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Sydney
New South Wales
Sydney skyline at dusk - Dec 2008.jpg
The Sydney Opera House and Sydney CBD at dusk
Sydney is located in Australia
Sydney
Population: 4,399,722 [1] (1st)
Density: 2058/km² (5,330.2/sq mi) (2006)[2]
Established: 26 January 1788
Coordinates: 33°51′35.9″S 151°12′40″E / 33.859972°S 151.21111°E / -33.859972; 151.21111Coordinates: 33°51′35.9″S 151°12′40″E / 33.859972°S 151.21111°E / -33.859972; 151.21111
Area: 12144.6 km² (4,689.1 sq mi)
Time zone:

 • Summer (DST)

AEST (UTC+10)

AEDT (UTC+11)

Location:
LGA: various (38)
County: Cumberland[3]
State District: various (49)
Federal Division: various (22)
Mean Max Temp Mean Min Temp Annual Rainfall
21.7 °C
71 °F
13.8 °C
57 °F
1,213.4 mm
47.8 in

Sydney (pronounced /ˈsɪdni/[4]) is the largest city in Australia and Oceania, and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney has a metropolitan area population of approximately 4.4 million[5] and an area of approximately 12,000 square kilometres (4,633 sq mi). Its inhabitants are called Sydneysiders, and Sydney is often called "the Harbour City". It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants to Australia.[6]

The site of the first British colony in Australia, Sydney was established[7] in 1788 at Sydney Cove by Arthur Phillip, commodore of the First Fleet. The city is built on hills surrounding Sydney Harbour – an inlet of the Tasman Sea on Australia's south-east coast. It is home to the iconic Sydney Opera House, the Harbour Bridge and its beaches. The metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks, and contains many bays, rivers and inlets.

The city is home to many prominent parks, such as Hyde Park, Royal Botanical Gardens and national parks. This is a major factor, along with Sydney Harbour, that has led to the city’s reputation as one of the most beautiful in the world.[8]

Sydney is considered an alpha+ world city,[9] as listed by the Loughborough University group's 2008 inventory[10], is ranked 16th among global cities by Foreign Policy's 2008 Global Cities Index[11] and is an international centre for commerce, arts, fashion, culture, entertainment, education and tourism. According to the Mercer cost of living survey, Sydney is Australia’s most expensive city, and the 66th most expensive in the world.[12] Sydney also ranks among the top 10 most livable cities in the world according to Mercer Human Resource Consulting and The Economist.[13][14]

Sydney is a significant international financial centre and has been ranked 14th within the top 50 global financial cities as surveyed by the Mastercard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2007),[15] and 1st within Australia. Sydney is also an international fashion and creative industry hub[16] and is Australia's fashion capital[17].

Sydney has hosted major international sporting events, including the 1938 British Empire Games, 2000 Summer Olympics, the final match of the 2003 Rugby World Cup and the 2008 World Youth Day. The main airport serving Sydney is Sydney Airport.

Contents

History

Artwork depicting the first contact between the Gweagal Aborigines and Captain James Cook on the shores of the Kurnell Peninsula

Radio carbon dating suggests that the Sydney region has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years.[18] The traditional Indigenous inhabitants of Sydney Cove are the Cadigal people, whose land once stretched from south of Port Jackson to Petersham.[19] While estimates of the population numbers prior to the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788 remains contentious, approximately 4,000–8,000 Aboriginal people lived in the Sydney region prior to contact with British settlers. The British called the Indigenous people the "Eora",[20] because being asked where they came from, these people would answer: "Eora", meaning "here", or "from this place" in their language.[19] There were three language groups in the Sydney region, which were divided into dialects spoken by smaller clans. The principal languages were Darug (the Cadigal, original inhabitants of the City of Sydney, spoke a coastal dialect of Darug), Dharawal and Guringai. Each clan had a territory, the location of said territory determined the resources available. Although urbanisation has destroyed much evidence of these settlements (such as shell middens), a number of Sydney rock engravings, carvings and rock art remain visible in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the Sydney basin.[21]

Sydney circa 1828, looking north over Hyde Park towards the harbour

In 1770, British sea Captain Lieutenant James Cook landed in Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. It is here that Cook made first contact with an Aboriginal community known as the Gweagal.[22] Under instruction from the British government, a convict settlement was founded by Arthur Phillip, who arrived at Botany Bay with a fleet of 11 ships on 18 January 1788. This site was soon determined to be unsuitable for habitation, owing to poor soil and a lack of reliable fresh water. Phillip subsequently founded the colony one inlet further up the coast, at Sydney Cove on Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. He named it after the British Home Secretary, Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, in recognition of Sydney's role in issuing the charter authorising Phillip to establish a colony. The original name was intended to be Albion until Phillip decided upon Sydney.[23]

In April 1789 a disease, thought to be smallpox, killed an estimated 500 to 1000 Aboriginal people between Broken Bay and Botany Bay.[20] There was violent resistance to British settlement, notably by the warrior Pemulwuy in the area around Botany Bay, and conflicts were common in the area surrounding the Hawkesbury River. By 1820 there were only a few hundred Aborigines and Governor Macquarie had begun initiatives to 'civilise, Christianise and educate' the Aborigines by removing them from their clans.[20] Macquarie's tenure as Governor of New South Wales was a period when Sydney was improved from its basic beginnings. Roads, bridges, wharves and public buildings were constructed by British and Irish convicts, and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, well-established thoroughfares and an organised constabulary. The 1830s and 1840s were periods of urban development, including the development of the first suburbs, as the town grew rapidly when ships began arriving from Britain and Ireland with immigrants looking to start a new life in a new country. On 20 July 1842 the municipal council of Sydney was incorporated and the town was declared the first city in Australia, with John Hosking the first elected mayor.[24] The first of several Australian gold rushes started in 1851, and the port of Sydney has since seen many waves of people arriving from around the world.

Rapid suburban development began in the last quarter of the 19th century with the advent of steam powered tramways and railways. With industrialisation Sydney expanded rapidly, and by the early 20th century it had a population well of more than a million. The Great Depression hit Sydney badly. One of the highlights of the Depression era, however, was the completion of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932.[25] There has traditionally been a rivalry between Sydney and Melbourne since the gold rushes of the 1850s made the capital of Victoria Australia's largest and richest city.[26] Sydney overtook Melbourne in population in the early years of the 20th century,[27] and has remained the largest city in Australia since this time. During the 1970s and 1980s Sydney's CBD with the Reserve Bank and Australian Stock Exchange clearly surpassed Melbourne as the nation's financial capital.[28] Throughout the 20th century, especially in the decades immediately following World War II, Sydney continued to expand as large numbers of European and later Asian immigrants populated the metropolitan area.

Geography

Image of Sydney taken by NASA Terra satellite. The city centre is about a quarter of the way in on the south shore of the upper inlet, the Parramatta River, directly south of the Sydney Harbour Bridge
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Topography

Sydney's urban area is in a coastal basin, which is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the East, the Blue Mountains to the West, the Hawkesbury River to the North and the Royal National Park to the South. It lies on a submergent coastline, where the ocean level has risen to flood deep river valleys (ria) carved in the hawkesbury sandstone. Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria and is the largest natural harbour in the world.[29] The Sydney area is not affected by significant earthquakes.

The urban area has around 70 harbour and ocean beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach. Sydney's urban area covers 1,687 km2 (651 sq mi) as at 2001.[30] The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area[31] and covers 12,145 km2 (4,689 sq mi).[32] This area includes the Central Coast, the Blue Mountains, and national parks and other unurbanised land. This makes Sydney the third largest urban agglomeration in the world behind Brasília (14,400 km2) and Tokyo (13,500 km2).[33]

Geographically, Sydney lies over two regions: the Cumberland Plain, a relatively flat region lying to the south and west of the harbour, and the Hornsby Plateau, a sandstone plateau lying mainly to the north of the harbour and dissected by steep valleys. The parts of the city with the oldest European development are located in the flat areas south of the harbour. The North Shore was slower to develop because of its hilly topography and lack of access across the harbour. The Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened in 1932 and linked the North Shore to the rest of the city.[34]

Climate

Sydney has a temperate climate with warm summers and cool winters, and rainfall spread throughout the year.[35] The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. The warmest month is January, with an average air temperature range at Observatory Hill of 18.6–25.8 °C (65–78 °F). An average of 14.6 days a year have temperatures of more than 30 °C (86.0 °F). The maximum recorded temperature was 45.3 °C (113.5 °F) on 14 January 1939 at the end of a four-day heatwave across Australia.[36]

In winter, temperatures rarely drop below 5 °C (41 °F) in coastal areas. The coldest month is July, with an average range of 8.0–16.2 °C (46–61 °F). The lowest recorded minimum at Observatory Hill was 2.1 °C (35.8 °F). Rainfall is fairly evenly divided between summer and winter, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year, when easterly winds dominate.[citation needed]

The average annual rainfall, with moderate to low variability, is 1,217 mm (48 in), falling on an average 138 days a year.[37] Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836.[38] However, a July 2008 fall of graupel, or soft hail, mistaken by many for snow, has raised the possibility that the 1836 event was not snow, either.[39]

Bondi Beach in Sydney's east. Sydney's warm weather in summer makes its beaches very popular.

