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Fossil range: 33.9–0 Ma
Early Oligocene to Present[1]
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Xiphiidae
Genus: Xiphias
Species: X. gladius
Binomial name
Xiphias gladius
Linnaeus, 1758

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius; from Greek ξίφος: sword, and Latin gladius: sword), also known as Broadbill in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill. They are a popular sport fish of the billfish category, though elusive. Swordfish are elongated, round-bodied, and lose all teeth and scales by adulthood. They reach a maximum size of 177 in. (455 cm) and 1,400 lb (650 kg). The International Game Fish Association's all-tackle angling record for a swordfish was a 1,182 lb (536.15 kg) specimen taken off Chile in 1953.

They are the sole member of their family Xiphiidae.



The swordfish is named after its sharp beak resembling a sword (Latin gladius), which together with its streamlined physique allows it to cut through the water with great ease and agility. Contrary to belief the "sword" is not used to spear, but instead may be used to slash at its prey in order to injure the prey animal, to make for an easier catch. Mainly the swordfish relies on its great speed, capable of reaching speeds up to 50 mph (80 km/h), and agility in the water to catch its prey. One possible defensive use for the sword-like bill is for protection from its few natural predators. The shortfin mako shark is one of the rare sea creatures big enough and fast enough to chase down and kill an adult swordfish, but they don't always win. Sometimes in the struggle with a shark a swordfish can kill it by ramming it in the gills or belly.

Like most fish, the females grow larger than the males, with males over 300 lb (135 kg) being rare. Females mature at 4–5 years of age in northwest Pacific while males mature first at about 3 to 4 years. In the North Pacific, batch spawning occurs in water warmer than 24°C from March to July and year round in the equatorial Pacific. Adult swordfish forage includes pelagic fish including small tuna, dorado, barracuda, flying fish, mackerel, forage fish as well as benthic species of hake and rockfish. Squid are important when available. Swordfish are thought to have few predators as adults although juveniles are vulnerable to predation by large pelagic fish.

While swordfish are cold blooded animals, they have special organs next to their eyes to heat their eyes and also their brain. Temperatures of 10 to 15 °C above the surrounding water temperature have been measured. The heating of the eyes greatly improves the vision, and consequently improves their ability to catch prey. Out of the 25 000+ species of bony fish, only about 22 are known to have the ability to heat selected body parts above the temperature of the surrounding water. These include the swordfish, marlin, and tuna.

Swordfish are not schooling fish. They swim alone or in very loose aggregations, separated by as much as 10 meters from a neighboring swordfish. They are frequently found basking at the surface, airing their first dorsal fin. Boaters report this to be a beautiful sight, as is the powerful jumping for which the species is known. This jumping, also called breaching, is thought by some researchers to be an effort to dislodge pests, such as remora or lampreys. It could also be a way of surface feeding by stunning small fish as they jump out of the water, making the fish more easily captured for food.

Swordfish feed daily, most often at night when they rise to surface and near-surface waters in search of smaller fish. They have been observed moving through schools of fish, thrashing their swords to kill or stun their prey and then quickly turning to consume their catch. In the western North Atlantic, squid is the most popular food item consumed. But fish, such as menhaden, mackerel, bluefish, silver hake, butterfish, and herring also contribute to the swordfish diet.

Swordfish are vigorous, powerful fighters. When hooked or harpooned, they have been known to dive so quickly that they have impaled their swords into the ocean bottom up to their eyes. Although there are no reports of unprovoked attacks on humans, swordfish can be very dangerous when harpooned. They have run their swords through the planking of small boats when hurt.

The adults have few natural enemies, with the exception of large sharks, sperm whales, and orcas. They are easily frightened by small boats, yet paradoxically, large craft are often able to draw very near without scaring them. This makes swordfish easy to harpoon.

The swordfish is often mistaken for other billfish (like marlin), but upon examination their physiology is quite different.


