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The New Church (or Swedenborgianism) is the name for a religious movement developed from the writings of the Swedish scientist and theologian Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772). Swedenborg claimed to have received a new revelation from continuous heavenly visions which he experienced over a period of at least twenty-five years. In his writings he predicted that the Lord would establish a "New Church" following the Church of traditional Christianity, which worships God in one person, Jesus Christ. The New Church doctrine is that each person must actively cooperate in repentance, reformation and regeneration of one's life[1] The movement was founded on the belief that God explained the spiritual meaning of the the Scriptures to Swedenborg as a means of revealing the truth of the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Followers believe that Swedenborg witnessed the Last Judgment in the spiritual world, along with the inauguration of the New Church.

The New Church is seen by members of New Church organizations as something which the Lord is establishing with all those who believe that the Lord, Jesus Christ is the One God of Heaven and Earth, and that obeying His commandments is necessary for salvation. Therefore, it is thought that any Christian holding these beliefs is part of this New Church movement. New Church organizations acknowledge the universal nature of the movement: all who do good from the truth of their religion will be accepted by the Lord into heaven, as God is goodness itself, and doing good conjoins oneself to God.[2] The doctrine of the New Church, which is derived from scripture, provides the benefit of further enlightenment concerning the truth, and this leads to less doubt, a recognition of personal faults, and thus a more directed and happier life.[3]

Other names for the movement include Swedenborgian, New Christians, Neo-Christians, Church of the New Jerusalem and The Lord's New Church. Those outside of the church may refer to the movement as Swedenborgianism; however, some adherents seek to distance themselves from this title, since it implies a following of Swedenborg rather than Jesus Christ. Swedenborg published his works anonymously, and his writings promoted one Church based on love and charity, rather than multiple churches named after their founders based on belief or doctrine.[4]

Contents

Beliefs

The doctrines of the New Church are as follows:

  1. That there is one God and that He is the Lord Jesus Christ. Within the single Person of God there is a Divine Trinity.
  2. That a saving faith is to believe in Him and also to live a life of charity and piety as described in his writings.
  3. That all evils originate in mankind and are to be shunned.
  4. That good actions are of God and from God, and are therefore necessary for life and should be done.
  5. That these good acts are to be done by a person as if from him/herself; but that it ought to be acknowledged that they are done from the Lord with him/her and by him/her.
  6. That one's fate after death is according to the character one has acquired in life; specifically that those governed by the love of the Lord or the love of being useful to others are in heaven, and that those governed by love of self or the love of worldly things are in hell.
  7. That marriage can take place in heaven.
  8. That salvation is available to people from all religions, regardless if they embrace the cross of Jesus Christ to reconcile them with God or not, as long as they are prepared to live a good life.

(see Swedenborg's True Christian Religion, author's introduction)

Swedenborg held that God is one person revealed in Jesus Christ, which was later independently expressed by modern day Oneness Pentecostalism. He stated that the doctrine of a trinity of three persons originated in the fourth century with the adoption of the Nicene Creed to combat the heresy of Arianism, but this was unknown to the early Apostolic Church, as shown by the Apostles' Creed which preceded the Nicene Creed.[5]

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The Doctrine of the Lord

  • The Lord created mankind because He is Love Itself, and Love seeks to make others outside of self happy. The purpose of creation was that God be conjoined to mankind by the reciprocation of His Love. To be in His Love is to love others, and by loving others one also loves Him. He has always provided through revelation of Himself that this end may be met. When, on account of humankind choosing evil, connection with Him was almost entirely lost He had to reveal Himself in a way that would never lose effect.
  • The Infinite God of the Universe (Jehovah) came into this world within the human form of Jesus Christ. He came in order to permanently restore mankind's ability to have conjunction with Him and by His divine human life show people the path to spiritual freedom.
    • Jesus was born with a purely Divine soul. From His Divine Will He struggled against every evil that humanity encounters by allowing the evils of Hell to attack Him on the battleground of His Human form. He overcame evil in every instance, and made His human form One with His uniquely Divine Soul, even as to the flesh and bones. Jesus Christ, thus, entirely became the One God through a process of removing the natural human imperfections and uniting His Divine Soul with His human form.
    • The New Church has been seen as a proponent of Modalism, however, it does not see God as appearing in three sequential modes. God is seen as the One Divine Person, Jesus Christ, who has a Divine soul of love, Divine mind of truth, and Divine body of activity. Jesus, the Word made flesh, became entirely One with His Divine Soul from the Father to the point of having no distinction of personality. It is believed that this doctrine retains both the Unity of God as well as the full Divinity of Christ, and thus that it is not necessary to split God into a Trinity of persons. The Oneness Pentecostal view is similar.
  • This earth and all of nature is part of the Lord's Kingdom, and in nature we can see the Love and Wisdom of the Lord manifested, but not apart from written revelation.

