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Swedish people
Svenskar
12-swedes-ver2010.jpg
Bridget of SwedenAnders CelsiusCarl LinnaeusAlfred Nobel
Selma LagerlöfDag HammarskjöldGreta GarboAstrid Lindgren
Tove JanssonIngmar BergmanBjörn UlvaeusAnnika Sörenstam
Total population
Est 9.5 million

Also more than 4.8 million people of Swedish ancestry

Regions with significant populations
 Sweden:      7,500,000 (2009 est.)[1]
Other significant population centers:

Swedish Citizens/Swedish Speakers

 Spain 65,000[2]
 United States 56,324[3]
 Norway 28 730[4]
 United Kingdom 22,525[5]
 Denmark 21,000[6]
 Germany 9,500[5]
 Finland
9,000
 Australia 8,170[7]
 Canada 7,000[8]
 Brazil 2000 (est.)
 Argentina 800[9]
 Estonia 300 (1989)[10]
Other regions 72,000[11]

Persons with Swedish Ancestry

 United States 4,325,000[12]
 Canada 334,765[13]
 Australia 30,375[14]
 New Zealand 1,257[15]

Swedish Speaking Finns/Finland-Swedes

 Finland ~280,000 [16]
Languages

Swedish
Related languages include Norwegian, Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, and to a lesser extent, all Germanic languages

Religion

Historically Norse paganism, Christianity (Mainly Lutheranism) and more recently Secularism. Also see Religion in Sweden.

Related ethnic groups

Danes, Norwegians, Icelanders, Faroese,English.
Other Germanic ethnic groups

Swedes (Swedish: svenskar) are a Scandinavian people, mostly inhabiting Sweden and the other Nordic countries, with descendants living in a number of countries.

Until the 9th century, the Scandinavian people lived in small Germanic kingdoms and chiefdoms known as petty kingdoms.[17] The Germanic tribe of the Swedes (Swedish: svear; Old Norse: svíar) lived in Svealand, bordering the Geats to the south. The consolidation of Sweden was a long process, and later, as Sweden's borders fluctuated over the centuries, so did the use of the Swedish language as well as Swedish self-identification.

The Swedish-speaking minority in Finland (finlandssvenskar) trace back to the many centuries when Finland was an integral part of Sweden. Their identity and relation towards Swedish and Finnish identities is a subject of discussion.[18][19][20] Other groups have acquired Swedish identity; until 1658, when Scania became a possession of the Swedish Crown, the Scanians were a people of the Eastern Province of Denmark speaking a dialect belonging to the East-Danish dialect group.[21] Similarly, groups like the Walloons settled in Sweden already in the 17th century, followed by many other groups in later periods. There are also several million people with Swedish ancestry in the United States and Canada following the large-scale emigration of the late 19th and early 20th century.

Contents

Geography

The largest area inhabited by Swedes, as well as the earliest known original area inhabited by their linguistic ancestors, is in the country of Sweden, situated on the eastern side of the Scandinavian Peninsula and the islands adjacent to it, situated west of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. The Swedish-speaking people living in near-coastal areas on the north-eastern and eastern side of the Baltic Sea also have a long history of continuous settlement, which in some of these areas possibly started about a millennium ago[citation needed]. These people include the Swedish-speakers in mainland Finland - speaking Swedish dialect commonly referred as Finland Swedish (finlandssvenska which is part of East-Swedish dialect group) and the almost exclusively Swedish-speaking population of the Åland Islands speaking in a manner closer to the adjacent dialects in Sweden than to adjacent dialects of Finland Swedish. Estonia also had an important Swedish minority until the 20th century. Smaller groups of historical descendants of 18th-20th century Swedish emigrants who still retain varying aspects of Swedish identity to this day can be found in the Americas (especially Minnesota and Wisconsin, see Swedish Americans) and in Ukraine.

Currently, Swedes tend to emigrate mostly to the Nordic neighbour countries (Norway, Denmark, Finland), English speaking countries (USA, UK), Spain and Germany.[22]

Historically, the Kingdom of Sweden has been much larger than nowadays, especially during the "The Era of Great Power" (Swedish Empire) in 1611 - 1718. Finland belonged to Sweden until 1809. Since there was no separate Finnish nationality at those times, it is not unusual that sources predating 1809 refer both to Swedes and Finns as "Swedes". This is particularly the case with New Sweden, where some of the "Swedish" settlers were actually of Finnish origin.

