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How someone with synesthesia might perceive certain letters and numbers.
.Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiae or synaesthesiae)—from the Ancient Greek σύν (syn), "together," and αἴσθησις (aisthēsis), "sensation"—is a neurologically-based condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.^ A synesthstesia is a neurologically-based phenomenon in which stimulation of one of the five senses results in an automatic and involuntary experience in a different sense.
  • synesthesia – Michael J. Emery – Personal Development Coach & Trainer 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC michaeljemery.com [Source type: General]

^ Synesthesia is a condition in which a sensory stimulus presented in one modality evokes a sensation in a different modality.

^ Clinical synaesthesia is properly defined as: “ when stimulation of one sensory modality automatically triggers a perception in a second modality, in the absence of any direct stimulation of this second modality.” (Baron-Cohen, Simon and John E Harrison, eds.
  • links pages 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.scopac.org [Source type: General]

[1][2][3][4] .People who report such experiences are known as synesthetes.^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ About four years ago, she discovered that it was normal and that there was a name for it and that there were other people who had the same experiences.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Click on the "comments" below to see what I've heard from other synesthetes and people who are curious about synesthesia!
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.In one common form of synesthesia, known as grapheme → color synesthesia or color-graphemic synesthesia, letters or numbers are perceived as inherently colored,[5][6] while in ordinal linguistic personification, numbers, days of the week and months of the year evoke personalities.^ Personalisation of numbers is categorized as a form of synaesthesia called 'ordinal linguistic personification'.
  • You May Be Synaesthetic And Not Know It - Boing Boing 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

^ People with spatial synesthesia see numbers, days of the weeks, or months of the year in precise locations in space.

^ I have colors for all the days of the week, months of the year, and numbers, at least -0-9.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

[7][8] .In spatial-sequence, or number form synesthesia, numbers, months of the year, and/or days of the week elicit precise locations in space (for example, 1980 may be "farther away" than 1990), or may have a (three-dimensional) view of a year as a map (clockwise or counterclockwise).^ People with spatial synesthesia see numbers, days of the weeks, or months of the year in precise locations in space.

^ The objectification of overlearned sequences: A new view of spatial sequence synesthesia.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ What is vivid for me is how I view the calendar year, and the days of the week.

[9][10][11] .Yet another recently identified type, visual motion → sound synesthesia, involves hearing sounds in response to visual motion and flicker.^ A recently identified form a synesthesia is visual motion to sound synesthesia – people can hear visual motion or flickering images.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Are We All Synesthetes? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Synesthesia, on the other hand, is more of a direct involuntary connection between primary sensory or processing modalities, causing one to actually see a color in a number, or hear a sound in response to visual stimuli.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Are We All Synesthetes? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the overall prevalence of synesthesia is estimated at less than 1%, visual sound synasthesia may be more common.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Are We All Synesthetes? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Over 60 types of synesthesia have been reported by people,[13] but only a fraction have been evaluated by scientific research.^ Over 60 forms of synesthesia have been reported.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Are We All Synesthetes? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are people who still believe - in spite of the evidence cited above - that all types of synesthesia are the result of higher level conceptual or linguistic associations.

^ Reply Report I'm glad that synesthesia is experiencing a research renaissance--there's a lot of interesting permutations floating around, and many popular misconceptions about the phenomenon.
  • Boing Boing Video: SYNESTHESIA, a film by Jonathan Fowler. - Boing Boing 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Even within one type, synesthetic perceptions vary in intensity [15] and people vary in awareness of their synesthetic perceptions.^ For Cartwright-Jones, seeing a migraine sufferer's physical discomfort "is grey and partially opaque" – a unique variation on the theme of perception of pain in loved ones or other people.

^ Yet in a matter of spirits , I believe we all humans dwell sealed within this type of sensory selves, unaware of our conscious perceptions of reality .
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Importantly, the ‘’type’’ of synesthesia can vary within families, and the qualitative experience usually differs even between individuals of the same family.

[16]
.While cross-sensory metaphors (e.g., "loud shirt," "bitter wind" or "prickly laugh") are sometimes described as "synesthetic," true neurological synesthesia is involuntary.^ It should also be added that the view that some types of synesthesia are caused by sensory cross-activation is by no means universal.

^ These experiments establish the sensory nature of synesthesia but, as we shall see later, this is only true if a subset of synesthetes ("lower synesthetes" or "projectors").

^ Published by Steven Novella under Uncategorized Comments: 37 Synesthesia is a rare and interesting neurological phenomenon in which one sensory modality crosses over into another.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Are We All Synesthetes? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is estimated that synesthesia could possibly be as prevalent as 1 in 23 persons across its range of variants.^ Wikipedia wrote: It is estimated that synesthesia could possibly be as prevalent as 1 in 23 persons across its range of variants.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

^ While the overall prevalence of synesthesia is estimated at less than 1%, visual sound synasthesia may be more common.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Are We All Synesthetes? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Synesthesia runs strongly in families, but the precise mode of inheritance has yet to be ascertained.^ Her sister, niece and son all have synesthesia; it runs in families.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

.Synesthesia is also sometimes reported by individuals under the influence of psychedelic drugs, after a stroke, during a temporal lobe epilepsy seizure, or as a result of blindness or deafness.^ Arthur Rimbaud: Voyelles Synesthesia and artistic experimentation (Crtien van Campen) Synesthesia + psychedelic drugs .
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ One of course was drug-induced synesthesia and hallucinations, the kind of visual experiences people have during the beginning of the migraine headache, the kind of visual experiences people have during sensory deprivation, things like that.

^ Not under the influence of psychedelics, close your eyes.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Synesthesia that arises from such non-genetic events is referred to as "adventitious synesthesia" to distinguish it from the more common congenital forms of synesthesia.^ By contrast, there are other cultures, notably non-Western, in which synesthesia seems to be more integral to the culture and is even expressed in the morphology of the language.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the overall prevalence of synesthesia is estimated at less than 1%, visual sound synasthesia may be more common.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Are We All Synesthetes? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though there are dozens of forms of synesthesia, Carol Steen has the most common: seeing letters and numbers in color.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

.Adventitious synesthesia involving drugs or stroke (but not blindness or deafness) apparently only involves sensory linkings such as sound → vision or touch → hearing; there are few, if any, reported cases involving culture-based, learned sets such as graphemes, lexemes, days of the week, or months of the year.^ I have colors for all the days of the week, months of the year, and numbers, at least -0-9.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

^ I have definite colours of days of the week, months of the year and numbers.
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Isn't there only one sense involved in grapheme-color association?
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although synesthesia was the topic of intensive scientific investigation in the late 1800s and early 1900s, it was largely abandoned by scientific research in the mid-20th century, and has only recently been rediscovered by modern researchers.^ Visualisation of synaesthetic experience during the early 20th century - an analytic approach .

^ While the topic has been discussed for over a century, the exact definition of synesthesia and what constitutes a "true" form of the phenomenon remains open to debate.

[18] .Psychological research has demonstrated that synesthetic experiences can have measurable behavioral consequences, while functional neuroimaging studies have identified differences in patterns of brain activation.^ Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: brain-behavior correlations.

^ Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: Brain-behavior correlations.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ To test this hypothesis, experiment 2 compared the patient's somatosensory percepts with the degree of somatosensory cortex activation to different sounds.
  • Neural Substrates of Sound-Touch Synesthesia after a Thalamic Lesion -- Beauchamp and Ro 28 (50): 13696 -- Journal of Neuroscience 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Many people with synesthesia use their experiences to aid in their creative process, and many non-synesthetes have attempted to create works of art that may capture what it is like to experience synesthesia.^ That seems to work for many people!
  • IRC Chat Log, 12/30/97: Submodalities & Synesthesia! 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.altfeld.com [Source type: General]

^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Collectively referred to as synesthesia , these seemingly bizarre experiences —in which one sensory event is automatically coupled to another—aren't as rare as one might think: As many as one out of every 200 people is thought to have the condition.
  • Wired Science . Crossing Sensory Boundaries | PBS 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

.Psychologists and neuroscientists study synesthesia not only for its inherent interest, but also for the insights it may give into cognitive and perceptual processes that occur in synesthetes and non-synesthetes alike.^ Taken collectively, these results show that the different forms of synesthesia span the whole spectrum from sensation to cognition and, indeed, this is precisely why synesthesia is so interesting to study.

^ These experiments establish the sensory nature of synesthesia but, as we shall see later, this is only true if a subset of synesthetes ("lower synesthetes" or "projectors").

^ Published by Steven Novella under Uncategorized Comments: 37 Synesthesia is a rare and interesting neurological phenomenon in which one sensory modality crosses over into another.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Are We All Synesthetes? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Definitional criteria

.Although sometimes spoken of as a "neurological condition" synesthesia is not listed in either the DSM-IV or the ICD classifications, since it most often does not interfere with normal daily functioning.^ However, I don’t know if this would count as synesthesia, since sound does have a percussive/tactile component to it.

^ Note that I did not term it a neurological “condition,” since it is considered a normal state for as many as one out of every 2,000 people (Lemley, 1999, p.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sacks also discussed a condition called synesthesia , a neurological and involuntary phenomenon in which people “see” musical notes, numbers, letters, words, or other concepts in color.

It has, however, appeared for many years in both Dorland's and Steadman's medical dictionaries. .Indeed most synesthetes report that their experiences are neutral, or even pleasant.^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ Most individuals report having had the experience for as long back in childhood as they can remember.

^ "Some people though, like Mick reports in the synaesthesia link, even experience pleasant synaesthesia as part of the postdrome: ...

[19] .Rather, like color blindness or perfect pitch, synesthesia is a difference in perceptual experience and the term "neurological" simply reflects the brain basis of this perceptual difference (see below for associated cognitive traits).^ "Synesthetes agree, but they happen to see the color as a perceptual experience."
  • Wired Science . Crossing Sensory Boundaries | PBS 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

^ The main trait that I have is that I associate numbers with colors.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McLuhan’s use of the term synesthesia we can see some significant differences.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was once assumed that synesthetic experiences were entirely different from synesthete to synesthete, but recent research has shown that there are underlying similarities that can be observed when large numbers of synesthetes are examined together.^ Researchers asked synesthetic subjects to rate the intensity of their synesthetic experiences and found that as intensity increased, so did the associated brain signal in that region.
  • Wired Science . Crossing Sensory Boundaries | PBS 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ I wonder if you could maybe start with the Cocktail Party version of your answer, but then go on from there, how is that different from your real experience of it.