The Doctrine of Life

  • Following Him is seen as the only loving and rational choice one can make, since He is the One Source of all love and truth. If one is learning truth or doing good, it is from Him, whether or not one consciously knows that He is the source.

The Afterlife

  • Every one of us can become angels if we choose to stop doing evil actions and allow the Lord's presence to grow within us. All angels in Heaven and Devils in Hell were once people on earth.
  • The Lord created us all to go to heaven, but He does not make anyone go there. We freely choose our eternal destiny.
    • People of all faiths come into heaven if they have followed their beliefs sincerely and loved God and their neighbors. A person is seen as responsible for their reaction to the truth when it is made known to them. Those who love evil tend to choose to reject the truth, whereas those who love good choose to receive it openly. When good people enter heaven they all come to acknowledge Jesus Christ as the One God of Heaven and Earth.
    • Those who go to Hell have chosen Hell because they enjoy Hellish delights, which in Hell are only allowed to be enjoyed as fantasy.

Sacraments

Baptism and Eucharist

There are two primary sacraments of the New Church: Baptism and the Eucharist (also Communion, or Holy Supper). These are external rituals that are symbolic of the inner spiritual life.[6] Baptism signifies one's entry into Christianity, and signifies the reformation of the mind, where falsity is washed away by truth. The baptism ritual should be done when one has reached the age of reason to make the decision to follow Jesus Christ, and yet, Swedenborg states that infants who are baptized are assigned a guardian angel until they reach the proper age, to guide them into the Christian faith.[7] The Holy Supper, or Communion, signifies the regeneration of one's will in accordance with God's commandments, which causes the Lord to commune closely with man in his heart. Thus everyone should examine his or her life before partaking in the Holy Supper, in order for the ritual to fulfill its purpose.

Marriage

A personal sacrament of the New Church is the rite of marriage, as administration by a priest is considered more of an expediency rather than a necessity. It is not mentioned as a sacrament along with Baptism and the Holy Supper. However elsewhere Swedenborg states that marriage should be administered by a priest "because marriages, considered in themselves, are spiritual, and thence holy; for they descend from the heavenly marriage of good and truth, and things conjugial correspond to the divine marriage of the Lord and the church; and hence they are from the Lord himself."[8] Moreover, true marriage love is founded in religion, as they both originate from God. Without a religious foundation, a marriage can turn cold.[9] Marriage that is truly spiritual lasts forever, even in heaven after death. There, the two remain male and female as to form, and become one angel as to their soul. As a couple they live a life of useful service in the Lord's Heavenly Kingdom, which is perfected to eternity. If a person dies unmarried he or she will find a spouse in heaven.

Man is a form of truth, and the woman is a form of love, and the two make one. Marriage love comes directly from the sphere of heaven into all humans, and a life of celibacy interferes with this.[10] Thus marriage is to be preferred to a state of remaining celibate.[11]

Biblical Canon

The Word of God is contained in the Bible, which has a symbolic spiritual meaning hidden in its literal sense. Swedenborg's visions primarily explain how and why the Bible is Divinely Inspired, and it is methodically delineated word by word in his massive multi-volume work, the Arcana Coelestia (meaning Heavenly Secrets). The symbolic language, where each passage follows the other in a coherent logical series, is what Swedenborg called "correspondences." This inner meaning was kept hidden, and could only have been discovered through revelation, which was made available when mankind was ready to receive it. It is this hidden inner meaning that separates the Bible from other books, and each statement Swedenborg makes is supported through numerous quotations of Biblical passages. The books that have this inner spiritual meaning is what forms the true Biblical Canon, as follows:

Old Testament

According to Swedenborg, the original text of the Old Testament is preserved in the Hebrew Masoretic edition, where letters were counted by the Masorites to ensure that the scripture remained accurate free from corruption.[12] Similar to Judaism, Swedenborg divides the Old Testament into three main divisions: the Law of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms. The same divisions were specified by Jesus Christ in the gospel of Luke (Luke 24:44). The books of the Bible that have an internal spiritual sense, and are thus Divinely Inspired, include the Law of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings), the Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zephaniah, Malachi) and the Psalms.[13] Swedenborg's groupings differ from Judaism, as he assigned Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings to the Law of Moses, as according to the Jewish Biblical Canon the Law of Moses (the Torah) refers to the first five books or the Pentateuch, and these four books belong to the Prophets (Nevi'im) in the Jewish canon. However, in other passages Swedenborg states that Moses and Elijah represent the Law and the Prophets respectively,[14] and as Elijah appears in the book of Kings that would indicate that this book should belong among the Prophets.

