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Eastern Skunk Cabbage
Skunk Cabbage in spring
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Subfamily: Orontioideae
Genus: Symplocarpus
Species: S. foetidus
Binomial name
Symplocarpus foetidus
Salisb.
Synonyms

Dracontium foetidum L.
Spathyema foetida (L.)Raf.

Eastern Skunk Cabbage, Clumpfoot Cabbage, Foetid Pothos, Meadow Cabbage, Polecat Weed, Skunk Cabbage, or Swamp Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), commonly known as simply Skunk Cabbage, is a low growing, foul smelling plant that prefers wetlands. It can be found naturally in eastern North America, from Nova Scotia and southern Quebec west to Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee, and also in northeastern Asia, in eastern Siberia, northeastern China, Korea and Japan. Skunk cabbage is protected as a state endangered plant in Tennessee.[1]

Contents

Description

The leaves are large, 40-55 cm long and 30-40 cm broad. It flowers early in the year; the flowers are produced in a 5-10 cm long spadix contained within a spathe, 10-15 cm tall and mottled purple in colour. It flowers in the early spring, when only the flowers are visible above the mud, with the stems buried below and the leaves emerging later. The rhizome is often 30 cm thick.

Ecology

Breaking or tearing a leaf produces a pungent odor. This property lends itself to the 'skunk' in the common name. The plant is not poisonous to the touch. Though unpleasant, the smell is not harmful. The foul odor attracts its pollinators, scavenging flies, stoneflies, and bees. The odor in the leaves may also serve to discourage large animals from disturbing or damaging this plant which grows in soft wetland soils.

Skunk cabbage is notable for its ability to generate temperatures of up to 15-35°C above air temperature by cyanide resistant cellular respiration in order to melt its way through frozen ground,[2] placing it among a small group of plants exhibiting thermogenesis. Although flowering whilst there is still snow and ice on the ground it is successfully pollinated by early insects that also emerge at this time. Some studies suggest that beyond allowing the plant to grow in icy soil, the heat it produces may help to spread its odor in the air.[2] Carrion-feeding insects that are attracted by the scent may be doubly encouraged to enter the spathe because it is warmer than the surrounding air, fueling pollination.[3]

Eastern Skunk Cabbage has contractile roots which contract after growing into the earth. This pulls the stem of the plant deeper into the mud, so that the plant in effect grows downward, not upward. Each year, the plant grows deeper into the earth, so that older plants are practically impossible to dig up. They reproduce by hard, pea-sized seeds which fall in the mud and are carried away by animals or by floods.

Symplocarpus foetidus leafs out later in the summer

Uses

In the 19th century the U. S. Pharmacopoeia listed eastern skunk cabbage as the drug "dracontium". It was used in the treatment of respiratory diseases, nervous disorders, rheumatism, and dropsy. In North America and Europe, skunk cabbage is occasionally cultivated in water gardens.[4] Skunk cabbage was used extensively as a medicinal plant, seasoning, and magical talisman by various tribes of Native Americans.[5] While not considered edible raw, because the roots are toxic and the leaves can burn the mouth, the leaves may be dried and used in soups and stews.[6]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ USDA PLANTS Database: S. foetidus
  2. ^ a b Thorington, Katherine K.: "Pollination and Fruiting Success in the Eastern Skunk Cabbage", The Journal of Biospheric Science , vol 1 no. 1 April 1999, accessed March 4, 2007, <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/mmcmenam/journal.html
  3. ^ Marinelli, Janet: "Turning Up the Heat on Your Property", Backyard Habitat - National Wildlife Magazine, vol. 45 no. 1 Dec/Jan 2007, accessed March 3, 2007, <http://www.nwf.org/nationalwildlife/article.cfm?issueID=112&articleID=1418
  4. ^ Flora of North America: S. foetidus
  5. ^ Dr. Moerman's Native American Ethnobotanical Database: S. foetidus
  6. ^ http://www.mdflora.org/plantinfo/plantofthemonth/pim_skunk_cabbage.html
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Eastern Skunk Cabbage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Subfamily: Orontioideae
Genus: Symplocarpus
Species: S. foetidus
Binomial name
Symplocarpus foetidus
Salisb.
Synonyms

Dracontium foetidum L.
Spathyema foetida (L.)Raf.

