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Szeged
Votive Church

Coat of arms
Szeged is located in Hungary
Szeged
Location of Szeged
Coordinates: 46°15′18″N 20°08′42″E / 46.255°N 20.145°E / 46.255; 20.145
Country  Hungary
County Csongrád
Government
 - Mayor Dr. László Botka
Area
 - Total 280.84 km2 (108.4 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 - Total 169,030
 - Density 594.8/km2 (1,540.5/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) 62
Website http://www.szegedvaros.hu/

Szeged (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈsɛɡɛd]  ( listen); see also alternative names) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, the regional centre of South-Eastern Hungary and the capital of the county of Csongrád.

Contents

Name

The name Szeged might come from an old Hungarian word for corner (szeg) because of the turn of the river Tisza there. Others say it derives from the Hungarian word sziget which means "island". Others still contend that szeg means "dark blond" (sötétszőkés) - a reference to the colour of the water where the rivers Tisza and Maros merge.[1]

The city has its own name in a number of foreign languages: in Bulgarian, Сегед; Croatian, Segedin; German, Szegedin / Segedin; Italian, Seghedino; Latin, Partiscum; Polish, Segedyn; Romanian, Seghedin; Serbian, Сегедин (Segedin); Slovak, Segedín; Turkish, Segedin.

History

Szeged and its area have been inhabited since ancient times. Ptolemy mentions the oldest known name of the city: Partiscum. It is possible that Attila, king of the Huns had his seat somewhere in this area. The name Szeged was first mentioned in 1183, in a document of King Béla III.

During the Mongol invasion the town was destroyed and its inhabitants fled to the nearby swamps, but they soon returned and rebuilt their town. In the 14th century, during the reign of Louis the Great, Szeged became the most important town of Southern Hungary, and – as the Turkish armies got closer to Hungary – the strategic importance of Szeged grew. King Sigismund of Luxembourg had a wall built around the town. Szeged was raised to free royal town status in 1498.

"Happy Guietude Times"

Szeged was first pillaged by the Turkish army on 28 September 1526, but was occupied only in 1543, and became an administrative centre of the Ottomans (see Ottoman Hungary). She was a sanjak centre at first in Budin Eyaleti (1543-1596), after in Eğri Eyaleti. The town was freed from Turkish rule on 23 October 1686, and regained the free royal town status in 1715. In 1719 Szeged got its coat of arms (still used today) from Charles III. During the next years Szeged grew and prospered. Piarist monks arrived to Szeged in 1719 and opened a new grammar school in 1721. They also held scientific lectures and theatrical plays. However, these years brought not only prosperity and enlightenment; between 1728 and 1744 witch trials were frequent in the town; in 1728-29, the perhaps largest Hungarian witch trial was held here. In 1720, the population of the city totalled 193 households, of which 99 were Serbian.

Klauzál Square

Szeged is known as the home of paprika, a spice made from dried, powdered capsicum vegetables. Paprika arrived in Hungary in the second half of the 16th century as an ornamental plant. About 100 years later the plant was cultivated as a herb, and paprika as we know it was born.[2] Szeged is famous for Szekelygulyas, a goulash made with pork, sauerkraut and sour cream.[3]

The citizens of Szeged played an important part in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Lajos Kossuth delivered his famous speech here. Szeged was the last seat of the revolutionary government in July 1849. The Habsburg rulers punished the leaders of the town, but later Szeged began to prosper again, the railway reached it in 1854, and the town got its free royal town status back in 1860. Mark Pick's shop – the predecessor of today's world famous Pick Salami Factory – was opened in 1869.

Today the inner city of Szeged has beautiful buildings and wide avenues. This is mainly due to the great flood of 1879, which literally wiped away the whole town (only 265 of the 5723 houses remained and 165 people died). Emperor Franz Joseph visited the town and promised that "Szeged will be more beautiful than it used to be". He kept his promise. During the next years a new, modern city emerged from the ruins, with palaces and wide streets.

Reök Palace

After the first World War Hungary lost its southern territories to Romania and Serbia, thus Szeged became a city close to the border, and its importance lessened, but as it took over roles that formerly belonged to the now lost cities, it slowly recovered. The University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) moved to Szeged in 1921 (see University of Szeged). In 1923 Szeged took over the role of episcopal seat from Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania). It was briefly occupied by Romanian army during Hungarian-Romanian War in 1919.