.For example, sound-color synesthetes, as a group, tend to see lighter colors for higher sounds[20] and grapheme-color synesthetes, as a group, share significant preferences for the color of each letter (e.g., A tends to be red; O tends to be white or black; S tends to be yellow etc.,[19][21][22]).^ But what, then, is the significance of the colors silver and red?
  • Beautiful Fragments of a Traumatic Memory 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sibetrans.com [Source type: General]

^ It was glinting colors of red, white, and blue.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For examples see 5.1 surround sound and Ambisonics .
  • Pro Audio Reference S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.Nonetheless, there are a great number of types of synesthesia, and within each type, individuals can report differing triggers for their sensations, and differing intensities of experiences.^ Importantly, the ‘’type’’ of synesthesia can vary within families, and the qualitative experience usually differs even between individuals of the same family.

^ There are people who still believe - in spite of the evidence cited above - that all types of synesthesia are the result of higher level conceptual or linguistic associations.

^ Taken collectively, these results show that the different forms of synesthesia span the whole spectrum from sensation to cognition and, indeed, this is precisely why synesthesia is so interesting to study.

.This variety means that defining synesthesia in an individual is difficult, and indeed, the majority of synesthetes are completely unaware that their experiences have a name.^ Karen Chenausky's web page on the MIT Synesthesia and the Synesthetic Experience web site .

^ What they mean by synesthesia seems restricted to the idea that hypermedia makes it possible to call up files created in a variety of media within the same platform.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These experiments establish the sensory nature of synesthesia but, as we shall see later, this is only true if a subset of synesthetes ("lower synesthetes" or "projectors").

[19] .However, despite the differences between individuals, there are a few common elements that define a true synesthetic experience.^ I wonder if you could maybe start with the Cocktail Party version of your answer, but then go on from there, how is that different from your real experience of it.

^ Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: Brain-behavior correlations.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ There was no systematic difference in the stimulation voltage between stimulation sites, and the patient was easily able to detect the stimulation at all sites.
  • Neural Substrates of Sound-Touch Synesthesia after a Thalamic Lesion -- Beauchamp and Ro 28 (50): 13696 -- Journal of Neuroscience 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

Neurologist Richard Cytowic identifies the following diagnostic criteria of synesthesia:[1][2][3]
  1. Synesthesia is involuntary and automatic.
  2. Synesthetic perceptions are spatially extended, meaning they often have a sense of "location." For example, synesthetes speak of "looking at" or "going to" a particular place to attend to the experience.
  3. Synesthetic percepts are consistent and generic (i.e., simple rather than pictorial).
  4. Synesthesia is highly memorable.
  5. Synesthesia is laden with affect.
.Cytowic's early cases included individuals whose synesthesia was frankly projected outside the body (e.g., on a "screen" in front of one's face).^ Russian composer Alexander Scriabin included his experiences of synaesthesia in a work called 'Prometheus or the poem of fire', which includes an instrument called a color organ, whose keyboard projected colors on to a screen.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One Step Beyond , Australian TV segment on synesthesia and the research being done on it in researcher Dr. Eagleman's lab, including interview with Sean Day .

^ N ews segment on Laura Rosser, 24, and others who have synesthesia, including interview with the neurologist Dr. Richard Cytowic .

Later research showed that such stark externalization occurs in a minority of synesthetes. .Refining this concept, Cytowic and Eagleman[3] differentiate between "localizers" and "non-localizers" to distinguish those synesthetes whose perceptions have a definite sense of spatial quality.^ Here he extends his and his father’s work by exploring the studies of synesthetes by Dr. Richard Cytowic (1993/1998) to establish the connection between synesthesia and the normal process of perception.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a second normalization step, we locally deformed the individual images to the study-specific template using non-linear spatial transformations.
  • Grapheme-colour synaesthetes show increased grey matter volumes of parietal and fusiform cortex -- Weiss and Fink 132 (1): 65 -- Brain 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sounds that did not produce synesthetic percepts evoked weak responses in S2, while sounds that produced strong synesthetic percepts evoked strong responses in S2, supporting the idea of a causal link between S2 activity and somatosensory percepts.
  • Neural Substrates of Sound-Touch Synesthesia after a Thalamic Lesion -- Beauchamp and Ro 28 (50): 13696 -- Journal of Neuroscience 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

Experiences

.Synesthetes often report that they were unaware their experiences were unusual until they realized other people did not have them, while others report feeling as if they had been keeping a secret their entire lives, as has been documented in interviews with synesthetes on how they discovered synesthesia in their childhood.^ She also discovered that people close to her were keeping the same secret.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Interview: Living with synesthesia Main .
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

[14] .The automatic and ineffable nature of a synesthetic experience means that the pairing may not seem out of the ordinary.^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ I’m not at all surprised about the sound associations described in the article; it seems like a natural extension of what I experience.

^ These experiments establish the sensory nature of synesthesia but, as we shall see later, this is only true if a subset of synesthetes ("lower synesthetes" or "projectors").

.This involuntary and consistent nature helps define synesthesia as a real experience.^ These experiments establish the sensory nature of synesthesia but, as we shall see later, this is only true if a subset of synesthetes ("lower synesthetes" or "projectors").

.Most synesthetes report that their experiences are pleasant or neutral, although, in rare cases, synesthetes report that their experiences can lead to a degree of sensory overload.^ Consistency in synesthetic experience to vowels andconsonants: Five case studies, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 30, 220-227.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Consistency in synesthetic experience to vowels andconsonants: Five case studies.
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ "Some people though, like Mick reports in the synaesthesia link, even experience pleasant synaesthesia as part of the postdrome: ...

[19]
.Though often stereotyped in the popular media as a medical condition or neurological aberration, many synesthetes themselves do not perceive their synesthetic experiences as a handicap.^ For these synesthetes, every taste has a shape which they perceive alongside their gustatory experience (i.e.

^ FC: So many people like me who don't have this synesthetic experience are so curious about it, and pepper you with questions about what it's like, and what do you see?

.To the contrary, most report it as a gift—an additional "hidden" sense—something they would not want to miss.^ Most individuals report having had the experience for as long back in childhood as they can remember.

^ I would guess there are many more people out there with such oddities than most would think and they just have learned to never talk about them.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most synesthetes become aware of their "hidden" and different way of perceiving in their childhood.^ This made me consider the different ways in which the world is perceived through the senses – some people seem to see brighter colours, while others have a sharper sense of smell.
  • Breathing in Colour, Clare Jay 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.clarejay.com [Source type: General]

.Some have learned how to apply this gift in daily life and work.^ And, a lot can be changed in your life by learning how to control synesthstesias.
  • synesthesia – Michael J. Emery – Personal Development Coach & Trainer 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC michaeljemery.com [Source type: General]

.Synesthetes have used their gift in memorizing names and telephone numbers, mental arithmetic, but also in more complex creative activities like producing visual art, music, and theater.^ Myself, I don’t visualize time, words, or numbers at all, and while I am (well, was) a musician, music is purely an auditory experience for me.

^ "So you know there was activity in the visual area of his brain even though he was only listening to music."
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Artists like Norman McLaren, and Barry Spinello compiled complex visual systems for generating specific kinds of sound.
  • links pages 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.scopac.org [Source type: General]

[14]
Despite the commonalities which permit definition of the broad phenomenon of synesthesia, individual experiences vary in numerous ways. .This variability was first noticed early on in synesthesia research[23] but has only recently come to be re-appreciated by modern researchers.^ Wikipedia wrote: It is estimated that synesthesia could possibly be as prevalent as 1 in 23 persons across its range of variants.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

^ I mean, what if, our standard is a 440, if an early music group is using A 412, which is significantly and noticeably lower, and they're playing in D major, then what do you see?

.Some grapheme → color synesthetes report that the colors seem to be "projected" out into the world (called "projectors"), while most report that the colors are experienced in their "mind's eye" (called "associators").^ How synesthetes color their worlds.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ It seems to like everyone, and most colors do not.
  • Facets of colour - Knowledge and Culture - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: General]

^ There are also some words that have associations with colors.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .It is estimated that approximately one or two per hundred grapheme-color synesthetes are projectors; the rest are associators.^ Figure 1: Number-color associations for one of our synesthetes.

^ Isn't there only one sense involved in grapheme-color association?
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They asked a grapheme-color synesthete to memorize a random selection of letters which were either randomly colored or colored in a manner consistent with their synesthesia.

[24]
.Additionally, some grapheme → color synesthetes report that they experience their colors strongly, and show perceptual enhancement on the perceptual tasks described below, while others (perhaps the majority) do not,[15] perhaps due to differences in the stage at which colors are evoked.^ The perceptual reality of synesthetic colors .

^ Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: brain-behavior correlations.

^ Synesthetic color experiences influence memory.

.Some synesthetes report that vowels are more strongly colored, while for others consonants are more strongly colored.^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ The test also showed that there are two sorts of synaesthesia, for some people, the color depended on what letter the word began with, for others, the color depended on the word itself.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a specialist in sentimental songs of all types, and published them in his "Read 'Em and Weep" and "Weep Some More, My Lady", among others.
  • Folk File: S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.folklib.net [Source type: General]

[19] .In summary, self reports, autobiographical notes by synesthetes and interviews show a large variety in types of synesthesia, intensity of the synesthetic perceptions, awareness of the difference in perceiving the physical world from other people, the way they creatively use their synesthesia in work and daily life.^ Creativity, synesthesia and physiognomic perception.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ "These people experience the world in a different way," he says.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

[14][25] .The descriptions below give some examples of synesthetes' experiences, which have been experimentally tested, but do not exhaust their rich variety.^ Example: Give me some sugar.
  • Undictionary:S - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The description you five about Feynman sounds simlar to an experience I had some years ago after a week long Nethack session.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This site collects descriptions of synesthetic experiences, including publishing of individual colored alphabets, numbers and calendars .

Various forms

.Synesthesia can occur between nearly any two senses or perceptual modes.^ Netherlands Information Page on Synesthesia including introduction to the new Dutch book on synesthesia by Crtien van Campen - "Tussen zinnen" (Between Senses), September 2005 .

.Given the large number of forms of synesthesia, researchers have adopted a convention of indicating the type of synesthesia by using the following notation x → y, where x is the "inducer" or trigger experience, and y is the "concurrent" or additional experience.^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ Though there are dozens of forms of synesthesia, Carol Steen has the most common: seeing letters and numbers in color.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, an individual may experience a specific color for every given note (“C sharp is red”) or every grapheme – printed number or letter- is tinged with a specific hue (e.g.

.For example, perceiving letters and numbers (collectively called graphemes) as colored would be indicated as grapheme → color synesthesia.^ Trends in colored letter synesthesia .

^ Grapheme-color synesthesia insights gained .

^ I call it my letter-color synaesthesia .
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly, when synesthetes see colors and movement as a result of hearing musical tones, it would be indicated as tone → (color, movement) synesthesia.^ I also see things when I hear music.

^ Synesthesia: Seeing music, tasting in color .

^ I don't see smells in color, but for me music has colors.