Swordfish have been observed spawning in the Atlantic Ocean, in water less than 250 ft (75 m) deep. Estimates vary considerably, but females may carry from 1 million to 29 million eggs in their gonads. Solitary males and females appear to pair up during the spawning season. Spawning occurs year-round in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, the Florida coast and other warm equatorial waters, while it occurs in the spring and summer in cooler regions. The most recognized spawning site is in the Mediterranean, off the coast of Italy. The height of this well-known spawning season is in July and August, when males are often observed chasing females. The pelagic eggs are buoyant, measuring 1.6–1.8 mm in diameter. Embryonic development occurs during the 2 ½ days following fertilization. As the only member of its family, the swordfish has unique-looking larvae. The pelagic larvae are 4 mm long at hatching and live near the surface. At this stage, the body is only lightly pigmented. The snout is relatively short and the body has many distinct, prickly scales. With growth, the body narrows. By the time the larvae reach half an inch long (12 mm), the bill is notably elongated, but both the upper and lower portions are equal in length. The dorsal fin runs the length of the body. As growth continues, the upper portion of the bill grows proportionately faster than the lower bill, eventually producing the characteristic prolonged upper bill. Specimens up to approximately 9 inches (23 cm) in length have a dorsal fin that extends the entire length of the body. With further growth, the fin develops a single large lobe, followed by a short portion that still reaches to the caudal peduncle. By approximately 20 inches (52 cm), the second dorsal fin has developed, and at approximately 60 inches (150 cm), only the large lobe remains of the first dorsal fin.


Swordfish were harvested by a variety of methods at small scale (notably harpoon fishing) until the global expansion of long-line fishing. Longline gear can be targeted to a variety of fish, but bycatch remains a significant problem.

Marinated swordfish

Swordfish is a particularly popular fish for cooking. Since swordfish are large animals, meat is usually sold as steaks, which are often grilled. The color of the flesh varies by diet, with fish caught on the east coast of North America often being rosier.

Swordfish are classified as oily fish.[3] Many sources including the United States Food and Drug Administration warn about potential toxicity from high levels of methylmercury in swordfish.[4] The FDA recommends that women who are pregnant or who may become pregnant should eat no more than one seven-ounce serving a month; others should eat no more than one serving a week. (See mercury in fish for more details.)

The flesh of some swordfish can acquire an orange tint, reportedly from their diet of shrimp or other prey. Such fish are sold as "pumpkin swordfish," and command a premium over their whitish counterparts. (Information from U.S. vendor "Whole Foods.")

Conservation status

Swordfish are not listed as an endangered species. [5]

In 1998, the United States Natural Resources Defense Council and SeaWeb hired Fenton Communications to conduct an advertising campaign to promote their assertion that the swordfish population was in danger due to its popularity as a restaurant entree. [6]

The resulting "Give Swordfish a Break" promotion was wildly successful, with 750 prominent U.S. chefs agreeing to remove North Atlantic swordfish from their menus, and also persuaded many supermarkets and consumers across the country.

The advertising campaign was repeated by the national media in hundreds of print and broadcast stories, as well as extensive regional coverage. It earned the Silver Anvil award from the Public Relations Society of America as well as Time magazine's award for the top five environmental stories of 1998.

Subsequently, the US National Marine Fisheries Service proposed a swordfish protection plan that incorporated the campaign's policy suggestions. Then-US President Bill Clinton called for a ban on the sale and import of swordfish and in a landmark decision by the federal government, 132,670 square miles (343,600 km2) of the Atlantic ocean were placed off-limits to fishing as recommended by the sponsors.

In the North Atlantic, the swordfish stock is nearly rebuilt, but biomass remains slightly below that at which maximum sustainable yield is produced, and abundance is increasing. This stock is considered a moderate conservation concern until the stock is fully rebuilt. There are no robust stock assessments for swordfish in the northwestern Pacific or South Atlantic, and there is a paucity of data concerning stock status in these regions. These stocks are considered unknown and a moderate conservation concern. The southwestern Pacific stock is a moderate concern due to model uncertainty, increasing catches, and declining CPUEs (catch per unit effort). Overfishing is likely occurring in the Indian Ocean, and fishing mortality exceeds the maximum recommended level in the Mediterranean, thus these stocks are considered of high conservation concern. [7]

In 2010, Greenpeace International has added the swordfish to its seafood red list. "The Greenpeace International seafood red list is a list of fish that are commonly sold in supermarkets around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries."[8]

Recreational importance

Recreational fishing has developed a sub-specialty called sword fishing. It has become quite popular throughout many parts of the world. Because there is a ban on Long lining along many parts of seashore, swordfish populations are showing signs of recovery from the overfishing caused by Long lining along the coast. The population recovery is far from complete and the swordfish population is still at a much lower level than it once was.