The city is not affected by cyclones. The El Niño Southern Oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, notably in 1994 and 2001–02 — these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The city is also prone to severe hail storms and wind storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which severely damaged Sydney's eastern and city suburbs. The storm produced massive hailstones of at least 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter and resulting in insurance losses of around A$1.7 billion in less than five hours.[40]

The city is prone to flash flooding from rain caused by East Coast Lows (a low pressure depression which can bring significant damage by heavy rain, cyclonic winds and huge swells). The most notable event was the great Sydney flood which occurred on 6 August 1986 and dumped a record 327.6 mm (12.9 in) on the city in 24 hours. This caused major traffic problems and damage in many parts of the metropolitan area.[41]

The Bureau of Meteorology has reported that 2002 through 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859. 2004 saw an average daily maximum temperature of 23.39 °C, 2005 of 23.35 °C, 2002 of 22.91 °C, and 2003 of 22.65 °C. The average daily maximum between 1859 and 2004 was 21.6 °C (70.9 °F). For the first nine months of 2006 the mean temperature was 18.41 °C (65.1 °F); the warmest year previously was 2004 with 18.51 °C (65.32 °F). Since November 2003, there have been only two months in which the average daily maximum was below average: March 2005 (about 1 °C below average)[42] and June 2006 (0.7 °C below average).[43]

The summer of 2007–08 proved to be one of the coolest on record. The Bureau of Meteorology reported that it was the coolest summer in 11 years, the wettest summer in six years, and one of only three summers in recorded history to lack a maximum temperature above 31 °C (88 °F).[44]

During 2009, Sydney experienced warm winter days, dry gusty winds and the most notable phenomena was the dust storm in September, which blew in from the Australian outback and blanketed Sydney in a layer of orange dust. It was the worst dust storm in 70 years[45][46] The average annual daytime temperature at Observatory Hill was 22.9 °C (73.2 °F), which was 0.9 °C above the historical annual average. This ranks as 7th highest annual average maximum temperature since records commenced in 1859. During the year, average night-time temperatures at Sydney Observatory Hill were at 15.1 °C (59.2 °F), which was 1.2 °C above the historical average.[47]

On the first weeks of February, 2010, Sydney received some of the highest rainfalls in years, which caused flash flooding and traffic chaos. On 4 February, some suburbs in the North Shore region recorded their heaviest rain in 20 years. On 12 and 13 February, some suburbs were hit by thunderstorms which brought heavy rain and gusty winds which cut out power and damaged homes.[48][49] On 13 February, Sydney experienced one of the highest rainfall of the last decade with 65 millimetres (2.6 in) of rain falling in one night at Observatory Hill.[50] The heavy rain was caused by remnants of ex-tropical Cyclone Olga and humid north-easterly winds feeding into the low pressure trough. [51][52]

Climate data for Sydney
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 45.3
(114)
42.1
(108)
39.8
(104)
33.9
(93)
30.0
(86)
26.9
(80)
25.9
(79)
31.3
(88)
34.6
(94)
38.2
(101)
41.8
(107)
42.2
(108)
45.3
(114)
Average high °C (°F) 25.9
(79)
25.7
(78)
24.7
(76)
22.4
(72)
19.4
(67)
16.9
(62)
16.3
(61)
17.8
(64)
19.9
(68)
22.1
(72)
23.6
(74)
25.2
(77)
21.7
(71)
Average low °C (°F) 18.7
(66)
18.8
(66)
17.5
(64)
14.7
(58)
11.5
(53)
9.3
(49)
8.0
(46)
8.9
(48)
11.0
(52)
13.5
(56)
15.6
(60)
17.5
(64)
13.8
(57)
Record low °C (°F) 10.6
(51)
9.6
(49)
9.3
(49)
7.0
(45)
4.4
(40)
2.1
(36)
2.2
(36)
2.7
(37)
4.9
(41)
5.7
(42)
7.7
(46)
9.1
(48)
2.1
(36)
Precipitation mm (inches) 102.0
(4.02)
117.9
(4.64)
129.4
(5.09)
126.4
(4.98)
120.7
(4.75)
130.6
(5.14)
97.3
(3.83)
81.2
(3.2)
69.1
(2.72)
77.6
(3.06)
83.1
(3.27)
77.9
(3.07)
1,212.5
(47.74)
Sunshine hours 220 188 198 192 183 165 198 220 216 223 234 236 2,482
% Humidity 62 64 62 59 57 57 51 50 51 56 58 59 57
Avg. precipitation days 12.1 12.3 13.3 12.0 11.8 11.4 10.3 9.9 10.3 11.4 11.5 11.5 137.8
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[53] 11 December 2009

Urban structure

Sydney's central business district (CBD) extends southwards for about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from Sydney Cove to the area around Central station. The Sydney CBD is bounded on the east side by a chain of parkland, and the west by Darling Harbour, a tourist and nightlife precinct.

Although the CBD dominated the city's business and cultural life in the early days, other business/cultural districts have developed in a radial pattern since World War II. As a result, the proportion of white-collar jobs located in the CBD declined from more than 60 per cent at the end of World War II to less than 30 per cent in 2004.[citation needed]

Together with the commercial district of North Sydney, joined to the CBD by the Harbour Bridge, the most significant outer business districts are Parramatta[54] in the central-west, Penrith[55] in the west, Bondi Junction in the east, Liverpool[56] in the southwest, Chatswood to the north, and Hurstville to the south.

Sydney's Northern Beaches. The city's metropolitan area is characterised by large areas of urban sprawl, and, on the eastern side, beaches along the Tasman Sea

The extensive area covered by urban Sydney is formally divided into 642[57] suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as 40[58] local government areas. There is no metropolitan-wide government, but the Government of New South Wales and its agencies have extensive responsibilities in providing metropolitan services.[59]

The City of Sydney itself covers a fairly small area comprising the central business district and its neighbouring inner-city suburbs. In addition, regional descriptions are used informally to conveniently describe larger sections of the urban area. These include Eastern Suburbs, Hills District, Inner West, Canterbury-Bankstown, Greater Western Sydney, Northern Beaches, Northern Suburbs, North Shore, St George, Southern Sydney, South-western Sydney, Sutherland Shire and Western Sydney. However, many suburbs are not conveniently covered by any of these categories.

Economy

The largest economic sectors in Sydney, as measured by the number of people employed, include property and business services, retail, manufacturing, and health and community services.[60] Since the 1980s, jobs have moved from manufacturing to the services and information sectors. Sydney provides approximately 25 percent of the country's total GDP.[61]

The City of Sydney, viewed from Balmain.

The Australian Securities Exchange and the Reserve Bank of Australia are located in Sydney, as are the headquarters of 90 banks and more than half of Australia's top companies, and the regional headquarters for around 500 multinational corporations.[61] Of the ten largest corporations in Australia by revenue,[62] four have headquarters in Sydney: Caltex Australia, the Commonwealth Bank, Westpac, and Woolworths. Of the 54 authorised deposit-taking banks in Australia, 44 are based in Sydney including nine of the 11 foreign subsidiary banks in Australia and all of the 29 local branches of foreign banks. Major authorised foreign banks in Sydney include Citigroup, UBS Australia, Mizuho Corporate Bank, HSBC Bank Australia and Deutsche Bank.

Shopping locations in the central business district include the Queen Victoria Building, the pedestrian mall on Pitt Street, and international luxury boutiques in the quieter, northern end of Castlereagh St. Oxford Street in Paddington and Crown Street, Woollahra are home to boutiques selling more niche products, and the main streets of Newtown and Enmore cater more towards students and alternative lifestyles.

Sydney received 7.8 million domestic visitors and 2.5 million international visitors in 2004.[63] In 2007, the (then) Premier of New South Wales, Morris Iemma established Events New South Wales to "market Sydney and NSW as a leading global events destination". Fox Studios Australia has large film studios in the city.

As of 2004, the unemployment rate in Sydney was 4.9 percent.[64] According to The Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide cost of living survey, Sydney is the sixteenth most expensive city in the world, while a UBS survey ranks Sydney as 15th in the world in terms of net earnings.[65] As of September 2009, Sydney has the highest median house price of any Australian capital city at $569,000, and a median unit price of $400,000.[66] Sydney also has the highest median rent prices of any Australian city at $450 a week.

The Sydney Region accounts for 12 percent (approximately $1 billion per annum) of the total agricultural production, by value, of NSW.[67] Sydney provides 55% of NSW's flower production and 58% of its turf production, as well as 44% of state's nurseries.[68] In 1994-1995 Sydney produced 44% of New South Wales' poultry meat and 48% of the state's eggs.[69]

Demographics

The ten largest overseas born populations[70]
Country of Birth Population (2006)
United Kingdom 175,166
People's Republic of China 109,142
New Zealand 81,064
Vietnam 62,144
Lebanon 54,502
India 52,975
Philippines 52,087
Italy 44,563
Hong Kong 36,866
South Korea 32,124
Sydney
population by year
1800 3,000
1820 12,000
1851 39,000
1871 200,000 (Gold Rush)
1901 500,000
1925 1,000,000
1962 2,000,000
2001 3,366,542
2006 4,119,190
2008 4,399,722
2050 5,100,000 (Projected)

The 2006 census reported 4,119,190 residents in the Sydney Statistical Division,[71] of which 3,641,422 lived in Sydney's urban area.[72] Inner Sydney was the most densely populated place in Australia with 4,023 inhabitants per square kilometre (10,420/sq mi).[73]

In the 2006 census, the most common self-described ancestries identified for Sydney residents were Australian, English, Irish, Scottish and Chinese.[citation needed] The Census also recorded that 1.1% of Sydney's population identified as being of Indigenous origin and 31.7 per cent were born overseas.[71] The Asian Australian population was 16.9 per cent.[74] The three major sources of immigrants are the United Kingdom, China and New Zealand, followed by Vietnam, Lebanon, India, Italy and the Philippines.[71]

Freedom Arch in Cabramatta, a suburb home to a large proportion of Sydney's Vietnamese population

Most residents are native speakers of English; many have a second language, the most common being Arabic (predominately Lebanese Arabic), Chinese languages (mostly Cantonese and Mandarin), and Greek.[71] Sydney has the seventh-largest percentage of foreign-born population in the world.[75] Immigrants account for 75 percent of Sydney's annual population growth.[76]

The median age of Sydney residents is 34; 12 per cent of the population is over 65 years old.[64] 15.2 per cent of Sydney residents have educational attainment equal to at least a bachelor's degree,[77] In the 2006 census, 64 per cent of the Sydney residents identified themselves as Christians, 14.1 per cent had no religion, 10.4 per cent left the question blank, 3.9 per cent were Muslims, 3.7 per cent were Buddhists, 1.7 per cent were Hindus and 0.9 per cent were Jewish.[70]

Culture

Sydney hosts many different festivals and some of Australia's largest social and cultural events. These include the Sydney Festival, Australia's largest arts festival which is a celebration involving both indoor and free outdoor performances throughout January; the Biennale of Sydney, established in 1973; the Big Day Out, a travelling rock-music festival which originated in Sydney; the Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras along Oxford Street; the Sydney Film Festival and many other smaller film festivals such as the short film Tropfest and Flickerfest.