.While nearly every logically possible combination of experiences can occur, several types are more common than others.^ This must be more common than I thought.

^ It was exciting to read about others who have these experiences and I have read about it as much as possible since then.

^ You are far more courageous than I, however, in admitting to your students about your "condition", but I am starting to mumble a confession to them every now and then.
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

Grapheme → color synesthesia

.In one of the most common forms of synesthesia, grapheme → color synesthesia, individual letters of the alphabet and numbers (collectively referred to as graphemes), are "shaded" or "tinged" with a color.^ Trends in colored letter synesthesia .

^ Grapheme-color synesthesia insights gained .

^ Though there are dozens of forms of synesthesia, Carol Steen has the most common: seeing letters and numbers in color.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

.While different individuals usually do not report the same colors for all letters and numbers, studies with large numbers of synesthetes find some commonalities across letters (e.g., A is likely to be red).^ Q: Why are the first few numbers the same colors as the first few letters?
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's not all numbers but certain numbers have distinct colors.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Numbers and letters are always the same color, in my head.
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

[19][21]
.As a child, Pat Duffy told her Dad, "I realized that to make an R all I had to do was first write a P and draw a line down from its loop.^ As a non-synaesthete, writing from the point of view of a synaesthete is like writing poetry: the senses extend out in all directions as an attempt is made to grasp the reality of what is experienced.
  • Breathing in Colour, Clare Jay 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.clarejay.com [Source type: General]

^ Just writing this down makes it sound even more weird.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

.And I was so surprised that I could turn a yellow letter into an orange letter just by adding a line."^ How could a pink F change to yellow, Just because you added a line?

^ Yellow, violet, ruby, and magnolia flooded my line of Sight, turning otherwise dull and lifeless matter into Colourful sensation, excitement, almost A dimension within a dimension, a planet within my mind.

^ I remember you wrote it on the palm of my hand the red letter, the orange letter, the yellow letter, and the green, followed by the blue and the indigo and, finally, the violet.

.Another grapheme synesthete says, "When I read, about five words around the exact one I'm reading are in color.^ The colors gave me a natural memory system, which helped me read, spell and remember words very well.
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ They asked a grapheme-color synesthete to memorize a random selection of letters which were either randomly colored or colored in a manner consistent with their synesthesia.

^ Most of them I associate with a certain color: Science: Blue Math: Red Reading/English: Green Social Studies: Yellow As for other classes I don't really have many thoughts about their colors, but those ones I have always associated.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

It's also the only way I can spell. .In elementary school I remember knowing how to spell the word 'priority' [with an "i" rather than an "e"] because ...^ The colors gave me a natural memory system, which helped me read, spell and remember words very well.
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ And how on earth do they remember words, ever?
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ My students each year get informed of the fact that I will remember them more for their color than their name… and instantly 150 young people want to know the color I see their name.
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

an .'e' was out of place in that word because e's were yellow and didn't fit."^ Actually, some internal letters in a word do "pop out" and can bother me, for instance the word "grey" ought to be spelled with an E, not an A, because E is grey and A is red!
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

[26]

Sound → color synesthesia

.Cytowic calls sound → color synesthesia "something like fireworks": voice, music, and assorted environmental sounds such as clattering dishes or dog barks trigger color and simple shapes that arise, move around, and then fade when the sound stimulus ends.^ Nice” color palettes sound like music.

^ Synesthesia: Seeing music, tasting in color .

^ Synestheasia: II. Psychological relations in the synesthesia of geometrically shaped taste and colored hearing Brain and cognition 1, 36-49.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

[3] .For some, the stimulus type is limited (e.g., music only, or even just a specific musical key); for others, a wide variety of sounds triggers synesthesia.^ This, only with a certain type of sound.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

^ Some sound red while others just taste green .

^ I'm so glad that other people see music as colours, and that someone would understand why I paint songs or just sounds!
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.Sound often changes the perceived hue, brightness, scintillation, and directional movement.^ Numbers can have assigned colors, sounds can be immediately identified as a specific color, even movement can be perceived to have a specific sound.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

Some individuals see music on a "screen" in front of their face. .Deni Simon, for whom music produces waving lines "like oscilloscope configurations—lines moving in color, often metallic with height, width and, most importantly, depth.^ He placed the box on the table and unsnapped the two metal catches; the red pulse hit me like a moving train this reminded me of something but of what I couldnt be sure.

^ I also see music as colors and “formations” of colors as well, from swells to waves to bursts of color.

^ From his breakout hit 'Synaesthesia', through to the anthems 'Dreaming of You' and most recently 'NewLife', he has continued to produce a powerhouse of the most emotive music going.
  • The Thillseekers Tracklist Archive - tranceaddict Forums 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.tranceaddict.com [Source type: General]

.My favorite music has lines that extend horizontally beyond the 'screen' area."^ My favorite songs send images into my head that coincide with the music.

^ My musical colors are mine, but they also exist ahead of me, beyond me.
  • Beautiful Fragments of a Traumatic Memory 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sibetrans.com [Source type: General]

[3]
.Individuals rarely agree on what color a given sound is (composers Liszt and Rimsky-Korsakov famously disagreed on the colors of music keys); however, synesthetes show the same trends as non-synesthetes do.^ "Trends in Synesthetically Colored Graphemes and Phonemes 2004 revision."
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Nice” color palettes sound like music.

^ Other composers who have used synaesthesia in their work include Liszt, Rimsky-Korsakov, Messiaen and Scriabin.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, both groups say that loud tones are brighter than soft tones and that lower tones are darker than higher tones.^ Lower tones are in the blue purple range shading as we get to higher tones as yellows and even white.

Number form synesthesia

.
A number form from one of Francis Galton's subjects.
^ Figure 4: The unconventional yet consistent number-line visualized by one of Francis Galton's synesthetes in 1882.

[9] Note how the first 12 digits correspond to a clock face.
From Wednesday is Indigo Blue[3] Note this example's upside-down clock face.
.A number form is a mental map of numbers, which automatically and involuntarily appears whenever someone who experiences number-forms thinks of numbers.^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ S was recounting a huge table of data - reading off the numbers from a mental image he had created - when someone coughed.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An individual who carelessly comitts themselves to mindless acts of stupidity, or, a derogitory term form someone who you want to "make fun of", a fucking idiot .
  • Undictionary:S - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Number forms were first documented and named by Francis Galton in "The Visions of Sane Persons".[27] Later research has identified them as a type of synesthesia.^ Though there are dozens of forms of synesthesia, Carol Steen has the most common: seeing letters and numbers in color.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Online surveys to determine synesthesia types including graphemic surveys (numbers, letters and punctuation, by Lisa J. Emerson .

^ Figure 4: The unconventional yet consistent number-line visualized by one of Francis Galton's synesthetes in 1882.

[10][11] .In particular, it has been suggested that number-forms are a result of "cross-activation" between regions of the parietal lobe that are involved in numerical cognition and spatial cognition.^ Reality of number forms and their relevance to cognition .

^ What is the relationship between synaesthesia and visuo-spatial number forms?
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ What is the relationship between synaesthesia and visuo-spatial number forms.

[28][29] .In addition to its interest as a form of synesthesia, researchers in numerical cognition have begun to explore this form of synesthesia for the insights that it may provide into the neural mechanisms of numerical-spatial associations present unconsciously in everyone.^ Mechanisms of synesthesia: cognitive and physiological constraints.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synesthesia - Scholarpedia 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mechanisms of synesthesia: Cognitive and physiological constraints.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Mechanisms of synesthesia: cognitive and physiological constraints .

Personification

.Ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP, or personification for short) is a form of synesthesia in which ordered sequences, such as ordinal numbers, days, months and letters are associated with personalities.^ Ordinal linguistic personification as a variant of synesthesia.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Do you or they see musical notes, letters, words, numbers, days of the week, months of the year, etc., in colors?

^ Spoiler: Letters/numbers/days of the week, months far less strongly, some associations with subject matter like people were mentioning (philosophy as an academic discipline is black because logic).
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

[7][30] .Although this form of synesthesia was documented as early as the 1890s[23][31] modern research has, until recently,[1] paid little attention to this form.^ "Does color synesthesia pose a paradox for early-selection theories of attention?"
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Does color synesthesia pose a paradox for early-selection theories of attention ?

^ In point of fact, synesthesia has been recognized for over a hundred and fifty years and studied as a neurological phenomenon, and recently much significant research has been published on it.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, one synesthete says, "T’s are generally crabbed, ungenerous creatures. U is a soulless sort of thing. 4 is honest, but… 3 I cannot trust… 9 is dark, a gentleman, tall and graceful, but politic under his suavity." [31] Likewise, Cytowic's subject MT says, "I [is] a bit of a worrier at times, although easy-going; J [is] male; appearing jocular, but with strength of character; K [is] female; quiet, responsible...."[1]
.For some people in addition to numbers and other ordinal sequences, objects are sometimes imbued with a sense of personality.^ Tobias Dantzig, who investigated these matters, points out (in Number: The Language of Science ) that the parity or kinesthetic sense of these people is stronger than their number sense.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition some sounds are fuzzy like soft fabric or velvet and other sounds are sharp and spikey or hard.

^ Some people specialize in storytelling, and others keep short ones on hand to add variety to a musical performance.
  • Folk File: S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.folklib.net [Source type: General]

.Recent research has begun to show that alphanumeric personification co-varies with other forms of synesthesia, and is consistent and automatic, as required to be considered a form of synesthesia.^ Ordinal linguistic personification as a variant of synesthesia.
  • Synesthesia - Scholarpedia 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Taken collectively, these results show that the different forms of synesthesia span the whole spectrum from sensation to cognition and, indeed, this is precisely why synesthesia is so interesting to study.

^ I discovered there were other forms of synesthesia like spatial and conceptual.

[7]

Lexical → gustatory synesthesia

.In the rare lexical → gustatory synesthesia, individual words and the phonemes of spoken language evoke taste sensations in the mouth.^ Word-gustatory synesthesia: a case study.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Whole words have very strong color sensations to me, I actually do not experience individual letter's colors very much.
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Functional magnetic resonance imaging of synesthesia: activation of V4/V8 by spoken words .

.According to James Wannerton, "Whenever I hear, read, or articulate (inner speech) words or word sounds, I experience an immediate and involuntary taste sensation on my tongue.^ And James Wannerton tastes words: "New York is, it's runny eggs.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, I do not experience reading as tasting.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I experience the thinking and writing of words as if I were tasting them.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These very specific taste associations never change and have remained the same for as long as I can remember."^ Major keys have specific colours associated with them, usually bright colours, and minor keys are a darker shade of the same.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

^ Commenter Gregg the Obscure writes: “Have had synesthesia as long as I can remember – the main attribute is that some (not all) musical sounds have associated smells and, occasionally, tastes.