There are various different ways to fish for swordfish, but the most common and popular method seems to be deep sea fishing. Because many swordfish used to be caught by long lining near shore, the remaining population of swordfish lives about 40 miles or more off the coast of most locations, and as such is only accessible by boat. Standard practice usually to let the boat being fished off of to drift, as the ocean bottom is too deep for any conventional fishing boat to anchor as the bottom is often thousands of feet deep. It requires a specialized, strengthened fishing rod as swordfish are extremely large fish. Standard bait that is used to attract the fish would be either large chunks of mackerel, herring, mullet, bonito or squid, and if the bait is small enough then the fisherman can use live bait. Imitation squids and other imitation fish lures can also be used, and specialized lures made specifically for sword fishing using plastic glow sticks are also used.

One of the most used method to catch sword fish is trolling. Fisherman cast their lines and then wait until a fish hits the line. Swordfish will often not suddenly hit and take the bait as they have soft mouths. The ensuing fight after a bite can take several hours to complete, as the fish can weigh several hundred pounds and is very strong.

Swordfish is not often sought for its meat by private fishing charters, but for the recreational aspect of the chase and fight that is involved with the fish. Most fishermen and captains of charters practice capture-and-release fishing, as they are a rare fish.[citation needed]


  1. ^ Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology 364: 560. 
  2. ^ Safina (1996). Xiphias gladius. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
  3. ^ "What's an oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. 24 June 2004. 
  4. ^ "What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish"
  5. ^ Xiphias gladius (Swordfish) International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  6. ^ Swordfish Fenton Communications
  7. ^ Seafood Watch - Seafood Report - Swordfish Monterey Bay Aquarium, 16 July 2008
  8. ^ Greenpeace International Seafood Red list

External links



Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Swordfish is a 2001 film in which the world's most dangerous spy is hired by the CIA to coerce a computer hacker recently released from prison to help steal billions in unused government funds.

Directed by Dominic Sena. Written by Skip Woods.
Log on. Hack in. Go anywhere. Steal everything.taglines



  • You know what the problem with Hollywood is? They make shit. Unbelievable, unremarkable shit. Now I'm not some grungy wannabe filmmaker that's searching for existentialism through a haze of bong smoke or something. No, it's easy to pick apart bad acting, short-sighted directing, and a purely moronic stringing together of words that many of the studios term as "prose". No, I'm talking about the lack of realism. Realism; not a pervasive element in today's modern American cinematic vision. Take Dog Day Afternoon, for example. Arguably Pacino's best work, short of Scarface and Godfather Part 1, of course. Masterpiece of directing, easily Lumet's best. The cinematography, the acting, the screenplay, all top-notch. But... they didn't push the envelope. Now what if in Dog Day, Sonny REALLY wanted to get away with it? What if - now here's the tricky part - what if he started killing hostages right away? No mercy, no quarter. "Meet our demands or the pretty blonde in the bellbottoms gets it the back of the head." Bam, splat! What, still no bus? Come on! How many innocent victims splattered across a window would it take to have the city reverse its policy on hostage situations? And this is 1976; there's no CNN, there's no CNBC, there's no internet! Now fast forward to today, present time, same situation. How quickly would the modern media make a frenzy over this? In a matter of hours, it'd be biggest story from Boston to Budapest! Ten hostages die, twenty, thirty; bam bam, right after another, all caught in high-def, computer-enhanced, color corrected. You can practically taste the brain matter. All for what? A bus, a plane? A couple of million dollars that's federally insured? I don't think so. Just a thought. I mean, it's not within the realm of conventional cinema... but what if?
  • Well, this looks friendly.
  • Oh she's good isn't she!
  • I have been told that the best crackers in the world can do this under 60 minutes but unfortunately I need someone who can do this under 60 seconds.
  • [when Stan fails to hack the Dept. of Defense network in 60 seconds] Too Bad ! Now you gotta die !
  • It's kinda like masturbation without the payoff.


