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The traditional lands of Sweden. (Different stages of expansion marked by shades. Borders as of year 1700.)
This article is part of the
Scandinavia series
Viking Age
Political entities
History of Scandinavia

Sweden–Finland is a controversial historiographical term referring to the Swedish Kingdom from the Kalmar Union to the Napoleonic wars, or the period from the 14th to the 18th century. In 1809 the realm was split and the eastern half came to constitute the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, in personal union with Imperial Russia. The term was coined by nationalist Finnish historians during the 1930s, but it has since then been dropped from professional historiography. It remains in use in everyday Finnish speech.

Although the term has didactic merits, for instance when used in conjunction with the term Denmark-Norway, it is misleading because from the Middle Ages up to 1809 what now is Finland was an integrated part of the Swedish kingdom. Finland until 1809 was considered as one of four Swedish lands. However, it was different from Götaland and Svealand, but not Norrland, in that Swedish was not the majority language in this part of the kingdom, except for some areas along the coastline and amongst the nobility and the urban upper classes. During the time of the Swedish Empire Sweden-Finland was identical to Sweden proper; other overseas possessions constituted the dominions of Sweden.

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