^ It's not a specific taste associated with it just a pleasant sensation.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

.Jamie Ward and Julia Simner have extensively studied this form of synesthesia, and have found that the synesthetic associations are constrained by early food experiences.^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Taken collectively, these results show that the different forms of synesthesia span the whole spectrum from sensation to cognition and, indeed, this is precisely why synesthesia is so interesting to study.

^ These experiments establish the sensory nature of synesthesia but, as we shall see later, this is only true if a subset of synesthetes ("lower synesthetes" or "projectors").

[32][33] For example, James Wannerton has no synesthetic experiences of coffee or curry, even though he consumes them regularly as an adult. Conversely, he tastes certain breakfast cereals and candies that are no longer sold.
.Additionally, these early food experiences are often paired with tastes based on the phonemes in the name of the word (e.g., /I/, /n/ and /s/ trigger James Wannerton’s taste of mince) although others have less obvious roots (e.g., /f/ triggers sherbet).^ And James Wannerton tastes words: "New York is, it's runny eggs.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was exciting to read about others who have these experiences and I have read about it as much as possible since then.

^ I can't tell you what they taste like; I only know that I experience tasting when I am looking for a word or when I am writing them.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To show that phonemes, rather than graphemes are the critical triggers of tastes, Ward and Simner showed that, for James Wannerton, the taste of egg is associated to the phoneme /k/, whether spelled with a "c" (e.g., accept), "k" (e.g., York), "ck" (e.g., chuck) or "x" (e.g., fax).^ And James Wannerton tastes words: "New York is, it's runny eggs.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certain people’s names evoke colors or shapes and I remember the person’s name by that association, rather than their name.

^ For as long as he can remember, words have triggered the part of Wannerton's brain that responds to tastes and flavors.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another source of tastes comes from semantic influences, so that food names tend to taste of the food they match, and the word "blue" tastes "inky."^ I can't tell you what they taste like; I only know that I experience tasting when I am looking for a word or when I am writing them.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Semantic Power Measured through Interference of Words with Color-Naming.
  • A Bibliography of Synesthesia and Phonesthesia Research - Golan Levin and Collaborators 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.flong.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A Special Few Can "Taste" a Word Before They Can Say It .

Research history

.The interest in colored hearing dates back to Greek antiquity, when philosophers asked if the color (chroia, what we now call timbre) of music was a quantifiable quality.^ I’m interested in music itself; that is, what the heck is this thing we call music ( organized sound ?

^ She would call me and I would not hear her because “my ears were full.” Then I took my newly sharpened sense and was able to “see the music” in other abstract works.

^ That is, when I listen to music, my mind’s eye is involuntarily flooded with immediate visual perceptions of intense and vivid colors that react directly to the sounds I am hearing.
  • Beautiful Fragments of a Traumatic Memory 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sibetrans.com [Source type: General]

[34] .Isaac Newton proposed that musical tones and color tones shared common frequencies, as did Goethe in his book, "Theory of Color."^ "Visic: A proposal for true color music."
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Music and visual color: A proposed correlations, Leonardo 13, 101.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ DPW 05.27.08 at 5:31 pm I see musical tones as colors.

Despite this idea being false, there is a long history of building color organs such as the clavier à lumières on which to perform colored music in concert halls[35][35][36]
The first medical description of colored hearing is in a German 1812 thesis.[37] .The father of psychophysics, Gustav Fechner reported the first empirical survey of colored letter photisms among 73 synesthetes in 1871,[38][39] followed in the 1880s by Francis Galton.^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ Q: Why are the first few numbers the same colors as the first few letters?
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first letter in particular has enormous influence: The meaning of a word also has an undeniable influence on its color.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

[9][40][41] Research into synesthesia proceeded briskly in several countries, but due to the difficulties in measuring subjective experiences and the rise of behaviorism, which made the study of any subjective experience taboo, synesthesia faded into scientific oblivion between 1930 and 1980.
.As the 1980s cognitive revolution began to make inquiry into internal subjective states respectable again, scientists once again looked to synesthesia.^ "Visions Shared: A Firsthand Look into Synesthesia and Art" Leonardo, Vol.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

.Led in the United States by Larry Marks and Richard Cytowic, and later in England by Simon Baron-Cohen and Jeffrey Gray, research explored the reality, consistency, and frequency of synesthetic experiences.^ Baron-Cohen , Simon et al.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Baron-Cohen, Simon et al.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Here he extends his and his father’s work by exploring the studies of synesthetes by Dr. Richard Cytowic (1993/1998) to establish the connection between synesthesia and the normal process of perception.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1990s, the focus settled on grapheme → color synesthesia, one of the most common[19][22] and easily studied types.^ The reason for this is that grapheme–color is the most common form and also the one on which most psychophysical experiments have been done.

^ Grapheme-color synesthesia insights gained .

^ Although these will be mentioned in passing, this short review will mainly emphasize grapheme-color synesthesia rather than attempt a comprehensive survey of the entire field.

.Synesthesia is now the topic of scientific books and papers, Ph.D. theses, documentary films, and even novels.^ Perhaps certain shapes are more feminine (or masculine) through association even in ‘normals’ and these are made explicit by the enhanced connectivity caused by synesthesia genes.

.Since the rise of the Internet in the 1990, synesthetes began contacting one another and creating Web sites devoted to the condition.^ Synesthetes' web sites .

^ Synesthete's web sites .

^ A condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another, as when the hearing of a sound produces the visualization of a color.
  • Synesthesia 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC lashawnbarber.com [Source type: General]
  • Pro Audio Reference S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.These early grew into international organizations such as the American Synesthesia Association, the UK Synaesthesia Association, the Belgian Synaesthesia Association, the German Synesthesia Association and the Netherlands Synesthesia Web Community.^ Astrid's (Netherlands) synaesthesia web pages .

^ The first theory states that synaesthesia is nothing more than a set of associations learned early in life.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it an early sensory process or a high level cognitive process such as a memory association (e.g.

Prevalence and genetic basis

.Early estimates of prevalence varied widely (from 1 in 20 to 1 in 20,000).^ Wikipedia wrote: It is estimated that synesthesia could possibly be as prevalent as 1 in 23 persons across its range of variants.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

^ Figures ranging from 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 20 have been stated, while more recent studies suggest the prevalence is between 1 in 2000 to 1 in 200.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epidemiology Estimates vary for the prevalence of synaesthesia, partly due to a difference in opinion on what exactly constitutes synaesthesia, and partly due to different diagnostic methods.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These studies all had the methodological shortcoming of relying on self-selection, meaning individuals reporting their experience to investigators.^ To them, this dictated that only the observable, objective behaviour of a subject should be studied; subjective reports of conscious experiences were not to be trusted.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these thing must be stated for a S/N spec to have meaning.
  • Pro Audio Reference S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Consistent with these studies, Experiment 1 showed weak, but consistent auditory responses in the operculum of normal controls.
  • Neural Substrates of Sound-Touch Synesthesia after a Thalamic Lesion -- Beauchamp and Ro 28 (50): 13696 -- Journal of Neuroscience 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Random population studies later determined that 1 in 23 individuals have some kind of synesthesia, while 1 in 90 have colored graphemes.^ Grapheme-color synesthesia insights gained .

^ Although these will be mentioned in passing, this short review will mainly emphasize grapheme-color synesthesia rather than attempt a comprehensive survey of the entire field.

^ They asked a grapheme-color synesthete to memorize a random selection of letters which were either randomly colored or colored in a manner consistent with their synesthesia.

[17] .Colored days of the week and colored graphemes are the most common types.^ Synesthesia used to be regarded as a rare condition but recent estimates suggest an incidence of 4%; the most common of which appears to be grapheme-color (Simner, Sagiv, Mulvenna, Tsakanikos, Witherby, Fraser, Scott, Ward, 2006).

^ In most cases, it's only 2 colors that the individual can't perceive, the most common being red/green, which are seen as shades of gray, with blue/yellow being the second most common.
  • Facets of colour - Knowledge and Culture - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: General]

^ According to researcher Sean Day, in this study its most common form was the elicitation of colors, either by numbers and letters, units of time, spoken sounds, general sounds, or music.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][19]
.Many studies noted that synesthesia runs in families, consistent with a genetic origin for the condition.^ Note that I did not term it a neurological “condition,” since it is considered a normal state for as many as one out of every 2,000 people (Lemley, 1999, p.
  • Hypermedia and Synesthesia :: MEA Proceedings 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.media-ecology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sacks also discussed a condition called synesthesia , a neurological and involuntary phenomenon in which people “see” musical notes, numbers, letters, words, or other concepts in color.

^ Her sister, niece and son all have synesthesia; it runs in families.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

Francis Galton's 1880 report noted a familial component. .Studies from the 1990s[42][43] that noted a much higher prevalence in women than men (up to 6:1) most likely suffered from a sampling bias due to the fact that women are more likely to self-disclose than men.^ Most men are tenors and most women are altos.
  • Folk File: S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.folklib.net [Source type: General]

^ Dendrite density is also significantly higher in women - which would tend to support the idea that signals in one area of the brain are more likely to traverse to other areas by mere virtue of having more pathways for the signal...
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The women fills up the syringe with crystal clear water and injects the male his upper arm with this water so he can come more often.
  • Undictionary:S - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More recent random samples find an equal sex ratio of 1.1:1.[17]
.At first, the observed patterns of inheritance were consistent with an X-linked mode of inheritance because there had been no verified reports of father-to-son transmission, whereas father-to-daughter, mother-to-son and mother-to-daughter transmission were readily observed[1][43][44] However, the first genome-wide association study failed to find X-linkage,[45] and furthermore verified two cases of father-to-son transmission.^ When I first read about synesthesia ten years ago, I was amazed that there were other people who described their own color-word associations.

^ A case study of brain function in a woman who associates colors with the names of famous people can be found here (PDF).

^ Red has two different associations: the first is passion, love and lust.

.Suggestive of incomplete gene penetrance is the situation of identical twins in which only one member of the pair is synesthetic,[46][47] and the observation that synesthesia can skip generations within a family.^ Preliminary work by Brang and Ramachandran (2007a) has suggested, based on pharmacological models of synesthesia, that HTR2A on chromosome 13q may be one of the genes involved in this phenomenon.

^ Importantly, the ‘’type’’ of synesthesia can vary within families, and the qualitative experience usually differs even between individuals of the same family.

^ How does one account for the observation that poetry and art are more likely to be pursued by synesthetes?

[48]. .It is furthermore common for family members to experience different types of synesthesia, suggesting that the gene(s) involved do not lead to invariably specific types of synesthesia.^ Preliminary work by Brang and Ramachandran (2007a) has suggested, based on pharmacological models of synesthesia, that HTR2A on chromosome 13q may be one of the genes involved in this phenomenon.