The other books of the Old Testament, which are not Divinely Inspired as they do not have an internal spiritual correspondence, include those that are generally grouped by the Jews under the "Writings" (Ketuvim), separate from the Law of Moses and the Prophets. In the Greek Septuagint Bible, these works were mixed in with the rest of scripture, which largely determined the Biblical book order for all of Christianity. Moreover the Greek Septuagint introduced other writings among the Hebrew scripture, which Martin Luther properly removed and placed them among the Apocrypha. Among the Writings the Jews included Lamentations, Daniel, and sometimes the Psalms, which the New Church states are Divinely Inspired and are considered as primary sacred scripture. Of the other books in the Writings, Swedenborg takes special note of the book of Job and the Song of Songs. These books do indeed contain symbolic representations similar to Divinely Inspired scripture, but not in a complete series.[15]

New Testament

Among the books of the New Testament, the New Church regards the words of Jesus as Divinely Inspired, and thus the canon of sacred scripture includes only the four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John) and the book of Revelation or the Apocalypse.[16] Only these books contain an internal symbolism in a series, and are thus Divinely Inspired. Although this leaves out the book of Acts and the letters of the apostles, the New Church holds them in similar esteem as the Jews viewed the Writings (or Ketuvim) of the Old Testament. Swedenborg stated that these books were included as an act of Divine providence, as books explaining Christian doctrine were needed for the general public.[17] Paul did indeed speak from inspiration, but not in the same manner in which the text he wrote has an internal spiritual correspondence, as does sacred scripture.[18]

Pre-Biblical Texts

Swedenborg stated that there were a set of sacred texts among an "Ancient Church" in the Middle East which preceded Judaism, which he called the Ancient Word. These were Divinely Inspired, but they were falsified by many, until the texts became lost over time. Some of these are quoted in the Bible, such as The Wars of Jehovah (Num. 21:14-15) and another book similar to those in the Prophets (Num. 21:27-30).[19] Another work that belonged to the Ancient Church was the book of Jasher, which is also quoted in the Bible (Josh. 10:12-13, 2 Sam. 1:17-18), which Swedenborg stated was still extant in Tartary.[20] Curiously, a Hebrew midrash called Jasher (see Sefer haYashar) was published in Venice in 1625, and an English translation was published in 1840. The Hebrew text was examined by George Bush (biblical scholar) a relative of the Bush political family, who later became a Swedenborgian minister. Although the New Church has no official position on this Hebrew text, Swedenborg stated that the first portions of Genesis was taken from the Ancient Word,[21] and these portions do happen to be found in the book of Jasher. Scholars, however, have identified late additions to this Hebrew text.

Eschatology

There is no "end of the world" where the visible heaven and earth will disappear. Instead, the church has passed through different ages or dispensations, each ending with a Last Judgment that occurs in the spiritual world. The last of these took place in the year 1757. Previous last judgments had occurred at the time of Noah's Flood, and at the passion of the cross by Jesus Christ. The purpose of these last judgments is to separate the good from the evil in the intermediate spiritual world, which lies between heaven and hell. As a result of these periodic judgments, a new age or New Church begins among the people on earth. The Second Coming of the Lord is not a coming in person as the Word incarnate, but His coming is the revelation of the spiritual symbolism in the Bible, and the formation of a New Church as a result of this revelation.[22]

There have been four Churches or dispensations preceding the New Church on this earth: the first was the "Most Ancient Church" before the flood, where contact with heaven was direct. The second was the "Ancient Church" which followed the flood, which was destroyed by idolatry. The third was Judaism, which began with the revelation of the Decalogue to Moses on Mt. Sinai. The fourth is Christianity established by Jesus and his apostles, which over time became divided primarily into the Orthodox Church, the Catholic Church, and Protestantism.[23] The New Church, which is the final phase or dispensation, is a renewal of Christianity based on the Lord's Second Coming.[24] The New Church is the fulfillment of the prophecy of the heavenly New Jerusalem which descends out of heaven in the book of Revelation.[25] Swedenborg stated that the establishment of the New Church would happen gradually, and not in a moment, as the false beliefs of the former Church had to first be set aside.[26]