Szeged suffered a lot during the World War II, 6,000 inhabitants of the city were killed, the Jewish citizens were confined to ghettos, then taken to death camps, and the Soviet army occupied the city in 1944. During the Communist era Szeged became a centre of light industry and food industry. In 1965 oil was found near the city; the area now satisfies 67% of the country's oil demand.

In 1962 Szeged became the county seat of Csongrád. Whole new districts were built, and lots of nearby villages (e.g. Tápé, Szőreg, Kiskundorozsma, Szentmihálytelek, Gyálarét) were annexed to the city in 1973 (as was a tendency during the Communist era).

Today's Szeged is an important university town and a popular tourist attraction.

The famous Open Air Plays of Szeged (first held in 1931) are one of the main attractions; they are held every summer.

Education

The University of Szeged
Dóm Square

The city of Szeged has 62 kindergartens, 32 elementary schools, 18 high schools and a university, which were established by the unification of the past existing higher education centres. The two most prominent high schools (Ságvári Endre Gyakorló Gimnázium and Radnóti Miklós Kísérleti Gimnázium) are among the fifteen best in the country. Szeged is the higher education centre of southern Hungary and has built quite a reputation for itself. Thousands of students study here, many of whom are foreign students from all around the world. The Centre for Biological Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which was built with the help of UNESCO funds, has also been a considerable source of advanced research. Scientists at this laboratory were first in the world to produce artificial heredity material in the year 2000. The building has served as a home to many well known conferences and continues to make contributions to the world of science. The University of Szeged was ranked as the best university of the country on Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2005, and one of the best 100 of Europe.

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1870 56,901
1880 59,143 3.9%
1890 68,924 16.5%
1900 82,803 20.1%
1910 96,063 16.0%
1920 100,175 4.3%
1930 108,448 8.3%
1941 110,740 2.1%
1949 104,867 −5.3%
1960 117,515 12.1%
1970 145,312 23.7%
1980 164,437 13.2%
1990 169,930 3.3%
2001 165,588 −2.6%
2004 162,586 −1.8%
2009 169,030 4.0%

Ethnic groups (2001 census):

Religions (2001 census):

Economy

Szeged is one of the centres of the food industry in Hungary, especially known for its paprika,[2] Szekelygulyas,[3] Szegedi Halászlé and Pick salami.

Main sights

City centre, Dóm tér ("Cathedral Square")
with the Votive Church
Hungary-szeged-szabadteri.jpg Church of Grey Friars (Gothic, 15th century) Szeged11.jpg
The Water Tower SSA42225.JPG Dömötör Tower (13th century) Szeged-domotor.jpg
Ferenc Móra Museum Móra Ferenc Múzeum-Szeged.JPG Reök Palace Szeged REÖK Palota facade 2.jpg
Szeged Synagogue Szeged New Syna.jpg Szeged City Hall Szeged-varoshaza-01.jpg
National Theatre of Szeged Szeged002.jpg Gróf-palace (1913) Raichle03KJ.jpg
Minorite Church Szeged(hungary)100.jpg Fekete Haz "Black House", Museum of Currency Szeged17.jpg

Geographic location

Szeged and the Tisza river.

Szeged is situated near the southern border of Hungary, just to the south of the mouth of the Maros River, on both banks of the Tisza River. Due to the high number of sunshine hours annually, Szeged is often called City of Sunshine.

Famous people born in Szeged

A memorial of the Golden Team, the legendary football team of Hungary

Famous people who lived in Szeged

Gallery

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Szeged is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ On etymology
  2. ^ a b Paprika
  3. ^ a b Szeged Gulyas Recipe
  4. ^ Town Twinnings and international relations (from the official city website. Accessed 2008-08-11.)

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Szeged - the city of sunshine is a town in southern Hungary.

Dóm square
Dóm square

Located in Central Europe, Szeged is the fourth biggest city in Hungary, lies on Hungary's south-eastern border, just south of the mouth of the Maros river on both banks of the river Tisza. It is about 171 km South of Budapest on the M5 highway. It is the lowest elevation city in the country and is known as the "City of Sunshine", because it has the highest number of sunny days throughout the year.

Szeged is the main city in Csongrád county and serves as a commercial and cultural center of the region.

Demographics

According to the 2002 data, the city's population was 163,699. 93.5% Hungarian, 0.7% Gypsy, 0.6% German, 0.5% Serb, 0.2% Romanian, 0.2% Slovak, 0.1% Croatian and 5.9% other.

