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The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international assessment of the mathematics and science knowledge of fourth- and eighth-grade students around the world. TIMSS was developed by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) to allow participating nations to compare students' educational achievement across borders. The IEA also conducts the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). TIMSS was first administered in 1995, and every 4 years thereafter. In 1995, forty-one nations participated in the study; in 2007, 48 countries participated.[1]

Contents

Method

TIMSS consists of an assessment of mathematics and science, as well as student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The current assessment includes those topics in mathematics and science that students are likely to have been exposed to up to and including grade 4 and grade 8.

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1995

The 1995 assessment included grades 4, 8, and the final year of high school. To be able to assess the knowledge of students, assessment items exhibit a range of difficulty and complexity. The student questionnaires are designed to collect information on students' backgrounds, attitudes and beliefs related to schooling and learning, information about their classroom experiences, among many other topics. The teacher and school questionnaires asks about class scheduling, mathematics and science content coverage, school policies, teachers' educational backgrounds and preparation, among many other topics.

TIMSS was created through an extensive collaboration among participating countries. Curriculum, measurement, and education experts from around the world worked together to create the assessment frameworks, item pools, and questionnaires. TIMSS is based on the curricula of schools around the world, and is organized to investigate how students are provided educational opportunities, and the factors that influence how students make use of these opportunities. Having its basis in the curricula of schools around the world, TIMSS intends to investigate three levels: the intended curriculum; the implemented curriculum; and the achieved curriculum. The intended curriculum is defined as the mathematics and science that societies intend for students to learn and how education systems are organized to meet this demand; the implemented curriculum is what is actually taught in classrooms, who teaches it, and how it is taught; the achieved curriculum is what students have learned. The various questionnaires seek information on the intended and implemented curriculum; the assessment seeks to ascertain what students know.

United States 2007

In the United States, TIMSS is conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics of the U.S. Department of Education.

Data for US students is further tracked for ethnic and racial groups, which can be tracked as the nation. As a whole, grade four students in the United States lagged the best Asian and European nations in the 2007 TIMSS international math and science test. However, broken down by race, US Asians scored comparably to Asian nations, white Americans scored comparably to the best European nations. Hispanic Americans averaged 505, comparable to students in Austria and Sweden, while African Americans at 482 were comparable to Norway.

Grade eight students in the United States also lagged the best Asian and European nations in the 2007 TIMSS international math and science test. Broken down by race, US Asians scored comparably to Asian nations, white Americans scored comparably to the best European nations, Hispanic Americans averaged 475, comparable to students in Malaysia , while African Americans at 457 were comparable to Bosnia and Herzegovina and Lebanon.[2]

Results

International educational scores (1995)
(13-year-old's average score, TIMSS
Trends in International Math and Science Study, 1995)
Countries:
(sample)
Global
rank
Maths Science
Score Rank Score Rank
Singapore 1 643 1 607 1
Japan 2 605 3 571 3
South Korea 3 607 2 565 4
Czech Republic 4 564 6 574 2
Belgium (F) 5 565 5 550 11
Hong Kong 6 588 4 522 24
Bulgaria 7 540 11 565 5
Netherlands 8 541 9 560 6
Slovenia 9 541 10 560 7
Austria 10 539 12 558 8
Slovakia 11 547 7 544 13
Hungary 12 537 14 554 9
Australia 13 530 16 545 12
Russia 14 535 15 538 14
Switzerland 15 545 8 522 25
Ireland 16 527 17 538 15
Canada 17 527 18 531 18
England 18 506 25 552 10
Sweden 19 519 22 535 16
Thailand 20 522 20 525 21
Israel 21 522 21 524 23
Germany 22 509 23 531 19
France 23 538 13 498 28
United States 24 500 28 534 17
New Zealand 25 508 24 525 22
Norway 26 503 26 527 20
Belgium (W) 27 526 19 471 36
Denmark 28 502 27 478 34
Source: TIMSS data, in The Economist March 29th, 1997, p.25
International educational scores (2003)
(13-year-old's average score, TIMSS
Third International Math and Science Study, 2003)
Countries:
(sample)
Global
rank
Maths Science
Score Rank Score Rank
Singapore 1 605 1 578 1
Taiwan 2 585 4 571 2
South Korea 3 589 2 558 3
Hong Kong 4 586 3 556 4
Japan 5 570 5 552 5
Netherlands 7 536 7 536 9
England 10 498 18 544 7
United States 12 504 15 527 11
Malaysia 18 508 10 510 21
Italy 23 484 22 491 22
Sources:TIMSS Math 2003 and TIMSS Science 2003
International educational math scores (2007)
(4th graders average score, TIMSS
International Math and Science Study, 2007)
Countries:
(sample)
Maths
Score
Hong Kong 607
Singapore 599
Asian American 582
Taiwan 576
Japan 568
European American 550
Kazakhstan 549
Russia 544
Austria 505
Hispanic American 504
Sweden 503
New Zealand 492
African American 482
Norway 473

Highlights From TIMSS 2007

Notes

Key publications

  • TIMSS 2007 Assessment Frameworks [1]
  • TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report [2]
  • TIMSS 2003 International Science Report [3]
  • IEA's TIMSS 2003 International Report on Achievement in the Mathematics Cognitive Domains [4]

External links


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