaction the rise of a faction which was content to be her armourbearer in the north; and the golden streams which flowed from Versailles to Stockholm during the next two generations were the political life-blood of the Hat party.
The first blunder of the Hats was the hasty and ill-advised war with Russia. The European complications consequent War with upon the almost simultaneous deaths of the emperor Russia, Charles VI. and Anne, empress of Russia, seemed 1741 to favour their adventurous schemes; and, despite the frantic protests of the Caps, a project for the invasion of Russian Finland was rushed through the premature Riksdag of 1740. On the 20th of July 1741 war was formally declared against Russia; a month later the Diet was dissolved and the Hat landtmarskalk set off to Finland to take command of the army. The first blow was not struck till six months after the declaration of war; and it was struck by the enemy, who routed the Swedes at Villmanstrand and captured that frontier fortress. Nothing else was done on either side for six months more; and then the Swedish generals made a " tacit truce " with the Russians through the mediation of the French ambassador at St Petersburg. By the time that the " tacit truce " had come to an end the Swedish forces were so demoralized that the mere rumour of a hostile attack made them retire panic-stricken to Helsingfors; and before the end of the year all Finland was in the hands of the Russians. The fleet, disabled by an epidemic, was, throughout the war, little more than a floating hospital.
To face the Riksdag with such a war as this upon their consciences was a trial from which the Hats naturally shrank; but, to do them justice, they showed themselves better parliamentary than military strategists. A motion for an inquiry into the conduct of the war was skilfully evaded by obtaining precedence for the succession question (Queen Ulrica Leonora had lately died childless and King Frederick was old); and negotiations were thus opened with the new Russian empress, Elizabeth, who agreed to restore the greater part of Finland if her cousin, Adolphus Frederick of Holstein, were elected successor to the Swedish crown. The Hats eagerly caught at the opportunity of recovering the grand duchy and their own prestige along with it. By the peace of Abo (May 7, 1 743) the terms of the empress were accepted; and only that small part of Finland which lay beyond the Kymmene was retained by Russia.
In March 1751 old King Frederick died. His slender prerogatives had gradually dwindled down to vanishing point. Adolphus Adolphus Frederick (q.v.) would have given even less Frederick trouble than his predecessor but for the ambitious IL, 1751- promptings of his masterful consort Louisa Ulrica, 1771. Frederick the Great's sister, and the tyranny of the estates, who seemed bent upon driving the meekest of princes into rebellion. An attempted monarchical revolution, planned by the queen and a few devoted young nobles in 1756, was easily and remorselessly crushed; and, though the unhappy king did not, as he anticipated, share the fate of Charles Stuart, he was humiliated as never monarch was humiliated before.
The same years which beheld this great domestic triumph of the Hats saw also the utter collapse of their foreign "system." At the instigation of France they plunged recklessly into the Seven Years' War; and the result was ruinous. The French subsidies, which might have sufficed for a six weeks' demonstration (it was generally assumed that the king of Prussia would give little trouble to a European coalition), proved quite inadequate; and, after five unsuccessful campaigns, the unhappy Hats were glad to make peace and ignomini- YearsThe Sevenar. ously withdraw from a little war which had cost the country 40,000 men and L2,50o,000. When the Riksdag met in 1760, the indignation against the Hat leaders was so violent that an impeachment seemed inevitable; but once more the superiority of their parliamentary tactics prevailed, and when, after a session of twenty months, the Riksdag was brought to a close by the mutual consent of both the exhausted factions, the Hat government was bolstered up for another four years. But the day of reckoning could not be postponed for ever; and when the estates met in 1765 it brought the Caps into power at last. Their leader, Ture Rudbeck, was elected marshal of the Diet over Frederick Axel von Fersen (q.v.), the Hat candidate, by a large majority; and, out of the hundred seats in the secret committee, the Hats succeeded in getting only ten.
The Caps struck at once at the weak point of their opponents by ordering a budget report to be made; and it was speedily found that the whole financial system of the Hats had been based upon reckless improvidence and c prof the wilful misrepresentation, and that the only fruit of their long rule was an enormous addition to the national debt and a depreciation of the note circulation to onethird of its face value. This revelation led to an all-round retrenchment, carried into effect with a drastic thoroughness which has earned for this parliament the name of the " Reduktion Riksdag." The Caps succeeded in transferring L250,000 from the pockets of the rich to the empty exchequer, reducing the national debt by L575,179, and establishing some sort of equilibrium between revenue and expenditure. They also introduced a few useful reforms, the most remarkable of which was the liberty of the press. But their most important political act was to throw their lot definitely in with Russia, so as to counterpoise the influence of France. Sweden was not then as now quite outside the European Concert. Alghough no longer a great power, she still had many of the responsibilities of a great power; and if the Swedish alliance had considerably depreciated in value, it was still a marketable commodity. Sweden's peculiar geographical position made her virtually invulnerable for six months out of the twelve, her Pomeranian possessions afforded her an easy ingress into the very heart of the moribund empire, while her Finnish frontier was not many leagues from the Russian capital.
A watchful neutrality, not venturing much beyond defensive alliances and commercial treaties with the maritime powers, was therefore Sweden's safest policy, and this the older Caps had always followed out. But when the Hats became the armourbearers of France in the north, a protector strong enough to counteract French influence became the cardinal exigency of their opponents, the younger Caps, who now flung themselves into the arms of Russia, overlooking the fact that even a pacific union with Russia was more to be feared than a martial alliance with France. For France was too distant to be dangerous. She sought an ally in Sweden and it was her endeavour to make that ally as strong as possible. But it was as a future prey, not as a possible ally, that Russia regarded her ancient rival in the north. In the treaty which partitioned Poland there was a secret clause which engaged the contracting powers to uphold the existing Swedish constitution as the swiftest means of subverting Swedish independence; and an alliance with the credulous Caps, " the Patriots " as they were called at St Petersburg, guaranteeing their constitution, was the corollary to this secret understanding. Thus, while the French alliance of the warlike Hats had destroyed the prestige of Sweden, the Russian alliance of the peaceful Caps threatened to destroy her very existence.
Fortunately, the domination of the Caps was not for long. The general distress occasioned by their drastic reforms had found expression in swarms of pamphlets which bit and stung the Cap government, under the protection of the new press laws. The senate retaliated by an order in council (which the French Alliance. Peace of Abo, 1743. Russian Alliance. king refused to sign) declaring that all complaints against the measures of the last Riksdag should be punished with fine and imprisonment. The king, at the suggestion of the crown prince (see GUSTAVUS III.), thereupon urged the senate to summon an extraordinary Riksdag as the speediest method of relieving the national distress, and, on their refusing to comply with his wishes, abdicated. From the 15th of December to the 21st of December 1768 Sweden was without a regular government. Then the Cap senate gave way and the estates were convoked for the 19th of April 1769.
On the eve of the contest there was a general assembly of the Hats at the French embassy, where the Comte de Modene furnished them with 6,000,000 livres, but not till they had signed in his presence an undertaking to reform the constitution in a monarchical sense. Still more energetic on the other side, the Russian minister, Ivan Osterman, became the treasurer as well as the counsellor of the Caps, and scattered the largesse of the Russian empress with a lavish hand; and so lost to all feeling of patriotism were the Caps that they openly threatened all who ventured to vote against them with the Muscovite vengeance, and fixed Norrkoping, instead of Stockholm, as the place of meeting for the Riksdag as being more accessible to the Russian fleet. But it soon became evident that the Caps were playing a losing game; and, when the Riksdag met at Norrkoping on the 19th of April, they found themselves in a minority in all four estates. In the contest for the marshalate of the Diet the leaders of the two parties were again pitted against each other, when the verdict of the last Riksdag was exactly reversed, Fersen defeating Rudbeck by 234, though Russia spent no less a sum than £11,50o to secure the election of the latter.
The Caps had short shrift, and the joint note which the Russian, Prussian and Danish ministers presented to the estates protesting, in menacing terms, against any " reprisals " on the part of the triumphant faction, only hastened the fall of the government. The Cap senate resigned en masse to escape impeachment, and an exclusively Hat ministry took its place. The On the 1st of June the Reaction Riksdag, as it was generally called, removed to the capital; and it was now that the French ambassador and the crown prince Gustavus called upon the new senators to redeem their promise as to a reform of the constitution which they had made before the elections. But when, at the fag-end of the session, they half-heartedly brought the matter forward, the Riksdag suddenly seemed to be stricken with paralysis. Impediments multiplied at every step; the cry was raised: " The constitution is in danger "; and on the 30th of January 1770 the Reaction Riksdag, after a barren ten months' session, rose amidst chaotic confusion without accomplishing anything.
Adolphus Frederick died on the 12th of February 1771. The elections held on the demise of the Crown resulted in a partial victory for the Caps, especially among the 1771- lower orders; but in the estate of the peasants 1792. their majority was merely nominal, while the mass of the nobility was dead against them. Nothing could be done, however, till the arrival of the new king (then at Paris), and every one felt that with Gustavus III. an entirely incalculable factor had entered into Swedish politics. Unknown to the party leaders, he had already renewed the Swedish alliance with France and had received solemn assurances of assistance from Louis XV. in case he succeeded in re-establishing monarchical rule in Sweden. France undertook, moreover, to pay the outstanding subsidies to Sweden, amounting to one and a half millions of livres annually, beginning from January 1772; and Vergennes, one of the great names of French diplomacy, was to be sent to circumvent the designs of Russia at Stockholm as he had previously circumvented them at Constantinople. Immediately after his return to Stockholm, Gustavus endeavoured to reconcile the jarring factions by inducing the leaders to form a composition committee to adjust their differences. In thus mediating he was sincere enough, but all his pacific efforts were frustrated by their jealousy of him and of each other. Still worse, the factions now intrenched still further on the prerogative. The new coronation oath contained three revolutionary clauses. The first aimed at making abdications in the future impossible by binding the king to reign uninterruptedly. The second obliged him to abide, not by the decision of all the estates together, as heretofore, but by that of the majority only, with the view of enabling the actually dominant lower estates (in which was a large Cap majority) to rule without, and even in spite of, the nobility. The third clause required him, in all cases of preferment, to be guided not " principally," as heretofore, but " solely " by merit,, thus striking at the very root of aristocratic privilege. It was clear that the ancient strife of Hats and Caps had become merged in a conflict of classes; the situation was still further complicated by the ominous fact that the non-noble majority was also the Russian faction.
All through 1771 the estates were wrangling over the clauses of the coronation oath. A second attempt of the king to mediate between them foundered on the suspicions of the estate of burgesses; and, on the 24th of February 1772, the nobility yielded from sheer weariness. The non-noble Cap majority now proceeded to attack the senate, the last stronghold of the Hats, and, on the 25th of April, succeeded in ousting their opponents. It was now, for the first time, that Gustavus, reduced to the condition of a roi faineant, began seriously to consider the possibility of a revolution; of its necessity there could be no doubt. Under the sway of the now dominant faction, Sweden, already the vassal, could not fail speedily to become the victim of Russia. She was on the point of being absorbed in that Northern System, the invention of the Russian minister of foreign affairs, Nikita Panin, which that patient statesman had made it the ambition of his life to realize. Only a swift and sudden coup d'etat could save the independence of a country isolated from the rest of Europe by a hostile league. The details of the of famous revolution of the r9th of August 1772 are elsewhere set forth (see GUSTAVUS III.; Toll, Johan Kristoffer;.
Sprengtporten, Jakob Magnus). Here we can only dwell upon its political importance and consequences. The new constitution of the 10th of August 1772, which Gustavus imposed upon the terrified estates at the bayonet's point, converted a weak and disunited republic into a strong but limited monarchy, in which the balance of power inclined,. on the whole, to the side of the monarch. The estates could only assemble when summoned by him; he could dismiss them whenever he thought fit; and their deliberations were to be confined exclusively to the propositions which he might think fit to lay before them. But these very extensive powers. were subjected to many important checks. Thus, without the previous consent of the estates, no new law could be imposed, rio old law abolished, no offensive war undertaken, no extraordinary war subsidy levied. The estates alone could tax themselves; they had the absolute control of the Bank of Sweden, and the inalienable right of controlling the national expenditure. Thus the parliament held the purse; and this seemed a sufficient guarantee both of its independence and its frequent convention. The senate, not the Riksdag, was the chief loser by the change; and, inasmuch as henceforth the senators were appointed by the king, and were to be responsible to him alone, a senate in opposition to the Crown was barely conceivable.