Origin

The ancient Germanic tribe of the Suiones, sometimes called Svear in academic works, were at the roots of Swedish statehood and contemporary with the Geats and the Daner in Scandinavia. The roman bureaucrat and historian, Jordanes mentions in his work "Scandza" that these tribes are "the tallest of all men". He later mentions other Scandinavian tribes as being of the same height. He also mentions that the Swedes outmatched the others in class: "Suetidi, cogniti in hac gente reliquis corpore eminentiores". Notably, in modern Scandinavian languages, with the exception of Icelandic, there is a distinction between svenskar and svear (as between danskar and Daner), since the latter term does not include the Geats and the Gotlanders and whose descendants became a part of the Swedish ethnicity.

According to recent genetic analysis, both mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms showed a noticeable genetic affinity between Swedes and central Europeans, especially Germans (conclusions also valid for Norwegians).[23] For the global genetic make-up of the Swedish people and other peoples (see also [24] and [25]). Another detailed nuclear genetic study has also implied that Swedes largely share genetics with Finns.[26]

Famous Swedes

Swedes of international renown include Gustavus Adolphus, Dag Hammarskjöld and Carl Bildt, film directors Ingmar Bergman and Victor Sjöström, actors Greta Garbo, Stellan Skarsgård, Alexander Skarsgård, Maud Adams, Ingrid Bergman, Dolph Lundgren, Peter Stormare, Erland Josephson and Max von Sydow entrepreneurs Gustaf Dalén, Lars Magnus Ericsson, Bertil Hult, Gustav de Laval, Ingvar Kamprad, Ivar Kreuger, Anders Winroth, Alfred Nobel, Erling Persson, Ruben Rausing, Axel Wenner-Gren and Niklas Zennström, musicians Yngwie Malmsteen, In Flames, Hammerfall, Sabaton, Opeth, Pelle Almqvist, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, Agnetha Fältskog, Jussi Björling, Birgit Nilsson, Charlotte Perrelli, Neneh Cherry, Per Gessle, Jenny Lind and Nina Persson, scientists Hannes Alfvén, Arvid Carlsson, Carolus Linnaeus, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Kai Siegbahn and Anders Jonas Ångström, sportspeople Zlatan Ibrahimović, Peter Forsberg, Daniel Sedin, Henrik Sedin, Henrik Zetterberg, Björn Borg, Jesper Parnevik, Fredrik Ljungberg, Lennart Skoglund, Ingemar Stenmark, Mats Sundin, Annika Sörenstam, Sven Tumba, Jan-Ove Waldner and Mats Wilander, and writers Selma Lagerlöf, Vilhelm Moberg, August Strindberg, Astrid Lindgren and Hjalmar Söderberg, and 1998 worlds strongest man winner Magnus Samuelsson.

Swedish Descendants and Swedish speakers outside of Sweden

In Finland

The Swedish-speaking Finns or Finland-Swedes form a minority group in Finland. The characteristic of this minority is debated: while some see it as an ethnic group of its own [27] some view it purely as a linguistic minority.[28]. The group includes about 265,000 people, comprising 5.10% of the population of mainland Finland, or 5.50 %[3] if the 26,000 inhabitants of Åland are included (there are also about 60,000 Swedish-speaking Finns currently resident in Sweden). It has been the presented that the ethnic group can also perceived as distinct Swedish-speaking nationality in Finland[29]. There are also 9,000 Swedish citizens living in Finland.[30]

