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Location of symphysis pubis.

Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction (SPD) is most commonly associated with pregnancy and childbirth. It is a condition that causes excessive movement of the symphysis pubis, either anterior or lateral, as well as associated pain, possibly because of a misalignment of the pelvis. SPD is a dysfunction that is associated with pelvic girdle pain and the names are often used interchangeably. It is thought to affect up to one in four pregnant women to varying degrees, with 7% of sufferers continuing to experience serious symptoms postpartum.[1][2] Although the condition was recognised by Hippocrates, incidences of SPD appear to have increased in recent years; it in unclear whether this is because the average maternal age is increasing, or because the condition is being diagnosed more frequently.

Contents

Symptoms

The main symptom is usually pain or discomfort in the pelvic region. This will probably be centred on the joint at the front of the pelvis (the pubis symphysis). Some sufferers report being able to hear the lower back and hip joints, the sacroiliac, clicking or popping in and out as they walk or change position. Sufferers frequently also experience pain in the lower back, hips, groin, lower abdomen, and legs. The severity of the pain can range from mild discomfort to extreme and prolonged suffering.[3] There have been links between SPD and depression on account of the associated physical discomfort.[4][5][6][7] Sufferers may walk with a characteristic waddling gait and have difficulty climbing stairs, problems with leg abduction and adduction, pain when carrying out weight bearing activities, difficulties carrying out everyday activities, and difficulties standing.[8]

Diagnosis

Early diagnosis is crucial in order to minimise the medium to long term severity of the condition, which can be disabling in its extreme form. Unfortunately not all healthcare practitioners are sufficiently aware of the condition.[9][10] A diagnosis is usually made from the symptoms alone, although after pregnancy, MRI scans, x-rays and ultrasound scanning are sometimes used. Women initially report the condition to a midwife, obstetrician, general practitioner or physiotherapist. On seeing a health professional, women should expect to receive a thorough physical examination to rule out other lumbar spine problems, such as a prolapsed disc, urinary tract infections and Braxton Hicks contractions.

Treatment and management

There is no evidence in the medical literature to support any particular treatment. The mainstay of currently accepted treatments are the use of elbow crutches, pelvic support devices and prescribed pain relief. The vast majority of problems will resolve spontaneously after delivery.[11] Physiotherapy and occupational therapy input may also be beneficial.

In some cases, patients may also receive advice on pelvic floor and core stability exercises. Women should also discuss their birth plan with their midwife or obstetrician, receive daily living advice from an occupational therapist and receive a referral to a pain clinic if this is deemed necessary. In very extreme cases surgery is considered after pregnancy to stabilise the pelvis, but success rates are very poor.[12]

Birth planning

It is not usually considered advisable for a women with SPD to have a Caesarian section, except in the most extreme cases when mobility is severely restricted, because the recovery period from the operation is likely to exacerbate the physical and psychological difficulties a woman has in recovering from SPD. Similarly the use of epidural anaesthesia runs the risk of masking pain and causing women to strain ligaments further without realizing.[13]

The lithotomy position is not suitable for most births consisting of women whom have Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction or Pelvic Girdle Pain. This is due to the pain it causes and potential damage which can be caused as the pelvis is misaligned. Birthing pools are recommended for most women with Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction as it is believed that the water acts as support to the pelvis increasing mobility.

It is usually recommended that women with SPD give birth in an upright position, with knees slightly apart, and it is often suggested that a woman tie a ribbon to both legs to ensure that the gap never exceeds her maximum comfort zone. A water birth is often considered to be a good alternative method, as this supports the joints and assists with pain relief. Practices such as placing the feet on the midwife's hips during delivery, stirrups, and interventions such as forceps should be avoided in the delivery room if at all possible, as they can strain ligaments further and cause long term problems. If stirrups must be used, for example during suturing, great care must be taken to move the legs in symmetry, manoeuvering them gently into position.[14]

Everyday living

Typical advice usually given to women includes avoiding strenuous exercise, prolonged standing, vacuum cleaning, stretching exercises and squatting. Women are also frequently advised to:

  • Brace the pelvic floor muscles before performing any activity which might cause pain
  • Rest the pelvis
  • Sit down for tasks where possible (eg preparing food, ironing, dressing)
  • Avoid lifting and carrying.
  • Avoid stepping over things.
  • Avoid straddle movements especially when weight bearing.
  • Bend the knees and keep the legs 'glued together' when turning in bed and getting in and out of bed.
  • Place a pillow between the legs when in bed or resting.
  • Avoid twisting movements of the body.

If the pain is very severe, using elbow crutches will help take the weight off the pelvis and assist with mobility. Alternatively, for more extreme cases a wheelchair may be considered advisable.

Pharmacological interventions

It is not usually considered advisable to take anti-inflammatory medication in pregnancy, which makes SPD a particularly difficult condition to manage. Women are therefore typically often prescribed 30 mg or 60 mg of codeine phosphate to be taken in conjunction with 1000 mg paracetemol, four times a day. However codeine phosphate is an opiate, and as such carries a risk of depressed respiration in the newborn baby if it is taken near the time of the birth. Therefore it is usually considered advisable to cease taking codeine phosphate 2–4 weeks before the estimated due date, as advised by a medical professional. If this is not possible, than a planned hospital birth is recommended. Other medications in common use include oral morphine.

As a safer alternative or adjunct to medication, many women report excellent success with the use of chiropractic, followed up with at home use of TENS machines, which can reduce muscle spasms, block pain receptors and help the body to produce endorphines. These can be used in pregnancy, under supervision, and cause no known side effects in the foetus. If minor contractions are induced, these will cease immediately upon removal of the machine, so TENS is unlikely to cause premature labour and should not be avoided on those grounds. TENS should be used for a minimum of five hours a day for best results.[15]

Alternative therapies

Chiropractic, osteopathy and acupuncture[16] have all been indicated in the treatment of this condition and/or the amelioration of symptoms, but these therapies are often difficult to access via public health routes, and may therefore need to be paid for privately.[17] One further possible option is to undertake short courses of hydrotherapy or to float for longer periods in a heated pool or warm bath. This removes the weight from the problem areas.[18]

See also

References

External links

Further reading








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