Eastern Skunk Cabbage, Clumpfoot Cabbage, Foetid Pothos, Meadow Cabbage, Polecat Weed, Skunk Cabbage, or Swamp Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), commonly known as simply Skunk Cabbage, is a low growing, foul smelling plant that prefers wetlands. It can be found naturally in eastern North America, from Nova Scotia and southern Quebec west to Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee, and also in northeastern Asia, in eastern Siberia, northeastern China, Korea and Japan. Skunk cabbage is protected as a state endangered plant in Tennessee.[1]

Contents

Description

Eastern skunk cabbage has leaves which are large, 40-55 cm long and 30-40 cm broad. It flowers early in the spring when only the flowers are visible above the mud. The stems remain buried below the surface of the soil with the leaves emerging later. The flowers are produced on a 5-10 cm long spadix contained within a spathe, 10-15 cm tall and mottled purple in colour. The rhizome is often 30 cm thick.

Ecology

Breaking or tearing a leaf produces a pungent but not harmful odor, the source of the plant's common name. The plant is not poisonous to the touch. The foul odor attracts its pollinators, scavenging flies, stoneflies, and bees. The odor in the leaves may also serve to discourage large animals from disturbing or damaging this plant which grows in soft wetland soils.

Skunk cabbage is notable for its ability to generate temperatures of up to 15-35°C above air temperature by cyanide resistant cellular respiration in order to melt its way through frozen ground,[2] placing it among a small group of plants exhibiting thermogenesis. Although flowering whilst there is still snow and ice on the ground it is successfully pollinated by early insects that also emerge at this time. Some studies suggest that beyond allowing the plant to grow in icy soil, the heat it produces may help to spread its odor in the air.[2] Carrion-feeding insects that are attracted by the scent may be doubly encouraged to enter the spathe because it is warmer than the surrounding air, fueling pollination.[3]

Eastern Skunk Cabbage has contractile roots which contract after growing into the earth. This pulls the stem of the plant deeper into the mud, so that the plant in effect grows downward, not upward. Each year, the plant grows deeper into the earth, so that older plants are practically impossible to dig up. They reproduce by hard, pea-sized seeds which fall in the mud and are carried away by animals or by floods.

Uses

In the 19th century the U.S. Pharmacopoeia listed eastern skunk cabbage as the drug "dracontium". It was used in the treatment of respiratory diseases, nervous disorders, rheumatism, and dropsy. In North America and Europe, skunk cabbage is occasionally cultivated in water gardens.[4] Skunk cabbage was used extensively as a medicinal plant, seasoning, and magical talisman by various tribes of Native Americans.[5] While not considered edible raw, because the roots are toxic and the leaves can burn the mouth, the leaves may be dried and used in soups and stews.[6]

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ USDA PLANTS Database: S. foetidus
  2. ^ a b Thorington, Katherine K.: "Pollination and Fruiting Success in the Eastern Skunk Cabbage", The Journal of Biospheric Science , vol 1 no. 1 April 1999, accessed March 4, 2007, <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/mmcmenam/journal.html
  3. ^ Marinelli, Janet: "Turning Up the Heat on Your Property", Backyard Habitat - National Wildlife Magazine, vol. 45 no. 1 Dec/Jan 2007, accessed March 3, 2007, <http://www.nwf.org/nationalwildlife/article.cfm?issueID=112&articleID=1418
  4. ^ Flora of North America: S. foetidus
  5. ^ Dr. Moerman's Native American Ethnobotanical Database: S. foetidus
  6. ^ http://www.mdflora.org/plantinfo/plantofthemonth/pim_skunk_cabbage.html

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

S. foetidus

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales
Familia: Araceae
Subfamilia: Orontioideae
Genus: Symplocarpus
Species: Symplocarpus foetidus

Name

Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C. Barton

Basionym

  • Dracontium foetidum L.

Synonyms

  • Ictodes foetidus (L.) Big.
  • Pothos foetida (L.) Michaux
  • Spathyema foetida (L.) Raf.
  • Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton
  • Symplocarpus foetidus f. latissimus Makino
  • Symplocarpus foetidus var. latissimus (Makino) Hara
  • Symplocarpus foetidus var. variegatus Otsuka
  • Symplocarpus renifolius (Schott) ex Miq.

Vernacular names

English: Eastern Skunk Cabbage, Clumpfoot Cabbage, Foetid Pothos, Meadow Cabbage, Polecat Weed or Swamp Cabbage
한국어: 앉은부채

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