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Transcription factor 12 (HTF4, helix-loop-helix transcription factors 4)
SymbolsTCF12; HEB; HTF4; HsT17266
External IDsOMIM600480 MGI101877 HomoloGene40774 GeneCards: TCF12 Gene
RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_003205NM_011544
RefSeq (protein)NP_003196NP_035674
Location (UCSC)Chr 15:
55 - 55.37 Mb
Chr 9:
71.64 - 71.91 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

Transcription factor 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCF12 gene.[1][2]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) E-protein family that recognizes the consensus binding site (E-box) CANNTG. This encoded protein is expressed in many tissues, among them skeletal muscle, thymus, B- and T-cells, and may participate in regulating lineage-specific gene expression through the formation of heterodimers with other bHLH E-proteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined.[2]


  1. ^ Zhang Y, Babin J, Feldhaus AL, Singh H, Sharp PA, Bina M (Oct 1991). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "HTF4: a new human helix-loop-helix protein"]. Nucleic Acids Res 19 (16): 4555. doi:10.1093/nar/19.16.4555. PMID 1886779. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: TCF12 transcription factor 12 (HTF4, helix-loop-helix transcription factors 4)". 

Further reading

  • Bain G, Murre C (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The role of E-proteins in B- and T-lymphocyte development."]. Semin. Immunol. 10 (2): 143–53. doi:10.1006/smim.1998.0116. PMID 9618760. 
  • Hu JS, Olson EN, Kingston RE (1992). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "HEB, a helix-loop-helix protein related to E2A and ITF2 that can modulate the DNA-binding ability of myogenic regulatory factors."]. Mol. Cell. Biol. 12 (3): 1031–42. PMID 1312219. 
  • Zhang Y, Bina M (1992). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The nucleotide sequence of the human transcription factor HTF4a cDNA."]. DNA Seq. 2 (6): 397–403. doi:10.3109/10425179209020819. PMID 1446075. 
  • Zhang Y, Doyle K, Bina M (1992). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Interactions of HTF4 with E-box motifs in the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1."]. J. Virol. 66 (9): 5631–4. PMID 1501295. 
  • Sommer L, Hagenbüchle O, Wellauer PK, Strubin M (1992). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Nuclear targeting of the transcription factor PTF1 is mediated by a protein subunit that does not bind to the PTF1 cognate sequence."]. Cell 67 (5): 987–94. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90371-5. PMID 1720355. 
  • Zhang Y, Flejter WL, Barcroft CL, et al. (1995). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Localization of the human HTF4 transcription factors 4 gene (TCF12) to chromosome 15q21."]. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 68 (3-4): 235–8. doi:10.1159/000133921. PMID 7842744. 
  • Doyle K, Zhang Y, Baer R, Bina M (1994). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Distinguishable patterns of protein-DNA interactions involving complexes of basic helix-loop-helix proteins."]. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (16): 12099–105. PMID 8163514. 
  • Langlands K, Yin X, Anand G, Prochownik EV (1997). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors."]. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (32): 19785–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.32.19785. PMID 9242638. 
  • Goldfarb AN, Lewandowska K, Pennell CA (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Identification of a highly conserved module in E proteins required for in vivo helix-loop-helix dimerization."]. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (5): 2866–73. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.5.2866. PMID 9446597. 
  • Massari ME, Rivera RR, Voland JR, et al. (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Characterization of ABF-1, a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in activated B lymphocytes."]. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (6): 3130–9. PMID 9584154. 
  • Adell T, Gómez-Cuadrado A, Skoudy A, et al. (2000). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Role of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor p48 in the differentiation phenotype of exocrine pancreas cancer cells."]. Cell Growth Differ. 11 (3): 137–47. PMID 10768861. 
  • Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination."]. Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788–95. doi:10.1101/gr.143000. PMID 11076863. 
  • Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, et al. (2001). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs."]. Genome Res. 11 (3): 422–35. doi:10.1101/gr.154701. PMID 11230166. 
  • Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, et al. (2001). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing."]. EMBO Rep. 1 (3): 287–92. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kvd058. PMID 11256614. 
  • Mandolesi G, Gargano S, Pennuto M, et al. (2002). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "NGF-dependent and tissue-specific transcription of vgf is regulated by a CREB-p300 and bHLH factor interaction."]. FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 50–6. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03227-6. PMID 11755530. 
  • Knöfler M, Meinhardt G, Bauer S, et al. (2002). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Human Hand1 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein: extra-embryonic expression pattern, interaction partners and identification of its transcriptional repressor domains."]. Biochem. J. 361 (Pt 3): 641–51. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3610641. PMID 11802795. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences."]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932. 
  • Tremblay M, Herblot S, Lecuyer E, Hoang T (2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Regulation of pT alpha gene expression by a dosage of E2A, HEB, and SCL."]. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (15): 12680–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209870200. PMID 12566462. 



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