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TGF beta 3
Symbol TGFB3
Entrez 7043
HUGO 11769
OMIM 190230
RefSeq NM_003239
Other data
Locus Chr. 14 q24

Transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) is a type of protein, known as a cytokine, which is involved in cell differentiation, embryogenesis and development. It belongs to a large family of cytokines called the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily, which includes the TGF-β family, Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), inhibins and activins.[1]

TGF-β3 is believed to regulate molecules involved in cellular adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation during the process of palate development. Without TGF-β3, mammals develop a deformity known as a cleft palate.[2][3] This is caused by failure of epithelial cells in both sides of the developing palate to fuse. TGF-β3 also plays an essential role in controlling the development of lungs in mammals, by also regulating cell adhesion and ECM formation in this tissue,[4] and controls wound healing by regulating the movements of epidermal and dermal cells in injured skin.[5]

Clinical research

As of April 2009, human recombinant TGF-β3 (Avotermin, planned trade name Juvista) is undergoing clinical phase I/II trials for the improvement of skin scarring.[6]


  1. ^ Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (2004). "Transforming growth factor-beta-related proteins: an ancestral and widespread superfamily of cytokines in metazoans". Dev Comp Immunol 28 (5): 461–85. doi:10.1016/j.dci.2003.09.007. PMID 15062644.  
  2. ^ Taya Y, O'Kane S, Ferguson M (1999). "Pathogenesis of cleft palate in TGF-beta3 knockout mice". Development 126 (17): 3869–79. PMID 10433915.  
  3. ^ Dudas M, Nagy A, Laping N, Moustakas A, Kaartinen V (2004). "Tgf-beta3-induced palatal fusion is mediated by Alk-5/Smad pathway". Dev Biol 266 (1): 96–108. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2003.10.007. PMID 14729481.  
  4. ^ Kaartinen V, Voncken J, Shuler C, Warburton D, Bu D, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J (1995). "Abnormal lung development and cleft palate in mice lacking TGF-beta 3 indicates defects of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction". Nat Genet 11 (4): 415–21. doi:10.1038/ng1295-415. PMID 7493022.  
  5. ^ Bandyopadhyay B, Fan J, Guan S, Li Y, Chen M, Woodley DT, Li W (2006). "A "traffic control" role for TGFbeta3: orchestrating dermal and epidermal cell motility during wound healing". J Cell Biol. 172 (7): 1093–105. doi:10.1083/jcb.200507111. PMID 16549496.  
  6. ^ Ferguson, Mark (11 April 2009). "Prophylactic administration of avotermin for improvement of skin scarring: three double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I/II studies". Lancet 373 (9671): 1264–1274. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60322-6.  


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