Australia's premier prize for portraiture, the Archibald Prize is organised by the Art Gallery of New South Wales. The Sydney Royal Easter Show is held every year at Sydney Olympic Park, the final of Australian Idol takes place on the steps of the Opera House, and Australian Fashion Week takes place in April/May and September. Sydney's New Year's Eve and Australia Day celebrations are the largest in Australia.

A survey based on tracking the frequency of words and phrases in the media, cited Sydney as number 9 on a list of the world's top fashion cities in 2009.[78] The city is the site of the world renowned Rosemount Australian Fashion Week, which occurs biannually, and is home to many of Australia's premier fashion houses. Most international designers have a major presence in Sydney.

Entertainment and performing arts

Sydney has a wide variety of cultural institutions. Sydney's iconic Opera House has five halls, including a large concert hall and opera and drama theatres; it is the home of Opera Australia—the third-busiest opera company in the world, and the Sydney Symphony.[79] Other venues include the Sydney Town Hall, City Recital Hall, the State Theatre, the Theatre Royal, Sydney, the Sydney Theatre and the Wharf Theatre.

The Sydney Dance Company was under the leadership of Graeme Murphy during the late 20th century. The Sydney Theatre Company has a regular roster of local plays, such as noted playwright David Williamson, classics and international playwrights.

In 2007, New Theatre (Newtown) celebrated 75 years of continuous production in Sydney. Other important theatre companies in Sydney include Company B and Griffin Theatre Company. From the 1940s through to the 1970s the Sydney Push, a group of authors and political activists whose members included Germaine Greer, influenced the city's cultural life.

Giraffes at Sydney’s Taronga Zoo

The National Institute of Dramatic Art, based in Kensington, boasts internationally famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann and Cate Blanchett. Sydney's role in the film industry has increased since the opening of Fox Studios Australia in 1998.

Prominent films which have been filmed in the city include Moulin Rouge!, Mission: Impossible II, Star Wars episodes II and III, Superman Returns, Dark City, Son of the Mask, Stealth, Dil Chahta Hai, Happy Feet, Australia and The Matrix. Films using Sydney as a setting include Finding Nemo, Strictly Ballroom, Muriel's Wedding, Our Lips Are Sealed, and Dirty Deeds. Many Bollywood movies have also been filmed in Sydney including Singh Is Kinng, Bachna Ae Haseeno, Chak De India, Heyy Babyy. As of 2006, over 229 films have been set in, or featured Sydney.[80]

Sydney's most popular nightspots include Kings Cross, Oxford Street, Darling Harbour, Circular Quay and The Rocks, which all contain various bars, nightclubs and restaurants. Star City Casino, is Sydney's only casino and is situated around Darling Harbour. There are many traditional pubs, cafes and restaurants in inner-city areas such as Newtown, Balmain and Leichhardt. Sydney's main live music hubs include areas such as Newtown and Annandale, which nurtured acts such as AC/DC, Bliss n Eso, Sparkadia,Midnight Oil and INXS. Other popular nightspots tend to be spread throughout the city in areas such as Bondi, Manly, Cronulla and Parramatta.

Tourism

In the year ending March 2008, Sydney received 2.7 million international visitors.[81] The most well-known attractions include the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Other attractions include Royal Botanical Gardens, Luna Park, some 40 beaches and Sydney Tower.[82]

Sydney also has several popular museums, such as the Australian Museum (natural history and anthropology), the Powerhouse Museum (science, technology and design), the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Museum of Contemporary Art and the Australian National Maritime Museum.[83]

Sport and outdoor activities

Sydney is well-endowed with open spaces and access to waterways, and has many natural areas, even in the city centre. Within the CBD are the Chinese Garden of Friendship, Hyde Park, The Domain and the Royal Botanic Gardens. The metropolitan area contains several national parks, including the Royal National Park, the second oldest national park in the world and several parks in Sydney's far west which are part of the World Heritage listed Greater Blue Mountains Area.[84]

Sport is an important part of Sydney's culture. The most popular sport in Sydney is rugby league. The NSWRFL (today known as the NRL) began in Sydney in the 1908 season and is the largest and most prestigious domestic rugby league competition in the Southern Hemisphere.[85] The city is home to nine of the sixteen teams currently in the National Rugby League competition: the Canterbury Bulldogs, Cronulla Sharks, Manly Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters and Wests Tigers.

Fireworks during the 2000 Summer Olympics closing ceremony

Cricket is the most popular summer sport in Sydney. The Ashes Series between Australia and England is widely popular among the people. As the state capital, Sydney is also the home of the NSW Blues cricket team in the Sheffield Shield cricket competition. Sydney Cricket Ground and ANZ Stadium here host cricket matches. This city has also hosted 1992 Cricket World Cup and will also host the 2015 Cricket World Cup. Sydney Cricket Ground is at present the only test venue in the city. Plans are going on to accommodate ANZ Stadium as an international cricket venue for Australia.

Sydney is the only city other than Brisbane to have an elite presence in the 4 major football codes of Australia - rugby league, football (soccer), rugby union and AFL. Association Football is represented by Sydney FC in the A-League, whilst the second tier competitions NSWPL and NSW Super League provide many players to the A-League. Sydney also hosts major association football events of the national team, the Socceroos, most notably the World Cup Qualifier against Uruguay in 2005. Rugby Union is represented by the NSW Waratahs in the elite Southern Hemisphere Super 14 competition. The Suburban rugby competition is the Shute Shield which provides many Super 14 players. High profile Wallabies games are held in Sydney such as the Bledisloe Cup, Tri Nations matches, British and Irish Lions games, and most notably the final of the 2003 Rugby World Cup against England.

Sydney also has an Australian Football League (AFL) team called the Sydney Swans; with a second team - GWS (Greater Western Sydney) forming to enter the main AFL league in 2012, a woman's netball team (Swifts), a baseball team (Patriots), a field hockey team (Waratahs), two ice hockey teams (Penrith Bears & Sydney Ice Dogs) and a WNBL team (Sydney Uni Flames). The Sydney Kings will be re-entering the NBL competition at the end of 2010.

The NSW Blues rugby league team in the annual Rugby League State of Origin series. Large sporting events such as the NRL Grand Final and Bledisloe Cup games are regularly held at the ANZ Stadium, the main stadium for the 2000 Summer Olympics.

Other events in Sydney include the start of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, the Golden Slipper horse race, and the City to Surf race. Prominent sporting venues in Sydney include the Sydney Cricket Ground or SCG, ANZ Stadium, The Sydney Football Stadium, Eastern Creek Raceway, Royal Randwick and Rosehill Gardens Racecourse.

Media

Sydney has two main daily newspapers. The Sydney Morning Herald is the oldest extant newspaper in Australia, having been published regularly since 1831. The Herald's competitor, The Daily Telegraph, is a News Corporation-owned tabloid. Both papers have tabloid counterparts published on Sunday, The Sun-Herald and the Sunday Telegraph, respectively.

Seven Network broadcasting dishes in Epping.

The three commercial television networks (Seven, Nine, Ten), as well as the government national broadcast services (ABC and SBS) are headquartered in Sydney. Also a community television station, TVS, broadcasts in the Sydney area. Historically, the networks have been based in the northern suburbs, but the last decade has seen several move to the inner city. Nine has kept its headquarters north of the harbour, in Willoughby. Ten has its studios in a redeveloped section of the inner-city suburb of Pyrmont, and Seven also has headquarters in Pyrmont, production studios at Epping as well as a purpose-built news studio in Martin Place in the CBD.

The ABC has a large headquarters and production facility in the inner-city suburb of Ultimo and SBS has its studios at Artarmon. Foxtel and Optus both supply pay-TV over their cable services to most parts of the urban area.[86][87]

The five free-to-air networks have provided digital television transmissions in Sydney since January 2000. Additional services recently introduced include the ABC's 2 channels including ABC2 (Channel 22) and ABC 3(channel 23) , SBS's second service SBS TWO (Channel 32), an on-air program guide (Channel 4), a news, sport, and weather items channel (Channel 41), ChannelNSW: Government and Public Information (Channel 45), now defunct,[88] Australian Christian Channel (Channel 46), MacquarieBank TV (Channel 47), SportsTAB (Channel 48), Expo Home Shopping (Channel 49), and Federal parliamentary broadcasts (Channel 401 to 408).

Many AM and FM government, commercial and community radio services broadcast in the Sydney area. The local ABC radio station is 702 ABC Sydney (formerly 2BL).[89] The talkback radio genre is dominated by the perennial rivals 2GB and 2UE. Popular Music radio stations include Triple M, 2Day FM and Nova 96.9, which generally target people under 40. In the older end of the music radio market, Classic Rock 95.3 and Mix 106.5 target the 25–54 age group, while WS-FM targets the 40–54 age group with their Classic Hits format mostly focusing on the 70s and 80s. Triple J (ABC), 2SER and FBi Radio provide a more independent, local and alternative sound. There are also a number of community stations broadcasting to a particular language group or local area.[90]

On 1 July 2009, DAB+ Digital Radio officially started. ABC and commercial radios provide full programing.[91]

Government

Sydney's Local Government Areas

Apart from the limited role of the Cumberland County Council from 1945–1964, there has never been an overall governing body for the Sydney metropolitan area; instead, the metropolitan area is divided into local government areas (LGAs). These areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales State Government, such as planning and garbage collection.

The City of Sydney includes the central business area and some adjoining inner suburbs, and has in recent years been expanded through amalgamation with adjoining local government areas, such as South Sydney. It is led by the elected Lord Mayor of Sydney and a council. The Lord Mayor, however, is sometimes treated as a representative of the whole city, for example during the Olympics.