Get in

By car

If you are flying to Hungary, you will most likely be arriving to the Ferihegy International Airport in Budapest and you will want to take the M5 highway South to Szeged. The M5 highway has just been completed (end of 2005) to reach Szeged, and it will take from about an hour and half to two hours to drive from the airport.
You will need to get a get a sticker for your car in order to drive on the highway, which you can buy at any gas station (ask for "matrica").

By train

It takes about 2 hours to travel by train from Budapest Nyugati to Szeged. These trains also stop at Kőbánya-Kispest, which is easily accessible from Ferihegy Airport, meaning it isn't necessary to travel into the centre of Budapest.

Get around

Szeged lies on the banks of Tisza river. The western side is generally referred to as "Szeged", while the newer eastern side is called "Új-szeged" ("New Szeged").

There are further parts of the city, which you can think of as districts (although they do not work as districts): Belváros (the center of the city, downtown), Alsóváros, Móraváros, Rókus, Újrókus, Fölsőváros, Tarján, Fodor-kert, Petőfi-telep, Makkosház, Baktó, Tápé, Újszeged, Odessza, Marostői kiskertek, Klebelsberg telep, Kecskés István telep, Iparváros, Béke-telep, Baktó.

Public transportation

For the size of the city, Szeged has a really good public transportation network. Within the city you can get around by cabs (taxi), trams (villamos), trolley buses (trolibusz) or autobus (autóbusz). If you wish to use these types of public transportation, you will need to find out about their routes, stops and schedules. During the work week, in the busy hours, within the city, most public transportation vehicles will leave every 10-15 minutes.

Schedules

  • Schedule of buses within Szeged: [1]
  • Schedule of buses leaving and arriving to Szeged: [2]
  • Schedule of trolley buses and trams: [3]

Tickets

Ther's no difference in the tickets for the different types of transportation methods. You can usually purchase tickets from the driver, for which you will always have to get on the vehicle using the frontmost door. You can also purchase weekly and monthly passes as well as single-trip tickets from various kiosks and newspaper stands throughout the city. These passes will be valid for all 3 types of public transportation,so you can travel by trams, trolley buses and buses as well. There are also discounts offered to students and seniors.

  • Local bus ticket and pass prices: [4]

Taxi

There are a few taxi services in the city. You can call and "order" one to your location. The drivers may not speak English, but should be able to get you where you want to go. Trips usually cost somewhere between 1-2000 Forints within the city.

  • Szeged Taxi: (62) 333-333
  • Tele-4 Taxi: (62) 444-444
  • Gábriel Taxi: (62) 555-555
  • Kárász street - main street, downtown
  • Tisza river
  • Dóm square, and the Votive church

Do

Open-Air Theater

The Open-Air Theater [5] is a major even in Szeged in every year. The Dóm square is transformed into a large outdoors theater and people from all over the contry come here to see the plays. They usually have a good selection of operas and musicals. Sometimes tickets can be difficult to get, because they tend to sell out fast to popular shows. Tips: Tickets are not very cheap. But if you are on a limited budget, you can purchase tickets for a lower price and after the show has started you can move to a better (empty) seats.

Festivals

There are several events taking place in Szeged during the summer. The best way to find out about their times is from the free local magazine (called "Szegedi Est") that you can find in most restaurants, bars, clubs and cinemas.

  • Wine Festival
  • Beer Festival
  • Days of Szeged

Movies, theaters

Theaters

There are two main theaters in Szeged [6]. One the main one is located close to the museum, near to the bridge in downtown. The smaller theater is also near-by, located a just few blocks from there.

Movies

  • Belvárosi Mozi [7]: a traditional, old, large movie theater. It has recently been upgraded and now also offers 3D movies. It is located near the museum, next to the main theater.
  • Cinemacity [8]: located in the Szeged Pláza [9] shopping mall.

Clubs

Szeged is a University town and it has a very active night life throughout the school year. The high school and college crowd gets mixed up at most places, although some clubs try to target specific age groups with their events.

Most places have entrance fees, but offer discounts if you have a student ID. Regular fees are around 500-1000 Forints depending on the day of the week, the place and the event.

Parties are advertised to start early at night, but the crowd doesn't start to gather really until about midnight or 1AM (!!!) and usually party until the morning. This is true even on weekdays (for example Wednesday is a very big party night). Many times people meet at local pubs for a drink and talks before hitting these places.