Abroad the Swedish revolution made a great sensation. Catherine II. of Russia saw in it the triumph of her arch-enemy France, with the prolongation of the costly Turkish War as its. immediate result. But the absence of troops on the Finnish border, and the bad condition of the frontier fortresses, constrained the empress to listen to Gustavus's pacific assurances, and stay her hand. She took the precaution, however, of concluding a fresh secret alliance with Denmark, in which the Swedish revolution was significantly described as " an act of violence " constituting a casus foederis, and justifying both powers in seizing the first favourable opportunity for intervention to restore the Swedish constitution of 1720.
HISTORY]
In Sweden itself the change was, at first, most popular. But Gustavus's first Riksdag, that of 1778, opened the eyes of the deputies to the fact that their political supremacy had departed. The king was now their sovereign lord; and, for all his courtesy and gentleness, the jealousy with which he guarded and the vigour with which he enforced the prerogative plainly showed that he meant to remain so. But it was not till after eight years more had elapsed that actual trouble began. The Riksdag of 1778 had been obsequious; the Riksdag of 1786 was mutinous. It rejected nearly all the royal measures outright, or so modified them that Gustavus himself withdrew them. When he dismissed the estates, the speech from the throne held out no prospect of their speedy revocation.
Nevertheless, within three years, the king was obliged to summon another Riksdag, which met at Stockholm on the 26th of January 1789. His attempt in the interval to rule without a parliament had been disastrous. It was only by a breach of his own constitution that he had been able to declare war against Russia (April 1788); the conspiracy of Anjala (July) had paralysed all military operations at the very opening of the campaign; and the sudden invasion of his western provinces by the Danes, almost simultaneously (September), seemed to bring him to the verge of ruin. But the contrast, at this crisis, between his self-sacrificing patriotism and the treachery of the Russophil aristocracy was so striking that, when the Riksdag assembled, Gustavus found that the three lower estates were ultra-royalist, and with their aid he succeeded, not without running great risks (see GUSTAVUS III.; Nordin, Gustaf; Wallqvist, Olaf), in crushing the opposition of the nobility by a second coup d'etat (Feb. 16, 1789), and passing the The Act of famous Act of Union and Security which gave the Union and king an absolutely free hand as regards foreign Security, affairs and the command of the army, and made 1789. further treason impossible. For this the nobility never forgave him. It was impossible, indeed, to resist openly so highly gifted and so popular a sovereign; it was only by the despicable expedient of assassination that the last great monarch of Sweden was finally removed, to the infinite detriment of his country.
The ensuing period was a melancholy one. The aristocratic classes loudly complained that the young king, Gustavus IV., Gustavus still a minor, was being brought up among crypto IV., 1792- Jacobins; while the middle classes, deprived of 1809. the stimulating leadership of the anti-aristocratic " Prince Charming," and becoming more and more inoculated with French political ideas, drifted into an antagonism not merely to hereditary nobility, but to hereditary monarchy likewise. Everything was vacillating and uncertain; and the general instability was reflected even in foreign affairs, now that the master-hand of Gustavus III. was withdrawn. Sweden and The renewed efforts of Catherine II. to interfere Revolu- in Sweden's domestic affairs were, indeed, vigorously tionary repulsed, but without tact or discretion, so that the France. good understanding between the two countries was seriously impaired, especially when the proclivities of Gustaf Reuterholm, who then virtually ruled Sweden, induced him to adopt what was generally considered an indecently friendly attitude towards the government at Paris. Despite the execution of Louis XVI. (Jan. 21, 1793), Sweden, in the hope of obtaining considerable subsidies, recognized the new French republic; and secret negotiations for contracting an alliance were actually begun in May of the same year, till the menacing protests of Catherine, supported as they were by all the other European powers, finally induced Sweden to suspend them.
The negotiations with the French Jacobins exacerbated the hatred which the Gustavians already felt for the Jacobin councillors of the duke-regent (see CHARLES XIII., king of Sweden). Smarting beneath their grievances and seriously believing that not only the young king's crown but his very life was in danger, they formed a conspiracy, the soul of which was Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, to overthrow the government, with the aid of a Russian fleet, supported by a rising of the Dalecarlians. The conspiracy was discovered and vigorously suppressed.
The one bright side of this gloomy and sordid period was the rapprochement between the Scandinavian kingdoms during the revolutionary wars. Thus, on the 27th of March Alliance 1 794, a neutrality compact was formed between with Denmark and Sweden; and their united squadrons Denmark. patrolled the North Sea to protect their merchantmen from the British cruisers. This approximation between the two governments was happily followed by friendly feelings between the two nations, under the pressure of a common danger. Presently Reuterholm renewed his coquetry with the French republic, which was officially recognized by the Swedish government on the 23rd of April 1795. In return, Sweden received a subsidy of 56,000; and a treaty between the two powers was signed on the 14th of September 1795. On the other hand, an attempt to regain the friendship of Russia, which had broken off diplomatic relations with Sweden, was frustrated by the refusal of the king to accept the bride, the grand duchess Alexandra, Catherine II.'s granddaughter, whom Reuterholm had provided for him. This was Reuterholm's last official act. On the 1st of November 1796, in accordance with the will of his father, Gustavus IV., now in his eighteenth year, took the government into his own hands.
The government of Gustavus IV. (q.v.) was almost a pure autocracy. At his very first Riksdag, held at Norrkoping in March 1800, the nobility were compelled, at last, to ratify Gustavus III.'s detested Act of Union and Security, which hitherto they had steadily refused to do. Shortly after this Riksdag rose, a notable change took place in Sweden's foreign policy. In December 1800 Denmark Sweden and Russia acceded to a second Armed Neutrality of the North, directed against Great Britain; and the arsenal of Karlskrona, in all probability, was only saved from the fate of Copenhagen by the assassination of the emperor Paul, which was followed by another change of system in the north. Hitherto Sweden had kept aloof from continental complications; but the arrest Gustavus IV. and execution of the duc d'Enghien in 1804 inspired joins the Gustavus IV. with such a hatred of Napoleon that European when a general coalition was formed against the Coalition, French emperor he was one of the first to join it 1804 (Dec. 3, 1804), pledging himself to send an army corps to cooperate with the English and Russians in driving the enemy out of Holland and Hanover. But his senseless quarrel with Frederick William III. of Prussia detained him in Pomerania; and when at last (December 1805) he led his 6000 men towards the Elbe district the third coalition had already been dissipated by the victories of Ulm and Austerlitz. In 1806 a rupture between Sweden and Prussia was only prevented by Napoleon's assault upon the latter power. After Jena Napoleon attempted to win over Sweden, but Gustavus rejected every overture. The result was the total loss of Pomerania, and the Swedish army itself was only saved from destruction by the ingenuity of J. K. Toll. At Tilsit the emperor Alexander I. had undertaken to compel " Russia's geographical enemy," as Napoleon designated Sweden, to accede to the newly established Continental Russian System. Gustavus IV. naturally rejected all the Conquest of proposals of Alexander to close the Baltic against Finland, the English; but took no measures to defend Finland 1808. against Russia, though, during the autumn of 1807, it was notorious that the tsar was preparing to attack the grand duchy. On the 21st of February 1808 a Russian army crossed the Finnish border without any previous declaration of war. On the 2nd of April the king ordered a general levy of 30,000 men; but while two army corps, under Armfelt and Toll, together with a British contingent of Io,000 men under Moore, were stationed in Scania and on the Norwegian border in anticipation of an attack from Denmark, which, at the instigation of Napoleon, had simultaneously declared war against Sweden, the little Finnish army was left altogether unsupported. The conquest of Finland, after an heroic struggle against overwhelming odds, is elsewhere recorded (see Finland: History). Its immediate consequence in Sweden proper was the deposition of Gustavus of Gustavus IV. (March 13, 1809), who was clearly incapable of IV., governing. The nobility took advantage of this opportunity to pay off old scores against Gustavus III. by excluding not only his unhappy son but also that son's whole family from the succession - an act of injustice which has never been adequately defended. But indeed the whole of this intermediate period is full of dark subterranean plots and counterplots, still inexplicable, as, for instance, the hideous Fersen murder (June 20, 1 810) (see Fersen, Hans Axel Von) evidently intended to terrorize the Gustavians, whose loyalty to the ancient dynasty was notorious. As early as the 5th of June 1809 the duke regent was proclaimed king, under the title of Charles XIII. (q.v.), after accepting 1819. the new liberal constitution, which was ratified by the Riksdag the same day.
The new king was, at best, a useful stopgap, in no way likely to interfere with the liberal revolution which had placed him on the throne. Peace was what the exhausted nation now required; and negotiations had already been opened at Fredrikshamn. But the Russian demands were too humiliating, and the war was resumed. But the defeats of Savarsbruk and Ratan (Aug. 19, 1809) broke the spirit of the Swedish army; and peace was obtained by the sacrifice of Finland, the Aland islands, " the fore-posts of Stockholm," as Napoleon rightly described them, and Vesterbotten as far as the rivers Tornea and Muonio (treaty of Fredrikshamn, Sept. 17, 1809).
The succession to the throne, for Charles XIII. was both infirm and childless, was settled, after the mysterious death (May 28, 1810) of the first elected candidate, Prince Charles Augustus of Augustenburg, by the Crown selection of the French marshal, Bernadotte (see Prince. Charles Xiv., king of Sweden), who was adopted by Charles XIII. and received the homage of the estates on the 5th of November 1810.
The new crown prince was very soon the most popular and the most powerful man in Sweden. The infirmity of the old Influence' king, and the dissensions in the council of state, Policy 'of placed the government and especially the control of foreign affairs almost entirely in his hands; and he boldly adopted a policy which was antagonistic indeed to the wishes and hopes of the old school of Swedish statesmen, but, perhaps, the best adapted to the circumstances. Finland he at once gave up for lost. He knew that Russia would never voluntarily relinquish the grand duchy, while Sweden could not hope to retain it permanently, even if she reconquered it. But the acquisition of Norway might make up for the loss of Finland; and Bernadotte, now known as the crown prince Charles John, argued that it might be an easy matter to persuade the antiNapoleonic powers to punish Denmark for her loyalty to France by wresting Norway from her. Napoleon he rightly distrusted, though, at first he was obliged to submit to the emperor's dictation. Thus on the 13th of November 1810, the Swedish government was forced to declare war against Great Britain, though the British government was privately informed at the same time that Sweden was not a free agent and that the war would be a mere demonstration. But the pressure of Napoleon became more and more intolerable, culminating in the occupation of Pomerania by French troops in 1812. The Swedish government thereupon concluded a secret convention with Russia (treaty of Petersburg, April 5, 1812), undertaking to send 30,000 men to operate against Napoleon in Germany in return for a promise from Alexander guaranteeing to Sweden the possession of Norway. Too late Napoleon endeavoured to outbid Alexander by offering to Sweden Finland, all Pomerania and Mecklenburg, in return for Sweden's active co-operation against Russia.
The Orebro Riksdag (April - August 1812), remarkable besides for its partial repudiation of Sweden's national debt and its reactionary press laws, introduced general conscription into Sweden, and thereby enabled the crown prince to carry out his ambitious policy. In May 1812 he mediated a peace between Russia and Turkey, so as to enable Russia to use all her forces against France (peace of Bucharest); and on the 18th of July, at Orebro, peace was also concluded between Great Britain on one side and Russia and Sweden on the other. These two treaties were, in effect, the corner-stones of a fresh coalition against Napoleon, and were confirmed on the outbreak of the FrancoRussian War by a conference between Alexander and Charles John at Abo on the 30th of August 1812, when the tsar undertook to place an army corps of 35,000 men at the disposal of the Swedish crown prince for the conquest of Norway.