The Sydney Town Hall, seat of the City Council

Most citywide government activities are controlled by the state government. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, and planning of major infrastructure projects. Because a large proportion of the New South Wales population lives in Sydney, state governments have traditionally been reluctant to allow the development of citywide governmental bodies, which would tend to rival the state government. For this reason, Sydney has always been a focus for the politics of both state and federal parliaments. For example, the boundaries of the City of Sydney LGA have been significantly altered by state governments on at least four occasions since 1945, with expected advantageous effect to the governing party in the New South Wales Parliament at the time.[92]

The 38 LGAs commonly described as making up Sydney are:[93]

The classification of which councils make up Sydney varies. The Local Government Association of New South Wales considers all LGAs lying entirely in Cumberland County as part of its 'Metro' group, which excludes Camden (classed in its 'Country' group).[94] The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines a Sydney Statistical Division (the population figures of which are used in this article) that includes all of the above councils as well as Wollondilly, the Blue Mountains, Hawkesbury, Gosford and Wyong.[95]

Education

The University of Sydney, established in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia

Sydney is home to some of Australia's most prominent educational institutions.[96] The University of Sydney, established in 1850, is Australia's oldest university and the largest in Sydney. Other public universities located in Sydney include the University of Technology, Sydney, the University of New South Wales, Macquarie University, the University of Western Sydney and the Australian Catholic University (two out of six campuses). Other universities which operate secondary campuses in Sydney include the University of Notre Dame Australia and the University of Wollongong.

There are four multi-campus government-funded Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes in Sydney, which provide vocational training at a tertiary level: the Sydney Institute of Technology, Northern Sydney Institute of TAFE, Western Sydney Institute of TAFE and South Western Sydney Institute of TAFE.

Sydney has public, denominational and independent schools. Public schools, including pre-schools, primary and secondary schools, and special schools are administered by the New South Wales Department of Education and Training. There are four state-administered education areas in Sydney, that together co-ordinate 919 schools.[citation needed] Of the 30 selective high schools in the state, 25 are in Sydney.[97]

Infrastructure

Health systems

The Government of New South Wales operates the public hospitals in the Sydney metropolitan region. Management of these hospitals and other specialist health facilities is coordinated by four Area Health Services: Sydney South West (SSWAHS), Sydney West (SWAHS), Northern Sydney and Central Coast (NSCCAHS) and the South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra (SESIAHS) Area Health Services. There are also a number of private hospitals in the city, many of which are aligned with religious organisations.

Transport

Circular Quay, the main ferry terminal in Sydney

Most Sydney residents travel by car through the system of roads and motorways. The most important trunk routes in the urban area are the nine Metroads, which include the 110 km (68 mi) Sydney Orbital Network. Sydney is also served by train, taxi, bus and ferry networks.

Sydney trains are run by CityRail, a state-run corporation. Trains run as suburban commuter rail services in the outer suburbs, then converge in an underground city loop service in the central business district. In the years following the 2000 Olympics, CityRail's performance declined significantly.[98] In 2005, CityRail introduced a revised timetable and employed more drivers.[99] A large infrastructure project, the Clearways project, is scheduled to be completed by 2010.[100][101][102] In 2007 a report found Cityrail performed poorly compared to many metro services from other world cities.[103]

An EDI M-set (Millennium) train at Sydney's Central.

Sydney has one privately operated light rail line, Metro Light Rail, running from Central Station to Lilyfield along a former goods train line. The Metro Monorail runs in a loop around the main shopping district and Darling Harbour. Sydney was once served by an extensive tram network, which was progressively closed in the 1950s and 1960s.[104]

Most parts of the metropolitan area are served by buses, many of which follow the pre-1961 tram routes. In the city and inner suburbs the state-owned Sydney Buses has a monopoly. In the outer suburbs, service is contracted to many private bus companies. Construction of a network of rapid bus transitways in areas not previously well served by public transport began in 1999, and the first of these, the Liverpool–Parramatta Rapid Bus Transitway, opened in February 2003. State government-owned Sydney Ferries runs numerous commuter and tourist ferry services on Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River.[105]

Sydney Airport, in the suburb of Mascot, is Sydney's main airport, and is one of the oldest continually operated airports in the world.[106] The smaller Bankstown Airport mainly serves private and general aviation. There is a light aviation airfield at Camden. RAAF Base Richmond lies to the north-west of the city.

The question of the need for a Second Sydney Airport has raised much controversy. A 2003 study found that Sydney Airport can manage as Sydney's sole international airport for 20 years, with a significant increase in airport traffic predicted.[107] The resulting expansion of the airport would have a substantial impact on the community, including additional aircraft noise affecting residents. Land has been acquired at Badgerys Creek for a second airport, the site acting as a focal point of political argument.[108]

Utilities

Water storage and supply for Sydney is managed by the Sydney Catchment Authority, which is an agency of the NSW Government that sells bulk water to Sydney Water and other agencies. Water in the Sydney catchment is chiefly stored in dams in the Upper Nepean Scheme, the Blue Mountains, Woronora Dam, Warragamba Dam and the Shoalhaven Scheme.[109] Historically low water levels in the catchment have led to water use restrictions and the NSW government is investigating alternative water supply options, including grey water recycling and the construction of a seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant at Kurnell.[110] As of May 2009, the plant was 80% completed, and was due to start suppling fresh water to Sydney at the end of the year.[111] In late January 2010, the NSW government announced that desalination plant was operating and people in different regions were being supplied with desalinated water. There were no complaints or reports about water odour, which people had previously perceived was going to be present. Sydney Water also collects the wastewater and sewage produced by the city.

Four companies supply natural gas and electricity to Sydney: Energy Australia, AGL, Integral Energy and Origin Energy. The natural gas supply for the city is sourced from the cooper basin in South Australia. Numerous telecommunications companies operate in Sydney providing terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services.

See also

References

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1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

SYDNEY, the capital of New South Wales, Australia, in Cumberland (disambiguation)|Cumberland county, on the east coast of the continent, situated on the south shore of Port Jackson, in 33015? 44'? S., 151° 12' 23" E. Few capitals in the world can rival Sydney in natural advantages and beauty of site. It stands on undulating and easily drained ground, upon a bed of sandstone rock, on a peninsula jutting into one of the deepest, safest and most beautiful harbours in the world; and in addition it lies in the centre of a great carboniferous area. The metropolitan area of Sydney consists of a peninsula, about 13 m. in length, lying between the Parramatta and George's rivers. The sea frontage of this area stretches for 12 m. from the South Head of Port Jackson to the North Head of Botany Bay; it consists of bold cliffs alternating with beautiful beaches, of which some are connected with the city by tramway, and form favourite places of resort. The city proper occupies two indented tongues of land, having a water frontage on Port Jackson, and extending from Rushcutter's Bay on the east to Blackwattle Bay on the west, a distance of 8 m., nearly two miles of which is occupied by the Domain and the botanical gardens. The business quarter is a limited area lying between Darling Harbour and the Domain. The streets are irregular in width, some of them narrow and close together, while those leading down to Darling Harbour have a steep incline. Sydney has in consequence more than usually the appearance of an old-world town.

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The main street of the city, George Street, is 2 m. long, running from north to south; it contains the town-hall, the post office and the Anglican cathedral. The post office is a handsome sandstone building in Renaissance style; it is colonnaded on two sides with polished granite columns and surmounted by a clock tower, containing a peal of bells. The town-hall, a large florid building of Classic order, stands on an eminence, and its clock tower forms a landmark; it contains the spacious Centennial Hall (commemorating the first Australian colonization here in 1787), and has one of the finest organs in the world. Opposite are the Queen Victoria Markets, a striking Byzantine erection, capped by numerous turrets and domes. Adjoining the town hall is the Anglican cathedral of St Andrew, in the Perpendicular style; it has two towers at the west end and a low central tower above the intersection of the nave and transepts, with a very handsome chapter house. Second in importance to George Street is Pitt Street, which runs parallel to it from the Circular Quay to the railway station; Macquarie Street runs alongside the Domain and contains a number of public buildings, including the treasury, the office of public works, the houses of parliament and the mint. In Bridge Street, behind the office of public works, are the exchange and the crown lands office. All these government offices are in classical style. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St Mary lies on the north-east side of Hyde Park; it is a splendid Gothic structure, the finest in Australia. This cathedral has been twice destroyed by fire, and the existing building, from the designs of Mr W. W. Wardell, was consecrated in 1905. Government House, the residence of the governor-general, an excellent Tudor building erected in 1837, and several times enlarged, is delightfully situated in the Domain, overlooking Farm Cove. The residence of the state governor is at Rose Bay, east of the city. At the top of King Street there is a statue of Queen Victoria and close by a statue of Prince Albert, at the entrance to Hyde Park, in which the most elevated spot is occupied by a statue of Captain Cook. The university stands in its own grounds on the site of Grose Farm, the scene of one of the earliest attempts at government farming. Like most of the buildings at Sydney, the university is built of the excellent sandstone from the quarries of Pyrmont; it is 15th-century Gothic in style and stands at the top of a gentle slope, surrounded by gardens. Around it lie three Gothic colleges in the 14th-century style, affiliated to the university and known as St Paul's, St John's and St Andrew's. They are residential colleges belonging respectively to the Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Presbyterians. The university provides instruction and grants degrees in arts, law, medicine, science and engineering; instruction in theology, however, is given, not by the university, but by the different affiliated colleges.

To compensate for the narrowness of its streets and its lack of fine promenades Sydney possesses a number of grand parks, surpassed in few other capitals. Hyde Park is a plateau almost in the centre of the city, which in the early days of Sydney was used as a race-course. Adjoining are two smaller parks, Cook Park and Philip Park, while north of these stretches the Domain and the botanical gardens. The Domain embraces 138 acres, extending along one side of Woolloomooloo Bay and surrounding Farm Cove, in which the warships belonging to the Australian station are usually anchored; in this charming expanse of park land are the governor's residence and the National Art Gallery, which houses a splendid collection of pictures by modern artists, statuary, pottery and other objects of art. The botanical gardens on the southern shores of Farm Cove are the finest in the Commonwealth and are distinguished for their immense collection of exotics. On the south-east of the city lie Moore Park, 600 acres in extent, containing two fine cricket grounds and the show grounds of the agricultural society, and Centennial Park, formerly a water reserve of 768 acres. Adjoining Moore Park is the metropolitan race-course of Randwick. There are numerous other and smaller parks, of which the chief are Wentworth Park laid out on the site of Blackwattle Swamp, Prince Alfred Park, Belmore Park and Victoria Park adjoining the university grounds.