^ Importantly, the ‘’type’’ of synesthesia can vary within families, and the qualitative experience usually differs even between individuals of the same family.

^ A clever experiment by Smilek, Dixon, Cudahy, and Merikle suggests that synesthesia can enhance memory (2002).

[44] .Developmental factors such as gene expression and environment must also play a role in determining which types of synesthesia an individual has (for example, children must interact with culturally-learned artifacts such as alphabets and food names).^ Can learning play an important role in synaesthesia?

^ T he phenomenon also interested film-maker Sergei Eisenstein and poets such as Rimbaud and Baudelaire, but despite the role synaesthesia may have played in creativity and culture, it has been regarded as little more than a psychological curiosity until recently.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the delayed and gradual onset of the synesthesia 18 months poststroke, long-term plastic changes such as axonal sprouting may have played a more prominent role than unmasking.
  • Neural Substrates of Sound-Touch Synesthesia after a Thalamic Lesion -- Beauchamp and Ro 28 (50): 13696 -- Journal of Neuroscience 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

Objective verification

.
Reaction times for answers that are congruent with a synesthete’s automatic colors are faster than those whose answer is incongruent.
^ In large, synesthetes report these experiences are unidirectional, such that numbers and letters may automatically elicit colors, yet colors will not cause the automatic percept of a number.

^ Finally, some synesthetes report that imagined letters (visualized in the mind 's eye) are, paradoxically more vividly colored than actual printed ones.

^ In this study, sentences were presented one word at a time, ending with a congruent or incongruent color word ("The sky is BLUE" versus "The sky is RED") OR ending with a congruent or incongruent synesthetic grapheme ("The sky is 4" versus "The sky is 7").

[3]
Synesthesia is hard to fake, and easy to prove as a genuine perception. .The simplest approach is test-retest reliability over long periods of time, where synesthetes consistently score much higher—around 90% after years, compared to 30-40% after just a month in non-synesthetes even when they are warned they will be retested—using stimuli of color names, color chips, or a computer-screen color picker providing 16.7 million choices.^ Months are colored and sized according to my synesthetic view of the year.

^ The words in print on the computer screen were also that color .
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most words take on the colors of their first letter unless they have a good reason not to; I resented the turn of the century for a long time because 1998/1999 was a nice black-background with orangey-red tones, and the 2000s had waaaaaay too much white and yellow, as concepts they felt shallow.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

[1][43]
.
The automaticity of synesthetic experience.
^ Synesthetic Experiences, Such as Seeing a Certain Color Associated With a Number, Are Real and Automatic .

.The panel on the left is how a non-synesthete perceives the matrix, while a given synesthete might perceive it like the panel on the right.^ The way you describe it, sounds a lot like how I perceive it, as well, if that makes sense.
  • Synesthesia: I confess--I have synesthesia--do you? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC drholly.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Or, like me, you might perceive words and numbers as having colours.
  • xkcd • View topic - Synesthesia: Do you have it? 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

[28]
Modified versions of the Stroop effect are popular. .In the standard paradigm, it is harder to name the ink color of the word "red," for example, when it is printed in blue ink than when the ink is red.^ The words in print on the computer screen were also that color .
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was glinting colors of red, white, and blue.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certain people’s names evoke colors or shapes and I remember the person’s name by that association, rather than their name.

.Similarly, if a grapheme → color synesthete is shown the digit 4 (which he sees as red, say) in blue ink, he is slower to name the ink color than when it is printed in red.^ It was glinting colors of red, white, and blue.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This person, however, has since childhood been trained to call the color that he sees in the sky "blue", and that which he sees in leaves "green"; all other colors he sees just like we do.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain people’s names evoke colors or shapes and I remember the person’s name by that association, rather than their name.

.He sees the blue ink, but the same sort of conflict responsible for the standard Stroop effect occurs between the ink color and the automatic synesthetic color of the grapheme.^ MarySM wrote: Color perception does vary from person to person and it can be the inability to distinguish between shades of similar colors or seeing brightness of colors in the usual way.
  • Facets of colour - Knowledge and Culture - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: General]

^ Green love is ugly: emotions elicited by synesthetic grapheme-color perceptions.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ "Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: brain-behavior correlations," Neuron , 45, 975-985.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

The conflict is strongest when the ink color is the opponent color to the synesthetic one (e.g., red vs. green), indicating that synesthetic color perception uses the same mechanism as the perception of real colors.[49]
.Cross-sensory Stroop tests are possible: for example, a music → color synesthete must name a red swatch while listening to a sound that produces a blue sensation,[50] or a musical key → taste synesthete must identify a bitter taste while hearing a musical interval that tastes sweet .^ Synaesthesia: when coloured sounds taste sweet.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Synesthesia: Seeing music, tasting in color .

^ Hearing colors, tasting shapes.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

[51] .Likewise, Stroop tests work even in those for whom merely thinking about a numeral elicits color.^ Such a programmer might, when thinking of a particular problem, "see" the code in his head in those colors...
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was impossible for me to think clearly and normally about the sexually abusive things that were happening to me, and it also was impossible for me to not think about the scary things that had happened to this boy, even when he was safe at home.
  • Beautiful Fragments of a Traumatic Memory 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sibetrans.com [Source type: General]

^ I do a lot of thinking about a variety of things, but most intensely about game mechanics for table top games, video games, and even live action games.

.Take a person who sees 7 as yellow and 9 as blue, and make the task one of having to say a math solution out loud followed by naming a color square.^ MarySM wrote: Color perception does vary from person to person and it can be the inability to distinguish between shades of similar colors or seeing brightness of colors in the usual way.
  • Facets of colour - Knowledge and Culture - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: General]

^ Imagine a person who sees everyithing just like the rest of us, except that blue and green are "switched": he sees the grass as a hue that we call "blue" if we were to see as he does, and the sky as a hue we call "green".
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Smith, Bessie (1894-1937) considered the greatest of the women who sang the blues, her solo work and her work with Rainey, Ma set the standard for everyone who followed.
  • Folk File: S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.folklib.net [Source type: General]

.In the illustration, having to answer “7” and then “yellow” is congruent with the subject’s synesthesia, which unconsciously primes him to respond faster than controls.^ Wannerton says his synesthesia has caused him more than a few problems in his personal life.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Synaesthetes performed significantly better than control subjects, showing that they could not be confabulating.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The automatic blueness of 9, however, interferes with naming the green square, slowing him down compared to controls.^ I heard him call my name; it was A murmur muttered by the breeze, Forcing me to turn at once And fall down on my knees.

^ Phthalocyanine turns out to be the name of a vivid blue-green pigment used in paint.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This person, however, has since childhood been trained to call the color that he sees in the sky "blue", and that which he sees in leaves "green"; all other colors he sees just like we do.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Synesthetic colors can also improve performance for some synesthetes. .Inspired by tests for color blindness, Ramachandran and Hubbard presented synesthetes and non-synesthetes with a matrix of 5s in which embedded 2s formed a hidden pattern such as a square, diamond, rectangle or triangle.^ The box on the left shows a matrix of 5s and 2s.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently music brought colors and shapes to his mind with such vividness that he could bring them to his canvas clearly enough to “awake” a fellow synesthete.

^ The embedded triangle, composed of 2s, pops out immediately.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]. .For someone who sees 2s as red and 5s as green, for example, synesthetic colors help zero in on the embedded figure.^ Imagine a person who sees everyithing just like the rest of us, except that blue and green are "switched": he sees the grass as a hue that we call "blue" if we were to see as he does, and the sky as a hue we call "green".
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Green love is ugly: emotions elicited by synesthetic grapheme-color perceptions.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ I see the 3 basis vectors of R 3 , i , j and k as being red green and blue.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subsequent careful studies have found substantial variability among synesthetes in their ability to do this.^ A case study of a man who is a savant and autistic and also a synesthete can be found here (PDF).

[15][24] .It certainly does not happen instantaneously; while synesthesia is evoked very early in perceptual processing, it does not occur prior to attention.^ Does color synesthesia pose a paradox for early-selection theories of attention ?

^ "Does color synesthesia pose a paradox for early-selection theories of attention?"
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusion Synaesthesia somehow seems to short-circuit the normal perceptual and cognitive processes that occur in human brains to cause the strange experiences that have fascinated so many.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52][53]

Possible neural basis

.
Regions thought to be cross-activated in grapheme-color synesthesia (green=grapheme recognition area, red=V4 color area).
^ Grapheme-color synesthesia insights gained .

^ When blue is larger than red: colors influence numerical cognition in synesthesia.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Neuroscientists locate 'imaginary' colors: UCSD/Salk team gains insight into neural basis of perception, finds evidence of cross-activation in brain regions of people who see letters and numbers in colors .

[28]
Dedicated regions of the brain are specialized for given functions. .Increased cross-talk between regions specialized for different functions may account for the many types of synesthesia.^ Variants of synesthesia interact in cognitive tasks: evidence for implicit associations and late connectivity in cross-talk theories.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Since there are in theory as many different types of synaesthesia as there are combinations between the five senses, a battery of tests must be used to cover all possibilities.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the additive experience of seeing color when looking at graphemes might be due to cross-activation of the grapheme-recognition area and the color area called V4 (see figure).^ "When visual perception causes feeling: enhanced cross-modal processing in grapheme-color synesthesia," Neuroimage , 28, 859-868.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ When visual perception causes feeling: Enhanced cross-modal processing in grapheme-color synesthesia .

^ Under this theory, a lower synaesthete might have cross-activation between colour and grapheme areas, while a higher synaesthete would have a hypothetical `sequence' or `cardinality' area (possibly the angular gyrus) cross-activated with the colour area.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .One line of thinking is that a failure to prune synapses that are normally formed in great excess during the first few years of life may cause such cross-activation.^ Humanity had made contact with the Yalaxis only a few years earlier, when a scout ship dropped onto a Yalaxis world and accidentally caused one of the inhabitants to collapse and die from a brain overload.

^ When I get them, not really severe ones, I just can't think well for a day before and after, plus during.
  • synaesthesia and art - WetCanvas 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.wetcanvas.com [Source type: General]

^ Think of a white house and then history throwing its cartons of paint onto it until it becomes a monument, a grand tapestry of the last one billion years.