The treaty of Abo, and indeed the whole of Charles John's foreign policy in 1812, provoked violent and justifiable criticism among the better class of politicians in Sweden. The immorality of indemnifying Sweden at the expense of a weaker friendly power was obvious; and, while Finland was now definitively sacrificed, Norway had still to be won. Moreover, Great Britain and Russia very properly insisted that Charles John's first duty was to the anti-Napoleonic coalition, the former power vigorously objecting to the expenditure of her subsidies on the nefarious Norwegian adventure before the common enemy had been crushed. Only on his very ungracious compliance did Great Britian also promise to countenance the union of Norway and Sweden (treaty of Stockholm, March 3, 1813); and, on the 23rd of April, Russia gave her guarantee to the same effect. The Swedish crown prince rendered several important services to the allies during the campaign of 1813 (see Charles Xiv., king of Sweden); but, after Leipzig, he went his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark and secure Norway.
How this " job " was managed contrary to the dearest wishes of the Norwegians themselves, and how, finally (Nov. 14, 1814), Norway as a free and independent kingdom was united to Sweden under a common king, is No rw ay. elsewhere described (see Denmark; Norway; Charles Xiv., king of Sweden; CHRISTIAN VIII., king of Denmark) .
Charles XIII. died on the 5th of February 1818, and was succeeded by Bernadotte under the title of Charles XIV. John. The new king devoted himself to the promotion of the material development of the country, the Gota canal absorbing the greater portion of the twenty- 1844 four millions of dalers voted for the purpose. The external debt of Sweden was gradually extinguished, the internal debt considerably reduced, and the budget showed an average annual surplus of 700,000 dalers. With returning prosperity the necessity for internal reform became urgent in Sweden. The antiquated Riksdag, where the privileged estates predominated, while the cultivated middle class was practically unrepresented, had become an insuperable obstacle to all free development; but, though the Riksdag of 1840 itself raised the question, the king and the aristocracy refused to entertain it. Yet the reign of Charles XIV. was, on the whole, most beneficial to Sweden; and, if there was much just cause for complaint, his great services to his adopted country were generally acknowledged. Abroad he maintained a policy of peace based mainly on a good understanding with Russia. Charles XIV.'s son and successor King Oscar I. was much more liberally oscarL, g y inclined. Shortly after his accession (March 4, 1844) he laid several projects of reform before the Riksdag; but the estates would do little more than abolish the obsolete marriage and inheritance laws and a few commercial monopolies. As the financial situation necessitated a large increase of taxation, there was much popular discontent, which culminated in riots in the streets of Stockholm (March 1848). Yet, when fresh proposals for parliamentary reform were laid before the Riksdag in 1849, they were again rejected by three out of the four estates. As regards foreign politics, Oscar I. was strongly anti-German. On the outbreak of the Dano-Prussian War of 1848-49, Sweden sympathized warmly with Denmark. Hundreds of Swedish volunteers hastened to Schleswig-Holstein. The Riksdag voted 2,000,000 dalers for additional armaments. It was Sweden, too, who mediated the truce of Malmo (Aug. 26, 1848), which helped Denmark out of her difficulties. During the Crimean War Sweden remained neutral, although public opinion was decidedly anti-Russian, and sundry politicians regarded the conjuncture as favourable for regaining Finland.
Oscar I. was succeeded (July 8, 1859) by his son, Charles XV., who had already acted as regent during his father's illnesses. He succeeded, with the invaluable assistance Geer (q.v.), in at last accomplishing the much-needed reform of the constitution. The way had been prepared in 1860 by a sweeping measure of municipal reform; and, in January 1863, the government brought in a reform bill by the terms of which the Riksdag was henceforth to consist of two Constitu- chambers, the Upper House being a sort of aristo- Reform, cratic senate, while the members of the Lower 1866. House were to be elected triennially by popular suffrage. The new constitution was accepted by all four estates in 1865 and promulgated on the 22nd of January 1866. On the 1st of September 1866, the first elections under the new system were held; and on the 19th of January 1867, the new Riksdag met for the first time. With this one great reform Charles XV. had to be content; in all other directions he was hampered, more or less, by his own creation. The Riksdag refused to sanction his favourite project of a reform of the Swedish army on the Prussian model, for which he laboured all his life, partly from motives of economy, partly from an apprehension of the king's martial tendencies. In 1864 Charles XV. had endeavoured to form an anti-Prussian league with Denmark; and after the defeat of Denmark he projected a Scandinavian union, in order, with the help of France, to oppose Prussian predominance in the north - a policy which naturally collapsed with the overthrow of the French Empire in 1870. He died on the 18th of September 1872, and was succeeded by his brother, the duke of Gothland, who reigned as Oscar II. (R. N. B.) The economic condition of Sweden, owing to the progress in material prosperity which had taken place in the country as the result of the Franco-German War, was at the accession Oscar ll., of Oscar II. to the throne on the 18th of September 1872-1907. p 1872 fairly satisfactory. Politically, however, the outlook was not so favourable. In their results, the reforms inaugurated during the preceding reign did not answer expectations. Within three years of the introduction of the new electoral laws De Geer's ministry had forfeited much of its former popularity, and had been forced to resign. In the vital matter of national defence no common understanding had been arrived at, and during the conflicts which had raged round this question, the two chambers had come into frequent collision and paralysed the action of the government. The peasant proprietors, who, under the name of the " Landtmanna" party,' formed a compact majority in the Second Chamber, pursued a consistent policy of class interests in the matter of the taxes and burdens that had, as they urged, so long oppressed the Swedish peasantry; and consequently when a bill was introduced for superseding the old system of army organization by general compulsory service, they demanded as a condition of its acceptance that the military burdens should be more evenly distributed in the country, and that the taxes, which they regarded as a burden under which they had wrongfully groaned for centuries, should be abolished. In these circumstances, the " Landtmanna " party in the Riksdag, who desired the lightening of the military burden, joined those who desired the abolition of landlordism, and formed a compact and predominant majority in the Second Chamber, while the burgher and Liberal parties were reduced to an impotent " intelligence " minority. This majority in the Lower Chamber 1 The Swedish " Landtmanna " party was formed in 1867. It consisted mostly of the larger and smaller peasant proprietors, who at the time of the old " Standers Riksdag " were always opposed to the nobility and the clergy. The object of the party was to bring about a fusion between the representatives of the large landed proprietors and the regular peasant proprietors, to support the interests of landed proprietors in general against those of the town representatives, and to resist Crown interference in the administration of local affairs.
was at once attacked by another compact majority in the Upper, who on their side maintained that the hated land taxes were only a kind of rent-charge on land, were incidental to it and in no way weighed upon the owners, and, moreover, that its abolition would be quite unwarrantable, as it was one of the surest sources of revenue to the state. On the other hand, the First Chamber refused to listen to any abolition of the old military system, so long as the defence of the country had not been placed upon a secure basis by the adoption of general compulsory military service. The government stood midway between these conflicting majorities in the chambers, without support in either.
Such was the state of affairs when Oscar II., surrounded by his late brother's advisers, began his reign. One of his first cares was to increase the strength of his navy, but in The Party consequence of the continued antagonism of the Compromise political parties, he was unable to effect much. of 1874. In the first Riksdag, however, the so-called " compromise," which afterwards played such an important part in Swedish political life, came into existence. It originated in the small " Scania " party in the Upper House, and was devised to establish a modus vivendi between the conflicting parties, i.e. the champions of national defence and those who demanded a lightening of the burdens of taxation. The king himself perceived in the compromise a means of solving the conflicting questions, and warmly approved it. He persuaded his ministers to constitute a special inquiry into the proposed abolition of land taxes, and in the address with which he opened the Riksdag of 1875 laid particular stress upon the necessity of giving attention to the settlement of these two burning questions, and in 1880 again came forward with a new proposal for increasing the number of years of service with the militia. This motion having been rejected, De Geer resigned, and was succeeded by Count Arvid Posse. The new prime minister endeavoured to solve the question of defence in accordance with the views of the "Landtmanna " party. Three parliamentary committees had prepared schemes for a remission of the land taxes, for a new system of taxation, for a reorganization of the army based on a stammtrupp (regular army), by the enlistment of hired soldiers, and for naval reforms. In this last connexion the most suitable types of vessels for coast defence as for offence were determined upon. But Count Posse, deserted by his own party over the army bill, resigned, and was succeeded on the 16th of May 1884 by Oscar Themptauder, who had been minister of finance in the previous cabinet. The new premier succeeded in persuading the Riksdag to pass a bill increasing the period of service with the colours in the army to six years and that in the militia to forty-two days, and as a set-off a remission of 3 o % on the land taxes.
Influenced by the economic reaction which took place in 1879 in consequence of the state of affairs in Germany, where Prince Bismarck had introduced the protectionist system, a Protec- protectionist party had been formed, which tried to tionist gain adherents in the Riksdag. It is true that in Movement. the Riksdag of 1882 the commercial treaty with France was renewed, but since 1885 the protectionist party was prepared to begin the combat, and a duty on corn, which had been proposed in the Riksdag of the same year, was rejected by only a slight majority. During the period of the unusually low price of corn of 1886, which greatly. affected the Swedish farmers, protection gained ground to such an extent that its final triumph was considered as certain within a short time. During the Riksdag of the same year, however, the premier, Themptauder, emphatically declared himself against the protectionist party, and while the parties in the Second Chamber were equal in number, the proposed tax on corn was rejected in the First Chamber. In the Riksdag of 1887 there was a majority for protection in the Second Chamber, and in the first the majority against the tax was so small that the tax on corn would have triumphed in a combined meeting of the two chambers. The government, availing itself of its formal right not to dissolve the chamber in which it had the support of a majority, therefore dissolved only the Second Chamber (March 1887).
The new Riksdag assembled in May with a free trade majority Charles XV., of the minister of justice, Baron Louis Gerhard de 1859-1872. in the Second Chamber, but nothing in connexion with the great question of customs was settled. In the meantime, the powerful majority in the Second Chamber split into two groups - the new "Landtmanna " party, which approved protection in the interests of agricultural classes; and a somewhat smaller group, the old " Landtmanna " party, which favoured free trade.
The victory of the free traders was not, however, destined to be of long duration, as the protectionists obtained a majority in both chambers in the next Riksdag (1888). To the First Chamber protectionists were almost exclusively elected, and in the Second all the twenty-two members for Stockholm were disqualified, owing to one of their number not having paid his taxes a few years previously, which prevented his being eligible. Instead, then, of twenty-two free traders representing the majority of the Stockholm electors, twenty-two protectionists, representing the minority, were elected, and Stockholm was thus represented in the Riksdag by the choice of a minority in the capital. This singular way of electing members for the principal city in the kingdom could not fail further to irritate the parties. One result of the Stockholm election came at a convenient time for the Themptauder ministry. The financial affairs of the country were found to be in a most unsatisfactory state. In spite of reduced expenses, a highly estimated revenue, and the contemplated raising of taxes, there was a deficit, for the payment or discharge of which the government would be obliged to demand supplementary supplies. The Themptauder ministry resigned. The king retained, however, for a time several members of the ministry, but it was difficult to find a premier who would be able, during the transition from one system to another, to command sufficient authority to control the parties. At last Baron Gillis Bildt, who, while Swedish ambassador in Berlin, had witnessed the introduction by Prince Bismarck of the agrarian protectionist system in Germany, accepted the premiership, and it was under his auspices that the two chambers imposed a series of duties on necessaries of life. The new taxes, together with an increase of the excise duty on spirits, soon brought a surplus into the state coffers. At a council of state (Oct. 12, 1888) the king declared his wishes as to the way in which this surplus should be used. He desired that it should be applied to a fund for insurance and old age pensions for workmen and old people, to the lightening of the municipal taxes by state contributions to the schools and workhouses, to the abolition of the land taxes and of the obligation of keeping a horse and man for military service, and, lastly, to the improvement of the shipping trade; but the Riksdag decided to devote it to other objects, such as the payment of the deficit in the budget, the building of railways and augmentation of their material, as well as to improvements in the defences of the country.