Sydney harbour is divided into a number of inlets by projecting headlands. The head of Woolloomooloo Bay, Sydney Cove, the shallow bay between Dawes and Millers Point, and Darling Harbour, are lined with wharves. The Circular Quay at the head of Sydney Cove is 1300 ft. long, and here all the great ocean liners from Europe, China and Japan are berthed, while to the great wharf in Woolloomooloo Bay, 3000 ft. in length, the American liners and the majority of the small coasting vessels come to discharge their cargoes. The whole of the eastern side of Darling Harbour is occupied by a succession of wharves and piers, there being in all 4000 ft. of wharfage. Connected with the main railway system of the colony is the Darling Harbour Wharf 1260 ft. long and equipped with electric light, stationary and travelling hydraulic cranes, machinery for meat freezing, and large sheds for storing corn and wool. In addition to these there are wharves at Pyrmont and Blackwattle Bay, respectively 3500 ft. and 1400 ft. long. These harbours on the eastern side of Sydney are mainly frequented by cargo boats trading in coal, corn, frozen meat, wool, hides and various ores. The total length of quays and wharves belonging to the port amounts to some 23 m. The dock accommodation is extensive. On Cockatoo Island, a few miles west of the city, the government have two large dry docks, the Fitzroy dock, 450 ft. long, and the Sutherland dock, 630 ft. Mort's dock, another large dry dock, is at Mort's Bay, Balmain, while there are five floating docks with a combined lifting power of 3895 tons, and the three patent slips in Mort's Bay can raise between them 3040 tons. Prior to 1899 the jurisdiction of the port was in the hands of a marine board, three members of which were elected by the shipping interest, and the remaining four nominated by the government, but in that year the board was replaced by a single official, known as the superintendent of the department of navigation and responsible to the colonial secretary.

Sydney has a great number of learned, educational and charitable institutions; it possesses a Royal Society, a Linnean Society and a Geographical Society, a women's college affiliated to the university, an astronomical observatory, a technical college, a school of art with library attached, a bacteriological institute at Rose Bay, a museum and a free public library. Standing in the centre of a great coal-bearing basin, Sydney is naturally the seat of numerous manufactures, to the prosperity of which the abundance and cheapness of coal has been highly conducive. In addition to the industries connected with the shipping, large numbers of hands are employed in the government railway works, where the locomotives and rolling stock used by the state railways are manufactured. There are several large tobacco factories, flour mills, boot factories, sugar refineries, tanneries, tallow works, meat-preserving, glue and kerosene-oil factories and soap works. Clothing, carriages, pottery, glass, paper and furniture are made, and there are numerous minor industries.

Sydney is governed municipally by a city council. The gas and electric lighting is in the hands of private firms. The administration of the park, the city improvements and the water and sewerage departments have been handed over to boards and trusts. The control of the traffic is in the hands of the police, who, with the wharves and the tramways, are directed by the state government. The whole district between Sydney and Parramatta on each side of the railway is practically one continuous town, the more fashionable suburbs lying on the east of the city while the business extension is to the westward and the southern quarters are largely devoted to manufacturing. The suburbs comprise the following distinct municipalities, Alexandria, with a population in 1901 of 9341; Annandale, 8 349; Ashfield, 14,329; Balmain, 30,076; Bexley, 3079; Botany, 33 8 3; North Botany, 3772; Burwood, 7521; Camperdown, 7931 Canterbury, 4226; Concord, 2818;2818; Darlington, 3784; Drummoyne, 4244; Enfield, 2 4 97;97; Erskineville, 6059; Glebe, 19,220;, Hunter's Hill, 4232; Hurstville, 4019; Kogarah, 3892; Lane Cove, 1918; Leichhardt, 17,454; Manly, 5035; Marrickville, 18 ,775; Eastwood, 713; Mosman, 5691; Newtown, 22,598;22,598; North Sydney, 22,040; Paddington, 21,984; Petersham, 15,307; Randwick, 9753; Redfern, 24,2,9; Rockdale, 7857; Ryde, 3222; St Peter's, 5906; Vaucluse, 1152; Waterloo, 9609;9609; Waverley, 12,342; Willoughby, 6004; Woollahra, 12,351. These suburbs are connected with the city, some by railway, some by steam, cable and electric tramways, and others by ferry across Port Jackson. The tramway system is owned by the government.

There are numerous places of resort for the citizens. Many of the bays in the harbour are largely visited on Sundays and holidays. The most popular resorts are Manly Beach, Chowder Bay and Watson's Bay, in the harbour; Cabarita, on the Parramatta river; Middle Harbour; and Coogee Bay and Bondi, on the ocean beach; Botany, Lady Robinson's Beach, Sandringham and Sans Souci on Botany Bay. Besides these there are two splendid national reserves, an hour's journey by rail from Sydney, viz. National Park, comprising an area of 36,810 acres, surrounding the picturesque bay of Port Hacking; and Kurringai Chase, with an area of 35,300 acres.

The two principal cemeteries are at Waverley and Rookwood. The former is most picturesquely situated on the cliff overlooking the Pacific Ocean.

The climate of Sydney is mild and equable; in summer sea breezes blow from the north-east, which, while they temper the heat, make the air exceedingly humid; in winter the winds blow from the west and the climate is dry and bracing. The mean average temperature is 63° Fahr., and the rainfall 49.66 in.

The population has increased with marvellous rapidity. In 1861 it was (city and suburbs inclusive) 95,000; in 1881, 237,300; in 18 9 1, 399, 2 7 0; and in 1901, 487, 9 00. The proportion of city dwellers to suburban is as follows: in 1901 - city, 112,137; suburbs, 369,693; total, 487,900. The incorporated area of the metropolitan district is about 142 sq. m., or 91,220 acres, so that the average density of population was 5.35 persons per acre, some of the more immediate suburbs being more densely populated than the city itself.


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(Redirected to Sydney, New South Wales article)

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For the local government area, see City of Sydney; for the region (extending an average of 150 km from the City of Sydney), see Greater Sydney, New South Wales; for other uses, see Sydney (disambiguation).
Sydney
New South WalesAustralia[[locality of county::various (38)|]]
File:Sydney opera house and skyline.jpg
The Sydney Opera House and Sydney CBD on Port Jackson
Population:
Density:
4,284,379 (1st)
2058/km²
Established: 26 January 1788
Area: 12144.6 km²
Time zone:

 • Summer (DST)

AEST (UTC+10)

AEDT (UTC+11)

Location:
  • 881 km NE of Melbourne
  • 938 km S of Brisbane
  • 3970 km E of Perth
  • 1406 km E of Adelaide
  • 4003 km SE of Darwin
LGA: various (38)
County: Cumberland
State District: various (49)
Federal Division: various (22)
</td>
Mean Max Temp Mean Min Temp Rainfall
21.6 °C
71 °F
13.7 °C
57 °F
1214.8 mm
47.8 in
File:Sydney locator-MJC.png
Location of Sydney within Australia

Sydney (pronouncedImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif /ˈsɪdniː/) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4.28 million (2006 estimate, extending over the whole region, from Wyong to Wollondilly).[1] It is the state capital of New South Wales, and the site of the first British colony in Australia, established in 1788 at Sydney Cove by Arthur Phillip, leader of the First Fleet from Britain.[2] A resident of the city is referred to as a Sydneysider.

Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast. The city is built around Port Jackson, which includes Sydney Harbour, leading to the city's nickname, "the Harbour City". It is noted for the Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge, and its beaches. The metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks, and contains many bays, rivers, and inlets. It is listed as a beta world city by the Loughborough University group's 1999 inventory.[3] The city has hosted international sporting, political, and cultural events, including the 1938 British Empire Games, 2000 Summer Olympics and the 2003 Rugby World Cup. In September 2007, the city hosted the leaders of the 21 APEC economies for APEC Australia 2007, and in July 2008 it hosted World Youth Day 2008. The main airport serving Sydney is Kingsford Smith International Airport.

Sydney is one of the most multicultural cities in the world which reflects its role as a major destination for immigrants to Australia.[4] According to the Mercer cost of living survey, Sydney is Australia’s most expensive city, and the 21st most expensive in the world.[5]

Contents

History

Main article: History of Sydney
File:Very early map of sydney from 1789.jpg
A map of Sydney in 1789
File:Sydney looking north over Hyde Park 1828.jpg
Sydney circa 1828, looking north over Hyde Park towards the harbour

Radiocarbon dating has provided evidence that the Sydney region has been populated by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years.[6] At the time of the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788, 4000 - 8000 Aboriginal people lived in the region. The British called them "Eora"[7], because being asked where they came from, these people would answer: “Eora”, meaning in their language: ‘here’, or ‘from this place’. There were three language groups in the Sydney region; these were further refined into dialects spoken by smaller clans. The principal languages were Darug (the Cadigal, original inhabitants of the City of Sydney, spoke a coastal dialect of Darug), Dharawal and Guringai. Each clan had a territory; the location of that territory determined the resources available. Although urbanization has destroyed most evidence of these settlements (such as shell middens), Sydney and its environs are well known for numerous rock drawings and carvings because of the nature of the rock, Hawkesbury sandstone.[8] European interest in colonising Australia arose with the landing of British sea captain Lieutenant James Cook in Botany Bay in 1770. Under instruction from the British government, a convict settlement was founded by Arthur Phillip, who arrived at Botany Bay with a fleet of 11 ships on January 20, 1788. This site was soon found to be unsuitable for habitation, owing to poor soil and a lack of reliable fresh water. Phillip founded the colony at Sydney Cove on Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. He named it after the British Home Secretary, Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, in recognition of Sydney's role in issuing the charter authorising Phillip to establish a colony. In April 1789 a disease, thought to be smallpox, decimated the indigenous population of Sydney; a conservative estimate says that 500 to 1000 Aboriginal people died in the area between Broken and Botany Bays.[7]There was violent resistance to British settlement, notably by the warrior Pemulwuy in the area around Botany Bay, and conflicts were common in the area surrounding the Hawkesbury River. By 1820 there were only a few hundred Aborigines and Governor Macquarie had begun initiatives to 'civilize, Christianize and educate' the Aborigines by removing them from their clans.[7]