An alternate possibility is disinhibited feedback, or a reduction in the amount of inhibition along normally existing feedback pathways.[54] Normally, excitation and inhibition are balanced. .However, if normal feedback were not inhibited as usual, then signals feeding back from late stages of multi-sensory processing might influence earlier stages such that tones could activate vision.^ In audio, usually the name applies to a class of electronic control circuits comprised of an amplifier and a feedback path from the output signal that is compared with a reference signal.
  • Pro Audio Reference S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.Cytowic & Eagleman find support for the disinhibition idea in the so-called acquired forms[3] of synesthesia that occur in non-synesthetes under certain conditions: Temporal lobe epilepsy, head trauma, stroke, and brain tumors.^ Male brains tend to localize functions in the left hemisphere, whereas female brains do not do so under normal circumstances (intersex conditions, etc.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sacks also discussed a condition called synesthesia , a neurological and involuntary phenomenon in which people “see” musical notes, numbers, letters, words, or other concepts in color.

It can likewise occur during stages of meditation, deep concentration, sensory deprivation, or with use of psychedelics such as LSD or mescaline, certain prescription medications or even, in some cases, marijuana.
.Functional neuroimaging studies using PET and fMRI demonstrate significant differences between the brains of synesthetes and non-synesthetes.^ Why Miles Davis saw the blues: Auras exist, but inside our brains because of a mix-up between the different senses .

^ Another somewhat related theory is based on the observation that there are vast numbers of reciprocal connections between neurones in different areas of the brain.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since there are in theory as many different types of synaesthesia as there are combinations between the five senses, a battery of tests must be used to cover all possibilities.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

fMRI shows .V4 activation in both word → color and grapheme → color synesthetes.^ Functional magnetic resonance imaging of synesthesia: activation of V4/V8 by spoken words .

^ Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: Brain-behavior correlations.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Trends in Synesthetically Colored Graphemes and Phonemes .

[15][55][56] .Diffusion tensor imaging allows visualization of white matter fiber pathways in the intact brain.^ "Auditory-Visual Synesthesia: Report of a Case With Intact Visual Pathways."
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Auditory-Visual Synesthesia: Report of a Case With Intact Visual Pathways.
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Auditory-VisualSynesthesia: Report of a Case With Intact Visual Pathways.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

.This method demonstrates increased connectivity in fusiform gyrus, intraparietal sulcus and frontal cortex in grapheme-color synesthetes.^ Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: Brain-behavior correlations.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Individual Differences among Grapheme-Color Synesthetes: Brain Behavior Correlations .

^ Trends in Synesthetically Colored Graphemes and Phonemes .

[57] The degree of white matter connectivity in the fusiform gyrus correlates with the intensity of the synesthetic experience.

Associated cognitive traits

.Little is known about what, if any, cognitive traits might be associated with synesthesia.^ Little is known about this period of human evolution .
  • Undictionary:S - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When I first read about synesthesia ten years ago, I was amazed that there were other people who described their own color-word associations.

^ Variants of synesthesia interact in cognitive tasks: evidence for implicit associations and late connectivity in cross-talk theories.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

.As early as 1980, Richard Cytowic first noted mild difficulties in left-right confusion, arithmetic, and sense of direction.^ Oxford: Blackwell, 1997; Richard E. Cytowic, Synaesthesia: A Union of the Senses.
  • Beautiful Fragments of a Traumatic Memory 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sibetrans.com [Source type: General]

^ Cytowic, Richard E. Synaesthesia: a Union of the Senses.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

[1] These observations await large-scale confirmation. What has been confirmed is elevated, sometimes photographic, memory.[58] When asked, "What good is it?" synesthetes say, "It helps me remember." .Indeed, it was reading Alexander Luria's 1968 book The Mind of a Mnemonist that alerted Cytowic to the link between synesthesia and elevated memory: Luria's subject had a 5-fold synesthesia that gave him extra hooks on which to hang and remember numerous facts.^ The great Russian psychologist A R Luria spent many years early in this century studying the phenomenal memory of a man called S. In his classic book 'The mind of Mnemonist', Luria recalls how he first uncovered the key to S's extraordinary abilities.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neurologist Richard Cytowic explored this surreal world of synesthesia in his book, "The Man Who Tasted Shapes."
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Netherlands Information Page on Synesthesia including introduction to the new Dutch book on synesthesia by Crtien van Campen - "Tussen zinnen" (Between Senses), September 2005 .

.Autism and epilepsy occur with synesthesia more often than chance predicts.^ Wannerton says his synesthesia has caused him more than a few problems in his personal life.
  • DO YOU HEAR COLOR OR SEE SOUNDS? 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

.Daniel Tammet, the savant who set a European record for reciting the digits of pi, has all three conditions indicating that they might share an underlying genetic cause.^ Their goal is worldwide promotion of communication, education and service among all those who make and use recording equipment.
  • Pro Audio Reference S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They disbanded shortly after, he said, because of poor economic conditions in folk clubs - an opinion that is shared by many; see Cooney, Michael , gig , and money .
  • Folk File: S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.folklib.net [Source type: General]

^ It might be said that they're a cross between the European hymn style and African rhythm and ornament s.
  • Folk File: S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.folklib.net [Source type: General]

Synesthesia has so far been linked to a region on chromosome 2 that is associated with autism and epilepsy.[45]
Synesthetes are likely to participate in creative activities.[22][59][60] .Individual development of perceptual and cognitive skills, and one's cultural environment likely determine the variety in awareness and practical use of synesthetic skills[16][25] These are major topics of ongoing research.^ In collaborating on Gore, the band's creative process parallel its musical one, each member making use of different skills in individual contributions that inform and build on one another.

^ Anyway, as an adult I find that I not only like these colors now, but I very much like them in combination with one another.
  • Facets of colour - Knowledge and Culture - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: General]

^ This last section of the essay will discuss the techniques being used in synaesthesia research today in addition to selected research topics.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Links with other areas of study

.Researchers study synesthesia not only because it is inherently interesting, but also because studying it can offer insights into other questions, such as how the brain combines information from different sensory modalities, referred to as crossmodal perception and multisensory integration.^ Form Perception across Sensory Modalities.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Perception and sensory information in synesthaetic experience.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This study provides a good example of how research in synaesthesia is shedding light on other psychological questions; the mechanism underlying why object substitution prevents normal subjects from identifying the masked object (in this case, the grapheme) is not yet known, but the discovery that synaesthetes do not respond in the same way raises several interesting possibilities.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Tests like this demonstrate that people do not attach sounds to visual shapes arbitrarily.
^ Update : Glenn Reynolds has synesthesia : “I see sounds as visual analogs with shape, color, and texture.

Which shape would you call "Kiki" and which "Bouba?"
An example of this is the bouba/kiki effect. .In an experiment first designed by Wolfgang Köhler, people are asked to choose which of two shapes is named bouba and which kiki. 95% to 98% of people choose kiki for the angular shape and bouba for the rounded one.^ Certain people’s names evoke colors or shapes and I remember the person’s name by that association, rather than their name.

^ I now “know” at least two other people who see the calendar year as a shape in space (you and Mark Jaquith).

.Individuals on the island of Tenerife showed a similar preference between shapes called takete and maluma. Even 2.5 year-old children (too young to read) show this effect.^ A young African-American BOY , perhaps eight years old, is riding his bike in a dreamy, cloud-ridden landscape.
  • Beautiful Fragments of a Traumatic Memory 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sibetrans.com [Source type: General]

^ Like most children in the 1980s, I was addicted to the television show Sesame Street, a wildly successful collaboration between puppeteer and musician Jim Henson and the Children’s Television Workshop.
  • Beautiful Fragments of a Traumatic Memory 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sibetrans.com [Source type: General]

^ Physiognomic Perception of Positive and Negative Stimuli among Five-Year-Old Children.
  • A Bibliography of Synesthesia and Phonesthesia Research - Golan Levin and Collaborators 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.flong.com [Source type: Academic]

[61]
.Ramachandran and Hubbard suggest the kiki/bouba effect has implications for the evolution of language, because the naming of objects is not completely arbitrary.^ Ramachandran, V. S., Hubbard, E. M. (2001), `Synaesthesia: A window into perception, thought and language'.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .The rounded shape may intuitively be named bouba because the mouth makes a more rounded shape to produce that sound, while a more taut, angular mouth shape is needed to articulate kiki.^ The names sort of match the inner sleave photos but I think the link may be more synaethetic than aesthetic.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poles and zeros are the mathematical names for the solutions of the numerator polynomial -- called zeros because they cause the numerator to have zero value -- and denominator polynomial -- called poles because they cause the denominator to have zero value which makes the ratio infinity .
  • Pro Audio Reference S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The goal is to extend the sound field well beyond the limitations of the loudspeakers, and make the overall sound seem more expansive.
  • Pro Audio Reference S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.The sound of K is also harder and more forceful than that of B. Such "synesthesia-like mappings" suggest that this effect might be the neurological basis for sound symbolism, in which sounds are non-arbitrarily mapped to objects and actions in the world.^ This chicken tastes like triangles: A look at synesthesia and its psychedelic effects .

^ It sounds like synaesthesia adds more "properties" to each element for you than for the average individual, so you have to balance out even more information than the average artist.
  • synaesthesia and art - WetCanvas 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.wetcanvas.com [Source type: General]

^ 'Ku' is a detailed exploration of texture, sound & abstracted rhythm using natural objects such as pine cones, sea shells, branches etc, etc...

.Given synesthetes' extraordinary conscious experiences, researchers hope that their study will provide better understanding of consciousness and its neural correlates, meaning what the brain mechanisms that make us conscious might be.^ Hearing Colors, Tasting Shapes: People with synesthesia--whose senses blend together--are providing valuable clues to understanding the organization and functions of the human brain .

^ To better understand what this means, we are going to compare the incidence of music as a career choice among musical synaesthetes not to the general population (in which almost none choose music as a creative career), but to a population of creative geniuses.
  • Cawley, V. & Cawley, A. (2009). Synaesthesia promotes child prodigiousness and influences creativity.An examination of the evidence from case studies.. PHILICA.COM Article number 176. 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC philica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consistency in synesthetic experience to vowels andconsonants: Five case studies, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 30, 220-227.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

.In particular, synesthesia might be relevant to the philosophical problem of qualia,[4][28][62] given that synesthetes experience extra qualia (e.g., a colored sound).^ Karen Chenausky's web page on the MIT Synesthesia and the Synesthetic Experience web site .

^ The Colorful World of Synesthesia: Why some people hear colors or taste sounds .

^ Synesthetic Experiences, Such as Seeing a Certain Color Associated With a Number, Are Real and Automatic .

Artistic investigations

Vision by Carol Steen; Oil on Paper; 15x12-3/4" 1996. A representation of a synesthetic photism experienced during acupuncture.
.The word "synesthesia" has been used for 300 years to describe very different things, from poetry and metaphor to deliberately contrived mixed-media applications such as son et lumière shows or odorama.^ When I first read about synesthesia ten years ago, I was amazed that there were other people who described their own color-word associations.

^ Black is often used as an adjective in the negative description of other words, such as the Black Death, Black Tuesday and the Black Knight.