Baron Bildt resigned as soon as the new system seemed settled, making room for Baron Gustav Akerhjelm. The latter, however, also soon resigned, and was succeeded on the 10th of July 1891 by Erik Gustav Bostrom, a landed proprietor. The protectionist system gained in favour on the expiry of the commercial treaty with France in 1892, as it could now be extended to articles of industry. The elections of 1890, when the metropolis returned free traders and Liberals to the Second Chamber, certainly effected a change in the latter, as the representatives of the towns and the old " Landtmanna " party joined issue and established a free-trade majority in the chamber, but in the combined meetings of the two chambers the compact protectionist majority in the First Chamber turned the scale. The customs duties were, however, altered several times in accordance with market prices and ruling circumstances. Thus in 1892, when the import duty on unground corn was reduced from 2S. 10d. to is. 5d., and that on ground corn from 4s. 9d. to 2S. iod. for 100 kilogrammes, the same duties were also retained for the following year. They were also retained for 1894 at the request of the government, which desired to keep faith with their promise that while the new organization of the army was going on no increase of duties on the necessaries of life should take place. This measure caused much dissatisfaction, and gave rise to a strong agrarian movement, in consequence of which the government, in the beginning of 1895, before the assembling of the Riksdag, made use of its right of raising the two duties on corn just referred to, 3s. 7d. and 7s. 2d., which were afterwards somewhat reduced as far as seed corn for sowing purposes was concerned.
The question of customs duties now settled, that of national defence was taken up afresh, and in the following year the government produced a complete scheme for the abolition of the land tax in the course of ten ears years ?
in exchange for a compensation of ninety days' drill for those liable to military service, proposed to retain the old military system of the country and to strengthen the defences of Norrland, and the government bill for a reorganization of the army was accepted by the Riksdag in an extraordinary session. But it was soon perceived that the new plan was unsatisfactory and required recasting, upon which the minister of war, Baron Rappe, resigned, and was succeeded by Colonel von Crustebjorn, who immediately set to work to prepare a complete reorganization of the army, with an increase of the time of active service on the lines of general compulsory service. The Riksdag of 190o, in addition to grants for the fortifications at Boden, in the province of Norrbotten, on the Russian border, and other military objects, voted a considerable grant for an experimental mobilization, which fully exposed the defects and faults of the old system. In the Riksdag of 1901 E. G. Bostrom resigned, and was succeeded by Admiral F. W. von Otter, who introduced a new bill for the army reorganization, the most important item of which was the increase of the period of training to 365 days. The cost in connexion with the new scheme was expected to amount to 22 millions of kronor. The Riksdag, however, did not accept the new plan in its full extent. The time of drilling was reduced to 240 days for the infantry, to 300 days for the navy, while for the cavalry and artillery the time fixed was 365 days. The plan, thus modified, was then accepted by the government.
After the elections in 1890, the alliance already mentioned between the old " Landtmanna " party and the representatives of the towns had the result that the Liberals in the Second Chamber to whom the re resentatives of the Franchise ' ', p Reform. towns mostly belonged, were now in a position to decide the policy which the two united parties should follow. In order to prevent this, it was proposed to readjust the number of the members of the Riksdag. The question N as only settled in 1894, when a bill was passed fixing the number of the members of the Riksdag in the First Chamber at 150, and in the Second at 230, of which 150 should represent the country districts and 80 the towns. The question of protection being now considered settled, there was no longer any reason for the continued separation of the two " Landtmanna " parties, who at the beginning of the Riksdag of 1895 joined issue and became once more a compact majority in the Second Chamber, as they had been up to the Riksdag of May 1887. The influence of the country representatives was thus re-established in the Second Chamber, but now the demands for the extension of the franchise came more and more to the front, and the premier, Bostrom, at last felt bound to do something to meet these demands. He accordingly introduced in the Riksdag of 1896 a very moderate bill for the extension of the franchise, which was, nevertheless, rejected by both chambers, all similar proposals by private members meeting the same fate. When at last the bill for the reorganization of the army, together with a considerably increased taxation, was accepted by the Riksdag of 1901, it was generally acknowledged that, in return for the increased taxation, it would only be just to extend the right of taking part in the political life and the legislative work of the country to those of the population who hitherto had been excluded from it. The government eventually laid a proposal for the extension of the franchise before the Riksdag of 1902, the chief feature of which was that the elector should be twenty-five years of age, and that married men over forty years should be entitled to two votes. The Riksdag, however, finally agreed to a proposal by Bishop Billing, a member of the First Chamber, that an address should be presented to the king asking for a full inquiry into the question of extending the franchise for the election of members to the Second Chamber.
HISTORY]
In 1897 the Riksdag had received among its members the first socialistic representative in the person of R. H. Brauting, the leader of the Swedish Social Democrats. The Movement. who had formerly confined their activity Socialists, Y y to questions affecting the working classes and their wages, took, however, in 1902 an active part in the agitation for the extension of the franchise. Processions of many thousands of workmen were organized, in Stockholm and in other towns of the kingdom, just before the Riksdag began the discussion on the above-mentioned bill of the government, and when the bill was introduced in the chambers a general and wellorganized strike took place and continued during the three days the debate on the bill lasted. As this strike was of an exclusively political kind, and was intended to put pressure on the chambers, it was generally disapproved, and failed in its object. The prime minister, Admiral von Otter, resigned shortly after the end of the session, and was succeeded by Bostrom, the expremier, who at the request of the king again assumed office.
The relations with Norway during King Oscar's reign had great influence on political life in Sweden, and more than once it Relations seemed as if the union between the two countries was with on the point of being wrecked. The dissensions Norway. chiefly had their origin in the demand by Norway for separate consuls and foreign ministers, to which reference is made under Norway. At last, after vain negotiations and discussions, the Swedish government in 1895 gave notice to Norway that the commercial treaty which till then had existed between the two countries and would lapse in July 1897 would, according to a decision in the Riksdag, cease, and as Norway at the time had raised the customs duties, a considerable diminution in the exports of Sweden to Norway took place. The Swedish minister of foreign affairs, Count Lewenhaupt, who was considered as too friendly disposed towards the Norwegians, resigned, and was replaced by Count Ludvig Douglas, who represented the opinion of the majority in the First Chamber. When, however, the Norwegian Storthing, for the third time, passed a bill for a national or " pure " flag, which King Oscar eventually sanctioned, Count Douglas resigned in his turn and was succeeded by the Swedish minister at Berlin, Lagerheim, who managed to pilot the questions of the union into more quiet waters. He succeeded all the better as the new elections to the Riksdag of 1900 showed clearly that the Swedish people was not inclined to follow the ultraconservative or so-called " patriotic " party, which resulted in the resignation of the two leaders of that party, Professor Oscar Alin and Count Marschal Patrick Reutersvard as members of the First Chamber. On the other hand, ex-Professor E. Carlson, of the High School of Gothenburg, succeeded in forming a party of Liberals and Radicals to the number of about 90 members, who, besides being in favour of the extension of the franchise, advocated the full equality of Norway with Sweden in the management of foreign affairs. (0. H. D.) The state of quietude which for some time prevailed with regard to the relations with Norway was not, however, to be of Dissolu- long duration. The question of separate consuls The Lion of the for Norway soon came up again. In 1902 the Union with Swedish government proposed that negotiations in Norway. this matter should be opened with the Norwegian government, and that a joint committee, consisting of representatives from both countries, should be appointed to consider the question of a separate consular service without in any way interfering with the existing administration of the diplomatic affairs'of the two countries. The result of the negotiations was published in a so-called " communique," dated the 24th of March 1903, in which, among other things, it was proposed that the relations of the separate consuls to the joint ministry of foreign affairs and the embassies should be arranged by identical laws, which could not be altered or repealed without the consent of the governments of the two countries. The proposal for these identical laws, which the Norwegian government in May 1904 submitted, did not meet with the approval of the Swedish government. The latter in their reply proposed that the Swedish foreign minister should have such control over the Norwegian consuls as to prevent the latter from exceeding their authority.' This proposal, however, the Norwegian government found unacceptable, and explained that, if such control were insisted upon, all further negotiations would be purposeless. They maintained that the Swedish demands were incompatible with the sovereignty of Norway, as the foreign minister was a Swede and the proposed Norwegian consular service, as a Norwegian institution, could not be placed under a foreign authority. A new proposal by the Swedish government was likewise rejected, and in February 1905 the Norwegians broke off the negotiations. Notwithstanding this an agreement did not appear to be out of the question. All efforts to solve the consular question by itself had failed, but it was considered that an attempt might be made to establish separate consuls in combination with a joint administration of diplomatic affairs on a full unionistic basis. Crown Prince Gustaf, who during the illness of King Oscar was appointed regent, took the initiative of renewing the negotiations between the two countries, and on the 5th of April in a combined Swedish and Norwegian council of state made a proposal for a reform both of the administration of diplomatic affairs and of the consular service on the basis of full equality between the two kingdoms, with the express reservation, however, of a joint foreign minister - Swedish or Norwegian - as a condition for the existence of the union. This proposal was approved of by the Swedish Riksdag on the 3rd of May 1905. In order that no obstacles should be placed in the way for renewed negotiations, Mr Bostrom, the prime minister, resigned and was succeeded by Mr Ramstedt. The proposed negotiations were not, however, renewed.
On the 23rd of May the Norwegian Storthing passed the government's proposal for the establishment of separate Norwegian consuls, and as King Oscar, who again had resumed the reins of government, made use of his constitutional right to veto the bill, the Norwegian ministry tendered their resignation. The king, however, declared he could not now accept their resignation, whereupon the ministry at a sitting of the Norwegian Storthing on the 7th of June placed their resignation in its hands. The Storthing thereupon unanimously adopted a resolution stating that, as the king had declared himself unable to form a government, the constitutional royal power " ceased to be operative," whereupon the ministers were requested, until further instructions, to exercise the power vested in the king, and as King Oscar thus had ceased to act as " the king of Norway," the union with Sweden was in consequence dissolved.
In Sweden, where they were least of all prepared for the turn things had taken, the action of the Storthing created the greatest surprise and resentment. The king solemnly pro- The First tested against what had taken place and summoned extra- an extraordinary session of the Riksdag for the 10th ordinary of June to consider what measures should be taken Riksdag, with regard to the question of the union, which had 1905' arisen suddenly through the revolt of the Norwegians on the 7th of June. The Riksdag declared that it was not opposed to negotiations being entered upon regarding the conditions for the dissolution of the union if the Norwegian Storthing, after a new election, made a proposal for the repeal of the Act of Union between the two countries, or, if a proposal to this effect was made by Norway after the Norwegian people, through a plebiscite, had declared in favour of the dissolution of the union. The Riksdag further resolved that loo million kroner (about £555,000) should be held in readiness and be available as the Riksdag might decide. On the resignation of the Ramstedt ministry Mr Lundeberg formed a coalition ministry consisting of members of the various parties in the Riksdag, after which the Riksdag was prorogued on the 3rd of August.
SWEDEN t T
[LITERATURE
After the plebiscite in Norway on the 13th of August had decided in favour of the dissolution of the union and after the Storthing had requested the Swedish government to The co-operate with it for the repeal of the Act of Union, Karlstad a conference of delegates from both countries was Convention. convened at Karlstad on the 31st of August. On the 23rd 1 For further details see Norway: History. of September the delegates came to an agreement, the principal points of which were: that such disputes between the two countries which could not be settled by direct diplomatic negotiations, and which did not affect the vital interests of either country, should be referred to the permanent court of arbitration at the Hague, that on either side of the southern frontier a neutral zone of about fifteen kilometres width should be established, and that within eight months the fortifications within the Norwegian part of the zone should be destroyed. Other clauses dealt with the rights of the Laplanders to graze their reindeer alternatively in either country, - and with the question of transport of goods across the frontier by rail or other means of communication, so that the traffic should not be hampered by any import or export prohibitions or otherwise.
From the 2nd to the 19th of October the extraordinary Riksdag was again assembled, and eventually approved of the The Second arrangement come to by the delegates at Karlstad with regard to the dissolution of the union as well ordinary as the government proposal for the repeal of the Act of Union and the recognition of Norway as an independent state. An alteration in the Swedish flag was also decided upon, by which the mark of union was to be replaced by an azure-blue square. An offer from the Norwegian Storthing to elect a prince of the Swedish royal house as king in Norway was declined by King Oscar, who now on behalf of himself and his successors renounced the right to the Norwegian crown. Mr Lundeberg, who had accepted office only to settle the question of the dissolution of the union, now resigned and was succeeded by a Liberal government with Mr Karl Staaff as prime minister.