In Estonia and Ukraine

The presence of Swedish speaking permanent residents in what is now Estonia (Estonia-Swedes) was first documented in the 14th century, and possibly dates back to the Viking Age. There were an estimated 12,000 Swedes resident in Estonia in 1563 . Estonia was under Swedish rule 1558–1710, after which the territory was ceded to Russia in the 1721 Treaty of Nystad. In 1781, 1,300 Estonia-Swedes of the island of Hiiumaa (Dagö) were forced to move to New Russia (today Ukraine) by Catherine II of Russia, where they formed Gammalsvenskby (Old Swedish Village). According to the 1934 census there were 7,641 Estonia-Swedes (Swedish speaking, 0.7% of the population in Estonia), making Swedes the third largest national minority in Estonia, after Russians and Germans. During World War II almost the entire community of Estonia-Swedes fled to Sweden. Today there are, at most, a few hundred Estonia-Swedes living in Estonia and a few hundred in Ukraine, with the estimates varying widely depending on who identifies, or can be identified, as a Swede. Many of them are living in northwestern mainland Estonia and on adjacent islands and on the island of Ruhnu (Runö) in the Gulf of Riga.

In a nationalist context, the ethnic Swedes living outside Sweden are sometimes called 'East-Swedes' (in Swedish: östsvenskar), to distinguish them from the ethnic Swedes living in Sweden proper, called rikssvenskar or västsvenskar ('Western-Swedes'), reflecting irredentist sentiments.[citation needed]

In North America

There are numerous Swedish descendants in places like the US and Canada (i.e. Swedish Americans and Swedish Canadians), including some who still speak Swedish.

The majority of the early Swedish immigrants to Canada came via the United States. It wasn't until after 1880 that significant numbers of Swedes immigrated to Canada. From WWI onwards, almost all of the Swedish immigrants entered Canada coming directly from Sweden. In addition to Swedish immigrants from south-central part of Sweden, a relatively large number of Swedish immigrants came from Stockholm and northern Sweden. The newcomers played an important role in the development of the Canadian prairies.

Swedish Canadians can be found in all parts of the country. Many Swedish social, cultural, political, business and welfare organizations, both religious and secular, can be found in all major Canadian cities and some of the smaller towns and rural communities. Some of the Swedish traditions, such as Midsummer, Walpurgis, and St Lucia are still celebrated by the community today.[31]

Other

The Varangians, Vikings mostly from Sweden, were instrumental in the formation of the first Russian state. These Vikings called "Rus" (because of their origin from Roslagen) were described by the Arabic traveller Ibn Fadlan: "I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy".