History

Swedenborg spoke of a "New Church" that would be founded on the theology in his works, but he himself never tried to establish an organization. At the time of his death, few efforts had been made to establish an organized church, but on May 7, 1787, 15 years after Swedenborg's death, the New Church movement was founded in England. It was a country Swedenborg had often visited and where he died. By 1789 a number of Churches had sprung up around England and in April of that year the first General Conference of the New Church was held in Great Eastcheap, London. New Church ideas were carried to United States by missionaries. One famous missionary was John Chapman, known as Johnny Appleseed.

Early missionaries also traveled to parts of Africa as Swedenborg himself believed that the "African race" was "in greater enlightenment than others on this earth, since they are such that they think more interiorly, and so receive truths and acknowledge them." (A Treatise concerning the Last Judgment, n. 118) At the time these concepts of African enlightenment were judged highly liberal; Swedenborgians accepted freed African converts to their homes as early as 1790. Several of them were also involved in abolitionism.[27]

In the 19th century, occultism became increasingly popular especially in France and England. Some followers blended Swedenborg's writings with theosophy, alchemy and divination. What fascinated these followers most was Swedenborg's mystical side. They concentrated on his work Heaven and Hell. It tells of Swedenborg's visit to Heaven and Hell to experience and report the conditions there. In structure, it was related to Dante's The Divine Comedy. Some continue to combine the theology of the New Church with ideas from other systems, including Jungian psychology and Spiritualism.

Bryn Athyn Cathedral

In the U.S., the church was organized in 1817 with the founding of the General Convention of the New Church (sometimes referred to as the Convention,) now also known as the Swedenborgian Church of North America.

The movement in the United States grew stronger until the late 19th century. A controversy about doctrinal issues and the authority of Swedenborg's writings caused a faction to split off to form the Academy of the New Church. It later became known as the General Church of New Jerusalem (sometimes referred to as the General Church,) with headquarters in Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia.

In the 1930s, a doctrinal issue about the authority of Swedenborg's writings arose in the General Church. Members in the Hague branch of the General Church saw Swedenborg's theological writings as the Word of the Third Testament, which they wrote about extensively in their Dutch magazine De Hemelsche Leer. Faced with discipline by the leading Bishop of the General Church, those holding this new doctrinal view split off to form the Lord's New Church Which Is Nova Hierosolyma.

Today, the General Church has about 5,000 members in 33 churches. The Swedenborgian Church of North America, with headquarters in Newton, a suburb of Boston, now has 37 active churches with about 1,500 members in the U.S. The Lord's New Church Which Is Nova Hierosolyma, with headquarters in Bryn Athyn, now has about 28 active churches with about 1900 members worldwide.

As of 2000 the most recent membership figures for the Four Church Organizations were:[28]

  • General Conference (Great Britain): 1,314
  • General Convention (USA): 2,029
  • General Church of the New Jerusalem: 5,563
  • The Lord's New Church Which Is Nova Hierosolyma: 1,000

The Lord's New Church is primarily associated with South Africa, although roughly 200 members are found in the United States. It is noted for its concern for social justice. The nations of Australia and Germany are estimated to have 504 and 200 members, respectively. When counting additional members in Asia, Africa, and South America, current sources put the total of Swedenborgians as between 25,000-30,000.

Membership in the New Church has always been small, and the different organizations have been heavily involved in publishing activities. In terms of doctrine, there is a striking similarity between the New Church and the Oneness Pentecostalism movement of the twentieth century, which developed in a manner completely independent from the writings of Swedenborg. The movement is completely separate, and some make short reference to Emanuel Swedenborg, who had preceded their church by over 150 years.

Suppression and Censorship

Certain Christian denominations and organizations may ignore, suppress or distort the doctrines of the New Church and Emanuel Swedenborg. This is largely due to the pure monotheistic nature of the New Church doctrine which declares that there is one God in one person, Jesus Christ. The older churches derive a belief in a trinity of three persons from the Nicene Creed of the fourth century, and the Athanasian Creed of the fifth century, and much of their theology is founded on that belief. Others will reject the teachings on the sole basis that Swedenborg claimed to have visions. With this sort of impasse, certain ministers and clergy of other denominations who recognize the value of the teachings privately make use of them in their public sermons, without acknowledging Swedenborg as the source. Some members of the New Church call them "closet Swedenborgians."