The question of the extension of the franchise, which was a burning one, was to be the principal measure of the Staaff government. It brought in a bill for manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, together with single member constituencies and election on the absolute majority principle. The bill was passed [by the Second Chamber on the 15th of May 1906, by 134 to 94 votes, but it was rejected by the First Chamber by 126 to 18. The latter chamber instead passed a bill for manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, on the condition that the elections for both chambers should take place on the basis of proportional representation. Both chambers thereupon decided to ask the opinion of the king with regard to the simultaneous extension of the franchise to women at elections for the Second Chamber. The government bill having, however, been passed by the Second Chamber, the prime minister proposed to the king that the Riksdag should be dissolved and new elections for the Second Chamber take place in order to hear the opinion of the country, but as the king did not approve of this Mr Staaff and his government resigned.
A Conservative government was then formed on the 29th of May by Mr Lindman, whose principal task was to find a solution of the suffrage question which both chambers could accept. A government bill was introduced, proposing the settlement of the question on the basis of the bill carried by the First Chamber in the Riksdag of the preceding year. A compromise, approved of by the government, was adopted by the First Chamber on the 14th of May 1907 by 110 votes against 29 and in the Second Chamber by 128 against 98. By this act proportional representation was established for both chambers, together with universal manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, a reduction of the qualifications for eligibility for the First Chamber and a reduction of the electoral term of this chamber from nine to six years, and finally payment of members of the First Chamber, who hitherto had not received any such emolument.
King Oscar II. died on the 9th of December 1907, sincerely regretted by his people, and was succeeded as king of Sweden by his eldest son, Prince Gustaf. During King Oscar's reign many important social reforms were carried out by the legislature, and the country developed in all directions. In the Riksdag of 1884 a new patent law was adopted, the age at which women should be held to attain their majority was fixed at twenty-one years and the barbarous prison punishment of " bread and water " abolished. In order to meet the cost of the new army organization the Riksdag of 1902 increased the revenue by progressive taxation, but only for one year. Bills for the improvement of the social conditions of the people and in the interests of the working classes were also passed. During the five years1884-1889a committee was occupied with the question of workmen's insurance, and thrice the government made proposals for its settlement, on the last occasion adopting the principle of invalidity as a common basis for insurance against accidents, illness or old age. The Riksdag, however, delayed coming to a decision, and contented itself by earmarking money for an insurance fund. At last the Riksdag of 1901 accepted a Bill for insurance against accidents which also extended to agricultural labourers, in connexion with the establishment of a state institution for insurance. The bill for protection against accidents, as well as for the limitation of working hours for women and children, was passed, together with one for the appointment of special factory inspectors. When in 1897 King Oscar celebrated his jubilee of twenty-five years as king, the exhibition which had been organized in Stockholm offered a convincing proof of the progress the country had made in every direction.

AUTH0RITIEs

Historiska handlingar rorande Skandinaviens historia (Stockholm, 1816-1897, &c.); Svenska Riksdagsakter,1521-1718 (ibid., 1887); Sveriges historia (ibid., 1883-1887); P. Backstrom, Svenska flottans historia (ibid., 1884); R. N. Bain, Scandinavia, 1513-1900 (Cambridge, 1905); Bidrag til den store nordiske krigs historie (Copenhagen, 1900); F. F. Carlson, Sveriges historie under konungarne af Pfalziska Huset (Stockholm, 1883-1885); A. Fryxell, Berc ttelser ur svenska historien (ibid., 1831, &c.); C. G. Grandinson, Studier i hanseatisk svensk historia (ibid., 1884); C. G. Malmstrom, Sveriges politiska historia (ibid., 1893-1901); A. Nystrom, Striderna i ostra Europa mellan Ryssland, Polen och Sverige (ibid., 1903); E. Seraphim, Geschichte LivEstand Kurlands bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich (Reval, 1895) C. Silfverstolpe, Historiskt bibliothek (Stockholm, 1875); R. Tengberg, Sverige under partihvalvet (ibid., 1879;) K. G. Westman, Svenska Radets historia (Upsala, 1904); Bidrag till Sveriges medeltids historia (Upsala, 1902); A. Szelagowski, The Fight for the Baltic (Pol.; Warsaw, 1904); K. Setterwall, Forteckning Ofver Acta Svecica (Stockholm, 1889); J. Mankell, Ofversigt af svenska krigens historia (ibid., 1890); A. Strindberg, Les Relations de la France avec la Suede (Paris, 1891); Pontus E. Fahlbeck, La Constitution suedoise et le parlementarisme moderne (1905); E. Flandin, Institutions politiques de l'Europe contemporaine (1909), tome iv. See also the bibliographies attached to the articles Denmark: History; Norway: History; Finland: History; as well as the special bibliographies attached to the various biographies of Swedish sovereigns and statesmen.
Swedish Literature Swedish literature, as distinguished from compositions in the common norraena tunga of old Scandinavia, cannot be said to exist earlier than the 13th century. Nor until the period of the Reformation was its development in any degree rapid or copious. The oldest form in which Swedish exists as a written language (see Scandinavian Language) is the series of manuscripts known as Landskapslagarne, or " The Common Laws." These are supposed to be the relics of a still earlier age, and it is hardly believed that we even possess the first that was put down in writing. The most important and the most ancient of these codes is the " Elder West Gdta Law," reduced to its present form by the law-man Eskil about 1230. Another of great interest is Magnus Eriksson's " General Common Law," which was written in 1347. These ancient codes have been collected and edited by the learned jurist, K. J. Schlyter (1795-1888) as Corpus juris Sveo-Gotorum antiqui (4 vols., 1827-1869). The chief ornament of medieval Swedish literature is Um styrilse kununga ok hdfdinga (" On the Conduct of Kings and Princes "), first printed by command of Gustavus II. Adolphus, in 1634. The writer is not known; it has been conjecturally dated 1325. It is a handbook of moral and political teaching, expressed in terse and vigorous language. St Bridget, or Birgitta (1303-1373), an historical figure of extraordinary interest, has left her name attached to several important religious works, in particular to a collection of Uppenbarelser (" Revelations "), in which her visions and ecstatic meditations are recorded, and a version, the first into Swedish, of the five books of Moses. This latter was undertaken, at her desire, by her father-confessor Mattias (d. 1350), a priest at Linkoping. The translation of the Bible was continued a century later by a monk named Johannes Budde (d. 1484) .
In verse the earliest Swedish productions were probably the folk-song.' The age of these, however, has been commonly exaggerated. It is doubtful whether any still exist which are as old, in their present form, as the 13th century. The bulk are now attributed to the 15th, and many are doubtless much later still. The last, such as " Axel och Valborg," " Liten Karin," " Kampen Grimborg," and " Habor och Signild," deal with the adventures of romantic medieval romance. Almost the only positive clue we hold to the date of these poems is the fact that one of the most characteristic of them, " Engelbrekt," was written by Thomas, bishop of Strengnas, who died in 1443. Thomas, who left other poetical pieces, is usually called the first Swedish poet. There are three rhyming chronicles in medieval Swedish, all anonymous. The earliest, Erikskronikan,2 is attributed to 1320; the romance of Karl Magnus, Nya Karlskronikan, describing the period between 1387 and 1452, which is sometimes added to the earlier work, dates from the middle of the 15th century; and the third, Sturekronikorna, was probably written about 1500. The collection of rhymed romances which bears the name of Queen Euphemia's Songs must have been written before the death of the Norwegian queen in 1312. They are versions of three medieval stories taken from French and German sources, and dealt with the Chevalier au lion, of Chrestien de Troyes, with Duke Frederick of Normandy, and with Flores and Blancheflor. They possess very slight poetic merit in their Swedish form. A little later the romance of King Alexander' was translated by, or at the command of, Bo Jonsson Grip; this is more meritorious. Bishop Thomas, who died in 1443, wrote many political songs; and a number of narrative poems date from the close of the century. A brilliant and pathetic relic of the close of the medieval period exists in the Love Letters addressed in 1498 by Ingrid Persdotter, a nun of Vadstena, to the young knight Axel Nilsson. The first book printed in the Swedish language appeared in 1495.
The 16th century added but little to Swedish literature, and that little is mostly connected with the newly-founded university of Upsala. The Renaissance scarcely made itself felt in Scandinavia, and even the Reformation failed to waken the genius of the country. Psalms and didactic spiritual poems were the main products of Swedish letters in the 16th century. Two writers, the brothers Petri, sons of a smith at Orebro, take an easy prominence in so barren a period. Olaus Petri (1493-1552) and Laurentius Petri (1499-1573) were Carmelite monks who adopted the Lutheran doctrine while studying at Wittenberg, and came back to Sweden in 1518 as the apostles of the new faith. Olaus, who is one of the noblest figures in Swedish annals, was of the executive rather than the meditative class. He became chancellor to Gustavus Vasa, but his reforming zeal soon brought him into disgrace, and in 1J40 he was condemned to death. Two years later he was pardoned, and allowed to resume his preaching in Stockholm. He found time, however, to write a Swedish Chronicle, which is the earliest prose history of Sweden, a mystery-play, Tobiae comedia, which is the first Swedish drama, and three psalm-books, the best known being published in 1530 under the title of Nagre gudhelige vijsor (" Certain Divine Songs "). His Chronicle was based on a number of sources, in the treatment of which he showed a discrimination which makes the work still useful. Laurentius Petri, who was a man of calmer temperament, was archbishop of all Sweden, and edited or superintended the translation of the ' Skanska folkvisor, edited by E. G. Geijer and A. A. Afzelius (3 vols., Stockholm, 1879).
2 See Cederschiold, Om Erikskronikan (1899).
Editions of these chronicles and romances have been issued by the " Svenska Fornskrift Sallskapet " (Stockholm): Ivan Lejonriddaren (ed. Stephens), Hertig Fredrik of Normandie (ed. Ahlstrand) Flores och Blancheflor (ed. G. E. Klemming), Alexander (ed. Klemming), Carl Magnus (ed. Klemming, in Prosadikter frail medeltiden). Bible published at Upsala in 1540. He also wrote many psalms. Laurentius Andreae, 1552, had previously prepared a translation of the New Testament, which appeared in 1526. He was a polemical writer of prominence on the side of the Reformers. Finally, Petrus Niger (Peder Svart), bishop of Vesteras (d. 1562), wrote a chronicle of the life of Gustavus I. up to 1533, in excellent prose. The same writer left unpublished a history of the bishops of Vestera.s, ' his predecessors. The latter half of the 16th century is a blank in Swedish literature.
With the accession of Charles IX., and the consequent development of Swedish greatness, literature began to assert itself in more vigorous forms. The long life of the royal librarian, Johannes Bure or Buraeus (1568-1652), formed a link between the age of the Petri and that of Stjernhjelm. Buraeus studied all the sciences then known to mankind, and confounded them all in a sort of Rabbinical cultus of his own invention, a universal philosophy in a multitude of unreadable volumes. 4 But he was a patient antiquary, and advanced the knowledge of ancient Scandinavian mythology and language very considerably. He awakened curiosity and roused a public sympathy with letters; nor was it without significance that two of the greatest Swedes of the century, Gustavus Adolphus and the poet Stjernhjelm, were his pupils. The reign of Charles IX. saw the rise of secular drama in Sweden. The first comedy was the Tisbe of Magnus Olai Asteropherus (d. 1647), a coarse but witty piece on the story of Pyramus and Thisbe, acted by the schoolboys of the college of Arboga in 1610. This play is the Ralph Roister Doister of Swedish literature. A greater dramatist was Johannes Messenius (1579-1636), who was the son of a miller near Vadstena and had been carefully educated abroad by the Jesuits. Being discovered plotting against the government during the absence of Gustavus in Russia, he was condemned to imprisonment for life - that is, for twenty years. Before this disaster he had been professor of jurisprudence in Upsala, where his first historical comedy Disa was performed in 1611 and the tragedy of Signill in 1612. The design of Messenius was to write the history of his country in fifty plays; he completed and produced six. These dramas' are not particularly well arranged, but they form a little body of theatrical literature of singular interest and value. Messenius was a genuine poet; the lyrics he introduces have something of the charm of the old ballads. He wrote abundantly in prison; his magnum opus was a history of Sweden in Latin, but he has also left, in Swedish, two important rhyme-chronicles. Messenius was imitated by a little crowd of playwrights. Nikolaus Holgeri Catonius (d. 1655) wrote a fine tragedy on the Trojan War, Troijenborgh, in which he excelled Messenius as a dramatist. Andreas Prytz, who died in 1655 as bishop of Linkoping, produced several religious chronicle plays from Swedish history. Jacobus Rondeletius (d. 1662) wrote a curious " Christian tragi-comedy " of Judas redivivus, which contains some amusing scenes from daily Swedish life. Another good play was an anonymous Holofernes and Judith (edited at Upsala, 1895, by O. Sylwan). These plays were all acted by schoolboys and university youths, and when they went out of fashion among these classes the drama in Sweden almost entirely ceased to exist. Two historians of the reign of Charles IX., Erik Gbransson Tegel (d. 1636) and Aegidius Girs (d. 1639), deserve mention. The chancellor Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie (1622-1686) did much to promote the study of Swedish antiquities. He founded the College of Antiquities at Upsala in 1667, and bought back the Gothic Codex argenteus which he presented to the university library.
