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Aswan
أسوان
View of Aswan, overlooking the Nile
Aswan is located in Egypt
Aswan
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 24°05′N 32°56′E / 24.083°N 32.933°E / 24.083; 32.933
Country  Egypt
Governorate Aswan Governorate
Government
 - Governor
Population (2008 (estimate))
 - Total 275,000
Time zone EST (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC)

Aswan or Aswanl, formerly spelled Assuan, (Arabic: أسوان‎, Aswān; Ancient Egyptian: Swenet, "Trade"; Coptic: ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ, Swān; Ancient Greek: Συήνη, Syene) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.

It stands on the east bank of the Nile at the first cataract and is a busy market and tourist center. The modern city has expanded and includes the formerly separate community on the island of Elephantine.

Aswan is one of the driest inhabited places in the world; as of early 2001, the last rain there was six years earlier. As of 6 October 2009, the last rainfall was a thunderstorm on May 13, 2006. In Nubian settlements, they generally do not bother to roof all of the rooms in their houses.

Contents

History

swn.t
in hieroglyphs
s E34
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Aswan is the ancient city of Swenet, which in antiquity was the frontier town of Ancient Egypt to the south. Swenet is supposed to have derived its name from an Egyptian goddess with the same name. This goddess later was identified as Eileithyia by the Greeks and Lucina by the Romans during their occupation of Ancient Egypt because of the similar association of their goddesses with childbirth, and of which the import is "the opener". The ancient name of the city also is said to be derived from the Egyptian symbol for trade.[1]

Because the Ancient Egyptians oriented toward the origin of the life-giving waters of the Nile in the south, Swenet was the first town in the country, and Egypt always was conceived to "open" or begin at Swenet. The city stood upon a peninsula on the right (east) bank of the Nile, immediately below (north of) the first cataract of the flowing waters, which extend to it from Philae. Navigation to the delta was possible from this location without encountering a barrier.

The stone quarries of ancient Egypt located here were celebrated for their stone, and especially for the granitic rock called Syenite. They furnished the colossal statues, obelisks, and monolithal shrines that are found throughout Egypt, including the pyramids; and the traces of the quarrymen who wrought in these 3000 years ago are still visible in the native rock. They lie on either bank of the Nile, and a road, four miles in length, was cut beside them from Syene to Philae.

Swenet was equally important as a military station as that of a place of traffic. Under every dynasty it was a garrison town; and here tolls and customs were levied on all boats passing southward and northward. Around AD 330, the legion stationed here received a bishop from Alexandria; this later became the Coptic Diocese of Syene.[2] The city is mentioned by numerous ancient writers, including Herodotus (ii. 30), Strabo (ii. p. 133, xvii. p. 797, seq.), Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v.), Ptolemy (vii. 5. § 15, viii. 15. § 15), Pliny the Elder (ii. 73. s. 75, v. 10. s. 11, vi. 29. s. 34), De architectura (book viii. ch ii. § 6), and it appears on the Antonine Itinerary (p. 164). It also is mentioned in the Book of Isaiah from the Scriptures (ref. Ezekiel 29:10).

View of Aswan from the Tombs of the Nobles on the other side of the Nile

The latitude of the city that would become Aswan, located at– 24° 5′ 23″– was an object of great interest to the ancient geographers. They believed that it was seated immediately under the tropic, and that on the day of the summer solstice, a vertical staff cast no shadow. They noted that the sun's disc was reflected in a well at noon. This statement is only approximately correct; at the summer solstice, the shadow was only 1/400th of the staff, and so could scarcely be discerned, and the northern limb of the sun's disc would be nearly vertical.

Eratosthenes used measurements at Aswan (Elephantine) to contest the Flat Earth theory and tried to determine the circumference of Earth, using Syene as the originating point and Alexandria as the terminal point of a measured arc (based on shadow length at the solstice).

The Nile is nearly 3000 yards wide above Aswan. From this frontier town to the northern extremity of Egypt, the river flows for more than 750 miles without bar or cataract. The voyage from Aswan to Alexandria usually took 21 to 28 days in favourable weather.

Climate

Weather data for Aswan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38
(100)
39
(102)
43
(109)
46
(115)
48
(118)
51
(124)
51
(124)
49
(120)
47
(117)
44
(111)
42
(108)
37
(99)
51
(124)
Average high °C (°F) 23
(73)
26
(79)
31
(88)
36
(97)
39
(102)
42
(108)
41
(106)
41
(106)
39
(102)
37
(99)
31
(88)
25
(77)
34
(93)
Average low °C (°F) 10
(50)
11
(52)
14
(57)
19
(66)
23
(73)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
24
(75)
22
(72)
17
(63)
12
(54)
19
(66)
Record low °C (°F) 3
(37)
2
(36)
6
(43)
9
(48)
11
(52)
20
(68)
21
(70)
19
(66)
17
(63)
14
(57)
6
(43)
4
(39)
2
(36)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
Source: BBC Weather [3] 2009-09-11

Education

In 1999, South Valley University was inaugurated and it has three branches; Aswan, Qena and Hurghada. It was the first university in Upper Egypt and it was organized in departmental basis. The university grew steadily and now it is firmly established as a major institution of higher education in Upper Egypt. Aswan branch of Assiut University began in 1973 with the Faculty of Education and in 1975 the Faculty of Science was opened. Aswan branch has five faculties namely; Science, Education, Engineering, Arts, Social Works and Institute of Energy. The Faculty of Science in Aswan has six departments. Each department has one educational programme: Chemistry, Geology, Physics and Zoology. Except Botany Department, which has three educational programmes: Botany, Environmental Sciences and Microbiology; and Mathematics Department, which has two educational programmes: Mathematics and Computer Science. The Faculty of Science awards the following degrees: Bachelor of Science in nine educational programmes, Higher Diploma, Master of Science and Philosophy Doctor of Science. Over 100 academic staff members are employed in the faculty.

Gallery

See also

References

External links

Coordinates: 24°05′N 32°56′E / 24.083°N 32.933°E / 24.083; 32.933

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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


opening (Ezek 29:10; 30:6), a town of Egypt, on the borders of Ethiopia, now called Assouan, on the right bank of the Nile, notable for its quarries of beautiful red granite called "syenite." It was the frontier town of Egypt in the south, as Migdol was in the north-east.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)


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