Swedish soldiers taken prisoner during the Great Northern War were sent in considerable numbers to Siberia. They numbered perhaps 25 % of the population of Tobolsk, the capital of Siberia, and some settled permanently. There are also Swedes located in St Petersburg, Russia and in Siberia.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Summary of Population Statistics 1960 - 2008 (corrected version 2009-05-13)". www.scb.se. 2009-05-13. http://www.scb.se/Pages/PressRelease____284708.aspx. Retrieved 2010-02-06.  (excluding 1,661,003 persons, or 17.9% of the population, living in Sweden with immigrant background.)
  2. ^ Swedish Embassy, Madrid (2008) - in Swedish
  3. ^ American Community Survey & Census 2000
  4. ^ SSB Population Count 2009 (in Norwegian)
  5. ^ a b "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/23/34792376.xls. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  6. ^ Joshua project-Ethnic groups of Denmark
  7. ^ "Migration" (PDF). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 29 March 2007. http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/E0A79B147EA8E0B5CA2572AC001813E8/$File/34120_2005-06.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-16.  (table 6.8)
  8. ^ Sweden's embassy in Ottowa (in Swedish)
  9. ^ Sweden's embassy in Argentina (in Swedish)
  10. ^ Estonian Institute
  11. ^ SCB estimates that 300,000 Swedes live abroad. The countries above add up to roughly 228,000.
  12. ^ US Census Bureau
  13. ^ http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/pages/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000 Statistics Canada - Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories
  14. ^ 2006 Australian Census Reports 30,375 people of Swedish Ancestry
  15. ^ Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand
  16. ^ Finnish Population Registry Center 31.12.2008
  17. ^ Wikipedia: Early Swedish history. [Early Swedish history]
  18. ^ "In Finland this question (Swedish nationality) has been subjected to much discussion. The Finnish majority tries to deny the existence of a Swedish nationality. An example of this is the fact that the statutes always use the concept 'Swedish-speaking' instead of 'Swedish'", Tore Modeen, The cultural rights of the Swedish ethnic group in Finland (Europa Ethnica, 3-4 1999,jg.56).
  19. ^ "Det är naturligt att betona Sverige-kontakten då man gör en analys av finlandssvenskarnas språk, kommunikation och historia. Ideologiskt kommer det att närma sig Axel Olof Freudenthals bygdesvenskhet och Sverige närheten kring sekelsskiftet."Finlandssvenskarna är ju helt enkelt svenskar, närmare bestämt östsvenskar"Höckerstedt, Leif. Fuskfinnar eller östsvenskar? Söderströms ISBN 9789515218254 2000.
  20. ^ The identity of the Swedish[-speaking] minority [in Finland] is however clearly Finnish (Allardt 1997:110). But their identity is twofold: They are both Finland Swedes and Finns (Ivars 1987)." (Die Identität der schwedischen Minderheit ist jedoch eindeutig finnisch (Allardt 1997:110). Ihre Identität ist aber doppelt: sie sind sowohl Finnlandschweden als auch Finnen (Ivars 1987).) Saari, Mirja: Schwedisch als die zweite Nationalsprache Finnlands (retrieved 10 December 2006)
  21. ^ Wikipedia: Scanian dialects. [Scanian dialects]
  22. ^ http://www.sviv.se/index.php/publisher/news/action/summary/frmArticleID/575/singlearticle/1/ "Flest svenskar tros bo i USA, Norge och Finland. Därefter följer Danmark, Storbritannien, Spanien och Tyskland."
  23. ^ http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/EJHG_2002_v10_521-529.pdf
  24. ^ scs.uiuc.edu
  25. ^ nationalgeographic.com
  26. ^ "The similarity between Finns and Swedes in allele and haplotype frequencies indicates that these two populations may be descended from the same central European source population—as has been suggested by Sajantila and Pääbo (1995)" [1]
  27. ^ "...Finland has a Swedish-speaking minority that meets the four major criteria of ethnicity, i.e. self-identification of ethnicity, language, social structure and ancestry (Allardt and Starck, 1981; Bhopal, 1997).
  28. ^ [2]...As language is actually the basic or even the only criterion that distinguishes these two groups from each other, it is more correct to speak of Finnish-speakers and Swedish-speakers in Finland instead of Finns and Finland Swedes. Nowadays the most common English term denoting the latter group is ‘the Swedish-speaking Finns’.
  29. ^ The identity of the Swedish[-speaking] minority [in Finland] is however clearly Finnish (Allardt 1997:110). But their identity is twofold: They are both Finland Swedes and Finns (Ivars 1987)." (Die Identität der schwedischen Minderheit ist jedoch eindeutig finnisch (Allardt 1997:110). Ihre Identität ist aber doppelt: sie sind sowohl Finnlandschweden als auch Finnen (Ivars 1987).) Saari, Mirja: Schwedisch als die zweite Nationalsprache Finnlands (retrieved 10 December 2006)
  30. ^ "It is not correct to call a nationality a linguistic group or minority, if it has developed culture of its own. If there is not only a community of language, but also of other characteristics such as folklore, poetry and literature, folk music, theater, behavior.etc". "The concept of nation has a different significance as meaning of a population group or an ethnic community, irrespectively of its organization. For instance, the Swedes of Finland, with their distinctive language and culture form a nationality which under the Finnish constitution shall enjoy equal rights with the Finnish nationality"."In Finland this question (Swedish nationality) has been subjected to much discussion.The Finnish majority tries to deny the existence of a Swedish nationality. An example of this is the fact that the statutes always use the concept "Swedish-speaking" instead of Swedish". Tore Modeen, The cultural rights of the Swedish ethnic group in Finland (Europa Ethnica, 3-4 1999,jg.56)
  31. ^ http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/Encyclopedia/A-Z/s13/4