The reign of Gustavus Adolphus was adorned by one great writer, the most considerable in all the early history of Sweden. The title of " the Father of Swedish poetry " hass tjerfhtelm. been universally' awarded to Goran Lilja, better known by his adopted name of Georg Stjernhjelm (q.v.; 1598-1672). Stjernhjelm was a man of almost universal attainment, but it is mainly in verse that he has left his stamp upon 4 Selections from his writings were edited by G. E. Klemming, (Upsala, 1883-1885).
Edited for a learned society (Upsala, 1886, &c.) by H. Schiick.
[LITERATURE
the literature of his country. He found the language rough and halting, and he moulded it into perfect smoothness and elasticity. His master, Buraeus, had written a few Swedish hexameters by way of experiment. Stjernhjelm took the form and made it national.
The claim of Stjernhjelm to be the first Swedish poet may be contested by a younger man, but a slightly earlier writer, Rosenhane. Gustaf Rosenhane (1619-1684), who was a reformer on quite other lines. If Stjernhjelm studied Opitz, Rosenhane took the French poets of the Renaissance for his models, and in 1650 wrote a cycle of one hundred sonnets, the earliest in the language; these were published under the title Venerid in 1680. Rosenhane printed in 1658 a " Complaint of the Swedish Language " in thirteen hundred rattling rhyming lines, and in 1682 a collection of eighty songs. He was a metrist of the artistic order, skilful, learned and unimpassioned. His zeal for the improvement of the literature of his country was beyond question. Most of the young poets, however, followed Stjernhjelm rather than Rosenhane. As personal friends and pupils of the former, the brothers Columbus deserve special attention. They were sons of a musician and poet, Jonas Columbus (1586-1663). Each wrote copiously in verse, but Johan (1640-1684), who was professor of poetry at Upsala, almost entirely in Latin, while Samuel (1642-1679), especially in his Odae sveticae, showed himself an apt and fervid imitator of the Swedish hexameters of Stjernhjelm, to whom he was at one time secretary, and whose Hercules he dramatized. His works were included by P. Hanselli in vol. ii. of Samlade vitterhets arbeten, &c.
Of a rhyming family of Hjarne, it is enough to mention one member, Urban Hjarne (1641-1724), who introduced the new form of classical tragedy from France, in a species of transition from the masques of Stjernhjelm to the later regular rhymed dramas. His best play was a Rosimunda. Lars Johansson (1642-1674), who called himself "Lucidor the Unfortunate," has been the subject of a whole tissue of romance, most of which is fabulous. It is true, however, that he was stabbed, like Marlowe, in a midnight brawl at a tavern. His poems were posthumously collected as Flowers of Helicon, Plucked and Distributed on various occasions by Lucidor the Unfortunate. Stripped of the myth which had attracted so much attention to his name, Lucidor proves to be an occasional rhymester of a very low order. Haquin Spegel (1645-1714), the famous archbishop of Upsala, wrote a long didactic epic in alexandrines, God's Labour and Rest, with an introductory ode to the Deity in rhymed hexameters. He was also a good writer of hymns. Another ecclesiastic, the bishop of Skara, Jesper Svedberg (1653-1735), wrote sacred verses, but is better remembered as the father of Swedenborg. Peter Lagerldf (1648-1699) cultivated a pastoral vein in his ingenious lyrics Elisandra and Lycillis; he was professor of poetry, that is to say, of the art of writing Latin verses, at Upsala. Olof Wexionius (1656-1690?) published his Sinne-Afvel, a collection of graceful miscellaneous pieces, in 1684, in an edition of only loo copies. Its existence was presently forgotten, and the name of Wexionius had dropped out of the history of literature, when Hanselli recovered a copy and reprinted its contents in 1863.
We have hitherto considered only the followers of Stjernhjelm; we have now to speak of an important writer who followed in the footsteps of Rosenhane. Gunno Eurelius, afterwards ennobled with the name of Dahlstjerna (q.v.; 1661-1709), early showed an interest in the poetry of Italy. In 1690 he translated Guarini's Pastor Fido, and in or just after 1697 published, in a folio volume without a date, his Kunga-Skald, the first original poem in ottava rima produced in Swedish. This is a bombastic and vainglorious epic in honour of Charles XI., whom Eurelius adored; it is not, however, without great merits, richness of language, flowing metre, and the breadth of a genuine poetic enthusiasm. He published a little collection of lamentable sonnets when his great master died. Johan Paulinus Liljenstedt (1655-1732), a Finn, was a graceful imitator of Ronsard and Guarini. Johan Runius (1679-1713), called the " Prince of Poets," published a collection entitled Dudaim, in which there is nothing to praise, and with him the generation of the 17th century closes. Talent had been shown by certain individuals, but no healthy school of Swedish poetry had been founded, and the latest imitators of Stjernhjelm had lost every vestige of taste and independence. In prose the 17th century produced but little of importance in Sweden. Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632) was the most polished writer of its earlier half, and his speeches take an important place in the development of the language. The most original mind of the next age was Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702), the famous author of Atland eller Manhem. He spent nearly all his life in Upsala, building anatomical laboratories, conducting musical concerts, laying out botanical gardens, arranging medical lecture rooms - in a word, expending ceaseless energy on the practical improvement of the university. He was a genius in all the known branches of learning; at twenty-three his physiological discoveries had made him famous throughout Europe. His Atland (or Atlantika) appeared in four folio volumes, in Latin and Swedish, in 1675-1698; it was an attempt to summon all the authority of the past, all the sages of Greece and the bards of Iceland, to prove the inherent and indisputable greatness of the Swedish nation, in which the fabulous Atlantis had been at last discovered. It was the literary expression of the majesty of Charles XI., and of his autocratical dreams for the destiny of Sweden. From another point of view it is a monstrous hoard or cairn of rough-hewn antiquarian learning, now often praised, sometimes quoted from, and never read. Olof Verelius (1618-1682) had led the way for Rudbeck, by his translations of Icelandic sagas, a work which was carried on with greater intelligence by Johan PeringskjOld (1654-1720), the editor of the Heimskringla (1697), and J. Hadorph (1630-1693). The French philosopher Descartes, who died at Christina's court at Stockholm in 1650, found his chief, though posthumous, disciple in Andreas Rydelius (1671-1738), bishop of Lund, who was the master of Dalin, and thus connects us with the next epoch. His chief work, Nodiga fdrnuftsofningar ... (5 vols.) appeared in 1718. Charles XII., under whose special patronage Rydelius wrote, was himself a metaphysician and physiologist of merit.
A much more brilliant period followed the death of Charles XII. The influence of France and England took the place of that of Germany and Italy. The taste of Louis XIV., tempered by the study of Addison and Pope, gave its tone to the. academical court of Queen Louise Ulrica, who founded in 1758 the academy of literature, which developed later into the academy of literature, history and antiquities.
LITERATURE]
Sweden became completely a slave to the periwigs of literature, to the unities and graces of classical France. Nevertheless this was a period of great intellectual stimulus and activity, and Swedish literature took a solid shape for the first time. This Augustan period in Sweden closed somewhat abruptly about 1765. Two writers in verse connect it with the school of the preceding century. Jacob Frese (169 2 ?-1 728 ?), a Finn, whose poems were published in 1726, was an elegiacal writer of much grace, who foreshadowed the idyllic manner of Creutz. Atterbom pronounces Frese the best Swedish poet between Stjernhjelm and Dalin. Samuel von Triewald (1688-1743) played a very imperfect Dryden to Dalin's Pope. He was the first Swedish satirist, and introduced Boileau to his countrymen. His Satire upon our Stupid Poets may still be read with entertainment. 1 Both in verse and prose Olof von Dalin (q.v.; 1708-1763) takes a higher place than any writer since Stjernhjelm. He was inspired by the study of his great English contemporaries. His Swedish Argus (1733-1734) was modelled on Addison's Spectator, his Thoughts about Critics (1736) on Pope's Essay on Criticism, his Tale of a Horse on Swift's Tale of a Tub. Dalin's style, 1 The works of the chief writers between Sternhjelm and Dalin were edited by P. Hanselli (Upsala, 1856, &c.) as Samlade vitterhetsarbeten-af svenska fOrfattare. whether in prose or verse, was of a finished elegance. As a prose writer Dalin is chiefly memorable for his History of the Swedish Kingdom (4 vols., 1746-1762). His great epic, Swedish Freedom (1742) was written in alexandrines of far greater smoothness and vigour than had previously been attempted. When in 1737 the new Royal Swedish Theatre was opened, Dalin led the way to a new school of dramatists with his Brynhilda, a regular tragedy in the style of Crebillon pere. In his comedy of The Envious Man he introduced the manner of Moliere, or more properly that of Holberg. His songs, his satires, his occasional pieces, without displaying any real originality, show Dalin's tact and skill as a workman with the pen. He stole from England and France, but with the plagiarism of a man of genius; and his multifarious labours raised Sweden to a level with the other literary countries of Europe. They formed a basis upon which more national and more scrupulous writers could build their various structures. A foreign critic, especially an English one, will never be able to give Dalin so much credit as the Swedes do; but he was certainly an unsurpassable master of pastiche. His works were collected in 6 vols., 1767.
The only poet of importance who contested the laurels of Dalin was a woman. Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht (1718-1763) was the centre of a society which took the Fr"Nordenname of Tankebyggare Orden and ventured to rival flycht. ygg that which Queen Louise Ulrica created and Dalin adorned. Both groups were classical in taste, both worshipped the new lights in England and France. Fru Nordenflycht wrote with facility and grace; her collection of lyrics, The Sorrowing Turtledove (1743), in spite of its affectation, enjoyed and merited a great success; it was the expression of a deep and genuine sorrow - the death of her husband after a very brief and happy married life. It was in 1744 that she settled in Stockholm and opened her famous literary salon. She was called " The Swedish Sappho," and scandal has been needlessly busy in giving point to the allusion. It was to Fru Nordenflycht's credit that she discovered and encouraged the talent of two very distinguished poets younger than herself, Creutz and Gyllenborg, who published volumes of poetry in collaboration. Count Gustaf Philip Creutz (q.v.; 1731-1785) was a Finlander who achieved an extraordinary success with his idyllic poems, and in particular with the beautiful pastoral of Atis och Camilla, long the most popular of all Swedish poems. His friend Count Gustaf Fredrik Gyllenborg. Gyllenborg (1731-1808) was a less accomplished poet, less delicate and touching, more rhetorical and artificial. His epic Taget Ofver Bait (" The Expedition across the Belt ") (1785) is an imitation, in twelve books, of Voltaire's Henriade, and deals with the prowess of Charles X. He wrote fables, allegories, satires, and a successful comedy of manners, The Swedish Fop. He outlived his chief contemporaries so long that the new generation addressed him as " Father Gyllenborg." Anders Odel (1718-1773) wrote in 1739 the famous " Song of Malcolm Sinclair," the Sinclairsvisa. The writers of verse in this period were also exceedingly numerous.