  1. GinTonic [10] - This is a club in the basement of the older Tisza Hotel in downtown Szeged. It has dance nights every Friday. It is in the same block as Retro, but on the other side of the building. This is a highly popular party place among foreign students who study in the city. They usually play the latest popular dance songs. The entrance fee is about 800 Forints.
  2. JATE Klub [11] - This is one of the popular university clubs that is open during the day as well as at night. There is a large bar section and several dance floors with different types of music. Concerts and other cultural events are also common here. If the evening appears to be slow, the crowd might go over to the SZOTE Klub (which is true vice-versa). The high school and college crowd blends really well in this place. They play all types of music from alternative through the latest popular dance songs to older hungarian favorites. Sometimes they collect entrance fees, but you can get in without a fee if you get there earlier.
  3. Retro [12] - this is a newer coffee house, that turns into a dance club at night. Dance nights are held on Fridays and Saturdays. The place mostly attracts graduates, late 20s and above. They like to play songs from the 80s, 90s and of course today's hits. Entrance fee is around 1000 Forints.
  4. Sing-Sing [13] - this is one of the largest dance clubs in Southern Hungary. It is located right next to Szeged's main bus station and farmer's market. This club usually attracts the younger high-school crowd (their average age is probably around 20). It is well known for its semi-monhtly nude (both male and female) dance shows, concerts with invited guests and teen parties. They usually play the latest dance hits.
  5. SZOTE Klub [14] - It is the same type of university club as JATE located by the Votive church, on the opposite side from the main library. The main party nights are: Wednesday, Friday and Saturday. Majority of people partying here are in their 20s. Don't expect many people showing up before 1-1:30AM! They play the latest dance hits, with a mix of the 80s and 90s. Entrance fee is 700 Forints, but they have student discounts as well.

If you would like to get a sense of some of the parties, you can visit PartyPont.hu [15], which posts images of some of the parties in town.

Baths, pools

Like some other Hungarian towns, Szeged also has thermal baths. The two best known are:

  1. Anna fürdő [16] - it has just been renovated and offers an amazing experience, located downtown of the city. The bath has two sections, which offer various natural, thermal water based pools, spas, saunas.
    The younger (mainly 20-30s) crowd enjoys visiting the bath's Night Swimming events every Monday, Wednesday, Friday night between 9-12PM. The entry fees are half-priced for these events (currenlty about 900 Forints, or about 4-5 Euros).
  2. Thermálfürdő [17] - is an older, indoor thermal bath located at the swimming pool complex on the Újszeged side of the city.
  • Gentleman's Club - there is one gentleman's club in town called Zsiráf. It is on Furj Str. near the Greek restaurant.

Learn

Szeged is a very active city, partially because of its educational base. The University of Szeged [18] offers wide range of programs including Agricultural studies [19], Food Engineering, Arts, Economics and Business Administration, Health Sciences, Law, Medicine, Music, Pharmacy, Life Sciences and Education. Throughout the year students from all around Hungary and around the World come here to study.

The city also has a wide range of high school programs, most of which are highly specialized in areas such as humanities, sciences and engineering and more.

Buy

Szeged has two big-sized supermarkets, Tesco and Cora. Both are easy to reach. Cora has its own bus line,Tesco (Rókusi blvd.) can be reached by Line 2 and the other Tesco,in Móraváros can be reached by line 4. In addition, there are many regular supermarkets, such as Plus, Lidl and others, throughout the city. Most of them belong to German supermarket chains. Buying everyday products (especially groceries) could be cheaper than in other European countries like France, Italy or Germany. Most electronic equipment like iPods and computers are, however, considerably more costly here.

Eat

Szeged is famous for its local, traditional food.

The most famous of all is probably the Fisherman's soup (Halászlé), which is made from various freshwater fish using lots of paprika (this is not necessarily spicy, but you can definitely order it that way).

Szeged is also known for its good quality sausage and salami. Pick is Szeged's own brand, which is also exported to various countries around the world. Make sure that you try the famous "Pick salami". You can buy these products at most local grocery stores and smaller, family owned 24/7 stores.

If you are looking for international food, just check the local grocery stores. You shouldn't have too much problem finding anything from around the World. Even Americans can find their favorite Cream Cheese and Peanut Butter/Jelly if they look around...

Restaurants

The quality of the food varies by restaurants, but is good in general. Meats and cheese can be found at most places, and they are often breaded and fried. If you go to a standard restaurant, the portions will be generous and more than enough to feed an adult. There are a few restaurants (Gőry [20]), which serve extra large portions of food, which are almost impossible to eat all at once.