The earliest and most well known example of this dual treatment comes from none other than the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, who was a contemporary of Swedenborg. Swedenborg was relatively unknown until 1759 when a fire broke out in Stockholm, Sweden, which threatened to burn down his house and all his writings. At the time Swedenborg was at a dinner in Gothenburg, 480 kilometres away. He suddenly turned pale and described to the guests exactly what was happening, until the fire was put out three houses down from his house. This unintended demonstration of clairvoyance became well known, and was even investigated by Kant himself as he was now confronted with a way of obtaining knowledge that was not derived from logic or reasoning. He wrote letters to Swedenborg, and even purchased the entire set of Arcana Coelestia. This resulted in Kant publishing what scholars call one of his most "tortured" works,[29] Dreams of a Spirit-Seer, in which he criticized Swedenborg and knowledge derived from dreams and visions. However in private letters Kant confessed he clothed his views in irony, and had great admiration for Swedenborg, but did not publicly admit it for fear of ridicule.[30]

In 1768, a heresy trial was initiated in Sweden against Swedenborg's writings and two men who promoted these ideas. It was essentially concerned whether Swedenborg's theological writings were consistent with the Christian doctrines. A royal ordinance in 1770 declared that Swedenborg's writings were "clearly mistaken" and should not be taught even though his system of theological thought was never examined. Swedenborg's clerical supporters were ordered to cease using his teachings, and customs officials were directed to impound his books and stop their circulation in any district unless the nearest consistory granted permission. Swedenborg then begged the King for grace and protection in a letter from Amsterdam. A new investigation against Swedenborg stalled and was eventually dropped in 1778.[31]

An example of censorship in the form of omission was unearthed by Eric J. Sharpe in the evangelical biographies of a famous Indian Christian missionary Sadhu Sundar Singh (1889–1929). Sundar Singh was said to have a number of gifts, including healing and having visions. It is well documented that he claimed to have seen Emanuel Swedenborg in his visions. Yet Sharpe discovered that all the evangelical biographies would omit this fact, due to the fact they considered the teachings of Swedenborg as unorthodox (see "Biographical Controversies" in Sadhu Sundar Singh).

As of at least 2006, in England the English Conference of the New Jerusalem continues to deny admission to the National Ecumenical Christian council on the grounds that its theology is "insufficiently trinitarian".[32]

Influence

The writings of Swedenborg cover a wide area of subjects. Thus Swedenborg and the New Church have had influence in a number of other areas.

Mormonism

Researcher D. Michael Quinn suggests that Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of Mormonism, was influenced by the writings of Swedenborg. Like Swedenborg, Mormons believe in eternal marriage, but require that the ritual be performed in a Mormon temple (see Celestial Marriage). Also Joseph Smith's idea of three heavens is similar to Swedenborg's view that there are three heavens (see Heaven and Hell (Swedenborg)). Both Swedenborg and Joseph Smith refer to the highest heaven as "celestial", in concert with the usage of the apostle Paul (see 1 Corinthians 15:40-42) when he described a visit to the "third heaven". Other historians, including William J. Hamblin, seriously doubt whether Joseph Smith, living in rural upstate New York, could have had access to Swedenborg's book and so find Quinn's assertions problematic.[33] However, Edward Hunter, a Swedenborgian who later became a Mormon, reported that in 1839 Joseph Smith told him he was familiar with the writings of Swedenborg.[34]

New Thought Movement

New Thought is a spiritual movement that began in the United States in the late 19th century which promotes positive thinking and healing. One of its earliest proponents was Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, a healer who said that illnesses in the body originated from false beliefs in the mind. One of the people he healed was Warren Felt Evans, a Swedenborgian minister, who himself became a healer and published several books promoting New Thought and explaining it in terms of New Church doctrines. Swedenborg had stated that there was a correspondence of heaven with all things on earth,[35] and thus there is a correspondence between the mind and the body. In general, the organized churches based on New Thought (e.g., Unity Church, Religious Science, Church of Divine Science, Christian Science) have developed their own teachings separate from those of Swedenborg and the New Church, but some suspect that Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, was influenced by his writings.