File:Garden Palace Sydney 1879.jpg
The International Exhibition of 1879 at the Garden Palace

Macquarie's tenure as Governor of New South Wales was a period when Sydney was improved from its basic beginnings. Roads, bridges, wharves and public buildings were constructed by British and Irish convicts, and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, well-established thoroughfares and an organised constabulary. The 1830s and 1840s were periods of urban development, including the development of the first suburbs, as the town grew rapidly when ships began arriving from Britain and Ireland with immigrants looking to start a new life in a new country. On 20 July 1842 the municipal council of Sydney was incorporated and the town was declared the first city in Australia, with Charles H. Chambers the first mayor.[9] The first of several gold rushes started in 1851, and the port of Sydney has since seen many waves of people arriving from around the world. Rapid suburban development began in the last quarter of the 19th century with the advent of steam powered tramways and railways. With industrialisation Sydney expanded rapidly, and by the early 20th century it had a population well in excess of one million. The Great Depression hit Sydney badly. One of the highlights of the Depression era, however, was the completion of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932.[10]

A rivalry has traditionally existed between Sydney and Melbourne since the gold rushes of the 1850s grew the capital of Victoria into Australia's largest and richest city.[11] While Sydney overtook Melbourne in population in the early years of the 20th century,[12] and has remained the largest city in Australia since this time. During the 1970s and 1980s Sydney's CBD with the Reserve Bank and Australian Stock Exchange clearly surpassed Melbourne as the nation's financial capital.[13] Throughout the 20th century, especially in the decades immediately following World War II, Sydney continued to expand as large numbers of European and later Asian immigrants populated the metropolitan area. The culture brought about by immigrants was a major factor in the city's diverse and highly cosmopolitan atmosphere.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Sydney
File:Sydney ASTER 2001 oct 12.jpg
Image of Sydney taken by NASA RS satellite. The city centre is about a third of the way in on the south shore of the upper inlet, the Parramatta River, directly south of the Sydney Harbour Bridge

Topography

Sydney is in a coastal basin bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north and the Royal National Park to the south. Sydney lies on a submergent coastline, where the ocean level has risen to flood deep river valleys (ria) carved in the hawkesbury sandstone. One of these drowned valleys, Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is the largest natural harbour in the world.[14] There are more than 70 harbour and ocean beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach, in the urban area. Sydney's urban area covers 1,687 km2 (651 sq mi) as at 2001.[15] The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area[16] and covers 12,145 km2 (4,689 sq mi).[17] This area includes the Central Coast and Blue Mountains as well as broad swathes of national park and other unurbanised land.

Geographically, Sydney sprawls over two major regions: the Cumberland Plain, a relatively flat region lying to the south and west of the harbour, and the Hornsby Plateau, a sandstone plateau lying mainly to the north of the harbour, dissected by steep valleys. The oldest parts of the city are located in the flat areas south of the harbour; the North Shore was slower to develop because of its hilly topography, and was mostly a quiet backwater until the Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened in 1932, linking it to the rest of the city.

Climate

File:Avalon beach-1w.jpg
Avalon Beach in Sydney's north. Sydney's hot weather in summer makes its beaches very popular.

Sydney has a temperate climate with warm summers and mild winters, with rainfall spread throughout the year.[18] The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. The warmest month is January, with an average air temperature range at Observatory Hill of 18.6-25.8 °C (65.5-78.4 °F) and an average of 14.6 days a year over 30 °C (86.0 °F). The maximum recorded temperature was Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoffT on 14 January 1939 at the end of a 4 day nationwide heat wave.[19] The winter is mildly cool, with temperatures rarely dropping below Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoffT in coastal areas. The coldest month is July, with an average range of 8-16.2 °C (46.4-61.2 °F). The lowest recorded minimum was Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoffT. Rainfall is fairly evenly divided between summer and winter, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year, when easterly winds dominate. The average annual rainfall, with moderate to low variability, is 1,217 mm (48 in), falling on an average 138 days a year.[20][21] Snowfall last occurred in the Sydney City area in the 1830s.[22]

Climate chart for Sydney
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
103
 
25.8
18.6
 
 
117
 
25.7
18.7
 
 
131
 
24.7
17.5
 
 
127
 
22.4
14.7
 
 
123
 
19.3
11.5
 
 
128
 
16.9
9.2
 
 
98
 
16.2
8
 
 
82
 
17.7
8.9
 
 
69
 
19.9
11
 
 
77
 
22
13.5
 
 
83
 
23.6
15.5
 
 
78
 
25.1
17.5
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm

Although the city does not suffer from cyclones or significant earthquakes, the El Niño Southern Oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, notably in 1994 and 2001-02 — these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The city is also prone to severe hail storms and wind storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which severely damaged Sydney's eastern and city suburbs. The storm produced massive hailstones of at least 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter and resulting in insurance losses of around AUD $1.7 billion in less than five hours.[23] The city is also prone to flash flooding from enormous amounts of rain caused by East Coast Lows (a low pressure depression which deepens off the state usually in winter and early spring which can bring significant damage by heavy rain, cyclonic winds and huge swells). The most notable event was the great Sydney flood which occurred on 6 August 1986 and dumped a record 327.6 mm (12.9 in) on the city in 24 hours. This caused major traffic chaos and damage in many parts of the metropolitan area.[24]

The Bureau of Meteorology has reported that 2002 through 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859. 2004 had an average daily maximum temperature of 23.39 °C, 2005 - 23.35 °C, 2002 - 22.91 °C and 2003 - 22.65 °C. The average daily maximum between 1859 and 2004 was Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoffT. For the first nine months of 2006 the mean temperature was Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoffT; the warmest year previously was 2004 with Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoffT. Since November 2003, there have been only two months in which the average daily maximum was below average: March 2005 (about 1 °C below average)[25] and June 2006 (0.7 °C below average)[26].

However, the summer of 2007-08 proved to be one of the coolest on record. The Bureau of Meteorology reported that it was the coolest summer in 11 years, the wettest summer in six years, and one of only three summers in recorded history to lack a maximum temperature above Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoffT.[27]

Climate Table
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum temperature (°C) 25.8 25.7 24.7 22.4 19.3 16.9 16.2 17.7 19.9 22.0 23.6 25.1 21.6
Mean daily minimum temperature (°C) 18.6 18.7 17.5 14.7 11.5 9.2 8.0 8.9 11.0 13.5 15.5 17.5 13.7
Mean total rainfall (mm) 103.3 117.4 131.2 127.2 123.3 128.1 98.1 81.5 68.7 76.9 83.1 78.1 1217.0
Mean number of rain days 12.1 12.3 13.3 12.0 12.0 11.4 10.3 9.9 10.3 11.5 11.4 11.5 138.0
Source: Bureau of Meteorology

Urban structure

Template:Sydney Urban Areas Labelled Map

File:Chatswood NSW skyline.jpg
Chatswood's high-rise commercial district.
See also: Buildings and architecture of Sydney and Heritage homes of Sydney

Sydney's central business district (CBD) extends southwards for about 3 kilometres (1.25 mi) from Sydney Cove, the point of the first European settlement in the area at the southern end of the bridge known as "The Rocks". Densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings including historic sandstone buildings such as the Sydney Town Hall and Queen Victoria Building are interspersed by several parks such as Wynyard and Hyde Park. The Sydney CBD is bounded on the east side by a chain of parkland that extends from Hyde Park through the Domain and Royal Botanic Gardens to Farm Cove on the harbour. The west side is bounded by Darling Harbour, a popular tourist and nightlife precinct while Central station marks the southern end of the CBD. George Street serves as the Sydney CBD's main north-south thoroughfare.

As the site of earliest European settlement in Australia, the CBD contains many other historic buildings such as the Sydney Mint, one of Australia's oldest buildings, Fort Denison, a penal site which was built in the colonial days on a small island situated on the harbour, as well as heritage listed buildings in The Rocks. The area also boasts well known modern architectural sites such as the Sydney Opera House and Martin Place.

Although the CBD dominated the city's business and cultural life in the early days, other business/cultural districts have developed in a radial pattern since World War II. As a result, the proportion of white-collar jobs located in the CBD declined from more than 60 per cent at the end of World War II to less than 30 per cent in 2004. Together with the commercial district of North Sydney, joined to the CBD by the Harbour Bridge, the most significant outer business districts are Parramatta[28] in the central-west, Penrith[29] in the west, Bondi Junction in the east, Liverpool[30] in the southwest, Chatswood to the north, and Hurstville to the south.

The extensive area covered by urban Sydney is formally divided into more than 300 suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as 38 local government areas. There is no city-wide government, but the Government of New South Wales and its agencies have extensive responsibilities in providing metropolitan services.[31] The City of Sydney itself covers a fairly small area comprising the central business district and its neighbouring inner-city suburbs. In addition, regional descriptions are used informally to conveniently describe larger sections of the urban area. These include Eastern Suburbs, Hills District, Inner West, Lower North Shore, Northern Beaches, Northern Suburbs, North Shore, St George, Southern Sydney, South-eastern Sydney, South-western Sydney, Sutherland Shire and Western Sydney. However, many suburbs are not conveniently covered by any of these categories.

Governance

File:Sydney councils.png
Sydney's Local Government Areas
File:SydneyTownHall gobeirne.jpg
The Town Hall, seat of the City Council

Apart from the limited role of the Cumberland County Council from 1945–1964, there has never been an overall governing body for the Sydney metropolitan area; instead, the metropolitan area is divided into local government areas (LGAs). These areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales State Government, such as planning and garbage collection.