In the downtown (Tisza Lajos krt. 76.) there is also a vegetarian restaurant [21] serving traditional Indian and Hungarian dishes as well.

Fast Food

There are lots of fast food places in the city. The most popular ones are local pizza restaurants, which are all around town. Some of them, which are open until the morning hours, are popular gathering places for the late night crowd. Of course, the international fast food chains are also present (Burger King, McDonald's, etc.), they are popular mostly among younger people. Compared to the local fast food places, these chains offer smaller portions for higher prices.

  • Burger King - at the Nagyaruhaz mall in the center of town.
  • McDonald's - on the main walking street, Kárász street and in the Rókusi boulevard.
  • Subway - ain't got no subway no more. they got some nasty sandwich shop where subway used to be. and the pictures for the sandwiches arent like the old subway glamour shots. these pictures make you want to THROW UP.

Traditional Szeged-style fish restaurants

The traditional fisherman's restaurants are a great choice for visitors. Locals also visit these on a regular basis because of their excellent fish soup and wide selection of good other food. There are three main fishmerman's restaurants in town.

  1. Roosevelt Téri Halászcsárda [22] is close to downtown, right across from the Móra Ferenc Museum by the bridgehead of the "old bridge";
  2. Kiskörössy Halászcsárda [23] is in the northeastern part of Szeged, on the bank of the Tisza River. This is an excellent choice in the warmer months, because you can enjoy your meal next to the river and quite often they will also have musicians perform traditional Hungarian folkmusic or Gypsy music for the guests. You'd probably want to catch a cab to get to this restaurant, and then use another cab to get back to your hotel.
  3. Fehértói Halászcsárda [24] is outside the city, next to the old E5 highway going towards Budapest. You can ask a cab to drop you off here and they can also bring you back. This restaurant breeds its own fish and is known for its excellent fish soup. Their prices are reasonable as well.

Other restaurants

  1. Alabárdos is on Oskola str., near John Bull Pub. They have a nice restaurant section and a separate section just for grabbing a beer or tasting wine. Food is good. Prices: higher than usual
  2. Gőry Pince & Terasz [25] is the place with a huge food selection and even bigger portions. Many just order half portions. Food is excellent. Prices: higher than usual
  3. John Bull Pub [26] is located downtow, about 50 meters from the Virág Cukrászda. Great place to grab a beer with clients or friends, and can be an excellent choice for a romantic dinner. They have a big menu, with a good selection. Prices: high
  4. BOCI Tejivo [27] Small canteen that provides a variety of fast food under 500 HUF. Open 24 hours a day and also provide free wifi. Located next to a bar. Prices: low

Pastries, cookies

Kárász street, main street downtown
Kárász street, main street downtown

Hungary has very good home made style pastries and cookies. Szeged has a few bakeries around town that have excellent food selection. Ordering is quite simple, since most of the baked goods are displayed behind a glass window. They are usually freshly baked. Just point and pick what your eyes like and enjoy. Some of the more popular pastry shops around town:

  • Hatos Rétes -
  • Palánk -
  • Virág Cukrászda -
  • Z. Nagy Cukrászda -
  • A Capella -

Drink

Coffee Shops

Coffee Shops have become very popular among students. There are quite a few in town, where the younger crowd likes to meet up to study and/or talk.

Sleep

You will have various choices to stay at while in Szeged. The city has some larger and more expensive hotels, but there are quite a few cheaper and comparable places where you can stay.

Budget

In Szeged, and in most other, bigger Hungarian cities you can find a cheap room in college dorms. Most places will let you pay cash and stay for a few days. There are a few of these around town and the best way to find one is probably to ask one of the younger, "student looking" locals.

  • Familia Pension has a very easily accessible location, a couple of minutes walk from Dóm square (the Votive Church) and a few blocks from the main railroad station and the 500 years old Mátyás Church.
  • Hotel Bella is situated in downtown Szeged, on 'Kossuth Lajos sugárút', within walking distance to the major sights, restaurants and bars.
  • Collage Dorm Hunter Street, The cheapest accomodation in the city. Szeged, a small college in the center of the rooms in summer for families, group publisher. The rooms are 4-storey room. Shared kitchen and sanitary. A total of 40 key deposit guarantee.

Upscale

The bigger hotels are usually closer to downtown. But remember, Szeged is not that big in size and you can probably walk or use public transportation to most places.