^ Also, FWIW, I have very strong senses of smell and hearing, but poor eyesight…The months of the year each bring to mind different smells, though not shapes or colors.” .

.It is crucial to separate artists using synesthesia as an intellectual idea—pseudo-synesthetes such as Georgia O'Keeffe who used such titles as "Music-Pink and Blue"—from those who had the genuine perceptual variety, such as Wassily Kandinsky or Olivier Messiaen.^ A boon to those who can't read music.
  • Folk File: S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.folklib.net [Source type: General]

^ But that’s a forced effort used to orient myself which I suspect would qualify as pseudo-synesthesia.

^ The same might be noticed with those who often program using syntax-highlighting interfaces that, for example, color reserved words or different levels of nesting as red, blue, yellow, etc.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Synesthetic art historically refers to multi-sensory experiments in the genres of visual music, music visualization, audiovisual art, abstract film, and intermedia.^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Myself, I don’t visualize time, words, or numbers at all, and while I am (well, was) a musician, music is purely an auditory experience for me.

^ As Chion suggests, my relationship to these three pieces of music is just as spatial (that is, visual) as it is sonic—that is, I relate to them as multi-sensory spaces, or what I have identified as synaesthetic memory -packages, that suggest an architecture of fragmented, sensorally vibrant memories and experiences.
  • Beautiful Fragments of a Traumatic Memory 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sibetrans.com [Source type: General]

[14][18][63][64][65][66] .Distinct from neuroscience, the concept of synesthesia in the arts is regarded as the simultaneous perception of multiple stimuli in one gestalt experience.^ Simultaneous media experience and synesthesia.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Concept driven color experiences in digit-color synesthesia.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

[67] .Only recently can science verify and study synesthesia in artists; for deceased artists, one must interpret (auto)biographical information.^ Her unconvention al condition, synesthesia, helped make her one of the most sought-after stained-glass artists in the country.
  • synesthesia - Lulu.com 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

.Synesthetic art can refer to either art created by synesthetes or art that attempts to convey the synesthetic experience.^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

.It is an attempt to understand the relation between the experiences of born synesthetes, non-synesthetes, and an appreciation of such art by both groups.^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Perhaps that helps explain why Nabokov was able to craft such beautiful sentences; maybe he was able to construct not only a linguistic but also an aesthetic appeal to his work that we non-synesthetics can vicariously recognize and appreciate.
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^ That we should be suspicious of straightforward attempts at comparison between their experience and ours.
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.These distinctions are not mutually exclusive given that art by a synesthete might also evoke synesthesia-like experiences in the viewer.^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ It seems like grapheme-color synesthesia would make reading a very interesting experience.
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^ Karen Chenausky's web page on the MIT Synesthesia and the Synesthetic Experience web site .

.Contemporary synesthetic artists such as Carol Steen[68] and Marcia Smilack[69] have described in detail how they use their synesthesia to create their artworks.^ Intrigued by this apparent anomaly of the senses, artists, psychologists and other scientists have explored and experimented with synesthesia in order to reveal how the senses are interrelated.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ 'Ku' is a detailed exploration of texture, sound & abstracted rhythm using natural objects such as pine cones, sea shells, branches etc, etc...

^ Blunt Review , 2004, Emily Blunt's review of the movie Chroma, directed and written by Carrie Schultz, featuring synesthetes Patricia Lynne Duffy, Marcia R. Smilak and Carol J. Steen .

They demonstrate the complex interplay between personal experience and artistic creation.
Synesthesia has been a source of inspiration for artists, composers, poets, novelists, and digital artists. Nabokov writes explicitly about synesthesia in several novels. Kandinsky (a synesthete) and Mondrian (not a synesthete) both experimented with image-music correspondences in their paintings. .Scriabin composed color music that was deliberately contrived and based on the circle of fifths, whereas Messiaen invented a new method of composition (the modes of limited transposition) to specifically render his bi-directional sound-color synesthesia.^ Synesthesia: Seeing music, tasting in color .

^ Nice” color palettes sound like music.

^ The Colorful World of Synesthesia: Why some people hear colors or taste sounds .

For example, the red rocks of Bryce Canyon are depicted in his symphony Des canyons aux étoiles ("From the Canyons to the Stars"). .New art movements such as literary symbolism, non-figurative art, and visual music have profited from experiments with synesthetic perception and contributed to the public awareness of synesthetic and multi-sensory ways of perceiving.^ Perception and sensory information in synesthaetic experience.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Myself, I don’t visualize time, words, or numbers at all, and while I am (well, was) a musician, music is purely an auditory experience for me.

[14]

Literary depictions

.Synesthesia is sometimes used as a plot device or way of developing a character's inner life.^ The main character temporarily develops synesthesia and everything is drawn out.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Author and synesthete Pat Duffy describes four ways in which synesthetic characters have been used in modern fiction.
  1. Synesthesia as Romantic ideal: in which the condition illustrates the Romantic ideal of transcending one's experience of the world. Books in this category include The Gift by Vladimir Nabokov.
  2. Synesthesia as pathology: in which the trait is pathological. Books in this category include The Whole World Over by Julia Glass.
  3. Synesthesia as Romantic pathology: in which synesthesia is pathological but also provides an avenue to the Romantic ideal of transcending quotidian experience. Books in this category include Holly Payne’s, The Sound of Blue.
  4. Synesthesia as psychological health and balance: Painting Ruby Tuesday by Jane Yardley, and A Mango-Shaped Space by Wendy Mass.
.Many literary depictions of synesthesia are not accurate. Some say more about an author's interpretation of synesthesia than the phenomenon itself.^ I wanted more information about this so-called calendar synesthesia and stumbled upon Mark Jaquith’s blog , who sees the 12-month calendar in a similar way!

^ Hearing Colors, Tasting Shapes: The Puzzle of Language - Synesthesia may provide some insights about the evolution of thought and language .

^ One problem is immediately clear: some people have more than one type of synaesthesia.This confuses the influence of any particular synaesthesia on professional choice and nature of creative output.
  • Cawley, V. & Cawley, A. (2009). Synaesthesia promotes child prodigiousness and influences creativity.An examination of the evidence from case studies.. PHILICA.COM Article number 176. 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC philica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the creature describes being in a synesthetic state early in his existence even though the phenomenon was not well documented when the book was written.[70]

People with synesthesia

.Determining synesthesia from the historical record is fraught with error unless (auto)biographical sources explicitly give convincing details.^ About half of the available biographical accounts give too little information about the childhoods of these synaesthetes to determine whether or not they had been precocious.
  • Cawley, V. & Cawley, A. (2009). Synaesthesia promotes child prodigiousness and influences creativity.An examination of the evidence from case studies.. PHILICA.COM Article number 176. 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC philica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Famous synesthetes include David Hockney, who perceives music as color, shape, and configuration, and who uses these perceptions when painting opera stage sets but not while creating his other artworks.^ Musical perception and color sense: Empirical bases for instruction and therapy.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ On stage, the couple use chainsaws, exploding corpses, and other visual devices to communicate their ideas about domestic violence and civil disobedience.

^ After three years, I don't pay a whole lot of attention to the colors and shapes of other people's feelings, unless they don't match up with their words.
  • synesthesia - Lulu.com 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

[71] .Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky combined four senses: color, hearing, touch, and smell.^ Hearing Colors, Tasting Shapes: People with synesthesia--whose senses blend together--are providing valuable clues to understanding the organization and functions of the human brain .

^ The faculties of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing that enable us to perceive the world without and equip us to hallucinate the world within.
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^ "Tone--color--expression: On the synaesthetic principle in the work of Wassily Kandinsky and Arnold Schoenberg."
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Vladimir Nabokov describes his grapheme-color synesthesia at length in his autobiography, Speak, Memory and portrays it in some of his characters.^ Grapheme-color synesthesia insights gained .

^ The Colorful World of Synesthesia: Why some people hear colors or taste sounds .

^ "When visual perception causes feeling: enhanced cross-modal processing in grapheme-color synesthesia," Neuroimage , 28, 859-868.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

[72] .Composers include Duke Ellington,[73] Franz Liszt,[74] Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov,[75] and Olivier Messiaen, whose three types of complex colors are rendered explicitly in musical chord structures that he invented.^ Messiaen's synaesthesia, the correspondence between colour and sound structure in his music, Music Perception 4 (1), 41-68.
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Murray's lists of musical creators, cover the period -800 B.C to 1950 AD. There are seven known synaesthetes (Ellington, Liszt, Messiaen, Rimzy-Korsakov, Saint-Saens, Scriabin, Sibelius).
  • Cawley, V. & Cawley, A. (2009). Synaesthesia promotes child prodigiousness and influences creativity.An examination of the evidence from case studies.. PHILICA.COM Article number 176. 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC philica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Messaien's Synaesthesia: The Correspondence Between Color and Sound Structure in his Music.
  • A Bibliography of Synesthesia and Phonesthesia Research - Golan Levin and Collaborators 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.flong.com [Source type: Academic]

[3][76] .Physicist Richard Feynman describes his colored equations in his autobiography, What Do You Care What Other People Think?[77] Other notable synesthetes include musicians Ida Maria,[78] John Mayer, and Patrick Stump; actress Stephanie Carswell; electronic musician Richard D. James aka Aphex Twin (who claims to be inspired by lucid dreams as well as music)[citation needed]; and classical pianist Hélène Grimaud.^ You simply cannot see like other people.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An electronic filter described by a transfer function having quadratic equations in the numerator and denominator.
  • Pro Audio Reference S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When you can taste the music this is why you can: A STUDY has examined a strange sensory condition which causes people to taste music or see colours in words .