  • Stanley: Nothing is impossible.
  • Axel Torvalds: He exists in a world beyond your world. What we only fantasize, he does. He lives a life where nothing is beyond him. But you know what? It's all a facade. For all his charm and charisma, his wealth, his expensive toys... he's a driven, unflinching, calculating machine. He takes what he wants, when he wants... and disappears.
  • Ginger: Surprised that a girl with an IQ over seventy can give you a hard on?


Gabriel: Stanley, I'm about to do something that is against my better judgement. I'm going to tell you who I am.
Stanley: Don't bother I already know who you are.
Gabriel: Really? You see I think that you think I'm a bank robber. But that's not the truth. The truth is I'm just like you.
Stanley: You're a murderer.
Gabriel: Indeed I am and worse, much worse.

Stanley: It's not gonna end like this.
Gabriel: Oh, come on, Stan. Not everything ends the way you think it should. Besides, audiences love happy endings.

Gabriel: Have you ever heard of Harry Houdini? Well he wasn't like today's magicians who are only interested in television ratings. He was an artist. He could make an elephant disappear in the middle of a theater filled with people, and do you know how he did that? Misdirection.
Stanley: What the fuck are you talking about?
Gabriel: Misdirection. What the eyes see and the ears hear, the mind believes.

Stanley: And you are?
Ginger: I'm Ginger.
Stanley: Where's Gilligan?

Ginger: You're not too good at this golf thing, are you, Stan?
Stanley: You're fucking up my chi.

Stanley: War? Who are we at war with?
Gabriel: Anyone who impinges on America's freedom. Terrorist states, Stanley. Someone must bring their war to them. They bomb a church, we bomb 10. They hijack a plane, we take out an airport. They execute American tourist, we tactically nuke an entire city. Our job is to make terrorism so horrific that is becomes unthinkable to attack Americans.

Roberts: How do I find this guy?
Axel Torvalds: You don't find him; he finds you.

Stanley: What are you still doing here? Look, I'm beginning to lose my sense of humor about all this.
Ginger: Ok, then I'll cut to the chase. If you want a chance in hell at getting your daughter back you better listen up. Unless of course, you want to stay here, in this loser existence, while your daughter grows up to be a fluffer in her new daddy's videos.
Stanley: With the courtesy of not confusing your own childhood with my daughter's.

Gabriel: Big Stan! Nice suit.
Stanley: Thanks.
Gabriel: They say it's the suit that makes the man.
Stanley: Buy it?
Gabriel: Hope not!

Ginger: You know, you should really have let me buy you a suit, Stanley.
Stanley: I'm happy with what I'm wearing, thank you.
Ginger: Ignorance is bliss.

Marco: [looks at Stanley while packing away a rocket launcher] What?
[pauses then looks to a hostage]
Marco: I know what you're thinking. You're thinking: If that launcher was a suppository, would that bad man stick it up my ass? Well, you eyeball me once more boy,
[puts a handgun to the hostage's head]
Marco: and i'll stick it so far up your ass you'll be begging me for this bullet.

Gabriel: Twenty. [looks at Ginger] She dying Stanley.
Stanley: Shut the FUCK up!

[Stanley is going to drive Gabriel's car during a shoot-out with the police]
Stanley: I can't drive this thing!
Gabriel: Learn!

Stanley: How can you justify all this?
Gabriel: You're not looking at the big picture Stan. Here's a scenario. You have the power to cure all the world's diseases but the price for this is that you must kill a single innocent child, could you kill that child Stanley?
Stanley: No.
Gabriel: You disappoint me, it's the greatest good.
Stanley: Well how about 10 innocents?
Gabriel: Now you're gettin' it, how about a hundred - how about a THOUSAND? Not to save the world but to preserve our way of life.
Stanley: No man has the right to make that decision; you're no different from any other terrorist.
Gabriel: No, you're wrong Stanley. Thousands die every day for no reason at all, where's your bleeding heart for them? You give your twenty dollars to Greenpeace every year thinking you're changing the world? What countries will harbor terrorists when they realize the consequences of what I'll do? Did you know that I can buy nuclear warheads in Minsk for forty million each? Hell, I'd buy half a dozen and even get a discount!