External links


Swedish people
Svenskar
[[File:|300px|]]
Bridget of SwedenAnders CelsiusCarl LinnaeusAlfred Nobel
Selma Lagerlöf • Dag Hammarskjöld • Greta GarboAstrid Lindgren
Ingmar Bergman • Björn Ulvaeus • Linus Torvalds • Annika Sörenstam
Total population
14 million (est.)
Regions with significant populations
 Sweden:      9,263,872 (2009 est.)[1] [2][3]
Other significant population centers:
 United States 4,325,000[4](of Swedish descent)
 Canada 500,000 (of Swedish descent)
 Finland
9,000 (Swedish citizens)
290,000 (Finland Swedes or Swedish-speaking Finns)
 Brazil 250,000
 Argentina 175,000
 Australia 30,375[5]
 United Kingdom Est 100,000
 Norway 100,000
 Germany 50,000
 Spain 50,000 (2006)[citation needed]
 Estonia 300 (1989)[6]
 Denmark 21,000[7]
Other regions 400,000
Languages

Swedish
Related languages include Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese, and to a lesser extent, all Germanic languages

Religion

Historically Norse paganism, Christianity (Mainly Lutheranism) and more recently Secularism. Also see Religion in Sweden.

Related ethnic groups

Germanic ethnic groups: Norwegians, Danish, Icelanders, Dutch, Germans, Austrians, English, Faroese, Flemings.

Swedes (Swedish: svenskar) are a Scandinavian people, mostly inhabiting Sweden and the other Nordic countries, with descendants living in a number of countries.

Until the 9th century, the Scandinavian people lived in small Germanic kingdoms and chiefdoms known as petty kingdoms.[8] The Germanic tribe of the Swedes (Swedish: svear; Old Norse: svíar) lived in Svealand, bordering the Geats to the south. The consolidation of Sweden was a long process, and later, as Sweden's borders fluctuated over the centuries, so did the use of the Swedish language as well as Swedish self-identification.

The Swedish-speaking minority in Finland trace back to the many centuries when Finland was an integral part of Sweden. Other groups have acquired Swedish identity; until 1658, when Scania became a possession of the Swedish Crown, the Scanians were a people of the Eastern Province of Denmark speaking a dialect belonging to the East-Danish dialect group.[9] Similarly, groups like the Walloons settled in Sweden already in the 17th century, followed by many other groups in later periods. There are also several million people with (partly) Swedish ancestry in the United States following the large-scale emigration of the late 19th and early 20th century.

Contents

Geography

The largest area inhabited by Swedes, as well as the earliest known original area inhabited by their linguistic ancestors, is in the country of Sweden, situated on the eastern side of the Scandinavian Peninsula and the islands adjacent to it, situated west of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. The Swedish-speaking people living in near-coastal areas on the north-eastern and eastern side of the Baltic Sea also have a long history of continuous settlement, which in some of these areas possibly started about a millennium ago[citation needed]. These people include the Swedish-speakers in mainland Finland - speaking Swedish dialect commonly referred as Finland Swedish (finlandssvenska which is part of East-Swedish dialect group) and the almost exclusively Swedish-speaking population of the Åland Islands speaking in a manner closer to the adjacent dialects in Sweden than to adjacent dialects of Finland Swedish. Smaller groups of historical descendants of 18th-20th century Swedish emigrants who still retain varying aspects of Swedish identity to this day can be found in the Americas (especially Minnesota and Wisconsin, see Swedish Americans) and in Ukraine.

Historically, the Kingdom of Sweden has been much larger than nowadays, especially during the "The Era of Great Power" (Swedish Empire) in 1611 - 1718. Finland belonged to Sweden until 1809. Since there was no separate Finnish nationality at those times, it is not unusual that sources predating 1809 refer both to Swedes and Finns as "Swedes". This is particularly the case with New Sweden, where some of the "Swedish" settlers were actually of Finnish origin.

Origin

The ancient Germanic tribe of the Suiones, sometimes called Svear in academic works, were at the roots of Swedish statehood and contemporary with the Geats and the Daner in Scandinavia. The roman bureaucrat and historian, Jordanes mentions in his work "Scandza" that these tribes are "the tallest of all men". He later mentions other Scandinavian tribes as being of the same height. He also mentions that the Swedes outmatched the others in class: "Suetidi, cogniti in hac gente reliquis corpore eminentiores". Notably, in modern Scandinavian languages, with the exception of Icelandic, there is a distinction between svenskar and svear (as between danskar and Daner), since the latter term does not include the Geats and the Gotlanders and whose descendants became a part of the Swedish ethnicity.