In prose, as was to be expected, the first half of the 18th century was rich in Sweden as elsewhere. The first Swedish novelist was Jakob Henrik Mork (1714-1763). His romances have some likeness to those of Richard son; they are moral, long-winded, and slow in evolution, but written in an exquisite style, and with much knowledge of human nature. Adalrik och Gothilda, which went on appearing from 1742 to 1745, is the best known; it was followed, between 1748 and 1758, by Thecla. Jakob Wallenberg (1746-1778) described a voyage he took to the East Indies and China under the very odd title of Min son pei galejan (" My Son at the Galleys "), a work full of humour and originality.
Johan Ihre (1707-1780), a professor at Upsala, edited the Codex argenteus of Ulfilas, and produced the valuable Svenskt Dialect Lexicon (1766) based on an earlier learned work, the Dialectologia of Archbishop Erik Benzelius (d. 1 743). He settled for some time at Oxford. Ihre's masterpiece is the Glossarium sueogothicum (1769), a historical dictionary with many valuable examples from the ancient monuments of the language. In doing this he was assisted by the labours of two other grammarians, Sven Hof (d. 1786) and Abraham Sahlstedt (d. 1776). The chief historians were Sven Lagerbring (1707-1787), author of a still valuable history of Sweden down to 1457 (Svea Rikes historia, 4 vols., 1769-1783); Olof Celsius (1716-1794), bishop of Lund, who wrote histories of Gustavus I. (1746-1753) and of Eric XIV. (1774); and Karl Gustaf Tessin (1695-1770) who wrote on politics and on aesthetics. Tessin's Old Man's Letters to a young Prince were addressed to his pupil, afterwards Gustavus III. Count Anders Johan von Hopken (1712-1789), the friend of Louise Ulrica, was a master of rhetorical compliment in addresses and funeral orations.
In spite of all the encouragement of the court, drama did not flourish in Sweden. Among the tragic writers of the age we may mention Dalin, Gyllenborg, and Erik Wrangel (1686-1765). In comedy Reinhold Gustaf Modee (d. 1752) wrote three good plays in rivalry of Holberg.
In science Linnaeus, or Karl von Linne (1707-1778), was the name of greatest genius in the whole century; but he wrote almost entirely in Latin. The two great Swedish chemists, Torbern Olof Bergman (1735-1784) and Karl Vilhelm Scheele (1742-1786), flourished at this time. In pathology a great name was left by Nils Rosen von Rosenstein (1706-1773), in navigation by Admiral Fredrik Henrik of Chapman (d. 1808), in philology by Karl Aurivillius (d. 1786). But these and other distinguished savants whose names might be enumerated scarcely belong to the history of Swedish literature. The same may be said about that marvellous and many-sided genius, Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), who, though the son of a Swedish poet, preferred to prophesy to the world in Latin.
What is called the Gustavian period is supposed to commence with the reign of Gustavus III. in 1771 and to close with the abdication of Gustavus IV. in 1809. This period of less than forty years was particularly Gustavian rich in literary talent, and the taste of the people Period. in literary matters widened to a remarkable extent. Journalism began to develop; the Swedish Academy was founded; the drama first learned to flourish in Stockholm; and literature began to take a characteristically national shape. This fruitful period naturally divides itself into two divisions, equivalent to the reigns of the two kings. The royal personages of Sweden have commonly been protectors of literature; they have strangely often been able men of letters themselves. Gustavus III. (1746-1792), the founder of the Swedish Academy and of the Swedish theatre, was himself a playwright of no mean ability. One of his prose dramas, Siri Brahe och Johan Gyllenstjerna, held the stage for many years. But his best work was his national drama of Gustaf Vasa (1783), written by the king in prose, and afterwards versified by Kellgren. In 1773 the king opened the national theatre in Stockholm, and on that occasion an opera of Thetis och Pelee was performed, written by himself. In 1786 Gustavus created the Swedish Academy, on the lines of the French Academy, but with eighteen members instead of forty. The first list of immortals, which included the survivors of a previous age and such young celebrities as Kellgren and Leopold, embraced all that was most brilliant in the best society of Stockholm; the king himself presided, and won the first prize for an oration. The works of Gustavus III. in six volumes were printed at Stockholm in 1802-1806.
The principal writers of the reign of Gustavus III. bear the name of the academical school. But Karl Mikael Bellman ( q.v.; 1 74 0 - 1 795), the most original and one of the most able of all Swedish writers, an improvisatore of the first order, had nothing academical in his composition. The riot of his dithyrambic hymns sounded a strange note of nature amid the conventional music of the Gustavians. Of the academical poets Johan Gabriel Oxenstjerna (1750-1818), the nephew of Gyllenborg, was a descriptive idyllist of grace.
He translated Paradise Lost. A writer of far more power and versatility was Johan Henrik Kellgren (q.v.; 1751-1795), the, leader of taste in his time. He was the first writer Kellgren of the end of the century in Sweden, and the second undoubtedly was Karl Gustaf of Leopold' (1756-1829),. " the blind seer Tiresias-Leopold," who lived on to represent the old school in the midst of romantic times. Leopold attracted the notice of Gustavus III. by a volume of Erotic Odes (1785). The king gave him a pension and rooms in the palace, admitting him on intimate terms. He was not equal to Kellgren in general poetical ability, but he is great in didactic and satiric writing. He wrote a satire, the Enebomiad, against a certain luckless Per Enebom, and a classic tragedy of Virginia. Gudmund Goran Adlerbeth (1751-1818) made translations from the classics and from the Norse, and was the author of a successful tragic opera, Cora och Alonzo (1782). Anna Maria Lenngren (1754-1817) was a very popular sentimental writer of graceful domestic verse, chiefly between 1792 and 1798. She was less French and more national than most of her contemporaries; she is a Swedish Mrs Hemans. Much of her work appeared anonymously, and was generally attributed to her contemporaries Kellgren and Leopold.
Two writers of the academic period, besides Bellman, and a. generation later than he, kept apart, and served to lead up to. the romantic' revival. Bengt Lidner (1759-1793), a melancholy and professedly elegiacal writer, had analogies with Novalis. He interrupted his studies at the university by a voyage to the East Indies, and only returned to Stockholm after many adventures. In spite of the patronage of Gustavus III. he continued to lead a disordered, wandering life, and died in poverty. A short narrative poem, The Death of the Countess Spastara (1783), has retained its popularity. Lidner was a genuine poet, and his lack of durable success must be set down to faults of character, not to lack of inspiration. His poems appeared in 1788. Thomas Thorild (1759-1808) was a much stronger nature, and led the revolt against prevailing taste with far more vigour. But he is an irregular Thorild. and inartistic versifier, and it is mainly as a prose writer, and especially as a very original and courageous critic, that he is now mainly remembered. He settled in Germany and died as a professor in Greifswald. Karl August Ehrensvard (1745-1800) may be mentioned here as a critic whose aims somewhat resembled those of Thorild. The creation of the Academy led to a great production of aesthetic and philosophical writing. Among critics of taste may be mentioned Nils Rosen von Rosenstein (1752-1824); the rhetorical bishop of Linkoping, Magnus Lehnberg (1758-1808); and Count Georg Adlersparre (1760-1809). Rosen von Rosenstein embraced the principles of the encyclopaedists while he was attached to the Swedish embassy in Paris. On his return to Sweden he became tutor to the crown prince, and held in succession a number of important offices. As the first secretary of the Swedish Academy he exercised great influence over Swedish literature and thought. His prose writings, which include prefaces to the works of Kellgren and Lidner, and an eloquent argument against Rousseau's theory of the injurious influence of art and letters, rank with the best of the period. Kellgren and Leopold were both of them important prose writers.
The excellent lyrical poet Frans Mikael Franzen (q.v.; 1772-1847) and a belated academician Johan David Valerius (1776-1852), fill up the space between the Gustavian period and the domination of romantic ideas from Germany. It began to issue the magazine called Iduna as its Gothic Society. organ. Of its patriotic editors the most prominent was Erik Gustaf Geijer (q.v.; 1783-1847), but he was presently joined by a young man slightly older than himself, Esaias Tegner (q.v.; 1782-1846), afterwards bishop of Getter. Vexio, the greatest of Swedish writers. Even more enthusi astic than either in pushing to its last extreme the Tegner. worship of ancient myths and manners was Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839), now better remembered as the father of gymnastic science than as a poet. The Gothic Society eventually included certain younger men than these - Arvid August Afzelius (1785-1871), the first editor of the Swedish folk-songs; Gustaf Vilhelm Gumaelius (1789-1877), who has been somewhat pretentiously styled " The Swedish Walter Scott," author of the historical novel of Tord Bonde; Baron Bernhard von Beskow (q.v.; 1796-1868), lyrist and dramatist; and Karl August Nicander (1799-1839), a lyric poet who approached the Phosphorists in manner. The two great lights of the Gothic school are Geijer, mainly in prose, and Tegner, in his splendid and copious verse. Johan Olof Wallin (1779-1839) may be mentioned in the same category, although he is really distinct from all the schools. He was archbishop of Upsala, and in 1819 he published the national hymn-book of Sweden; of the hymns in this collection, 126 are written by Wallin himself.
From 1810 to 1840 was the blossoming-time in Swedish poetry, and there were several writers of distinguished merit who could not be included in either of the groups enumerated above. Second only to Tegner in genius, the brief life and mysterious death of Erik Johan Stagnelius (1793-1823) have given a romantic interest to all that is connected with his name. His first publication was the epic of Vladimir the Great (1817); to this succeeded the romantic poem Blanda. His singular dramas, The Bacchantes (1822), Sigurd Ring, which was posthumous, and The Martyrs (1821), are esteemed by many critics to be his most original productions. His mystical lyrics, entitled Liljor i Saron (" Lilies in Sharon "; 1820), and his sonnets, which are the best in Swedish, may be recommended as among the most delicate products of the Scandinavian mind. Stagnelius has been compared, and not improperly, to Shelley.' Erik Sjoberg, who called himself " Vitalis " (1794-1828), was another gifted poet whose career was short and wretched. A volume of his poems appeared in 1820; they are few in number and all brief. His work divides itself into two classes - the one profoundly melancholy, the other witty or boisterous. Two humorous poets of the same period who deserve mention are Johan Anders Wadman (1777-1837), an improvisatore of the same class as Bellman, and Christian Erik Fahlcrantz (q.v.; 1790-1866).
Among the poets who have been mentioned above, the 2 His collected works were edited by C. Eichhorn (2 vols., Stockholm, 1867-1868). Several of Stagnelius' poems were translated into English by Edmund Gosse 1886).
first to endure bitter opposition and ridicule from the academic writers then in power, but they supported this with cheerfulness, and answered back in their magazines Polyfem and Fosforos (1810-1813). They were named " Fosforisterna " (" Phosphorists ") from the latter. Another principal member of the school was Karl Frederik Dahlgren (q.v.; 1791-1844), a humorist who owed much to the example of Bellman. Fru Julia Nyberg (1785-1854), under the title of Euphrosyne, was their tenth Muse, and wrote agreeable lyrics. Among the Phosphorists Atterbom was the man of most genius. On the side of the Academy they were vigorously attacked by Per Adam Wallmark (1777-1858), to whom they replied in a satire which was the joint work of several of the romanticists, Markall's Sleepless Nights. One of the innovators, Atterbom, eventually forced the doors of the Academy itself.
In 1811 certain young men in Stockholm founded a society for the elevation of society by means of the study of Scandinavian antiquity. This was the Gothic Society, which was Lorenzo Hammarskold1 8 182 who in (75-7) 1803 introduced the views of Tieck and Schelling by founding the society in Upsala called " Vitterhetens Va,nner," and by numerous critical essays. His chief work was Svenska vitterheten (1818, &c.) a history of Swedish literature. Hammarskold's society was succeeded in 1807 by the famous " Aurora m. forbundet," founded by two youths of genius, Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom (1790-1855) and Vilhelm Fredrik Palmblad (1788-1852). These young men had at 1 His works were edited by C. R. Nyblom (2 vols., 1873).
majority distinguished themselves also in prose. But the period was not. one in which Swedish prose shone with any special lustre. The first prosaist of the time was, without question, the novelist, Karl Jonas Ludvig Almqvist, Almqvist. v 1793-1866),around whose extraordinary
? Y personal character and career a mythical romance has already collected (see ALmQvisT). He was encyclopaedic in his range, although his stories preserve most charm; on whatever subject he wrote his style was always exquisite. Fredrik Cederborgh (1784-1835) revived the comic novel in his Uno von Trasenberg  and Ottar Trailing. The historical novels of Gumaelius have already been alluded to. Swedish history supplied themes for the romances of Count Per Georg Sparre (1790-1871) and of Gustaf Henrik Mellin (1803-1876). But all these writers sink before the sustained popularity of the Finnish poet Fredrika Bremer (q.v.; 1801-1865), whose stories reached farther into the distant provinces of the world of letters than the writings of any other Swede except Tegner. She was preceded by Sofia Margareta Zelow, afterwards Baroness von Knorring (1797-1848), who wrote a long series of aristocratic novels.