The City of Sydney includes the central business area and some adjoining inner suburbs, and has in recent years been expanded through amalgamation with adjoining local government areas, such as South Sydney. It is led by the elected Lord Mayor of Sydney and a council. The Lord Mayor, however, is sometimes treated as a representative of the whole city, for example during the Olympics.

Most citywide government activities are controlled by the state government. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, and planning of major infrastructure projects. Because a large proportion of New South Wales' population lives in Sydney, state governments have traditionally been reluctant to allow the development of citywide governmental bodies, which would tend to rival the state government. For this reason, Sydney has always been a focus for the politics of both State and Federal Parliaments. For example, the boundaries of the City of Sydney LGA have been significantly altered by state governments on at least four occasions since 1945, with expected advantageous effect to the governing party in the New South Wales Parliament at the time.[32]

The 38 LGAs commonly described as making up Sydney are:



  • Ashfield
  • Auburn
  • Bankstown
  • Baulkham Hills
  • Blacktown
  • Botany Bay
  • Burwood
  • Camden
  • Campbelltown
  • Canada Bay
  • Canterbury
  • Fairfield
  • Holroyd
  • Hornsby
  • Hunter's Hill
  • Hurstville
  • Kogarah
  • Ku-ring-gai
  • Lane Cove
  • Leichhardt
  • Liverpool
  • Manly
  • Marrickville
  • Mosman
  • North Sydney
  • Parramatta
  • Penrith
  • Pittwater
  • Randwick
  • Rockdale
  • Ryde
  • Strathfield
  • Sutherland
  • Sydney
  • Warringah
  • Waverley
  • Willoughby
  • Woollahra


Different organisations have varying definitions of which councils make up Sydney. The Local Government Association of New South Wales considers all LGAs lying entirely in Cumberland County as part of its 'Metro' group, which excludes Camden (classed in its 'Country' group).[33] The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines a Sydney Statistical Division (the population figures of which are used in this article) that includes all of the above councils as well as Wollondilly, the Blue Mountains, Hawkesbury, Gosford, and Wyong.[34] The Department of Local Government includes those five in its "Sydney Surrounds" region. This website includes them as the outer ring of the Greater Sydney region, which thus coincides with the Sydney Statistical Division.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Sydney
File:Sydney-lacity.jpg
The Central Business District in Sydney is home to most of Sydney's financial centres

Sydney is a modern, prosperous city with the highest median household income of any major city in Australia (US$42,559 PPP).

The largest economic sectors in Sydney, measured by numbers of people employed, include property and business services, retail, manufacturing, and health and community services.[35] Since the 1980s, jobs have moved from manufacturing to the services and information sectors. Sydney provides approximately 25 percent of the country's total GDP.[36]

Sydney is the largest corporate and financial centre in Australia and is also an important financial centre in the Asia Pacific.[37] The Australian Securities Exchange and the Reserve Bank of Australia are located in Sydney, as are the headquarters of 90 banks and more than half of Australia's top companies, and the regional headquarters for around 500 multinational corporations.[36] Of the ten largest corporations in Australia (based on revenue)[38], four have headquarters in Sydney (Caltex Australia, the Commonwealth Bank, Westpac, and Woolworths). Fox Studios Australia has large movie studios in the city.

The Sydney Futures Exchange (SFE) is one of the Asia Pacific's largest financial futures and options exchanges, with 64.3 million contracts traded during 2005. In global terms it is the 12th largest futures market in the world and the 19th largest including options.[39]

Tourism plays an important role in Sydney's economy, with 7.8 million domestic visitors and 2.5 million international visitors in 2004.[40]

Sydney's retail environment is flourishing, with many shopping centres and retail outlets throughout the city. Premier locations in the central city include the Queen Victoria Building on George Street, the pedestrian mall on Pitt Street and the quieter, northern end of Castlereagh St. Along the latter are most of the international luxury boutiques in Sydney such as Jimmy Choo, Versace, Gucci and Chanel. Oxford Street in Paddington and Crown Street, Woollahra are home to boutiques selling more niche products while the main streets of Newtown and Enmore cater more towards students and alternative lifestyles. Many of the large regional centres around the metropolitan area also contain large shopping complexes, such as Parramatta in Western Sydney, Bondi Junction in the Eastern Suburbs and Chatswood on the North Shore, most of which are Westfield brand shopping centres.

File:DarlHarbNight.jpg
Sydney CBD at Night

As of 2004, the unemployment rate in Sydney was 4.9 percent.[41] According to The Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide cost of living survey, Sydney is the sixteenth most expensive city in the world, while a UBS survey ranks Sydney as 18th in the world in terms of net earnings.[42]

As of 20 September 2007, Sydney has the highest median house price of any Australian capital city at $559 000.[43] Sydney also has the highest median rent prices of any Australian city at $450 a week. A report published by the OECD in November 2005, shows that Australia has the Western World's highest housing prices when measured against rental yields.[44]

Sydney has been classified as a "Beta" global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network.[45]

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Sydney
Significant overseas born populations[46]
Country of Birth Population (2006)
United Kingdom 175,165
Mainland China 109,143
New Zealand 81,064
Vietnam 62,144
Lebanon 54,501
India 52,974
Philippines 52,087
Italy 44,562
Hong Kong 36,867
South Korea 32,125
Greece 32,021
South Africa 28,429
Fiji 26,929
Malaysia 21,213
Indonesia 20,560
Iraq 20,217

At the time of the 2006 census, there were 4,119,190 residents present in the Sydney Statistical Division.[47] Of those 3,641,422 lived in Sydney's urban area.[48] Inner Sydney was the most densely populated place in Australia with 4,023 persons per square kilometre.[49] The statistical division is larger in area than the urban area, as it allows for predicted growth. A resident of Sydney is commonly referred to as a Sydneysider.[50]

File:Cabramatta Freedom Plaza 1.JPG
Freedom Arch in Cabramatta, a suburb home to a large proportion of Sydney's Vietnamese population

In the 2006 census, the most common self-described ancestries identified for Sydney residents were Australian, English, Irish, Scottish and Chinese. The Census also recorded that one per cent of Sydney's population identified as being of indigenous origin and 39.4 per cent were born overseas. The three major sources of immigrants are England, China and New Zealand.[47] Significant numbers of immigrants also came from Vietnam, Lebanon, Italy, India and the Philippines. Most Sydneysiders are native speakers of English; many have a second language, the most common being Arabic (predominately Lebanese), Chinese languages (mostly Mandarin or Cantonese), and Italian.[47] Sydney has the seventh largest percentage of a foreign born population in the world, ahead of cities such as the highly multicultural London and Paris.[51]

The median age of a Sydney resident is 34, with 12 per cent of the population over 65 years.[41] 15.2 per cent of Sydney residents have educational attainment equal to at least a bachelor's degree,[52] which is lower than the national average of 19 per cent.

According to the 2006 census, 64 per cent of the Sydney residents are identified as Christians, 3.7 per cent as Buddhists, 3.9 per cent as Muslims, 1.7 per cent as Hindus, 0.9 per cent as Jews and 14.1 per cent as having no religion.[46]

Culture

Main article: Culture of Sydney

Sydney hosts many different festivals and some of Australia's largest social and cultural events. These include the Sydney Festival, Australia's largest arts festival which is a celebration involving both indoor and free outdoor performances throughout January; the Biennale of Sydney, established in 1973; the Big Day Out, a travelling rock music festival which originated in Sydney; the Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras along Oxford Street; the Sydney Film Festival and many other smaller film festivals such as the short film Tropfest and Flickerfest. Australia's premier prize for portraiture, the Archibald Prize is organised by the Art Gallery of New South Wales. The Sydney Royal Easter Show is held every year at Sydney Olympic Park, the final of Australian Idol takes place on the steps of the Opera House, and Australian Fashion Week takes place in April/May. Also, Sydney's New Years Eve and Australia Day celebrations are the largest in Australia.

Entertainment and performing arts

File:Cockatoo Island Festival audience.jpg
The Waifs' concert at the Turbine Hall on Cockatoo Island for the Cockatoo Island Festival

Sydney has a wide variety of cultural institutions. Sydney's iconic Opera House has five theatres capable of hosting a range of performance styles; it is the home of Opera Australia—the third busiest opera company in the world, and the Sydney Symphony Orchestra.[53] Other venues include the Sydney Town Hall, City Recital Hall, the State Theatre and the Wharf Theatre.

File:Sala principal de conciertos ópera de Sydney.jpg
Sydney Opera House Concert Hall

The Sydney Dance Company under the leadership of Graeme Murphy during the late 20th century has also gained acclaim. The Sydney Theatre Company has a regular roster of local plays, such as noted playwright David Williamson, classics and international playwrights.

In 2007, New Theatre (Newtown) celebrates 75 years of continuous production in Sydney. Other important theatre companies in Sydney include Company B and Griffin Theatre Company. From the 1940s through to the 1970s the Sydney Push, a group of authors and political activists whose members included Germaine Greer, influenced the city's cultural life.

File:Luna Park-Sydney-Australia.JPG
Luna Park, Sydney's premier theme park

The National Institute of Dramatic Art, based in Kensington, boasts internationally famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann and Cate Blanchett. Sydney's role in the film industry has increased since the opening of Fox Studios Australia in 1998. Prominent films which have been filmed in the city include Moulin Rouge!, Mission Impossible II, Star Wars episodes II and III, Superman Returns, Dark City, Dil Chahta Hai, Happy Feet and The Matrix. Films using Sydney as a setting include Finding Nemo, Strictly Ballroom, Mission Impossible II, Muriel's Wedding, and Dirty Deeds. As of 2006, over 229 films have been set in, or featured Sydney.[54]

Sydney's most popular nightspots include Kings Cross, Oxford Street, Darling Harbour, Circular Quay and The Rocks which all contain various bars, nightclubs and restaurants. Star City Casino, is Sydney's only casino and is situated around Darling Harbour. There are also many traditional pubs, cafes and restaurants in inner city areas such as Newtown, Balmain and Leichhardt. Sydney's main live music hubs include areas such as Newtown and Annandale. It once had a thriving live music scene in the 1970s and 1980s, nurturing acts such as AC/DC, Midnight Oil and INXS. Other popular nightspots tend to be spread throughout the city in areas such as Bondi, Manly and Parramatta.

