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This is a Korean name; the family name is Rhee.
Seungman Rhee
이승만
李承晩

Syng Man Rhee in 1951

In office
September 11, 1919 – March 21, 1925
Prime Minister Yi Donghwi
Yi Dongnyeong
Sin Gyu-sik
No Baek-rin
Park Eunsik
Preceded by Yi Dongnyeong (the 2nd Prime Minister of Provisional Government)
Succeeded by Park Eunsik

In office
July 24, 1948 – April 26, 1960
Vice President Yi Si-yeong
Kim Seong-su
Hahm Tae-Yong
Chang Myon
Preceded by Kim Gu (the last President of the Provisional Government),
John Reed Hodge (military governor)
Succeeded by Yun Po-sun

Born April 26, 1875(1875-04-26)
Haeju, Hwanghae, Korea
Died July 19, 1965 (aged 90)
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
Nationality Korean
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) Francesca Donner
Religion Methodism[1]
Signature
Korean name
Hangul 이승만 or 리승만
Hanja 李承晩
Revised Romanization I Seungman or Ri Seungman
McCune–Reischauer Yi Sŭngman
Pen name
Hangul 우남
Hanja 雩南
Revised Romanization Unam
McCune–Reischauer Unam
Syngman Rhee awarding a medal to U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Ralph A. Ofstie during the Korean War in 1952

Syngman Rhee or Yi Seungman (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965; Korean pronunciation: [i sɯŋman]) was the first president of South Korea. His presidency, from August 1948 to April 1960, remains controversial, affected by Cold War tensions on the Korean peninsula and elsewhere. Rhee was regarded as an anti-Communist and a strongman, and led South Korea through the Korean War. His presidency ended in resignation following popular protests against a disputed election. He died in exile in Hawaii.

Contents

Early life

Syngman Rhee was born in Hwanghae Province to Yi Gyeong-seon, a royal aristocrat. By birth, Rhee was a member of a royal cadet branch of the House of Yi, the House of Grand Prince Royal Yangnyeong.[2][3][4] He attended Pai Chai Hak Dang, but he soon became active in Korea's struggle against Japanese hegemony. He was arrested in 1897 for demonstrating against the Japanese monarchy, being subsequently released in 1904 and going to the United States. He obtained several degrees (including an B.A. from George Washington University, Harvard University, and a Ph.D. from Princeton University) and became so Westernized that he began writing his name in the Western manner, with the personal name preceding the family name.

In 1910, he returned to Korea, which had by this time been annexed by Japan. His political activism attracted unwelcome attention from the occupying army. In 1919, all of the major pro-independence factions formed the Provisional Government in Shanghai. Rhee was elected the president, a post he held for six years, until 1925 when he was impeached by the Provisional Assembly for misuse of his authority.

Presidency

After Japanese rule ended in Korea, Rhee returned to Seoul before the other independence leaders, since he was the only one well known to the Allies. In 1945, he was appointed head of the Korean government with strong backing by the United States. With the tacit consent of the occupation authorities, Rhee conducted a campaign to "remove Communism" that was actually a veiled drive to remove all potential opposition.

Rhee won a seat at the First Assembly of South Korea on 10 May 1948 by a parliamentary vote after left-wing parties boycotted the election. After being elected as the Speaker of the Constituent Assembly on May 31, Rhee was elected the first president of South Korea defeating Kim Gu, the last president of the Provisional Government by a count of 182-13 on 20 July 1948. It should be noted that Kim Gu was not aware of his nomination for presidency; the nomination was likely an attempt to discredit him as a nationalist. On 15 August 1948, he formally took over power from the US military and de jure sovereignty of Korean people from the Provisional Government.

As president, Rhee assumed dictatorial powers even before the Korean War broke out in 1950. He allowed the internal security force (headed by his right-hand man, Kim Chang-ryong) to detain and torture suspected Communists and North Korean agents. His government also oversaw several massacres, the most notable one being on Jeju island in which over 30,000 where killed in response to an uprising by leftist factions. South Korea's Truth and Reconciliation Commission has estimated that the number of deaths attributed to these killings is at least 100,000 and perhaps upwards of 200,000.

Rhee further damaged his reputation by encouraging the citizens of Seoul, the nation's capital, to remain in the city while he himself was already on his way to refuge as war broke out. His decision to cut the bridges on the Han River prevented thousands of citizens from escaping Communist rule. When UN and South Korean forces fought back and drove the North Koreans north towards the Yalu River (only to retreat to a line around the current DMZ because of Chinese counterattack), Rhee became unpopular with his allies for refusing to agree to a number of ceasefire proposals that would have left Korea divided. Hoping to become the leader of a united Korea, with U.N. assistance, he tried to veto any peace plan that failed to eliminate the northern government completely. He also argued for stronger methods to be used against China and often expressed annoyance at the reluctance of the U.S. to bomb it.

While the nation was still at war, Rhee was reelected president in 1952. When the opposition-dominated National Assembly tried to amend the Constitution to institute a parliamentary system, Rhee countered with a bid of his own to transfer election of the president to the people. The amendment only passed when he jailed several opposition deputies before the vote. Shortly after his party regained control of the legislature in 1954, Rhee was able to pass an amendment exempting the incumbent president--himself--from the two-term limit.

Following the Korean War and for the remainder of his rule, he kept imprisoned the Dowager Queen Yun Empress Sunjeong of the Korean Empire in Suin Hall, a cottage in Jeongneung, Seoul for fear of the respect the people held for her, and he attempted to claim he was related to the royal Yi family.

Resignation and escape

In 1960, Rhee assured his fourth term in office as President with a resounding 90% of the vote. The landslide victory came after the main opposition candidate, Cho Byeong-ok, died shortly before the March 15 elections.

Nevertheless Rhee was determined to see his protégé Lee Gibung elected as the independent Vice President - a separate office under Korean law at that time. But when Lee, who was running against Chang Myon, former ambassador to the United States during the Korean War, won the vote with an abnormally wide margin the opposition claimed the election was rigged. This triggered anger among segments of the Korean populace. When police shot demonstrators in Masan, the student-led April 19 Movement forced Rhee to resign on April 26.

On April 28, a DC-4 belonging to the United States Central Intelligence Agency - operated by Civil Air Transport - whisked Rhee out of South Korea as protestors converged on the Blue House.

It was later revealed by Kim Yong Kap, Deputy Minister of Finance, that Rhee had embezzled more than $20 million in government funds.

The former president, his Austrian-born wife, Franziska Donner, and adopted son then lived in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii.

On July 19, 1965, Rhee died of a stroke. His body was returned to Seoul and buried in the Seoul National Cemetery on July 27 that same year.

Legacy

Rhee on a 1959 issued 100 hwan coin

Rhee's legacy has been in considerable dispute. In general, some conservative circles regard Rhee as the patriarch of the nation, while liberals tend to be critical of him.

Rhee's former residence in Seoul, Ihwajang, is currently used for the presidential memorial museum, and Woo-Nam Presidential Preservation Foundation has been set up to honour his legacy.

See also

References

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Establishment of the Republic

(Emperor Sunjong)

Presidents of Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
1919-1925
Succeeded by
Park Eunsik
Preceded by
Kim Kyu-sik
Chairmen of the Interim Legislative Assembly
1948
Succeeded by
Dissolved
(Speaker of the Constituent Assembly)
Preceded by
New Creation
(Chairmen of the Interim Legislative Assembly)
Speaker of the National Constituent Assembly
1948
Succeeded by
Shin Ik-hee
Preceded by
Kim Gu
(President of the Provisional Government)
President of South Korea
1948-1960
Succeeded by
Yun Boseon
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