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T-box 2

PDB rendering based on 1h6f.
Available structures
Symbols TBX2; FLJ10169
External IDs OMIM600747 MGI98494 HomoloGene38123 GeneCards: TBX2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TBX2 40560 at tn.png
PBB GE TBX2 205993 s at tn.png
PBB GE TBX2 213417 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6909 21385
Ensembl ENSG00000121068 ENSMUSG00000000093
UniProt Q13207 Q3UET7
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_005994 NM_009324
RefSeq (protein) NP_005985 NP_033350
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
56.83 - 56.84 Mb
Chr 11:
85.65 - 85.66 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

T-box transcription factor TBX2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBX2 gene.[1][2]

This gene is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain, the T-box. T-box genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. This gene product is the human homolog of mouse Tbx2, and shares strong sequence similarity with Drosophila omb protein. Expression studies indicate that this gene may have a potential role in tumorigenesis as an immortalizing agent. Transcript heterogeneity due to alternative polyadenylation has been noted for this gene.[2]

In melanocytic cell types, expression of the T-box 2 gene is regulated by the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor.[3][4]


  1. ^ Campbell C, Goodrich K, Casey G, Beatty B (Feb 1996). "Cloning and mapping of a human gene (TBX2) sharing a highly conserved protein motif with the Drosophila omb gene". Genomics 28 (2): 255-60. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1139. PMID 8530034.  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: TBX2 T-box 2".  
  3. ^ Carreira S, Liu B, Goding CR (2000). "The gene encoding the T-box factor Tbx2 is a target for the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (29): 21920–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M000035200. PMID 10770922.  
  4. ^ Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, Widmer DS, Praetorius C, Einarsson SO, Valgeirsdottir S, Bergsteinsdottir K, Schepsky A, Dummer R, Steingrimsson E (December 2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 21 (6): 665–76. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2008.00505.x. PMID 19067971.  

Further reading

  • Law DJ, Gebuhr T, Garvey N, et al. (1996). "Identification, characterization, and localization to chromosome 17q21-22 of the human TBX2 homolog, member of a conserved developmental gene family.". Mamm. Genome 6 (11): 793–7. doi:10.1007/BF00539006. PMID 8597636.  
  • Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery.". Genome Res. 6 (9): 791–806. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791. PMID 8889548.  
  • Campbell CE, Casey G, Goodrich K (1998). "Genomic structure of TBX2 indicates conservation with distantly related T-box genes.". Mamm. Genome 9 (1): 70–3. doi:10.1007/s003359900682. PMID 9434949.  
  • Carreira S, Dexter TJ, Yavuzer U, et al. (1998). "Brachyury-related transcription factor Tbx2 and repression of the melanocyte-specific TRP-1 promoter.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (9): 5099–108. PMID 9710594.  
  • He M, Wen L, Campbell CE, et al. (1999). "Transcription repression by Xenopus ET and its human ortholog TBX3, a gene involved in ulnar-mammary syndrome.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (18): 10212–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.18.10212. PMID 10468588.  
  • Sinha S, Abraham S, Gronostajski RM, Campbell CE (2001). "Differential DNA binding and transcription modulation by three T-box proteins, T, TBX1 and TBX2.". Gene 258 (1-2): 15–29. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00417-0. PMID 11111039.  
  • Brummelkamp TR, Kortlever RM, Lingbeek M, et al. (2002). "TBX-3, the gene mutated in Ulnar-Mammary Syndrome, is a negative regulator of p19ARF and inhibits senescence.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (8): 6567–72. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110492200. PMID 11748239.  
  • Lingbeek ME, Jacobs JJ, van Lohuizen M (2002). "The T-box repressors TBX2 and TBX3 specifically regulate the tumor suppressor gene p14ARF via a variant T-site in the initiator.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (29): 26120–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200403200. PMID 12000749.  
  • Habets PE, Moorman AF, Clout DE, et al. (2002). "Cooperative action of Tbx2 and Nkx2.5 inhibits ANF expression in the atrioventricular canal: implications for cardiac chamber formation.". Genes Dev. 16 (10): 1234–46. doi:10.1101/gad.222902. PMID 12023302.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Andelfinger G, Etter L, Dyment M, et al. (2004). "Radiation hybrid mapping and genomic organization of canine TBX2 and TBX4.". Anim. Genet. 34 (4): 307–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2052.2003.01018.x. PMID 12873224.  
  • Borke JL, Yu JC, Isales CM, et al. (2004). "Tension-induced reduction in connexin 43 expression in cranial sutures is linked to transcriptional regulation by TBX2.". Annals of plastic surgery 51 (5): 499–504. doi:10.1097/01.SAP.0000067964.14122.3E. PMID 14595187.  
  • Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.  
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMID 15489334.  
  • Vance KW, Carreira S, Brosch G, Goding CR (2005). "Tbx2 is overexpressed and plays an important role in maintaining proliferation and suppression of senescence in melanomas.". Cancer Res. 65 (6): 2260–8. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3045. PMID 15781639.  
  • Bilican B, Goding CR (2006). "Cell cycle regulation of the T-box transcription factor tbx2.". Exp. Cell Res. 312 (12): 2358–66. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.03.033. PMID 16730707.  

External links



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