According to recent genetic analysis, both mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms showed a noticeable genetic affinity between Swedes and central Europeans, especially Germans (conclusions also valid for Norwegians).[10] For the global genetic make-up of the Swedish people and other peoples (see also [11] and [12]). Another detailed nuclear genetic study has also implied that Swedes largely share genetics with Finns.[13]

Famous Swedes

Swedes of international renown include Dag Hammarskjöld and Anders Nygren, film directors Ingmar Bergman and Victor Sjöström, actors Greta Garbo, Stellan Skarsgård, Ingrid Bergman, Erland Josephson and Max von Sydow, entrepreneurs Gustaf Dalén, Lars Magnus Ericsson, Bertil Hult, Gustav de Laval, Ingvar Kamprad, Ivar Kreuger, Anders Winroth, Alfred Nobel, Erling Persson, Ruben Rausing, Axel Wenner-Gren and Niklas Zennström, musicians In Flames, Hammerfall, Pelle Almqvist, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, Agnetha Fältskog, Jussi Björling, Birgit Nilsson, Neneh Cherry, Per Gessle, Jenny Lind and Nina Persson, scientists Hannes Alfvén, Arvid Carlsson, Carolus Linnaeus, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Kai Siegbahn and Anders Jonas Ångström, sportspeople Peter Forsberg, Björn Borg, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Jesper Parnevik, Lennart Skoglund, Ingemar Stenmark, Mats Sundin, Annika Sörenstam, Sven Tumba, Jan-Ove Waldner and Mats Wilander, and writers Selma Lagerlöf, Vilhelm Moberg, August Strindberg and Hjalmar Söderberg.

Ethnic Swedes and Swedish speakers outside of Sweden

In Finland

The Swedish-speaking Finns or Finland-Swedes form a minority group in Finland. The characteristic of this minority is debated: while some see it as an ethnic group of its own [14] some view it purely as a linguistic minority [15] of about 265,000, comprising 5.10% of the population of mainland Finland, or 5.50 %[4] if the 26,000 inhabitants of Åland are included (there are also about 60,000 Swedish-speaking Finns currently resident in Sweden). It has been the presented that the ethnic group can also perceived as distinct Swedish-speaking nationality in Finland[16]. There are also 9,000 Swedish citizens living in Finland.[17]

In Estonia and Ukraine

The presence of Swedish speaking permanent residents in what is now Estonia (Estonia-Swedes) was first documented in the 14th century, and possibly dates back to the Viking Age. There were an estimated 12,000 Swedes resident in Estonia in 1563 . Estonia was under Swedish rule 1558–1710, after which the territory was ceded to Russia in the 1721 Treaty of Nystad. In 1781, 1,300 Estonia-Swedes of the island of Hiiumaa (Dagö) were forced to move to New Russia (today Ukraine) by Catherine II of Russia, where they formed Gammalsvenskby (Old Swedish Village). According to the 1934 census there were 7,641 Estonia-Swedes (Swedish speaking, 0.7% of the population in Estonia), making Swedes the third largest national minority in Estonia, after Russians and Germans. During World War II almost the entire community of Estonia-Swedes fled to Sweden. Today there are, at most, a few hundred Estonia-Swedes living in Estonia and a few hundred in Ukraine, with the estimates varying widely depending on who identifies, or can be identified, as a Swede. Many of them are living in northwestern mainland Estonia and on adjacent islands and on the island of Ruhnu (Runö) in the Gulf of Riga.

The majority of the 'Estonia-Swedes' who reside in Estonia and most 'Ukraine-Swedes' do not speak Swedish any more, but may be considered ethnic Swedes. In a nationalist context, the ethnic Swedes living outside Sweden are sometimes called 'East-Swedes' (in Swedish: östsvenskar), to distinguish them from the ethnic Swedes living in Sweden proper, called rikssvenskar or västsvenskar ('Western-Swedes'), reflecting irredentist sentiments.