.Although it has not been verified, Pharrell Williams of the hip-hop Neptunes and N.E.R.D. claims to experience synesthesia,[79] and to have used it as the basis of the album Seeing Sounds.^ His first near-death experience, a lightning strike, left him with a photographic memory while his second, drowning, induced synesthesia, so he smells and feels colors, sees sounds, and tastes the thoughts and feelings of others.
  • synesthesia - Lulu.com 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ While I'm don't experience synesthasia on a day-to-day basis, I have experienced it temporarily through the use of psychedelic drugs.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mia has synesthesia, the mingling of perceptions whereby a person sees sounds or tastes shapes.
  • synesthesia - Lulu.com 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

Some artists frequently mentioned as synesthetes did not in fact have the condition. .Alexander Scriabin's 1911 Prometheus, for example, is a deliberate contrivance whose color choices are based on the circle of fifths and appear to have been taken from Madame Blavatsky.^ Alexander Scriabin's Color Hearing.
  • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Alexander Scriabin's Color Hearing, Music Perception.
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ "Alexander Scriabin's Color Hearing", Music Perception, vol.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

[3][80] .The musical score has a separate staff marked luce whose "notes" are played on a color organ.^ In music notation, the curved line over a group of notes to indicate that they are to be played smoothly.
  • Folk File: S 11 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.folklib.net [Source type: General]

^ An Organ on which Color Compositions are Played.
  • A Bibliography of Synesthesia and Phonesthesia Research - Golan Levin and Collaborators 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.flong.com [Source type: Academic]

Technical reviews appear in period volumes of Scientific American.[3]
.French poets Arthur Rimbaud and Charles Baudelaire wrote of synesthetic experience but there is no evidence they were synesthetes themselves.^ Especially things like what I highlight below: Subjective reports and experimental evidence show that there is no imagination involved in the experiences of synaesthetes; they literally see letters or whole words as colours These statements about "literally seeing" have to be treated much more carefully.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subjective reports and experimental evidence show that there is no imagination involved in the experiences of synaesthetes; they literally see letters or whole words as colours, or hear a symphony when someone familiar walks into the room.
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Baudelaire's 1857 Correspondances (text available here) introduced the notion that the senses can and should intermingle. .Baudelaire participated in a hashish experiment by psychiatrist Jacques-Joseph Moreau, and became interested in how the senses might correspond.^ See, hear: When senses combine: People who experience unusual sensory combinations might provide new insights into how our minds work .

^ An interesting psychological experiment carried out at the University of California, San Diego, used synaesthesia as a technique in itself to explore how we recognise graphemes.
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Rimbaud later wrote Voyelles (1871) (text available here), which was perhaps more important than Correspondances in popularizing synesthesia, although he later boasted "J'inventais la couleur des voyelles!" [I invented the colors of the vowels!].^ El color de las palabras .

^ Arthur Rimbaud: Voyelles Synesthesia and artistic experimentation (Crtien van Campen) Synesthesia + psychedelic drugs .
  • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When blue is larger than red: colors influence numerical cognition in synesthesia.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

.Sean Day, synesthete and the President of the American Synesthesia Association, maintains a list of famous synesthetes, pseudosynesthetes, and non-synesthetes who used synesthesia in their art or music.^ Famous Americans, an alphabetical list.
  • Cawley, V. & Cawley, A. (2009). Synaesthesia promotes child prodigiousness and influences creativity.An examination of the evidence from case studies.. PHILICA.COM Article number 176. 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC philica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience.
  • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Baron-Cohen's test was simple: he recorded subjects' grapheme-colour associations, and then tested them using the same lists several months or years later [9].
  • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Cytowic, Richard E. (2002). Synesthesia: A Union of the Senses (2nd edition). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-03296-1. OCLC 49395033. 
  2. ^ a b Cytowic, Richard E. (2003). The Man Who Tasted Shapes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-53255-7. OCLC 53186027. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Cytowic, Richard E; Eagelman, David M (2009). Wednesday is Indigo Blue: Discovering the Brain of Synesthesia (with an afterword by Dmitri Nabokov). Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 309. ISBN 0-262-01279-9. 
  4. ^ a b Harrison, John E.; Simon Baron-Cohen (1996). Synaesthesia: classic and contemporary readings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-19764-8. OCLC 59664610. 
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Further reading

.
  • Baron-Cohen, S. and Harrison, J. (Eds., 1997).^ In: Baron-Cohen, Harrison (eds.
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Harrison , John E., Baron-Cohen, Simon.
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In S. Baron-Cohen and J. Harrison (eds.
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    .Synaesthesia: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.^ Synaesthesia: Classic and Contemporary Readings; Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford, Blackwell Publishers, Inc.
    • Synaesthesia - union of the senses || kuro5hin.org 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Synaesthesia: Classic and contemporary reading .
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-631-19764-8.
  • Bosch, P. (2007) The Name of This Book is Secret Little, Brown Young Readers. .ISBN 978-0-31-611366-3.
  • Campen, Cretien van.^ Campen, Cretien van (2007) The Hidden Sense: Synesthesia in Art and Science .
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Campen, Cretien van.
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    .(2007) The Hidden Sense.^ Campen, Cretien van (2007) The Hidden Sense: Synesthesia in Art and Science .
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    .Synesthesia in Art and Science.
    Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Leonardo Books.^ Bibliography: Synesthesia in Art and Science .
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, Massachusetts, London (MIT Press).
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Synesthesia in Art and Science.
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0-262-22081-4
  • Cytowic, R.E. (2003)The Man Who Tasted Shapes. Cambridge: MIT Press ISBN 978-0-26-253456-6.
  • Cytowic, R.E. (2002) Synesthesia: A Union of The Senses, second edition. Cambridge: MIT Press ISBN 978-0-26-2032964.
  • Cytowic, R.E. & Eagleman, D.M. (2009) Wednesday is Indigo Blue: Discovering the Brain of Synesthesia, with an afterword by Dmitri Nabokov.^ Synestheasia: II. Psychological relations in the synesthesia of geometrically shaped taste and colored hearing Brain and cognition 1, 36-49.
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Luciano da F. Costa) The Health Report - Synesthesia (Robin Hughes) CNN: Ever taste a shape, or smell a color?
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Why Miles Davis saw the blues: Auras exist, but inside our brains because of a mix-up between the different senses .

    .Cambridge: MIT Press ISBN 978-0-26-201279-9.
  • Dann, K. (1998).^ Cambridge, Massachusetts, London (MIT Press).
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • A Bibliography of Synesthesia and Phonesthesia Research - Golan Levin and Collaborators 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.flong.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London: MIT Press.
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    .Bright Colors Falsely Seen. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.^ Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    • A Bibliography of Synesthesia and Phonesthesia Research - Golan Levin and Collaborators 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.flong.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Dann, Kevin T. Bright Colors Falsely Seen.
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    • A Bibliography of Synesthesia and Phonesthesia Research - Golan Levin and Collaborators 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.flong.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-300-06619-8.
  • Duffy, P. L. (2001). .Blue Cats and Chartreuse Kittens: How Synesthetes Color their Worlds. New York: Henry Holt & Company.^ Duffy, Patricia L. (2001) Blue cats and chartreuse kittens.
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Farbenhören: Wie man Synästhetiker unter seinen SchülerInnen erkennt" (Hearing Colors: How to Recognize Synesthetes Among Students).
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Blue Cats and Chartreuse Kittens : How Synesthetes Color Their World.
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-7167-4088-5.
  • Harrison, J. (2001). .Synaesthesia: The Strangest Thing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.^ New York (Oxford University Press).
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford (Oxford University Press).
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Synaesthesia: The Strangest Thing Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-19-263245-0.
  • Jay, C. (2009) Breathing in Colour. Little, Brown. .ISBN 978-0-74-992978-7.
  • Robertson, L. and Sagiv, N. (Eds., 2005).^ Cohen, K. R., Sagiv, N., Linden, D. E., Robertson, L. C., Elinger, G., & Henik, A. (2005).
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    .Synesthesia: Perspectives from Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.^ New York (Oxford University Press).
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Boston University, Vision and Cognition Laboratory, Synesthesia Project, December 2003, by Veronica Gross .

    ^ Oxford (Oxford University Press).
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0-19-516623-X.
  • Rowedder, Anna K. (2009).^ Rowedder , Anna K. 2009.
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    Für Dich - For You - Pour Toi. Luxembourg: Synaisthesis. .ISBN 978-99959-622-1-0.
  • Sinha, Jasmin (ed.^ ISBN 978-99959-622-6-5 Smets , G., Overbeeke, C. 1989.
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ISBN 978-99959-622-1-0 Ryalls , J. H. 1989.
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ). 2009. Synästhesie der Gefühle (Emotional Synaesthesia). Luxembourg: Synaisthesis. .ISBN 978-99959-622-6-5.
  • Tammet, D. (2006) Born on a Blue Day: A Memoir of Aspergers and an Extraordinary Mind. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.^ ISBN 978-99959-622-6-5 Smets , G., Overbeeke, C. 1989.
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Born on a Blue Day.
    • Synesthesia links and references 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ISBN 978-99959-622-1-0 Ryalls , J. H. 1989.
    • Synästhesie-Links und -Literatur 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sensequence.de [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 978-0-34-089974-8.
  • Mass, W. (2003) A Mango-Shaped Space. Little, Brown and Company.^ Mass, Wendy (2005) A Mango-Shaped Space.
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Little, Brown and Company.
    • Leonardo Bibliographies: Synesthesia in Art and Science 18 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leonardo.info [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0-316-52388-7
  • Ward, J. (2008) The Frog who croaked Blue: Synesthesia and the Mixing of the Senses. Routledge.^ Synesthesia - the mixing of the senses .

    ^ Why Miles Davis saw the blues: Auras exist, but inside our brains because of a mix-up between the different senses .

    ^ Mixing of the senses in the blind: a case study of 6 late-blind individuals who can hear or feel colors .

    ISBN 978-0-415-43014-2.

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Simple English

Enhanced Synesthesia (also Synaesthesia) is what happens when the brain mixes up the senses. For example, synesthesia might cause someone to hear colors or see sounds. Most people with synesthesia are born with it, but it can also happen to people who take drugs such as LSD.

Description of experience

People with synesthesia experience things such as: Tasting, hearing, smelling, or feeling colors. Perhaps Tasting, smelling, feeling or seeing sound. They could also see smells, or taste a certain texture. One may also have the ability to see ordinary numbers and letters in other colors than what they are written in. 1 may be purple, while 2 may be blue. It does not seem odd to them that they have synesthesia. It's something that's always been there. Most synesthestes (the term for those who have this experience) do not know it is odd until they express the feelings that they have to someone else. Synesthesia can be a cross between any of the five senses as well as emotions. Synesthesia is most common among left-handed girls and women. Many people with synesthesia are musically inclined as well as artistic. Synesthesia is not an illness or disability. It is more like a gift. Synesthestes may describe the following to you. "That tasted green", "Purple sounds bad", "The number 2 is always red." or "That smelled like B minor"

Some musicians and composers have a form of synesthesia that allows them to hear music as colors. Mozart is said to have had this form of synesthesia. He said that the key of D Major had a warm "orangey" sound to it, while B flat minor was blackish. A major was a rainbow of colors to him. This may explain why he wrote some of his music using different colors for different music notes. Also, why much of his music is in more major keys.

Another composer who had color-hearing was the Russian composer Alexander Scriabin. In 1907 he talked with another famous composer, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who had synesthesia,[1] and they both found that some musical notes made them think of certain colours. Scriabin worked with a man called Alexander Mozer who made a color organ.

References

  1. This is according to an article in the Russian press, Yastrebtsev V. "On N.A.Rimsky-Korsakov's color sound- contemplation." Russkaya muzykalnaya gazeta, 1908, N 39-40, p. 842-845 (in Russian), cited by Bulat Galeyev (1999).

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Synesthesia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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