  • Hotel Tisza [28] is an older, but renovated hotel in an excellent location right downtown;
  • Hotel Royal [29] is another older, but upscale hotel in the heart of the city;
  • Dóm Hotel [30] (recommended) is a newer and offers some extra convenient services;
  • City Hotel Szeged [31] Elegant rooms and intimate restaurant (Rézangyal Bistro) are waiting for all those people who would like to take a rest in Szeged or are on their business trip.

The City Hotel Szeged is situated in the city centre in a calm and peaceful environment.

  • Novotel [32] is within walking distance from downtown. It was renovated recently and offers about the same quality service as the previous choices.
  • Forrás Hotel [33] is in Újszeged, on the Tisza River's opposite side from downtown. The hotel has an indoor thermal bath, which is open around the whole year.
  • Romance Hotel [34] is situated just in the heart of Szeged, close to the main square, Széchenyi Square, the National Teather, City Hall, banks, and newly renovated Thermal Bath.
Open-Air Festival
Open-Air Festival

The night life in Szeged is very active throughout the whole year.

  • In the summer you don't want to miss the famous "Open-Air Festival". It is called open-air, because the Dóm square is turned into a stage with seats. It usually starts around the beginning of July and ends sometime in August. The shows play for about a week and then they change. Tickets are not always easy to get, but you can always get them from scouts (of course at a higher price) before the show starts. You can find out more about this on the following sites: [35], [36], [37].

Stay safe

Szeged generally speaking is a pretty safe city. You can enjoy walks around the whole town even at late night hours. Most places and streets are well lit, so you won't have to worry about getting lost. Sometimes groups of younger people going home from late night parties could cause problems, but in general this is not an issue.

Other useful information

Internet, hotspots

Szeged has many free Wifi (hotspot) locations. The largest square downtown - the Széchenyi tér - offers free wireless access to anyone with a Wifi capable device (laptop, mobile phone, PDA, etc.). Other public (some not free), registered wifi locations can be found on the following page: [38]

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SZEGED (Ger., Szegedin), the capital of the county of Csongra.d in Hungary, 118 m. S.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900), 100,270. It is situated on both banks of the Theiss just below the confluence of the Maros, and contains the inner town and four suburbs. It is the second town in Hungary as regards, population, and since the disastrous inundation of the Theiss. on the night of the 11th of March 1879, which almost completely destroyed it, Szeged has been rebuilt. It is now one of the handsomest towns of Hungary, and has several large squares, broad avenues, boulevards and many palatial buildings. It has also been encircled with a strong dam in order to protect it from floods. Among the principal buildings are a Franciscan convent, with a rich library and an interesting collection of antiquities and ecclesiastical objects; a Piarist and a Minorite convent; a handsome new town-hall; and a natural history and historical museum to which is attached a public library. Szeged is the chief seat of the manufacture of paprica, a kind of red pepper largely used in Hungary, and of a pastry called tarhonya; and has factories of soap, leather, boots, saw-mills and distilleries. Szeged is the centre of the commerce and industry of the great Hungarian Alfold, being an important railway junction and the principal port on the Theiss.

Since the 15th century Szeged has been one of the most prominent cities in Hungary. From 1541 till 1686 it was in possession of the Turks, who fortified it. It is also notorious for its many witchcraft trials. In 1848 it sent strong detachments to the national Hungarian army. In July 1849 the seat of the government was transferred hither for a short time.

Szekesfehervar (Ger., Stuhlweissenburg, Lat., Alba Regalis or Alba Regia), a town of Hungary, capital of the county of Fejer, 41 m. S.W. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900), 30,451. It is situated in a marshy plain and is a well-built and prosperous town. Szekesfehervar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric, one of the oldest in the country, and was formerly a town of great importance, being the coronation and burial place of the Hungarian kings from the 10th to the 16th century. Amongst its principal buildings are the cathedral, the episcopal palace, several convents, of which the most noteworthy is the Jesuit convent, now a Cistercian secondary school with a handsome church, and the county hall. The town carries on a brisk trade in wine, fruit and horses, and is one of the principal centres of horse-breeding in Hungary. Szekesfehervar is one of the oldest towns of Hungary, in which St Stephen, the first king of Hungary, built a church, which served as the coronation church for the Hungarian kings. In the same church some fifteen kings were buried. In 1543 it fell into the hands of the Turks, under whom it remained until 1686. Before evacuating it, the Turks plundered the tombs of the kings, destroyed the old church and several other buildings, and burnt the archives. Several sarcophagi of the kings, and the foundations of the old church, have been found by excavation beneath the cathedral.


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