A polemical writer of great talent was Magnus Jakob Crusenstople (1795-1865), of whose work it has been said that " it is not history and it is not fiction, but something brilliant between the one and the other." As an historian of Swedish literature Per Wieselgren (1800-1877) composed a valuable work, and made other valuable contributions to history and bibliography. In history we meet again with the great name of Geijer, with that of Jonas Hallenberg (1748-1834), and with that of Anders Magnus Strinnholm (1786-1862), whose labours in the field of Swedish history were extremely valuable. Geijer and Strinnholm prepared the way for the most popular of all Swedish historians, Anders Fryxell (1795-1881), whose famous Berdttelser ur svenska historien appeared in parts during a space of nearly sixty years, and awakened a great interest in Swedish history and legend.
In 1850 the first poet of Sweden, without a rival, was Johan Ludvig Runeberg (q.v.; 1804-1877), whose reputation rivals Runeberg: that of Tegner. Bernhard Elis Malmstrom (1816-1865), who was a professor of aesthetics at the university of Upsala, was the author of many important books on artistic and literary history, notably a monograph on Franzen. His poetry, although small in volume, gives him a place beside Runeberg. A volume of elegies, Angelika (1840), established his fame, and two volumes of poems published in 1845 and 1847 contain a number of ballads, romances and lyrics which keep their hold on Swedish literature. He was an exact and discriminating critic, and inclined to severity in his strictures on the romanticists. The other leading verse-writers were Karl Vilhelm Bottiger (1807-1878), the son-in-law and biographer of Tegner, who, in addition to his lyrical poetry, chiefly of the sentimental kind, wrote an admirable series of monographs on Swedish men of letters; Johan Borjesson (1790-1866), the last of the Phosphorists, author of various romantic dramas; Vilhelm August Detlof von Braun (1813-1860), a humorous lyrist; " Talis Qualis," whose real name was Karl Vilhelm August Strandberg (1818-1877); Oscar Patrick Sturzen-Becker (181'- 1869), better known as " Orvar Odd," a lyrical poet who was also the author of a series of amusing sketches of everyday life; and August Teodor Blanche (1811-1868), the popular dramatist. Blanche produced a number of farces and comedies which were announced as pictures from real life. His pieces abound in comic situations, and some of them, Magister Blackstadius (1844), Rika Morbror (1845), En tragedi i Vimtnerby (1848) and others, maintain their reputation. Fredrik August Dahlgren (1816-1895) gained a great reputation as a dramatist by his national opera, Vermleindingarne (1846). He is also the author of translations from Shakespeare and Calderon, and of considerable historical works. Other notable plays of the period were the En Komedi of J. C. John (1818-1884) and the Brollopet på Ulfasa (1865) of Frans Hedberg (1828-1908). But Runeberg is the only great poetic name of this period.
In prose there was not even a Runeberg. The best novelist of the time was Emilie Flygare-Carlen (1807-1892). The art was sustained by Karl Anton Wetterbergh (1804-1889), who called himself " Onkel Adam," by August Blanche the dramatist, and by Marie Sofie Schwartz (1819-1892). Fru Schwartz (née Birat) wrote novels demonstrating the rights of the poor against the rich, of which The Man of Birth and the IVoman of the People (Eng. trans., 1868) is a good example. Lars Johan Hierta (1801-1872) was the leading journalist, Johan Henrik Thomander, bishop of Lund (1798-1865), the greatest orator, Matthias Alexander Castren (1813-1852) a prominent man of science, and Karl Gustaf af Forsell (1783-1848), the principal statistician of this not very brilliant period. Elias Lonnrot (q.v.; 1802-1884) is distinguished as the Finnish professor who discovered and edited the Kalevala. The most popular poet at the close of the 19th century was the patriotic Finn, Zakris Topelius (q.v.; 1818-1898). Of less importance were Karl Herman Satherberg (1812-1897), a romantic poet who was also a practising physician of distinction; the elegiac poet Johan Nybom (1815-1889); and the poet, novelist, and dramatist Frans Hedberg (d. 1908), who in his old age made many concessions to the modern taste. The posthumous poems of the bishop of Strangnas, Adam Teodor StrOmberg (1820:1889), were collected by Wirsen, and created some sensation. A typical academician was the poet, antiquary and connoisseur, Nils Fredrik Sander (1828-1900). The improvisator of Gluntarne, Gunnar Wennerberg (q.v.; 1817-1 9 01) survived as a romantic figure of the past. Still older was the poetess Wilhelmina Nordstrom (1815-1902), long a schoolmistress in Finland. The aesthetic critic and poet, Carl Rupert Nyblom (1832-1907), continued the studies, translations and original pieces which had created him a reputation as one of the most accomplished general writers of Sweden. His wife, Helene Nyblom, was well known as a novelist. A. T. Gellerstedt (b. 1836), an architect of position, was known as a poet of small range but of very fine quality. Among writers of the earlier generation were Achatius Johan Kahl. (1794-1888), the biographer of Tegner; Per Erik Bergfalk (1798-1890), the critic and supporter of Geijer; the distinguished historian and academician, Karl Johan Schlyter (1795-1888) and the historical writers, Fredrik Ferdinand Carlson (1811-1887), Vilhelm Erik Svedelius (1816-1889), and Martin Weibull (1835-1902). The work of King Oscar II. (q.v.) himself had given him a worthy place among the intellectuals of the country. But the interest of such veteran reputations is eclipsed by the more modern school.
The serenity of Swedish literature was rudely shaken about 1884 by an incursion of realism and by a stream of novel and violent imaginative impulse. The controversy between the old and the new schools raged so fiercely, and the victory has remained so obviously in the hands of the latter, that it is difficult, especially for a foreigner, to hold the balance perfectly even. It will therefore be best in this brief sketch to say that the leader of the elder school was Viktor Rydberg (q.v.; 1828-1895) and that he was ably supported by Carl Snoilsky (q.v.; 1841-1 9 04) who at the beginning of the 20th century was the principal living poet of the bygone generation in Sweden. Snoilsky was prominent for the richness of his lyrical style, his cosmopolitan interests and his great width of culture. Carl David af Wirsen (b. 1842) distinguished himself, and made himself very unhappy, by his dogged resistance to every species of renaissance in Swedish thought, or art, or literature. A man of great talent, he was a violent reactionary, and suffered from the consequences of an attitude so unpopular. He found a vehicle for his criticism in the Post och Inrikes Tidningar, of which he was editor. He published his Lyrical Poems in 1876; New Lyrical Poems in 1880; Songs and Sketches in 1885.
Four influences may be mentioned as having acted upon young Sweden, and as having combined to release its literature from the old hard-bound conventions. These are English philosophy in the writings of Herbert Spencer, French realism in the practice and the preaching of Zola, Norwegian drama mainly through Ibsen, and Danish criticism in the essays and monographs of Georg Brandes. Unquestionably the greatest name in recent Swedish literature is that of Johan August Strindberg (q.v.; b. 1849). His drama of Master Olof in 1878 began the revolutionary movement. In 1879 the success of his realistic novel, The Red Room, fixed universal attention upon his talent. It was the sensation caused in 1884 by the lawsuit brought against Strindberg's Married (a collection of short stories dealing realistically with some of the seamy sides of marriage) which brought to a head the rebellion against the elegant and superficial conventions which were strangling Swedish literature. He affronts every canon of taste, more by a radical absence, it would seem, of the sense of proportion than by any desire to shock. His diatribes against woman suggest a touch of madness, and he was in fact at one time seized with an attack of insanity. He writes like a man whose view is distorted by physical or mental pain. His phraseology and his turns of invention are too empirically pseudoscientific for the simplicity of nature. With all these faults, and in spite of a terrible vulgarity of mind, an absence of humour, and a boundless confidence in the philosophy of Nietzsche, Strindberg is a writer of very remarkable power and unquestionable originality. His mind underwent singular transformations. After devoting himself wholly to realism of the coarsest kind, he began in 1889 his series of mystico-pathological novels about life in the archipelago of Stockholm. This led him to a culte du moi, of which the strangest result was an autobiography of crude invective, A Fool's Confession (1893), the printing of which in Swedish was forbidden. He rapidly passed on, through books like Inferno (1897), the diary of a semi-lunatic, up into the sheer mysticism of To Damascus (1898), where he reconciles himself at last to Christianity. His best work is classic in its breadth of style, exquisite in local colour and fidelity to the national characteristics of Sweden.
A curious antidote to the harsh pessimism of Strindberg was offered by the delicate and fantastic temperament of Ola Hansson (b. 1860), whose poems came prominently before the public in 1884, and who, in Sensitiva amorosa (1887), preached a gospel of austere self-restraint. Hansson has been as ardent in the idolatry of woman as Strindberg has been in his hostility to the sex. Of those who have worked side by side with Strindberg, the most prominent and active was Gustaf of Geijerstam (b. 1858), in his curious and severely realistic studies of country life in his Poor People (1884) and other books. In 1885 he produced a gloomy sketch of student life at Upsala, Erik Grane, which made a great sensation. Since then Geijerstam has published more than forty volumes, and has become one of the most popular writers of the north of Europe. A melancholy interest surrounds the name of Victoria Benedictsson (Ernst Ahlgren, 1850-1889), who committed suicide in Copenhagen after achieving marked success with her sketches of humble life in Fran Shine, and with the more ambitious works Money and Marianne. She was perhaps the most original of the many women writers of modern Sweden, and Money was hailed by Swedish critics as the most important work of fiction since Strindberg's Red Room. Her biography, a most affecting narrative, was published by Ellen Key, and her autobiography by Axel Lundegard (b. 1861), who, after some miscellaneous writing, produced in 1889 a curious novel of analysis called The Red Prince, and who, becoming a devout clerical, published a number of popular stories in a neo-romantic manner. In1898-1900he produced a historical trilogy, Struensee, tracing the career of the minister from his early years as a doctor in Altona to his final downfall. In 1904 appeared the first volume of a second historical trilogy, The Story of Queen Philippa. Fru Alfhild Agrell (nee Martin), who was born in 1849, produced a series of plays dealing with the woman question, Rescued (1883) and others. She also showed great ability as a novelist, among the best of her books being a series of sketches of country life (1884-1887). An historical novelist of unequal powers, but great occasional merit, is Matilda Malling, nee Kruse (b. 1864), whose romance about Napoleon (1894) enjoyed a huge success. Tor Hedberg (b. 1861) also began as a decided realist, and turned to a more psychological and idealist treatment of life. His most striking work was Judas (1886); he has written some excellent dramas. Late successes in the novel has been those of Hilma, Angered-Strandberg (On the Prairie, 1898) and Gustaf Janson (Paradise, 1900). The most remarkable of the novelists of the latest group is Selma LagerlOf (b. 1858), who achieved a great success with Costa Berlings Saga in 1891-5892. She employs the Swedish language with an extraordinary richness and variety, and stands in the front rank of Swedish novelists. But perhaps the most cosmopolitan recent novelist of Sweden is Per Hallstrom (b. 1866), who spent much of his youth in America, and appeared as an imaginative writer first in 1891. He has published volumes of ballads, short stories and sketches, fantastic and humoristic, all admirable in style. His play, A Venetian Comedy, enjoyed a substantial success in 1904.
Among the recent lyrical poets of Sweden, the first to adopt the naturalistic manner was Albert Ulrik Baath (b. 1853), whose earliest poems appeared in 1879. In h