Gabriel: You tried to kill me. You've misplaced your loyalty, Senator, you've sold out America. Patriotism does not have a four-year shelf-life, but unfortunately politicians do. [Gabriel pulls out a gun]
Senator Reisman: Now what are you gonna do with that?
Gabriel: Thomas Jefferson once shot a man on the White House lawn for treason.
Senator Reisman: Now hold the phone, Thomas Jefferson... (Gabriel shoots the Senator)


  • Log on. Hack in. Go anywhere. Steal everything.
  • Once you know the password you can go anywhere.
  • Log In. Log Out. Leg It!
  • Password Accepted
  • Log On. Hack In. Go Anywhere. Get Everything.


External links

Wikipedia has an article about:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SWORDFISH, the name given to a small family of spinyrayed fishes (Xiphiidae), the principal characteristic of which consists in the prolongation of the upper jaw into a long pointed sword-like weapon. The "sword" is formed by the coalescence of the intermaxillary and maxillary bones, which possess an extremely hard texture; it has the shape of a much elongated cone, more or less flattened throughout its whole length; the end is sharply pointed. It is smooth above and on the upper part of the sides, and rough below owing to the presence of innumerable rudimentary teeth, which have no function.

The general form of the body is well proportioned, somewhat elongate, and such as is always found in fishes with great power Swordfish (Histiophorus pulchellus). of swimming, as, for instance, in the mackerel and tunny, and the tail terminates in a powerful bilobed caudal fin. A long fin occupies nearly the whole length of the back, whilst the anal fin is generally interrupted in the middle and consequently appears to be double. The skin is very firm, partly naked, partly with small lanceolate scales deeply embedded in the skin. The teeth of the lower jaw are, like those of the upper, merely rudimentary structures, which render the surface of the bone rough without possessing any special function.

Swordfishes have been divided into three generic groups: a. Histiophorus, with a high dorsal fin which can be spread out like a sail, and with ventral fins which are reduced to a pair of long styliform appendages.

b. Tetrapturus, with a dorsal fin of which the anterior ra y s only are elongate, the remainder of the fin being low or partly obsolete, and with styliform ventral fins as in the preceding genus.

c. Xiphias, with the dorsal fin shaped as in Tetrapturus, but without ventral fins.

Swordfishes are truly pelagic fishes, which either singly or in pairs or in smaller or larger companies roam over the oceans of the tropical and subtropical zones of both hemispheres. Some species wander regularly or stray far into the temperate seas. Some of the tropical forms are the largest of Acanthopterygian fishes, and not exceeded in size by any other Teleostean; such species attain to a length of from 12 to 15 ft., and swords have been preserved more than 3 ft. long and with a diameter of at least 3 in. at the base. The Histiophori, which inhabit chiefly the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but occur also in the Atlantic, seem to possess in their high dorsal fin an additional aid for locomotion. During the rapid movements of the fish this fin is folded downwards on the back, as it would impede the velocity of progress by the resistance it offers to the water; but, when the fish is swimming in a leisurely way, it is frequently seen with the fin erected, and projecting out of the water, and when quietly floating on the surface it can sail by the aid of the fin before the wind, like a boat.