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Sydney
See also: List of attractions in Sydney, List of museums in Sydney, and List of markets in Sydney

Sydney has several popular museums. The biggest are the Australian Museum (natural history and anthropology), the Powerhouse Museum (science, technology and design), the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Museum of Contemporary Art and the Australian National Maritime Museum.

File:Bondi pano.jpg
The world famous Bondi Beach on a winter's day

Sport and outdoor activities

File:Dally Messenger in action.jpg
Born in Sydney, Dally Messenger is regarded as one of the greatest rugby league players in the history of the sport.

Sport in Sydney is an important part of the culture. The area is well endowed with open spaces and access to waterways, and has many natural areas even within the city centre. Within the Sydney central business district are the Chinese Garden of Friendship, Hyde Park, The Domain and the Royal Botanical Gardens. The metropolitan area contains several national parks, including the Royal National Park, the second oldest national park in the world and several parks in Sydney's far west which are part of the World Heritage listed Greater Blue Mountains Area.[55]

One of the most popular sports in Sydney is Rugby League. The sport was brought from England to Sydney before expanding to the rest of Australia. The city is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League domestic competition. These are Canterbury Bulldogs, Cronulla Sharks, Manly Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters and Wests Tigers. Despite the final of the 2008 Rugby League World Cup being held in Brisbane, Sydney will host eight World Cup games including one of the Semi-Finals.

File:Randwick Racecourse Track.JPG
Randwick Racecourse hosts many of Sydney's horseracing events

Sydney is home to the Australian Football League's Sydney Swans and the A-League's Sydney FC. The city is represented by two teams in the National Basketball League, netball's Sydney Swifts and is the base for New South Wales teams in the Super 14 (NSW Waratahs) and Pura Cup (Blues) competitions. Large sporting events, such as the NRL Grand Final, are regularly held at the ANZ Stadium, the main stadium for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Other events in Sydney include the start of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race and the City to Surf foot race.

Media

Main article: Media in Sydney

Sydney has two main daily newspapers. The Sydney Morning Herald is a broadsheet, and is Sydney's newspaper of record with extensive coverage of domestic and international news, culture and business. It is also the oldest extant newspaper in Australia, having been published regularly since 1831. The Herald's competitor, The Daily Telegraph, is a News Corporation-owned tabloid. Both papers have tabloid counterparts published on Sunday, The Sun-Herald and the Sunday Telegraph, respectively.

File:Channel7Epping3.JPG
Seven Network broadcasting dishes in Epping.

The three commercial television networks (Seven, Nine and Ten), as well as the government national broadcast services (ABC and SBS) each have a presence in Sydney. Historically, the networks have been based in the northern suburbs, but the last decade has seen several move to the inner city. Nine has kept its headquarters north of the harbour, in Willoughby. Ten has its studios in a redeveloped section of the inner-city suburb of Pyrmont, and Seven also has headquarters in Pyrmont, production studios at Epping as well as a purpose-built news studio in Martin Place in the CBD. The ABC has a large headquarters and production facility in the inner-city suburb of Ultimo and SBS has its studios at Artarmon. Foxtel and Optus both supply pay-TV over their cable services to most parts of the urban area. The five free-to-air networks have provided digital television transmissions in Sydney since January 2000. Additional services recently introduced include the ABC's second channel ABC2 (Channel 22), SBS's world news service SBS2 (Channel 33), an on-air program guide (Channel 4), a news, sport, and weather items channel (Channel 41), ChannelNSW: Government and Public Information (Channel 45)[56], Australian Christian Channel (Channel 46), MacquarieBank TV (Channel 47), SportsTAB (Channel 48), Expo Home Shopping (Channel 49), and Federal parliamentary broadcasts (Channel 401 to 408)

Many AM and FM government, commercial and community radio services broadcast in the Sydney area. The local ABC radio station is 702 ABC Sydney (formerly 2BL). The talkback radio genre is dominated by the perennial rivals 2GB and 2UE. Popular music stations include Triple M, 2Day FM and Nova 96.9, which generally targets people under 40. In the older end of the music radio market, Vega and MIX 106.5 target the 25 to 54 age group, while WS-FM targets the 40 to 54 age group with their Classic Hits format mostly focusing on the 70's & 80's. Triple J (national), 2SER and FBi Radio provide a more independent, local and alternative sound. There are also a number of community stations broadcasting to a particular language group or local area.

Certain areas in Sydney are also being used for tests of digital radio broadcasting[57], which the government plans to roll out in the future to replace the existing analogue AM and FM networks in much the same way as they are doing with analogue and digital television at present.

Education

File:University of Sydney Main Quadrangle.jpg
The University of Sydney established in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia
Main article: Education in Sydney

Sydney is home to some of Australia's most prominent universities, and is the site of Australia's first university, the University of Sydney, established in 1850.[58] There are five other public universities operating primarily in Sydney: the University of New South Wales, Macquarie University, the University of Technology, Sydney, the University of Western Sydney, and the Australian Catholic University (two out of six campuses). Other universities which operate secondary campuses in Sydney include the University of Notre Dame Australia and the University of Wollongong.

There are four multi-campus government-funded Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes in Sydney, which provide vocational training at a tertiary level: the Sydney Institute of Technology, Northern Sydney Institute of TAFE, Western Sydney Institute of TAFE and South Western Sydney Institute of TAFE.

Sydney has public, denominational and independent schools. Public schools, including pre-schools, primary and secondary schools, and special schools are administered by the New South Wales Department of Education and Training. There are four state-administered education areas in Sydney, that together co-ordinate 919 schools. Of the 30 selective high schools in the state, 25 are in Sydney.[59]

Infrastructure

File:CircularQuaySydney.jpg
Circular Quay, the main ferry terminal in Sydney
File:Sydney M5 Motorway.JPG
The M5 South Western Motorway links the CBD with Sydney's south-western suburbs
File:SydneyMonorail1 gobeirne.jpg
Sydney Monorail, Liverpool and Pitt Streets

Health systems

The Government of New South Wales operates the public hospitals in the Sydney metropolitan region. Management of these hospitals and other specialist health facilities is coordinated by 4 Area Health Services: Sydney South West (SSWAHS), Sydney West (SWAHS), Northern Sydney and Central Coast (NSCCAHS) and the South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra (SESIAHS) Area Health Services. There are also a number of private hospitals in the city, many of which are aligned with religious organisations.

Transport

Main article: Public transport in Sydney

Most Sydney residents travel by car through the system of roads, and motorways. The most important trunk routes in the urban area form the nine Metroad systems, which includes the 110 km (68 mi) Sydney Orbital Network. Sydney is also served by extensive train, taxi, bus and ferry networks.

File:Cityrail-millennium-M32-ext.jpg
An EDI M-set (Millennium) train at Sydney's Central Station.

Sydney trains are run by CityRail, a corporation of the New South Wales State Government. Trains run as suburban commuter rail services in the outer suburbs, then converge in an underground city loop service in the central business district. In the years following the 2000 Olympics, CityRail's performance declined significantly.[60] In 2005, CityRail introduced a revised timetable and employed more drivers.[61] A large infrastructure project, the Clearways project, is scheduled to be completed by 2010.[62][63][64] In 2007 a report found Cityrail performed poorly compared to many metro services from other world cities. [65] Sydney has one privately operated light rail line, the Metro Light Rail, running from Central Station to Lilyfield along a former goods train line. There is also a small monorail which runs in a loop around the main shopping district and Darling Harbour. Sydney was once served by an extensive tram network, which was progressively closed in the 1950s and 1960s. Most parts of the metropolitan area are served by buses, many of which follow the pre-1961 tram routes. In the city and inner suburbs the state-owned Sydney Buses has a monopoly. In the outer suburbs, service is contracted to many private bus companies. Construction of a network of rapid bus transitways in areas not previously well served by public transport began in 1999, and the first of these, the Liverpool-Parramatta Rapid Bus Transitway opened in February 2003. Sydney Ferries, another State government-owned organisation, runs numerous commuter and tourist ferry services on Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River.

Kingsford Smith International Airport, located in the suburb of Mascot, is Sydney's main airport, and is one of the oldest continually operated airports in the world [66]. The smaller Bankstown Airport mainly serves private and general aviation. There are light aviation airfields at Hoxton Park and Camden. RAAF Base Richmond lies to the north-west of the city. The question of whether Sydney needs a second airport has raised much controversy. A 2003 study found that Kingsford Smith can manage as Sydney's sole international airport for 20 years with a significant increase in airport traffic predicted.[67] The resulting expansion of the airport would have a substantial impact on the community, including additional aircraft noise affecting residents. Land has been acquired at Badgerys Creek for a second airport, the site acting as a focal point of political argument.[68]

Utilities

Water storage and supply for Sydney is managed by the Sydney Catchment Authority, which is an agency of the NSW Government that sells bulk water to Sydney Water and other agencies. Water in the Sydney catchment is chiefly stored in dams in the Upper Nepean Scheme, the Blue Mountains, Woronora Dam, Warragamba Dam and the Shoalhaven Scheme.[69] Historically low water levels in the catchment have led to water use restrictions and the NSW government is investigating alternative water supply options, including grey water recycling and the construction of a seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant at Kurnell.[70] Sydney Water also collects the wastewater and sewage produced by the city.

Three companies supply natural gas and electricity to Sydney: Energy Australia, AGL and Integral Energy. Numerous telecommunications companies operate in Sydney providing terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services.

File:Sydney Harbour Bridge night.jpg
A panorama of Sydney Harbour at night, with the Sydney Opera House on the left, the central business district in the image centre and Sydney Harbour Bridge on the right
File:Sydney harbour from botanical gardens.jpg
A panorama of Sydney Harbour during the day, with the Sydney Opera House on the right and Sydney Harbour Bridge in the background, the Royal Botanic Gardens and the central business district are to the left

See also

References

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