Other

The Varangians, Vikings mostly from Sweden, were instrumental in the formation of the first Russian state. These vikings called "Rus" (because of their origin from Roslagen) were described by the arabic traveller Ibn Fadlan: "I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy".

Swedish soldiers taken prisoner during the Great Northern War were sent in considerable numbers to Siberia. They numbered perhaps 25 % of the population of Tobolsk, the capital of Siberia, and some settled permanently.

There are numerous ethnic Swedes in places like the US and Canada (i.e. Swedish Americans and Swedish Canadians), descendants of 19th and 20th century immigrants, including some who still speak Swedish. There are also Swedes located in St Petersburg, Russia and in Siberia.

See also

Swedish diaspora

Ethnic groups in Sweden

Various

References

  1. ^ Befolkningsstatistik - Statistik från SCB
  2. ^ Estimated from those who were not part of the 16.7% or 1.53 million who had at least one parent born abroad or were themselves born abroad. It should be noted that at least a small number of those people born abroad may include Swedish-speaking Finns or other Swedish-speakers outside of Sweden and that a large number of those may consider themselves Swedish. SCB. Sveriges befolkning, kommunala jämförelsetal, 31/12/2006 31 December 2006. (In Swedish). Retrieved 6 March 2008.
  3. ^ Of the 2004 population, 1.1 million, or 12%, were foreign-born. The Swedish Integration Board (2006). Pocket Facts: Statistics on Integration. Integrationsverket, 2006. ISBN 9189609301. Available online in pdf format. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
  4. ^ US Census Bureau [1]
  5. ^ 2006 Australian Census Reports 30,375 people of Swedish Ancestry
  6. ^ Estonian Institute
  7. ^ Joshua project-Ethnic groups of Denmark
  8. ^ Wikipedia: Early Swedish history. [Early Swedish history]
  9. ^ Wikipedia: Scanian dialects. [Scanian dialects]
  10. ^ http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/EJHG_2002_v10_521-529.pdf
  11. ^ scs.uiuc.edu
  12. ^ nationalgeographic.com
  13. ^ "The similarity between Finns and Swedes in allele and haplotype frequencies indicates that these two populations may be descended from the same central European source population—as has been suggested by Sajantila and Pääbo (1995)" [2]
  14. ^ "...Finland has a Swedish-speaking minority that meets the four major criteria of ethnicity, i.e. self-identification of ethnicity, language, social structure and ancestry (Allardt and Starck, 1981; Bhopal, 1997).
  15. ^ [3]...As language is actually the basic or even the only criterion that distinguishes these two groups from each other, it is more correct to speak of Finnish- speakers and Swedish-speakers in Finland instead of Finns and Finland Swedes. Nowadays the most common English term denoting the latter group is ‘the Swedish-speaking Finns’.
  16. ^ The identity of the Swedish[-speaking] minority [in Finland] is however clearly Finnish (Allardt 1997:110). But their identity is twofold: They are both Finland Swedes and Finns (Ivars 1987)." (Die Identität der schwedischen Minderheit ist jedoch eindeutig finnisch (Allardt 1997:110). Ihre Identität ist aber doppelt: sie sind sowohl Finnlandschweden als auch Finnen (Ivars 1987).) Saari, Mirja: Schwedisch als die zweite Nationalsprache Finnlands (retrieved 10 December 2006)
  17. ^ "It is not correct to call a nationality a linguistic group or minority, if it has developed culture of its own. If there is not only a community of language, but also of other characteristics such as folklore, poetry and literature, folk music, theater, behavior.etc". "The concept of nation has a different significance as meaning of a population group or an ethnic community, irrespectively of its organization. For instance, the Swedes of Finland, with their distinctive language and culture form a nationality which under the Finnish constitution shall enjoy equal rights with the Finnish nationality"."In Finland this question (Swedish nationality) has been subjected to much discussion.The Finnish majority tries to deny the existence of a Swedish nationality. An example of this is the fact that the statutes always use the concept "Swedish-speaking" instead of Swedish". Tore Modeen, The cultural rights of the Swedish ethnic group in Finland (Europa Ethnica, 3-4 1999,jg.56)

External links


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