The food of the swordfishes is the same as that of tunnies, and consists of smaller fish, and probably also in great measure of pelagic cuttle-fishes. It has been ascertained by actual observation that swordfishes procure their food by dashing into a school of fishes, piercing and killing a number of them with their swords; and this kind of weapon would seem to be also particularly serviceable in killing large cuttle-fish, like the saw of sawfishes, which is used for the same purpose. But the swords of the large species of Histiophorus and Tetrapturus are, besides, most formidable weapons of aggression. These fishes never hesitate to attack whales and other large cetaceans, and, by repeatedly stabbing them, generally retire from the combat victorious. That they combine in these attacks with the thresher-shark is an often-repeated story which is discredited by some naturalists on the ground that the dentition of the thresher-shark is much too weak to make an impression on the skin of any cetacean. The cause which excites swordfishes to such attacks is unknown; but they follow the instinct so blindly that they not rarely assail boats and ships in a similar manner, evidently mistaking them for cetaceans. They easily pierce the light canoes of the natives of the Pacific islands and the heavier boats of the professional swordfish fishermen, often dangerously wounding the persons sitting in them. Attacks by swordfishes on ocean-going ships are so common as to be included among sea-risks: they are known to have driven their weapon through copper-sheathing, oak-plank and timber to a depth of nearly 10 in., part of the sword projecting into the inside of the ship; and the force required to produce such an effect has been described by Sir R. Owen in a court of law as equal to "the accumulated force of fifteen double-handed hammers," and the velocity as "equal to that of a swivel-shot" and "as dangerous in its effects as a heavy artillery projectile." Among the specimens of planking pierced by swordfishes which are preserved in the British Museum there is one less than a foot square which encloses the broken ends of three swords, as if the fishes had had the object of concentrating their attack on the same vulnerable point of their supposed enemy. The part of the sword which penetrates a ship's side is almost always broken off and remains in the wood, as the fish is unable to execute sufficiently powerful backward movements to free itself by extracting the sword.

In the Mediterranean and on the Atlantic coasts of the United States the capture of swordfishes forms a regular branch of the fishing industry. The object of the fishery in the Mediterranean is the common European swordfish (Xiphias gladius), the average weight of which is about 1 cwt., and which is abundant off the Sicilian coasts and on the opposite coast of Calabria. Two methods are employed - that by harpoons, chiefly used for larger fish, and that by peculiarly constructed nets called palamitare. This fishery is very productive: a company of fishermen frequently capture from twenty to fifty fish in a single day, and the average annual catch in Sicily and Calabria is reported to be 140,000 kilogrammes (138 tons). The products of the fishery are consumed principally in a fresh state, but a portion is preserved in salt or oil. The flesh of the swordfish is much preferred to that of the tunny, and always commands a high price. This species is occasionally captured on the British coast.

On the coast of the United States a different species, Histiophorus gladius, occurs; it is a larger fish than the Mediterranean swordfish, attaining to a length of from 7 to 12 ft. and an average weight of 300 or 400 lb. It is captured only by the use of the harpoon. From forty to fifty vessels, schooners of some 50 tons, are annually engaged in this fishery, with an aggregate catch amounting annually to about 3400 swordfishes, of a value of $45,000. The flesh of this species is inferior in flavour to that of the Mediterranean species, and is principally consumed after having been preserved in salt or brine.

Useful and detailed information on the swordfish fishery can be obtained from A. T. Tozzetti, "La Pesca nei mari d'Italia e la pesca all' estero esercitata da Italiani," in Catalogo esposizione internazionale di pesca in Berlino (1880); also from La Pesca del pesce-spada nello Stretto di Messina (Messina, 1880), and from G. Brown Goode, "Materials for a History of the Sword-fish," in Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, pt. viii. (Washington, 1883). (A. C. G.)

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Simple English

Conservation status
Data deficient (IUCN) [1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Xiphiidae
Genus: Xiphias
Species: X. gladius
Binomial name
Xiphias gladius
Linnaeus, 1758

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) are large fish characterized by a long, flat bill. They are a popular sport fish. Swordfish are elongated, round-bodied, and lose all teeth and scales by adulthood.

The International Game Fish Association's all-tackle angling record for a swordfish was a 1,182 lb (535.15 kg) specimen taken off Chile in 1953.

They are the sole member of their family Xiphiidae.


The swordfish is named after its sharp bill, resembling a sword (Latin gladius), which together with its streamlined physique (smooth body) allows it to cut through the water with great ease and agility.

[[File:|thumb|250px|Marinated swordfish]] Swordfish is a particularly popular fish for cooking. Since swordfish are large animals, meat is usually sold as steaks, which are often grilled. The color of the flesh varies by diet, with fish caught on the east coast of North America often being rosier.

However, many sources including the United States Food and Drug Administration warn about potential toxicity (how poisonous it is) from high levels of methylmercury in swordfish[2].


  1. Safina (1996). Xiphias gladius. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
  2. [1] "What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish."

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