Psychology

William James, the American psychologist and philosopher, was the son of Swedenborgian theologian Henry James, Sr.. William James described true beliefs as those that were useful to the believer, and promoted the view of pragmatism, which stated that the value of any truth was dependent on its use to the person who held it. He did important work in philosophy of religion (see his book, The Varieties of Religious Experience). James was influenced by Emanuel Swedenborg, as James believed that each person has a soul, which exists in a spiritual universe, and leads a person to perform the behaviors they do in the physical world. Moreover Swedenborg may have also influenced James' thoughts on pragmatism, as Swedenborg stated that a life according to God's love is to do what is good and true, which is to be useful. All knowledge should consider use as an end.[36] William James' book, Principles of Psychology has become the most influential textbook in the history of American psychology.

Carl Jung, founder of analytical psychology and a contemporary of Sigmund Freud, was familiar with the works of Swedenborg. He mentioned Swedenborg's clairvoyance of the fire of Stockholm in 1759 as an example of synchronicity.[37] Jung's ideas concerning the Collective Unconscious and archetypes shows an influence from Swedenborg, who had discussed symbols that often commonly appear in dreams and visions.

Other Notable People

Notable persons influenced either by Swedenborg's writing or by the New Church include:

Sir Isacc Pitman inventor of Shorthand was a prominent member of the Greek styled New Jerusalem church in Bath which closed in 2005. William Harbutt (Inventor of Plasticine) was a member at Bath too.

There are 25 churches left in England and a handful of ministers. The denomination in the 19th cent had over a hundred churches in the UK often very grand churches very Anglican in style with large chancels, side pulpits and altars. Nearly all of these churches have closed or rebuilt in the late 20th cent. Some remain in London.

References

  1. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. The True Christian Religion, containing the Universal Theology of the New Church, 1771. Trans. by John Ager. New York: The American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society, 1910, n. 108, 330, 647.
  2. ^ TCR, n. 536
  3. ^ TCR, n. 225-231, 352
  4. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. Arcana Coelestia, 1758. 12 vols. Translation revised and edited by J. F. Potts. New York: Swedenborg Foundation, 1905-1910, n. 1799.4.
  5. ^ TCR, n. 174-175.
  6. ^ AC, n. 1083.2, and TCR, n. 669.
  7. ^ TCR, n. 677-678
  8. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. Conjugial Love, n. 308.
  9. ^ CL, n. 238-243.
  10. ^ CL, n. 54.
  11. ^ CL, n. 156.
  12. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. The New Jerusalem Doctrine of Sacred Scripture, n. 13.4.
  13. ^ AC, n. 2606, 10325.
  14. ^ AC, n. 2135, 5922.5, 5922.8
  15. ^ AC, n. 1756.2, 3540.2, 3942.2, 9942.5.
  16. ^ AC, n. 10325.
  17. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. The Spiritual Diary, 1747-65. Trans. by George Bush, John H. Smithson and Buss, 1883-9, n. 4824.
  18. ^ SD, n. 6062.
  19. ^ AC, n. 1664.12, 2686, 9942.5, and Swedenborg, Emanuel. The New Jerusalem Doctrine of Sacred Scripture, 1763. Translated by John F. Potts, 1904, n. 102.
  20. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. Apocalypse Revealed, 1766. Trans. by John Whitehead, 1912, n. 11, and TCR, 266.
  21. ^ TCR, Index to Memorable Relations, 32.
  22. ^ TCR, n. 776.
  23. ^ TCR, n. 760, 786.
  24. ^ TCR, n. 115, 753, 754, 772, 773.
  25. ^ TCR, n. 118, 182, 197, 307.
  26. ^ TCR, 784.
  27. ^ Carl Bernhard Wadström: biography and bibliography
  28. ^ Religious Movements Homepage Project: Swedenborgianism
  29. ^ Palmquist, Stephen. Kant’s Criticism of Swedenborg: Parapsychology and the Origin of the Copernican Hypothesis.
  30. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Dreams of a Spirit-Seer, trans. by Emanuel F. Goerwitz, 1900, Appendix IV.
  31. ^ Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth (1999), pp.453-463.
  32. ^ Lawrence, James F. Swedenborg's Trail in the Coleridgean Landscape.
  33. ^ Hamblin, William J. "That Old Black Magic." FARMS Review 12.2 (2000): 225-394. The Neal A. Maxwell Institute For Religious Scholarship. Web. 01 Dec. 2009.
  34. ^ William E. Hunter, Edward Hunter: Faithful Steward (Salt Lake City: Publishers Press, 1970), 316.
  35. ^ HH, n. 103-107.
  36. ^ AC, n. 503.
  37. ^ Jung, Carl. Synchronicity, 1960, para. 912, 915.

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